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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373295

RESUMEN

Background: Health behaviors are associated with a healthy lifestyle, in which relative possibilities of choice play an important part. Athletes are a group of people who should particularly endeavor to have a health-oriented lifestyle. It is believed that combat sports (CS) and martial arts (MA) have an especially significant educational potential, connected with several desirable values which provide positive patterns of health behaviors. The aim of the work was to assess the intensity of health behaviors in athletes who practiced CS and MA in relation to the length of their training history, their age, sex, place of residence, education level, and financial situation. Methods: The research involved 441 men and women who practiced boxing (B), Brazilian ju-jitsu (BJJ), karate (K), mixed martial arts (MMA) and Muay Thai (MT). The average age of the subjects was 24.68 ± 8.24 years. The standardized Health Behavior Inventory (HBI) questionnaire and another questionnaire for a lifestyle survey were applied. Individual behaviors covered four areas: Correct eating habits (CEH), preventive behaviors (PB), positive mental attitude (PMA), and health practices (HP). The one-way analysis of variance (F-test) for independent groups was used (ANOVA). The effect size was calculated with Hedge's g for Student's t-test, and with Cramér's V for the χ2 test. The value of p ≤ 0.05 was assumed to be statistically significant. Results: CS and MA athletes presented a moderate level of health behaviors. The greater intensity of health behaviors (HBI and its categories) was found among B, K and MMA athletes, and the smaller among those who practiced MT. Correct eating habits (CEH) were characteristic of subjects who practiced every day and whose length of training history was 4-8 years. Greater intensity of preventive behaviors (PB) was observed among individuals aged under-19 years, who still studied. Greater intensity of health practices (HP) was found among those who exercised every day. Influence of financial situation was observed in relations to PMA. Conclusions: It seems that the existing educational potential of CS and MA was not fully realized in the studied population. Determining the place of health in the system of values of CS and MA athletes may be the basis for predicting health behaviors and developing health education programs.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Atletas/psicología , Brasil , Escolaridad , Femenino , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciales/psicología , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857363

RESUMEN

Background: The quality of life of a society is conditioned by many factors, and depends, among other things, on preferred behavior patterns. Combat sports (CS) and martial arts (MA) have a special educational potential in the area of shaping positive behavior patterns and transmitting moral values which could help reduce aggression in society. The aim of the work was to determine the relationship between health behaviors and the quality of life of people who practice combat sports and martial arts (CS and MA) recreationally, in addition to practicing other sports, and as competitors at the master level. Methods: The research embraced 543 people who practice combat sports and martial arts. Three groups were selected: recreational (n = 362), people who reconciled practicing various sports (n = 115), and competitors who practiced combat sports or martial arts at the master level (n = 66). The average age of the respondents was 24.49 ± 7.82. The standardized WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and another questionnaire for a lifestyle survey were applied. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare several independent samples. In the case of determining statistical significance of differences the Mann-Whitney test was employed, and for the qualitative data analyses the trait frequency and the independence chi-square test were used. The effect size was calculated for each test ( E R 2 , rg, Cramér's V). The value of p ≤ 0.05 was assumed to be statistically significant. Results: The highest quality of life (in the physical, psychological and environmental domains) was characteristic of the competitors, who practiced only combat sports and martial arts. They also displayed the most health-oriented behaviors. The surprising results were: lower quality of life in the assessment of nondrinkers and nonsmokers, and higher among people who were overweight. Conclusions: We have found positive correlations between practicing CS and MA, health behaviours and higher scores in quality of life self-evaluation, particularly where practitioners are exclusively focused on CS and MA and practice these at a competitive level. Our findings thus support the growing evidence that competitive level CS and MA are an effective means of improving people's quality of life. Future research needs to clarify whether CS and MA can also be recommended to recreational and non-competitive practitioners as a means to improve their subjective quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Calidad de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Polonia , Adulto Joven
3.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(2): 136-139, 2018 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791605

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Athlete's heart is a term describing the cardiovascular effects of long-term conditioning among highly trained athletes. It is a variation of normal standards. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case series study at the cardiology division of a public university hospital. METHODS: We studied 14 visually handicapped paralympic athletes (8 men) in the national judo team. They were 26.3 ± 6.4 years old, with body mass index 25 ± 14, and had been practicing judo for 9.2 ± 7.9 years. Clinical evaluations, electrocardiograms, exercise testing and echocardiograms were performed by independent observers. RESULTS: Signs of athlete's heart were found in all athletes, comprising left ventricular hypertrophy (5 cases), sinus bradycardia (5), T-wave juvenile pattern (3), T wave juvenile pattern (3), left atrial hypertrophy (2) and increased left ventricular volume (9 cases; 62.22 ± 6.46 ml/m2). There were very strong correlations between left ventricular mass/body surface and endurance time (r: 0.91) and estimated peak oxygen uptake (r: 0.8). The correlations between left ventricular internal diastolic dimension and endurance time (r: 0.91) and estimated peak oxygen uptake (r: 0.8) were strong. Despite increased left ventricular dimensions (4 cases), atrial dimensions (1) and relative wall thickness (4), all athletes had normal left ventricular mass/body surface (89.98 ± 21.93 g/m²). The exercise testing was normal: exercise duration 706 ± 45 seconds and estimated peak oxygen uptake 62.70 ± 9.99 mlO2/min. CONCLUSIONS: Signs of athlete's heart were seen frequently in the paralympic judo team. These demonstrated the presence of mild cardiac adaptations to training.


