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1.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(2): 124-132, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428145

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Taekwondo is a martial art that emphasizes blows using the feet and fists, and it is characterized by direct and continuous body contact, which subjects their practitioners to a higher number of injuries. This study aimed to determine the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in Portuguese taekwondo athletes and analyze its associated factors. METHODS: The sample included 341 taekwondo athletes, aged between 4 and 62 years (18.77±12.77 years), 237 (69.5%) were male, and 104 (30.5%) female. A questionnaire was administered at a national level in taekwondo training and competitions via interview. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-two (38.7%) taekwondo athletes reported having suffered an injury since they began their practice, totaling 294 injuries. Seventy-six (22.3%) athletes had an injury in the previous 12-months period, with a total of 112 injuries. There were 2.15 injuries per 1,000 hours of taekwondo training. The most common of all injuries was muscle injury (strain, contusion) (58.6%), in the foot and fingers (18.9%). The attack technique (28.8%) was the most prevalent injury mechanism. Adult athletes presented a higher risk of sustaining taekwondo-related injuries than adolescents (odds ratio = 3.91; 95%CI: 1.13-13.55; p=0.032), and athletes who trained more than 1 hour had a risk 4.20 times greater (95%CI: 1.44-12.29; p=0.009) than those who trained up to 1 hour per session. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries were frequent among Portuguese taekwondo athletes, with specific body areas affected, mainly caused by the attack technique. It is necessary to create injury prevention strategies, including specific training and the use of protective equipment.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesiones , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Portugal/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 265-272, abr. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056433

RESUMEN

In this study, we analyzed the differences in body composition among athletes during different stages of their career Forty taekwondo athletes and 10 non-athletes (20 males and 30 females) with a mean age of 18.2 years (range, 15-23 years), a mean height of 173.4 cm, and a mean body weight of 64.8 kg were studied using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and Biodex balance system. The bone mineral density of upper and lower limbs was higher among university athletes of both sexes than in high school athletes. The lean body mass of male athletes in the university was higher than in high school male athletes. By contrast, in case of females, the opposite results were obtained for the upper and lower limbs. Elucidation of the body composition according to career and sex of taekwondo athlete is worthwhile.


En este estudio, analizamos las diferencias de la composición corporal entre los atletas durante las diferentes etapas de su carrera. Se estudiaron cuarenta atletas de taekwondo y 10 no atletas (20 hombres y 30 mujeres) edad media de 18,2 años (rango, 15-23 años), una altura media de 173,4 cm y un peso corporal medio de 64,8 kg. Se utilizaron la absorciometría de rayos X de energía dual y el sistema de equilibrio Biodex. La densidad mineral ósea de las miembros superiores e inferiores fue mayor entre los atletas universitarios de ambos sexos, que en los atletas de educación secundaria. La masa corporal magra de los atletas varones en la universidad fue mayor que en los varones de la educación secundaria. Por el contrario, en el caso de las mujeres, se obtuvieron los resultados opuestos para las miembros superiores e inferiores. En conclusión se debe considerar un análisis de la composición corporal según la carrera y el sexo del atleta de taekwondo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Composición Corporal , Artes Marciales , Extremidad Inferior/anatomía & histología , Extremidad Superior/anatomía & histología , Absorciometría de Fotón , Índice de Masa Corporal
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(7): 795-800, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122273

RESUMEN

Mouth rinsing has been proposed as a strategy to minimize performance decrements during Ramadan. We investigated the effect of 4 weeks of Ramadan on kicking performance in 27 Taekwondo athletes performing weekly Taekwondo Anaerobic Intermittent Kick Tests (TAIKT). The effects of a placebo, 6.4% glucose and 6-mg/kg caffeine mouth rinses on TAIKT performance and perceived exertion were investigated before, during weekly training sessions, and after Ramadan in a counterbalanced, crossover design. Ramadan had a significant negative impact on the percentage of successful kicks in Week 1 of Ramadan (pre: 76.7±0.4%, Week 1: 69.9±3.2%). The percentage of successful kicks was significantly greater in the caffeine mouth rinse condition compared to the glucose and placebo conditions during the first 3 weeks of Ramadan (caffeine: 38.3±6.8%, glucose: 36.4±6.9%, placebo: 36.0±6.5%). Caffeine decreased perceived exertion during Ramadan (0.74-1.15 AU, p>0.05). Our results showed that Ramadan had a significant negative effect on repeated high-intensity kicking efforts that should be considered when training and competing. Additionally, there were significant positive effects of a caffeine mouth rinse in a sport-specific test. These data suggest that athletes can consider mouth rinsing as a strategy to enhance performance when undertaking training or competition during a period of privation.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Cafeína/administración & dosificación , Azúcares de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Ayuno/fisiología , Islamismo , Artes Marciales/fisiología , Antisépticos Bucales , Adolescente , Adulto , Conducta Competitiva/fisiología , Estudios Cruzados , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción/fisiología , Acondicionamiento Físico Humano , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Adulto Joven
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227675, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004350