Asunto(s)
Cardiomegalia Inducida por el Ejercicio/fisiología , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Adulto , Brasil , Ecocardiografía , Electrocardiografía , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador
4.
Mil Med ; 183(9-10): e378-e382, 2018 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420793

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Injuries sustained during Modern Army Combatives (MAC) tournaments can result in variable recovery time for involved competitors and unpredictable loss of readiness for military units. A paucity of MAC data is available to guide military medical providers and unit commanders on expected injuries or loss of readiness. Literature reviewing mixed martial arts competitions offers some insight but demonstrates variation in fight outcomes resulting in injuries ranging from 8.5% to 70% and it is difficult to effectively extrapolate such data to predict MAC tournament injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively reviews pre- and post-competition medical records from two MAC tournaments held at Fort Hood in 2014 and 2015 to provide descriptive clinical information on injury patterns to practitioners and military commanders. RESULTS: Records from a total of 195 competitors with a mean age of 24.4 yr were analyzed with a total of 67 injuries, 29 of which resulted in duty limitations (14.8% of participants). Competitors participating in less-restrictive mixed martial arts style fighting (Advanced MAC) were 4.3 times more likely to sustain an injury than those limited to upper body grappling events (95% confidence interval 2.30-8.16). Military Acute Concussion Evaluations were reliably recorded both pre- and post-competition in 44% of total participants with no significant statistical difference between pre- and post-tournament evaluations. Duty profile limitations of injured competitors averaged 1 mo in duration. CONCLUSIONS: MAC tournaments result in injury rates comparable with other combative sports and military training courses.


Asunto(s)
Artes Marciales/lesiones , Traumatismos Ocupacionales/diagnóstico , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal Militar/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
5.
Res Aging ; 39(10): 1118-1144, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27688143

RESUMEN

In a randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effects of karate versus a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention on well-being and cognitive functioning in older adults. Fifty-five adults (52-81 years old) participated in twice-weekly karate versus MBSR sessions or no training for 8 weeks. In pre- and postassessments, subjective well-being, health, cognitive functioning, and chronic stress were measured. Preassessment hair cortisol served as physiological stress marker. The results showed an improvement for the karate group, but not the MBSR and control group, in subjective mental health and anxiety as well as cognitive processing speed. The MBSR group showed by trend as a decrease in stress. No significant correlation between preassessment hair cortisol and postassessment outcomes could be established. But the higher the level of baseline self-reported perceived stress, the higher the increase in depression, anxiety, and chronic stress. Generally, it can be assumed that karate and MBSR showed only small training effects concerning the assessed emotional and cognitive parameters.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Plena/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Cabello/química , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análisis , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría
6.
J Sci Med Sport ; 20(3): 296-301, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27569006

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine those performance indicators that have the greatest influence on classifying outcome at the elite level of mixed martial arts (MMA). A secondary objective was to establish the efficacy of decision tree analysis in explaining the characteristics of victory when compared to alternate statistical methods. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational. METHODS: Eleven raw performance indicators from male Ultimate Fighting Championship bouts (n=234) from July 2014 to December 2014 were screened for analysis. Each raw performance indicator was also converted to a rate-dependent measure to be scaled to fight duration. Further, three additional performance indicators were calculated from the dataset and included in the analysis. Cohen's d effect sizes were employed to determine the magnitude of the differences between Wins and Losses, while decision tree (chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID)) and discriminant function analyses (DFA) were used to classify outcome (Win and Loss). RESULTS: Effect size comparisons revealed differences between Wins and Losses across a number of performance indicators. Decision tree (raw: 71.8%; rate-scaled: 76.3%) and DFA (raw: 71.4%; rate-scaled 71.2%) achieved similar classification accuracies. Grappling and accuracy performance indicators were the most influential in explaining outcome. The decision tree models also revealed multiple combinations of performance indicators leading to victory. CONCLUSIONS: The decision tree analyses suggest that grappling activity and technique accuracy are of particular importance in achieving victory in elite-level MMA competition. The DFA results supported the importance of these performance indicators. Decision tree induction represents an intuitive and slightly more accurate approach to explaining bout outcome in this sport when compared to DFA.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Árboles de Decisión , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Sportverletz Sportschaden ; 30(4): 204-210, 2016 Dec.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27984832

RESUMEN

Background: In literature, the competitive sport of modern karate is almost always characterised as a combat sport involving injuries caused by impact effects and physical contact with opponents. There is a lack of data regarding the outcome after karate injuries, specifically with a view to the contact-free Kata karate. Methods: Performing a random test using a questionnaire, we collected data concerning regular medical treatment, prior surgeries of the locomotor system, and medical care. This study included 300 athletes from 65 countries (average age: 24.1 years; 176 male, 124 female) participating in the Karate World Cup 2014. Seven participants competed in both disciplines, 87 only in the Kata discipline, and 206 only in Kumite (the discipline involving physical contact with opponents). The statistical analysis was performed using a two-sided Chi-square test and the Fisher's exact test. Results: Recurrent medical treatment was most commonly required for the knee region (Kata 28.7 %, Kumite 26.7 %). In Kata the shoulder region came second (22.9 %), in Kumite the ankle region (21.8 %), followed by hand and foot in both groups. Medical treatment of the elbow area was more frequent in the Kata Group (p = 0.033), while in Kumite athletes' hand (p = 0.002) and foot injuries (p = 0.007) prevailed. Prior surgeries of athletes of both disciplines most commonly concerned the knee, followed by the ankle region in the Kata group and by the hand and head region in the Kumite group. Statistically significant differences between the two disciplines were found in head injuries (p = 0.004), which commonly do not occur in the Kata discipline. During the World Cup, 56.0 % of the athletes had no individual medical care and 24.6 % received no sports-related medical care in their home countries. Conclusion: Although the risk of injuries in Kumite Karate has been reduced by the introduction of gumshields, hand and foot protectors as well as a reform of the scoring system, the potential for chronic physical damage should not be underestimated. Since in athletes competing in the Kata discipline the rate of surgeries and injuries is only slightly lower than in the Kumite group, Kumite Karate may be regarded as a martial arts competitive sport with a relatively low risk of injuries. In contrast, the risk of chronic musculoskeletal damage in Kata athletes seems to be underestimated thus far. Suggested improvements concern the training techniques and conditions (i. e. the tatami material), and there is a need for regular medical care, including preventative care, to be provided for these athletes.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Traumatismos en Atletas/terapia , Traumatismos de la Mano/epidemiología , Traumatismos de la Pierna/epidemiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Traumatismos en Atletas/diagnóstico , Femenino , Traumatismos de la Mano/diagnóstico , Traumatismos de la Mano/terapia , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Traumatismos de la Pierna/diagnóstico , Traumatismos de la Pierna/terapia , Masculino , Traumatismo Múltiple/diagnóstico , Traumatismo Múltiple/epidemiología , Traumatismo Múltiple/terapia , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
J Strength Cond Res ; 30(8): 2341-7, 2016 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26808855

RESUMEN

Boscolo Del Vecchio, F, Foster, D, and Arruda, A. Functional movement screening performance of Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes from Brazil: differences considering practice time and combat style. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2341-2347, 2016-Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling combat sport that athletes, lying (guard fighter) or kneeling (pass fighter) on the mat, attempt to force their opponents to submit. Brazilian jiu-jitsu practices may result in muscular imbalances, which increase the risk of injury. Instead, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is an evaluation routine that could be related to injury incidence and seeks to detect muscular imbalance and movement dysfunction. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the injury profile and the FMS score and their relationship, with consideration for the BJJ fight style. Sports injuries were recorded in the last 12 months of 33 BJJ athletes, and the statistical analyses were applied to a routine evaluation FMS and a score of 14 points or less was considered low performance in FMS. We used a logistic regression; the effect size (ES) was calculated, and 5% was assumed as the statistical significance level. Pass fighters showed a higher percentage of injuries on the thorax (24.24%) than did guard fighters (6.67%, p = 0.01). Upper limbs were the most injured part of the body (χ = 36.7; p < 0.001), and they were 79% of the injuries that occurred in training sessions (χ = 14.53; p < 0.001). Despite the lack of statistical differences in the FMS performance between guard and pass fighters (t = 1.97; p = 0.05), its magnitude was considered medium (ES = 0.77). There was an association between FMS and presence of injury (χ = 4.95; p = 0.03). Considering the FMS score as a predictor and the presence or absence of injury as the dependent variable, the data met a Wald coefficient of 4.55, p = 0.03 and Exp (B) = 5.71. The study found that almost half of the sample had injuries in the upper limbs and a quarter had injuries in the lower limbs in the last year. A poor FMS score was observed, and lower scores in the FMS were associated with a higher risk of injury in BJJ athletes.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Rendimiento Atlético , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Movimiento , Medición de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
9.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 26(9): 1109-16, 2016 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26369504

RESUMEN

The pelvic floor (PF) provides support to all pelvic organs, as well as appropriately closure/opening mechanism of the urethra, vagina, and anus. Therefore, it is likely that female athletes involved in high-impact and in strong-effort activities are at risk for the occurrence of urinary incontinence (UI). This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of UI and other PF dysfunctions (PFD) [anal incontinence (AI), symptoms of constipation, dyspareunia, vaginal laxity, and pelvic organ prolapse] in 67 amateur athletes (AT) compared with a group 96 of nonathletes (NAT). An ad hoc survey based on questions from reliable and valid instruments was developed to investigate the occurrence of PFD symptoms. The risk of UI was higher in AT group (odds ratio: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.50-5.61), mostly among artistic gymnastics and trampoline, followed by swimming and judo athletes. Whereas, AT group reported less straining to evacuate (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.22-0.96), manual assistance to defecate (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05-1.12), and a higher stool frequency (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.13-0.64) than NAT group. The occurrence of loss of gas and sexual symptoms was high for both groups when compared with literature, although with no statistical difference between them. Pelvic organ prolapse was only reported by nonathletes. Athletes are at higher risk to develop UI, loss of gas, and sexual dysfunctions, either practicing high-impact or strong-effort activities. Thus, pelvic floor must be considered as an entity and addressed as well. Also, women involved in long-term high-impact and strengthening sports should be advised of the impact of such activities on pelvic floor function and offered preventive PFD strategies as well.