RESUMEN

Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) is a multielement combat sport where fighters need to quickly react to an opponent's movements under fatigued conditions. Research indicates that fast reaction time is important in many sports, but the effect of fatigue has shown negative, null, or even positive influences on reaction time. However, few studies have been conducted in a controlled setting, especially using MMA figthers, whose matches are frequently resolved in a split-second. Therefore, this study investigated whether acute neuromuscular fatigue affects reaction and movement times, and their consistency in MMA fighters (N = 45). Before and after an upper-body Wingate test, a simple visual reaction time task was completed. Results showed a significant negative effect of fatigue on the reaction times and their consistency, with longer reactions (1.5% change) and lower consistency (14.7% change) after the Wingate test. Further, greater amounts of fatigue during the Wingate test seemed to negatively affect the consistency of post-Wingate movement time. Due to cumulative fatigue and the dynamic nature of MMA, our data indicate that not only the decrements in aerobic and anaerobic power likely affect a fighter's performance, but their reaction time and motor time may also be compromised during a fight.


Asunto(s)
Artes Marciales/fisiología , Fatiga Muscular/fisiología , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Umbral Anaerobio/fisiología , República Checa , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18819, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011492

RESUMEN

The objectives of this research were to establish somatotype and hand-grip strength between elite cadet male and female sambo athletes divided by weight categories.A total of 97 elite cadet sambo athletes, participants of the World Cadets Sambo Championships 2018 participated in the study. Male and female sambo athletes were divided by official weight categories. Anthropometrical variables were taken in order to calculate somatotypes and hand-grip strength. A one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests were used to compare group differences by weight categories.Results of this study provide the first description of somatotype and hand-grip strength of elite male and female cadet sambo athletes in relation to weight category. A typical somatotype in male sambo athletes was endomorphic mesomorphs with a predominance of musculoskeletal tissue, while female athletes differed concerning weight category. Overall, an increase in handgrip strength across weight categories was noted. Hand-grip strength increases linearly from the lightest to the heaviest weight category except in -66 and -84 kg in male athletes. Differences in handgrip strength of female athletes were detected between the lightest group and last six groups in all three variables in favor of last six as well as -44 and kg -48 kg compared with the heaviest.To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first normative data of somatotype and hand-grip strength analyses in relation to age, gender, and weight categories of cadet sambo athletes. The anthropometric profile of sambo athletes changed according to their weight category. Mesomorphy was the most dominant somatotype component in male athletes, while female had three different types of somatotype component in relation to weight category. In conclusion, we found differences in hand-grip strength related to weight category, which can be linked to the muscle mass of athletes. Future studies should focus on somatotype and strength handgrip values of international compared to national level sambo athletes.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Fuerza de la Mano/fisiología , Artes Marciales , Somatotipos , Adolescente , Antropometría , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referencia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227538, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053622

RESUMEN

A very important problem in combinatorial optimization is the partitioning of a network into communities of densely connected nodes; where the connectivity between nodes inside a particular community is large compared to the connectivity between nodes belonging to different ones. This problem is known as community detection, and has become very important in various fields of science including chemistry, biology and social sciences. The problem of community detection is a twofold problem that consists of determining the number of communities and, at the same time, finding those communities. This drastically increases the solution space for heuristics to work on, compared to traditional graph partitioning problems. In many of the scientific domains in which graphs are used, there is the need to have the ability to partition a graph into communities with the "highest quality" possible since the presence of even small isolated communities can become crucial to explain a particular phenomenon. We have explored community detection using the power of quantum annealers, and in particular the D-Wave 2X and 2000Q machines. It turns out that the problem of detecting at most two communities naturally fits into the architecture of a quantum annealer with almost no need of reformulation. This paper addresses a systematic study of detecting two or more communities in a network using a quantum annealer.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Teoría Cuántica , Artes Marciales , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas/química
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948074