Asunto(s)
Estreñimiento/epidemiología , Dispareunia/epidemiología , Incontinencia Fecal/epidemiología , Prolapso de Órgano Pélvico/epidemiología , Deportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Incontinencia Urinaria/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Gimnasia/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Natación/estadística & datos numéricos , Voleibol/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
10.
Am J Sports Med ; 44(2): 305-8, 2016 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657262

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prospective studies on injuries in martial arts competition are scarce, especially those involving young practitioners, but the upsurge of children and adolescents taking part in organized training and competition in these sports requires clarification of the injury risk that they represent for youths. HYPOTHESIS: Top-level karate competition for young adolescents (cadets, or 14- to 15-year-olds) has a low injury rate and can be safely promoted. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiological study. METHODS: Prospective recording of the injuries resulting from all bouts in 3 consecutive World Karate Championships (2009, 2011, and 2013) for cadets was performed. Data were collected prospectively in situ with checklists that described competitor sex, bout category, and weight as well as injured area, diagnosis, mechanism of injury, severity, and treatment. RESULTS: A total of 1020 bouts were reviewed, 671 in the male category and 349 in the female category. A total of 61 injuries were recorded. Of those, only 3 were time-loss injuries. During the 2009 and 2011 championships, there was 1 injury per 25.6 fights, while during the 2013 championship the number of injuries increased, with 1 injury per 10 fights (P = .003). There was no statistical difference in the total injury rate between the male and female categories (P = .71), with an odds ratio of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.52-2.55). CONCLUSION: The injury rate for cadet top-level karate competition found in this prospective study is much lower than the rates previously published for karate or other martial arts competitions, but there seems to be a marked increase as more championships are held, which is a matter of concern.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Rendimiento Atlético/normas , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Adolescente , Traumatismos en Atletas/prevención & control , Contusiones/epidemiología , Traumatismos Faciales/epidemiología , Femenino , Fracturas Óseas/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Luxaciones Articulares/epidemiología , Traumatismos de la Pierna/epidemiología , Masculino , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Oportunidad Relativa , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Seguridad , Distribución por Sexo , España/epidemiología
11.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 16(2): 107-10, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26147815

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of dental and facial injuries, the habit of wearing mouthguard and the awareness regarding injury prevention and first aid after tooth avulsion among young taekwondo athletes in Croatia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey on a sample of 484 taekwondo athletes was conducted, which included 271 male (56%) and 213 female (44%) athletes aged between 8 and 28 years. The questionnaire submitted to the athletes contained 15 questions about dental trauma, use of mouthguard, dental trauma prevention, level of awareness about tooth avulsion and replantation and disturbances associated with mouthguard use. Collected data were evaluated according to gender, age groups and duration of actively engagement in taekwondo. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used for comparisons between groups. RESULTS: From the survey 300 (62%) of 484 athletes had sustained one serious injury and 103 (21%) had sustained an orofacial injury, while 194 (40%) had observed another player sustaining a dental injury. Higher number of orofacial injuries was observed in males (24%) than in females (18%). Furthermore, 98 (20%) athletes have experienced one or more dental injuries, and out of these 98 suffering dental injury 60 were male (61%) and 38 were female (39%). The frequency of orofacial injuries in the older group (42%) is higher than in three younger groups (younger cadets 25%; cadets 13%; juniors 20%) (p<0.05). Mouthguard wearing was recorded in 465 athletes (96%), 47.1% of them wear stock mouthguard, 47.6% wear boil and bite mouthguard, but only 5.3% were custom-made mouthguards. Most of them (96%) consider that mouthguards are useful for injury prevention in taekwondo. CONCLUSION: The results of this survey show that dental and orofacial injuries occur in taekwondo in all age groups but mostly in the senior group. Taekwondo players know the importance of mouthguard use, but only 5% use custom made mouthguards. This is not adequate for dental injury prevention and highlights the important role of dental professional in education of athletes for advocating the use of custom made mouthguards.


Asunto(s)
Artes Marciales/lesiones , Traumatismos de los Dientes/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Niño , Croacia/epidemiología , Diseño de Equipo , Traumatismos Faciales/epidemiología , Traumatismos Faciales/prevención & control , Femenino , Primeros Auxilios/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Boca/lesiones , Protectores Bucales/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , Traumatismos de los Dientes/prevención & control , Reimplante Dental/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
12.
Unfallchirurg ; 118(6): 507-14, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26013389

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Each year 3.1% of German adults suffer from accidents related to sports and 75% of the injured athletes are male between 20 and 29 years old. The upper limbs are affected in more than 20% of cases and one third of these injuries involve the hands and fingers. OBJECTIVES: More than half a million athletes are organized in combat sport associations in Germany with an increasing trend. Combat sports are commonly said to have a high risk of injuries to the hand. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis as well as to describe typical hand injuries associated with combat sports. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review of literature (up to January 2015) in PubMed/Medline and The Cochrane Library as well as a secondary search in the reference lists were carried out. CONCLUSION: Conclusive comparative studies on the incidence and severity of hand injuries directly related to combat sports action could not be found in the currently available literature. The overall risk of suffering from a sports injury seems to be relatively low in combat sports compared to other sports. Boxing, however, seems to be the most dangerous sport for injuries to the upper extremities and especially the hand. The injury pattern after punching (emergency patients and professional boxers) shows that more than half of these fractures affect the 5th metacarpal and 25% of these are the classical boxer's fracture. This differs significantly from the fracture distribution generally associated with sports, where fractures of the phalanges are the most common. Two rare conditions that may occur as a result of repeated punching are referred to as carpal bossing and boxer's knuckle and excellent results are described for both injury forms after surgical therapy.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas Óseas/epidemiología , Traumatismos de la Mano/epidemiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Comorbilidad , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Traumatismo Múltiple/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Adulto Joven
13.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 15(1): 99-110, ene. 2015. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-138317