RESUMEN

Young judo athletes are bio-banding based on age and body mass and compete in weight classes. The purposes of this study were to investigate the influences of maturation on physical performance in young judokas through controlling the chronological age and body mass, and to examine the mediating role of anthropometric variables. Sixty-seven judokas, aged 11.0-14.7, were measured for 11 anthropometric and seven physical performance variables. Pearson partial correlations were conducted to verify the relationship between the maturational indicator and the dependent variables. Mediation analyses were performed to identify the extent to which anthropometric variables mediate the relationship. The maturation effect remained on the aerobic capacity and handgrip strength (p < 0.05). Fat mass (b = 80.335, 95%CI 11.580-204.270) and fat-free mass (b = 108.256, 95%CI 39.508-207.606) totally mediated the effect on aerobic capacity. Fat mass (b = 0.023, 95%CI 0.004-0.057), fat-free mass (b = 0.029, 95%CI 0.011-0.058), stature (b = 0.031, 95%CI 0.008-0.061), arm span (b = 0.021, 95%CI 0.003-0.044), and inferior members length (b = 0.022, 95%CI 0.005-0.049) totally mediated the effect on handgrip strength. The effect of biological maturation is noticeable even after age and body mass control, being mediated by anthropometric variables related to body composition and size.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo del Adolescente , Antropometría , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Artes Marciales/fisiología , Adolescente , Composición Corporal , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Niño , Fuerza de la Mano , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciales/normas
8.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 607-611, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997718

RESUMEN

Hot water immersion, known as a hot bath, is used by MMA athletes to produce rapid weight loss (RWL) by means of passive fluid loss. This study investigated the magnitude of body mass losses using a standardized hot bath protocol with or without the addition of salt. In a crossover design, eleven male MMA athletes (28.5 ± 4.6 y; 1.83 ± 0.07 m; 82.5 ± 9.1 kg) performed a 20-min immersion at 37.8°C followed by a 40-min wrap in a warm room. This bath and wrap was performed twice per visit. During one visit, only fresh water was used (FWB), and in the other visit, magnesium sulphate (1.6% wt/vol) was added to the bath (SWB). Prior to each visit, 24 h of carbohydrate, fibre, and fluid restriction was undertaken as part of the RWL protocol. Body mass losses induced by the hot bath protocols were 1.63 ± 0.75 kg and 1.60 ± 0.80 kg for FWB and SWB, respectively, and equivalent to ~2.1% body mass. Under the conditions employed, the magnitude of body mass loss in SWB was similar to FWB. However, further research should explore bathing in a temperature that is consistent with that habitually used by fighters, and/or higher concentrations of salt.


Asunto(s)
Calor , Inmersión , Sulfato de Magnesio/administración & dosificación , Artes Marciales/fisiología , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Cruzados , Deshidratación , Humanos , Masculino , Concentración Osmolar , Orina/fisiología , Adulto Joven
9.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(1): 125-131, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663310

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fascination with the moon has spanned millennia. It has recently been asserted that the moon cycle affects endurance performance in untrained individuals. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of the lunar cycle on intermittent endurance physical performance, balance and reaction-time capabilities, and selected physiological and psychological parameters in trained athletes. METHODS: Twelve male Taekwondo athletes (age, 22.3±0.8 years; height, 178.8±6.5 cm; body mass, 72.75±7.28 kg; %body fat, 13.9±3.6%) performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level-1 (YYIRT), the Y-balance test (YBT), and a reaction-time test (RT) during different lunar cycle phases (new moon (NM), full moon (FM), and half-moon). Participants' psychological profiles and well-being indices (i.e. a profile of mood state (POMS) and Hooper Index) were also taken during each moon phase. The testing sessions during the different moon phases were performed in a counterbalanced order. The tests order remained the same (POMS, then Hooper index, RT, YBT, YYIRT and rating of perceived exertion scale (RPE)), and all sessions were performed at noon (11:00 to 13:00 h) during the first day of each evaluated lunar phase. RESULTS: Analysis of variance tests showed that no significant differences were found between the three moon phases in all analyzed variables. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the different lunar cycle phases did not have significant effects on the selected physical performances and psychological indices in trained athletes.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Luna , Resistencia Física/fisiología , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciales/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
10.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(3): 237-240, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706826