RESUMEN

El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las acciones del combate de taekwondo de alto nivel masculino en las 8 categorías de peso oficiales (Minimosca: 84kg) en competición. Se diseñó un instrumento de observación ad hoc vinculado a un nuevo instrumento de registro (Drewtina 23), que analizaba las acciones realizadas en los combates. Los criterios de estudio fueron: el tipo de acción ofensiva y acciones defensivas, las acciones técnicas y los asaltos del combate. La observación se realizó en las finales de 6 campeonatos y copas del mundo del 2000 al 2008, con un total de 48 combates de 71 taekwondistas. Para el análisis estadístico descriptivo e inferencial se utilizó el programa PASW Statistics para Windows, y para el análisis de retardos el SDIS-GSEQ. Los resultados revelan que las acciones ofensivas tienen una mayor frecuencia que las defensivas, siendo el contraataque la ofensiva más utilizada. El peso Medio es el que más ofensivas realiza y el Superligero el que más defensivas. La media de acciones por asalto y combate es más alta en el tercer asalto. Más del 95fi de las veces los combates se resuelven al finalizar el tercer asalto. El análisis secuencial de retardos muestra que las acciones ofensivas actúan como favorecedoras de las acciones eficaces y las defensivas como inhibidoras. La ventaja en el marcador actúa como inhibidora de las acciones ofensivas y excitadora de las defensivas en todas las categorías de peso (AU)


The aim of this study was to analyze the actions of male taekwondo combat at high levels in the 8 oficial weight classes (Mini Jyweight: 84kg) in competition. An observation instrument was designed ad hoc, binded to a new recording instrument (Drewtina 23), which analyzed the actions taken out in combat. the study criteria were: the kind of offensive and defensive actions, technical actions and combat assaults. the observation was carried out at the finals of 6 championships and world cups from 2000 to 2008, for a total of 48 combats, involving 71 fighters. For the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis, PASW Statistics for Windows was used, and for the lag sequential analysis, SDIS-GSEQ was used. the results show that the offensive actions are more frequent than defensive ones, since counter-attack is the most utilized technique. the Middleweight class is characterized by the highest number of offensive actions, while the Superlightweight class is characterized by the highest number of defensive ones. the mean of actions for assault and combat is higher during the third time. More than 95fi of the times, the fights are resolved at the end of the third time. the lag sequential analysis show that offensive actions act in favor of effective actions, while defensive actions act as inhibitors. the advantage in the scoreboard acts as inhibitor of the offensive actions and excitator of defensive actions in all weight classes (AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar as ações de combate de taekwondo masculino de elite relativamente às 8 categorías oficiais de peso (Minimosca: 84kg) em contexto de competição. Um instrumento de observação ad hoc, vinculado a um instrumento de registo inovador (Drewtina 23), foi utilizado para observar as ações realizadas nas finais dos campeonatos do mundo de taekwondo entre 2000 e 2008, perfazendo um total de 48 combates de 71 taekwondistas. Realizaram-se as análises estatística descritiva e inferencial através do programa PASW Statistics para Windows, enquanto que o programa SDIS-GSEQ foi utilizado para a análise sequencial de retardos. Os resultados revelam que as ações ofensivas, em particular a de contra-ataque, apresentam maior frequência do que as defensivas. Os taekwondistas de peso Médio são os que mais ações ofensivas realizam, sendo a categoria Superligeiro a que mais ações defensivas envolve. A média de ações por assalto e por combate é maior no 3º assalto, sendo que mais de 95fi dos combates terminam neste assalto. A análise sequencial de retardos mostra que as ações ofensivas favorecem as ações eficazes, enquanto que as ações defensivas as inibem. A vantagem no resultado, em todas as categorias de peso, inibe as ações ofensivas e estimula as defensivas (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Competitiva , Rendimiento Atlético/estadística & datos numéricos , Deportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto/métodos , Estrategias
14.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 15(1): 131-142, ene. 2015.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-138320

RESUMEN

Se lleva a cabo un análisis de coordenadas polares en Taekwondo de las acciones realizadas por los hombres finalistas y semifinalistas en los Juegos Olímpicos de Londres 2012. Para este análisis, se consideraron como categorías focales las acciones relativas a la efectividad de uno, dos y tres puntos, y como categorías condicionadas variables técnico-tácticas para establecer las diferentes relaciones entre las diversas categorías relacionadas con el comportamiento técnico-táctico de los deportistas y la consecución de punto/s. Los resultados mostraron una relación, de excitación en las perspectivas retrospectiva y prospectiva, entre las conductas CAN (Acción de contraataque), CIR (Pierna de golpeo dirigida hacia el oponente) e IZQ (Golpeo realizado con la pierna izquierda) con respecto a la conducta focal EF1, mientras que las conductas GIR (Acción realizada con un giro previo) y ABI (la pierna delantera de ambos oponentes es diferente) lo están con la EF2; sugiriéndose así el entrenamiento de las citadas acciones con vistas a la consecución de dicha puntuación. Este estudio ha permitido comparar las relaciones que se establecen en la utilización de estrategias de interacción en el deporte de taekwondo. El análisis se ha realizado utilizando el software de observación HOISAN que ha permitido solventar las dificultades planteadas anteriormente en la realización y uso de esta técnica (AU)


The aim of the current research was to provide a novel perspective on the understanding of the actions performed in Taekwondo, to do this, the actions performed by the men finalists and semifinalists in the Olympic Games in London 2012 were analyzed. Based on a taxonomic and methodologically validated system, analysis of polar coordinates was performed using the genuine analytical technique. fiis technique allows us to know the relationship between the focal category and various conditional categories, in addition to build different behavioral maps. To perform the mentioned analysis, were chosen as focal categories those actions relating to the effectiveness of one, two and three points while as conditional categories were chosen technical and tactical variables. fiis innovative technique of analysis was implemented by using the observation software HOISAN. fie software allows to remove the difficulties previously raised when using this technique (AU)


Com o objetivo de compreender as ações realizadas no Taekwondo analisaram-se as ações dos atletas masculinos finalistas e semifinalistas nos Jogos Olímpicos de Londres 2012, com recurso à análise de coordenadas polares. Para esta análise, consideraram-se como categorías focais as ações relativas à obtenção de um, dois e três pontos, e como categorías condicionadas as variáveis técnico-táticas, de modo a estabelecer as diferentes relações entre as diversas categorías relacionadas com o comportamento técnico-tático dos desportistas e o alcançar de ponto(s). Os resultados mostraram uma relação excitatória nas perspetivas retrospetiva e prospetiva, entre as condutas CAN (Ação de contra-ataque), CIR (pontapé circular) e IZQ (pontapé realizado com a perna esquerda) no que respeita à conduta focal EF1, enquanto que as condutas GIR (Ação realizada com uma rotação prévia) e ABI (a perna adiantada dos dois adversarios é diferente) mostraram a mesma relação excitatória no que respeita à conduta EF2; sugere-se assim o treino das citadas ações com vista à obtenção da pontuação mencionada. Este estudo permitiu comparar as relações que se estabelecem na utilização de estratégias de interação no Taekwondo. A análise realizou-se com recurso ao software de observação HOISAN que permitiu superar as dificuldades colocadas anteriormente na realização e uso desta técnica (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Competitiva , Rendimiento Atlético/estadística & datos numéricos , Deportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto/métodos , Interfaz Usuario-Computador
15.
Cienc. cogn ; 19(3): 325-334, dec. 1, 2014. graf
Artículo en Portugués | Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: psi-66430

RESUMEN

Medidas do tempo de reação manual têm sido extensivamente empregadas pela neurociência cognitiva para o estudo de funções psicomotoras em diferentes circunstâncias, incluindo modelos aplicados ao contexto do esporte de alto rendimento. O presente estudo teve a finalidade de investigar possíveis aplicações de um teste de reação manual específico - protocolo de Simon - como estratégia de avaliação cognitiva e acompanhamento de atletas na área da psicologia do esporte. Para isso, dois atletas de judô foram testados semanalmente, durante o período de um mês, com o teste de Simon. As análises demonstraram que é possível identificar variações no desempenho individual entre as diferentes sessões realizadas. O atleta 1 apresentou diferenças significativas entre as sessões de avaliação, reduzindo progressivamente seu tempo de reação ao longo das três primeiras sessões,mas lentificando novamente suas respostas na última sessão de avaliação. Por sua vez, o atleta 2, apresentou um perfil diferente, oscilando mais seu desempenho ao longo do acompanhamento mensal (lentificou suas respostas da primeira para a terceira sessão e reduziu seus tempos de resposta na quarta avaliação). Esses resultados trazem evidências a favor da utilização do teste de Simon como mais uma estratégia de avaliação cognitiva no esporte, apresentando sensibilidade às variações individuais de desempenho e também obedecendo ao princípio da individualidade biológica, permitindo a distinção dos padrões de resposta entre os indivíduos. Os resultados obtidos fortalecem o potencial das medidas psicofísicas ao revelarem uma forma alternativa de avaliação em comparação aos tradicionais métodos explícitos da psicologia do esporte, além de propiciarem uma abordagem informatizada para avaliação situacional de capacidades de integração sensório-motora, tomada de decisão e atenção espacial.