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore the provision of medical care at 'unlicensed', full-contact amateur and lower-level professional combat sports competitions in England. DESIGN: Qualitative, mixed methods. METHODS: Observations totalling 200h of fieldwork shadowing medical professionals at 27 individual combat sports events, alongside formal, semi-structured interviews with 25 medical professionals, 7 referees and 9 promoters/event staff. RESULTS: Practices and standards vary widely. Event organisers and promoters often have very little understanding of how different types of medical practitioners operate. They rarely, if ever, check that the staff they are hiring are qualified, sometimes resulting in unqualified staff being used to provide medical cover at events. Venues are often poorly equipped to accommodate basic medical procedures. Patient confidentiality is very often compromised. Medical professionals often have limited autonomy within the combat sports milieu and may find themselves marginalised, with their judgements overruled by non-medical staff during competitive events. Some practitioners are cognisant of the dangers such working environments pose to their professional reputations and livelihoods, but remain working within combat sports regardless. CONCLUSIONS: Despite pockets of good practice, the lack of standardised rules for medical care provision creates substantial risks to athletes, to practitioners and the standing of the profession. The development and implementation of standardised, enforceable regulatory frameworks for full-contact combat sports in England is urgently needed.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Artes Marciales , Medicina Deportiva/normas , Boxeo , Conducta Competitiva , Inglaterra , Humanos , Concesión de Licencias , Autonomía Profesional , Competencia Profesional , Medicina Deportiva/ética
11.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(1): 54-58, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747701

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate exposure adjusted injury incidence rates and profiles associated with training and competition in an elite taekwondo athlete population. 82 athletes were investigated for injuries over a period of 5 years. Individual fight time exposure for training and competition was recorded. The type and location of the injuries were classified and exposure-adjusted injury incidence rates (IIR) were calculated per 1000 h for training and competition. 66 athletes with a mean age of 19.3±4.2 years and 172 injuries were included in the final data assessment. The exposure adjusted IIR was significantly higher during competition (p<0.001) with a rate ratio of 6.33 (95% CI 4.58-8.69). Ankle and foot region as well as hand and wrist were most affected with significant higher IIR in competition (p<0.001). Joint injuries, fractures, and bruising occurred the most. Fractures occurred mainly to the hand and wrist region. Future investigations should focus on exposure adjusted injury data including analyses of the detailed mechanism leading to especially severe injuries to improve specific injury prevention in competition and promote evolution of protective gear.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Conducta Competitiva/fisiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Acondicionamiento Físico Humano/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Traumatismos del Tobillo/epidemiología , Femenino , Traumatismos de los Pies/epidemiología , Traumatismos de la Mano/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Traumatismos de la Muñeca/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
Acta Bioeng Biomech ; 21(3): 3-12, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798016

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Quantitative performance analysis is of great importance, especially to increase personalized training and to reduce injuries. The use of inertial sensors has given many possibilities and has been largely used in analysing technical capabilities of athletes. With respect to combat sports, judo has many issues resulting from the great number of variables involved in the techniques and due to the critical measurement environment. The aim of this study was to propose a method for measuring and quantifying motor abilities objectively. METHODS: Four inertial sensors were fixed to the lower limbs and one on the sternum of five male and five female elite judo athletes. Accelerations and angular velocities of the lower limbs were measured in 480 judo techniques. Regression lines of accelerations and angular velocities have been analysed to obtain 5 single technique indices and 1 overall technique index representing the motor abilities connected, respectively to force expressions and coordination capabilities. RESULTS: Correlations of motor abilities (force expression and coordination capabilities) and athletes' weight and height were found in only 6.7% of pairs. Results of force expression and coordination capabilities for most of the athletes are in line with their level of technical and combat experience. CONCLUSIONS: This method allowed to "photograph" athlete's technical level and to compare it in time through subsequent trials. With this innovative way, motor abilities could become evaluable and measurable, highlighting the importance of their objective quantification in order to evaluate effectiveness and efficiency of the sport technique.


Asunto(s)
Artes Marciales/fisiología , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Aceleración , Adulto , Atletas , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Adulto Joven
13.
Acta Bioeng Biomech ; 21(3): 149-157, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798018

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to assess changes in body posture in a group of 6-year-old boys training judo, compared to a control group, in three repeated examinations. METHODS: The study included 88 boys aged 6. Fifty-one of them started judo training in sports clubs at the beginning of the school year (JU). The control group included 37 boys attending reception classes in primary schools, selected at random (NT). Body posture was assessed 3 times at 3-month intervals, according to the general methodology of the Moire's technique, and 15 body posture indices were obtained as a result: 7 in the sagittal plane, 1 in the axial plane and 7 in the coronal plane. The system for photogrammetric body posture assessment of CQ Elektronik System was used in this study. RESULTS: The ANOVA test showed that neither the group factor - the fact of judo training - nor the time factor had any significant effect on the number of "deviations from normal values" of body posture (p > 0.05). Statistically significant intergroup differences were noted for six body posture indices measured with the Moire's method. CONCLUSIONS: Steadily decreasing numbers of "deviations from normal values" of body posture indices in the JU group were observed over the three examinations. Regular 6-month judo training had a statistically significant effect on a decrease of body rotation in the axial plane - the effect of judo training may be considered corrective in this case.


Asunto(s)
Artes Marciales , Fotogrametría , Postura/fisiología , Niño , Humanos , Cifosis/fisiopatología , Masculino , Valores de Referencia , Rotación , Vértebras Torácicas/fisiopatología
14.
Arch. med. deporte ; 36(194): 360-366, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-187295

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the research is to define the anthropometric profile of judokas by gender and weight categories and to estimate the most suitable competition weight according to their physical constitution using regression equations. METHODS: An cross-sectional retrospective anthropometric study was carried out on three hundred and eighteen judokas when their weight was no more than 5% over the limit stipulated for their category, 187 males and 131 females, in all seven weight categories; mean age was 22.5 ± 3.4 years (18-37 years). The anthropometric profile included forty-two direct variables. Their body composition was assessed by estimating the percentage of fat, muscle mass and theoretical minimal weight (TMW) and somatotype. Multiple linear regression equations were developed with each type of variable (lengths, breadths, girths) and in combination as predictors of body weight. RESULTS: Significant differences (p < 0.05) were established in the anthropometric profile between the male and female sam-ples and between the different weight categories whithin each gender. Only 2.4% of the judokas were at their TMW at the moment of the study. In males, height and 4 breadths (A-P chest, biiliocristal, femur and bimalleolar) explained 86.8% of the weight variation and 98.3% when girths were added, with an SEE of 4.2 and 1.5 kg, respectively. Among women, height and 3 breadths (A-P chest, biacromial and femur) gave 87.3% and, with girths, 97.9%, with an SEE of 3.3 and 1.3 kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In competition, judokas do not reduce the percentage of fat to the minimum and will lose weight at the ex-pense of lean component. The regression equations developed may be useful to advise the most suitable weight category according to the anthropometric characteristics


INTRODUCCIÓN: Definir el perfil antropométrico del judoca por sexos y categorías de peso y estimar el peso de competición más adecuado según la constitución física mediante ecuaciones de regresión. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo del control antropométrico de trescientos dieciocho judocas cuando su peso no excedía al 5 % del estipulado para su categoría, incluyendo 187 varones y 131 mujeres, de las siete categorías de peso, edad media de 22,5 ± 3,4 años (18-37 años). El perfil antropométrico incluyo cuarenta y dos variables directas. Se valoró la composición corporal, estimándose el porcentaje de grasa, la masa muscular y el peso mínimo teórico (PMT) y el somatotipo. Se desarrollaron las ecuaciones de regresión lineal múltiple con cada tipo de variable (longitudes, diámetros, perímetros) y en combinación como variables predictoras del peso corporal. RESULTADOS: Se establecieron diferencias significativas (p < 0,05) en el perfil antropométrico entre las muestras masculina y femenina y dentro de cada sexo entre las diferentes categorías de peso. Sólo el 2,4% de los judocas se encontraba en el PMT en el momento del estudio. En varones, la talla y 4 diámetros (A-P de tórax, biiliocrestal, fémur y bimaleolar) explicaron el 86,8% de la variación del peso y añadiendo perímetros el 98,3%, con un Se de 4,2 y 1,5 kg respectivamente. En las mujeres, talla y 3 diámetros (A-P de tórax, biacromial and fémur) el 87,3% y con perímetros el 97,9 %, con un Se de 3,3 y 1,3 kg respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: El judoca en competición no baja al porcentaje de grasa mínimo y perderá peso a expensas del componente magro. Las ecuaciones de regresión desarrolladas pueden servir para aconsejar según las características antropométricas la categoría de peso más adecuada