Manual reaction measures have been extensively employed by cognitive neuroscience to psychomotor studies in different circumstances, including applied methods to the high performance sportive context. The present study aimed to studypossible applications of a specific reaction time procedure (Simon task) as a cognitive assessment strategy and accompaniment in the sport psychology area. In this study, two judo athletes were weekly evaluated with the Simon task during a period of one month. Analyses have shown that is possible to identify variations in individual performance between the different practiced sessions. The Athlete 1 showed significant differences between the assessment sessions, progressively reducing your reaction time over the first three sessions, but slowing the responses at the last session. The athlete 2, showed a different profile, varying his performance over the monthly monitoring (slowed your responses from the first to the third session and reduced the reaction time on fourth assessment). These results provide evidences in favour for the use of the Simon test as more one cognitive assessment strategy in sport, showing sensitivity to individual performance variations and also obeying the principle of biological individuality, allowing the distinction of response patterns between the individuals. The results strengthen the potential use of psychophysics measures revealing an alternative way for assessment compared totraditional explicit methods of sport psychology, providing a computerized approach for situational assessment of sensorimotor integration, decision making and spatial attention abilities (AU)


Asunto(s)
Masculino , Adulto , Artes Marciales/psicología , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención , Desempeño Psicomotor , Conducta Espacial
16.
Ciênc. cogn ; 19(3): 325-334, fev. 2014. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1017021

RESUMEN

Medidas do tempo de reação manual têm sido extensivamente empregadas pela neurociência cognitiva para o estudo de funções psicomotoras em diferentes circunstâncias, incluindo modelos aplicados ao contexto do esporte de alto rendimento. O presente estudo teve a finalidade de investigar possíveis aplicações de um teste de reação manual específico - protocolo de Simon - como estratégia de avaliação cognitiva e acompanhamento de atletas na área da psicologia do esporte. Para isso, dois atletas de judô foram testados semanalmente, durante o período de um mês, com o teste de Simon. As análises demonstraram que é possível identificar variações no desempenho individual entre as diferentes sessões realizadas. O atleta 1 apresentou diferenças significativas entre as sessões de avaliação, reduzindo progressivamente seu tempo de reação ao longo das três primeiras sessões,mas lentificando novamente suas respostas na última sessão de avaliação. Por sua vez, o atleta 2, apresentou um perfil diferente, oscilando mais seu desempenho ao longo do acompanhamento mensal (lentificou suas respostas da primeira para a terceira sessão e reduziu seus tempos de resposta na quarta avaliação). Esses resultados trazem evidências a favor da utilização do teste de Simon como mais uma estratégia de avaliação cognitiva no esporte, apresentando sensibilidade às variações individuais de desempenho e também obedecendo ao princípio da individualidade biológica, permitindo a distinção dos padrões de resposta entre os indivíduos. Os resultados obtidos fortalecem o potencial das medidas psicofísicas ao revelarem uma forma alternativa de avaliação em comparação aos tradicionais métodos explícitos da psicologia do esporte, além de propiciarem uma abordagem informatizada para avaliação situacional de capacidades de integração sensório-motora, tomada de decisão e atenção espacial.


Manual reaction measures have been extensively employed by cognitive neuroscience to psychomotor studies in different circumstances, including applied methods to the high performance sportive context. The present study aimed to studypossible applications of a specific reaction time procedure (Simon task) as a cognitive assessment strategy and accompaniment in the sport psychology area. In this study, two judo athletes were weekly evaluated with the Simon task during a period of one month. Analyses have shown that is possible to identify variations in individual performance between the different practiced sessions. The Athlete 1 showed significant differences between the assessment sessions, progressively reducing your reaction time over the first three sessions, but slowing the responses at the last session. The athlete 2, showed a different profile, varying his performance over the monthly monitoring (slowed your responses from the first to the third session and reduced the reaction time on fourth assessment). These results provide evidences in favour for the use of the Simon test as more one cognitive assessment strategy in sport, showing sensitivity to individual performance variations and also obeying the principle of biological individuality, allowing the distinction of response patterns between the individuals. The results strengthen the potential use of psychophysics measures revealing an alternative way for assessment compared totraditional explicit methods of sport psychology, providing a computerized approach for situational assessment of sensorimotor integration, decision making and spatial attention abilities


Asunto(s)
Masculino , Adulto , Atención , Artes Marciales/psicología , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Desempeño Psicomotor , Conducta Espacial
17.
J Infect Chemother ; 20(3): 190-3, 2014 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24462434

RESUMEN

We report on an outbreak of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis among university students in a judo club. Eventually, 14 of total 23 club members developed acute pharyngitis clinically. In a span of 15 days in April 2013, 12 students visited our hospital complaining of sore throat and high fever. All were men with a median age of 19.5 years (interquartile range, 18-21). The rapid streptococcal antigen test was positive in 3 of 4 patients (75%) without previous antibiotic treatment, and in 2 of 8 patients (25%) with previous antibiotic treatment. The definitive diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis was made by either a positive RADT or positive throat culture of GAS when patients had more than 2 findings from the Centor scoring system in this study. 5 students received the definitive diagnosis. The throat culture results showed that 1 out of 9 asymptomatic students was GAS-positive. The outbreak might have occurred by person-to-person contact while living in a dormitory and during judo training, which is a highly close-contact sport. However, there was also the possibility of oral transmission by the shared use of water bottles, although the culture from 1 bottle was negative. Some students continued to participate in the judo club activities after the onset of sore throat or fever. Healthcare professionals, teachers, and coaches should be aware of the potential outbreaks of infectious diseases among university students engaged in athletic activities. Furthermore, it is important to educate athletes about infectious diseases.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Streptococcus pyogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Tokio/epidemiología , Universidades , Adulto Joven
18.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 35(2): 285-90, 2014 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23928146