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Antropometría , Atletas , Artes Marciales , Peso Corporal , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estándares de Referencia , Análisis de Regresión
15.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226240, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881037

RESUMEN

Recent evidence suggests that athletes have microbial features distinct from those of sedentary individuals. However, the characteristics of the gut microbiota in athletes competing at different levels have not been assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the gut microbiome is significantly different between higher-level and lower-level athletes. Faecal microbiota communities were analysed with hypervariable tag sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene among 28 professional martial arts athletes, including 12 higher-level and 16 lower-level athletes. The gut microbial richness and diversity (the Shannon diversity index (p = 0.019) and Simpson diversity index (p = 0.001)) were significantly higher in the higher-level athletes than in the lower-level athletes. Moreover, the genera Parabacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Oscillibacter and Bilophila were enriched in the higher-level athletes, whereas Megasphaera was abundant in the lower-level athletes. Interestingly, the abundance of the genus Parabacteroides was positively correlated with the amount of time participants exercised during an average week. Further analysis of the functional prediction revealed that histidine metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism pathways were markedly over-represented in the gut microbiota of the higher-level athletes. Collectively, this study provides the first insight into the gut microbiota characteristics of professional martial arts athletes. The higher-level athletes had increased diversity and higher metabolic capacity of the gut microbiome for it may positively influence athletic performance.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/clasificación , Heces/microbiología , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Atletas , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciales , Filogenia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Adulto Joven
16.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 52, 2019 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718652

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Similar to other combat sports, mixed martial arts (MMA) includes divisional weight classes. The purpose of our research was to further investigate the amount of weight professional MMA fighters lost prior to weighing in for competition, their methods used to cut weight, and their sources of advice on how to cut weight. METHODS: This survey was administered to 92 male professional MMA athletes. The survey questions included duration of overall weight loss prior to competition, methods of weight-cutting, and their sources of advice regarding weight cutting. RESULTS: When comparing the number of methods of weight cutting with the source of advice, those who received their advice from social media used slightly more methods of weight cutting (M = 4.86, SD = 1.27) than those who did not (M = 4.02, SD = 1.55); t(90) = - 2.53, p < .05. MMA athletes that used the help of a registered dietitian nutritionist also reported using the least amount of methods for weight-cutting than any other category (M = 3.84, SD = 1.67). Those that used teammates and did not use a registered dietitian nutritionist used slightly more methods (M = 4.46, SD = 1.41) than those who used a registered dietitian nutritionist. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study report that professional MMA athletes do undergo rapid weight loss through various methods to make weight for competition. This study adds evidence to the literature that most professional MMA athletes undergo RWL for competition without the guidance of a registered dietitian nutritionist. It is unclear what the effect of using a registered dietitian nutritionist may have on an MMA athletes' ability to reduce weight in a safe and effective manner. Future research should seek to investigate if employing a registered dietitian nutritionist may lead to a higher rate of success for MMA athletes to make weight, and help reduce adverse risks of RWL.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Artes Marciales , Autoinforme , Pérdida de Peso , Programas de Reducción de Peso/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Nutricionistas , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
17.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(10): 1283-1289, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721960