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury is common in fighting athletes such as boxers, given the frequency of blows to the head. Because DTI is sensitive to microstructural changes in white matter, this technique is often used to investigate white matter integrity in patients with traumatic brain injury. We hypothesized that previous fight exposure would predict DTI abnormalities in fighting athletes after controlling for individual variation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 74 boxers and 81 mixed martial arts fighters were included in the analysis and scanned by use of DTI. Individual information and data on fight exposures, including number of fights and knockouts, were collected. A multiple hierarchical linear regression model was used in region-of-interest analysis to test the hypothesis that fight-related exposure could predict DTI values separately in boxers and mixed martial arts fighters. Age, weight, and years of education were controlled to ensure that these factors would not account for the hypothesized effects. RESULTS: We found that the number of knockouts among boxers predicted increased longitudinal diffusivity and transversal diffusivity in white matter and subcortical gray matter regions, including corpus callosum, isthmus cingulate, pericalcarine, precuneus, and amygdala, leading to increased mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the corresponding regions. The mixed martial arts fighters had increased transversal diffusivity in the posterior cingulate. The number of fights did not predict any DTI measures in either group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the history of fight exposure in a fighter population can be used to predict microstructural brain damage.


Asunto(s)
Boxeo/estadística & datos numéricos , Lesiones Encefálicas/patología , Encéfalo/patología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Fibras Nerviosas Mielínicas/patología , Traumatismos Ocupacionales/patología , Índices de Gravedad del Trauma , Adulto , Boxeo/lesiones , Imagen de Difusión Tensora/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
19.
Sportverletz Sportschaden ; 28(1): 31-5, 2014 Mar.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24285310

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Karate enjoys great popularity both in professional and recreational sports and can be classified into full, half and low contact styles. The aim of this study was the analysis of sports injuries in Kyokushinkai (full contact) and traditional Karate (semi-contact). METHODS: In a retrospective study design, 215 active amateur karateka (114 full contact, 101 semi-contact) were interviewed by means of a standardised questionnaire regarding typical sport injuries during the last 36 months. Injuries were categorised into severity grade I (not requiring medical treatment), grade II (single medical treatment), grade III (several outpatient medical treatments) and grade IV (requiring hospitalisation). RESULTS: In total, 217 injuries were reported in detail. 125 injuries (58%) occurred in full contact and 92 (42%) in semi-contact karate. The time related injury rate of full contact karateka was 1.9/1000 h compared to 1.3/1000 h of semi-contact karateka (p < 0.05). The most common types of injuries were musculoskeletal contusions (33% full contact, 20% semi-contact), followed by articular sprains with 19% and 16%. The lower extremity was affected twice as often in full contact (40%) as in semi-contact (20%) karate. Training injuries were reported by 80% of the full contact and 77% of the semi-contact karateka. Most injuries, both in training and competition, occurred in kumite. 75% of the reported injuries of full contact and 70% of semi-contact karateka were classified as low grade (I or II). CONCLUSION: The high rate of injuries during training and kumite (sparring) points to specific prevention goals. The emphasis should be put on proprioceptive training and consistent warm-up. In the actual competition the referees play a vital role regarding prevention.


Asunto(s)
Contusiones/epidemiología , Traumatismos de la Pierna/epidemiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Traumatismo Múltiple/epidemiología , Esguinces y Distensiones/epidemiología , Heridas no Penetrantes/epidemiología , Adulto , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Medición de Riesgo
20.
Coll Antropol ; 37 Suppl 2: 9-18, 2013 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23914483

RESUMEN

The aim of this research is to determine the order and importance of impacts of particular anthropological characteristics and technical and tactical competence on success in taekwondo according to opinions of top taekwondo instructors (experts). Partial objectives include analysis of metric characteristics of the measuring instrument, and determining differences between two disciplines (sparring and technical discipline of patterns) and two competition systems (WTF and ITF). In accordance with the aims, the research was conducted on a sample of respondents which consisted of 730 taekwondo instructors from 6 continents and from 69 countries (from which we selected 242 instructors), who are at different success levels in both taekwondo competition systems (styles) and two taekwondo disciplines. The respondents were divided into 3 qualitative subsamples (OST-USP-VRH) using the dependant variable of accomplished results of the instructor. In 6 languages, they electronically evaluated the impact in percentage value (%) of motor and functional skills (MOTFS), morphological characteristics (MORF), psychological profile of an athlete (PSIH), athletic intelligence (INTE) and technical and tactical competence - (TE-TA) on success in taekwondo. The analysis of metric characteristics of the constructed instrument showed a satisfactory degree of agreement (IHr) which is proportional to the level of respondent quality, i.e. it grows along with the increase in instructor quality in all analysed disciplines of both systems. Top instructors assigned the highest portion of impact on success to the motor and functional skills (MOTFS) variable: WTF-SPB=29.1, ITF-SPB=29.2, WTF-THN=35.0, ITF-THN=32.0). Statistically significant differences in opinions of instructors of different styles and disciplines were not recorded in any of the analysed variables. The only exception is the psychological profile of an athlete variable, which WTF instructors of sparring (AM=23.7%), on a significance level of p<0.01, evaluate as having a statistically significantly higher impact on success in tackwondo than WTF instructors of the technical discipline of patterns (15.4%).


Asunto(s)
Antropología Cultural/métodos , Rendimiento Atlético/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación/estadística & datos numéricos , Artes Marciales/educación , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Recolección de Datos , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Masculino
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