RESUMEN

Body composition assessment at the molecular level is relevant for the athletic population and its association with high performance is well recognized. The four-compartment molecular model (4C) is the reference method for fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) estimation. However, its implementation in a real context is not feasible. Coaches and athletes need practical body composition methods for body composition assessment, and the bioelectrical impedance analysis method (BIA) is usually seen as a useful alternative. The aim of this study was to test the validity of BIA (Tanita, TBF-310) to determine the FM and FFM of elite judo athletes. A total of 29 males were evaluated in a period of weight stability using the reference method (4C) and the alternative method (Tanita, TBF-310). Regarding the 4C method, total-body water was assessed by deuterium dilution, bone mineral by DXA, and body volume by air displacement plethysmography. The slops and intercepts differed from 1 (0.39 and 1.11) and 0 (4.24 and -6.41) for FM and FFM, respectively. FM from Tanita TBF-310 overestimated the 4C method by 0.2 kg although no differences were found for FFM. Tanita TBF-310 explained 21% and 72% respectively in the estimation of absolute values of FM and FFM from the 4C method. Limits of agreement were significant, varying from -6.7 kg to 7.0 kg for FM and from -8.9 kg to 7.5 kg for FFM. In conclusion, TBF-310 Tanita is not a valid alternative method for estimating body composition in highly trained judo athletes.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Composición Corporal , Artes Marciales/fisiología , Modelos Moleculares , Pletismografía/instrumentación , Adolescente , Adulto , Impedancia Eléctrica , Humanos , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven
18.
Clin J Sport Med ; 29(6): e76-e79, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688186

RESUMEN

Proximal hamstring tendon avulsions are typically sustained during forced hip hyperflexion combined with knee extension. We present 3 cases of athletes with a proximal hamstring tendon avulsion caused by an alternative injury mechanism that also involves a considerable hip abduction component (flexion-abduction injury mechanism). All cases had at least one concurrent injury of the medial thigh muscles, either on the ipsilateral or contralateral side. The 2 elite athletes with this injury mechanism returned to sport at preinjury level relatively quickly. A history of the flexion-abduction mechanism should raise suspicion of a hamstring tendon avulsion with concomitant injury of the medial thigh muscles. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol should include both legs, and any concurrent injury may need to be addressed as well. In future studies, it would be interesting to investigate whether injury mechanism holds prognostic value in proximal hamstring tendon avulsions.


Asunto(s)
Tendones Isquiotibiales/lesiones , Tendones Isquiotibiales/fisiopatología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Fútbol/lesiones , Femenino , Músculos Isquiosurales/diagnóstico por imagen , Músculos Isquiosurales/lesiones , Tendones Isquiotibiales/diagnóstico por imagen , Tendones Isquiotibiales/cirugía , Cadera/fisiopatología , Humanos , Rodilla/fisiopatología , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Rotura/diagnóstico por imagen , Rotura/cirugía
20.
Complement Ther Med ; 47: 102218, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780005

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention for people with metastatic cancer integrated in Early Palliative Care (EPC). DESIGN: Mixed-method study. SETTINGS/LOCATION: EPC Service integrated with Oncology Unit, Carpi General Hospital, Italy from January to October 2017. The MBSR intervention took place inside the hospital. SUBJECTS: Study participation was offered to 25 consecutive people referred to the EPC service. INCLUSION CRITERIA: people with metastatic cancer between 18 and 75 years old; informed consent. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Performance Status <60% according to Karnofsky scale; active psychiatric disorder. 20 patients were included in the study. INTERVENTION: The adapted program consists of 8 meetings for 2.5 h once a week, a 4.5 h session between the 6th and 7th weeks and 0.5 h home practice daily. The following mindfulness practices were included during the training: formal sitting meditation, body scan, light yoga, walking meditation, and Aikido exercises. Participants were provided with materials for home practice. A qualified MBSR instructor conducted the program. Sessions were attended by a clinical psychologist and a physician trained in meditation, together with the palliative nurse as facilitators. OUTCOME MEASURES: Feasibility and acceptability were assessed on 16 participants. In addition, pre-post measures of cancer pain and mood state were collected. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted on a subset of 8 participants at the end of the study and analysed using the Interpretative-Phenomenological approach. RESULTS: MBSR attendance to meetings and adherence to home practice were 75%. MBSR intervention helped participants to develop an accepting attitude in respect to metastatic cancer disease helping them to face anxiety and cancer pain. MBSR improves self-regulation of mood state engendering feelings of compassion MBSR program supports participants in questioning and reconnecting with their values and spiritual beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: A Mindfulness intervention integrated into EPC setting is feasible, well accepted and could help metastatic cancer patients to control cancer pain together with an opportunity of emotional and spiritual relief.


Asunto(s)
Terapias Mente-Cuerpo/métodos , Atención Plena/métodos , Neoplasias/psicología , Cuidados Paliativos , Estrés Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciales , Meditación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Metástasis de la Neoplasia/terapia , Yoga
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