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1.
Phys Ther Sport ; 48: 101-108, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406456

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the concussion-related symptoms reported among combat sport athletes with and without a history of concussion, and a history of neck injury. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Data were collected using an online survey instrument. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and nine adult combat sport athletes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported 12-month concussion history and neck injury history and a 22-item symptom checklist. RESULTS: A history of concussion was reported by 19.1% of athletes, a history of neck injury was reported by 23.0%, and 13.6% reported both injuries. Neck pain was the most frequently reported symptom. Athletes with a history of injury had significantly greater proportions of 'high' total symptoms and symptom severity scores compared with athletes with no history of injury. Athletes with a history of concussion had 2.35 times higher odds of reporting 'high' total symptoms and symptoms severity scores. CONCLUSION: Athletes with a history of concussion or neck injury have greater odds of presenting with higher symptom scores. The presence of high total symptom scores and high symptom severity scores may indicate a need for further investigation into domains commonly associated with concussion.


Asunto(s)
Boxeo/lesiones , Conmoción Encefálica/diagnóstico , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Adulto , Conmoción Encefálica/complicaciones , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismos del Cuello/complicaciones , Traumatismos del Cuello/diagnóstico , Dolor de Cuello/etiología , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Sports Health ; 13(1): 18-24, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716762

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Current research on concussion incidence in youth athletes (age <18 years) is small and limited by variability in injury reporting and diagnostic methodology. HYPOTHESIS: Concussion injuries commonly occur in high school sports programs. The likelihood of concussion among student-athletes (aged 13-18 years) depends on the sport they are participating in as well as the sex of the athlete. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all Hawaii high school athletes aged 13 to 18 years participating in 14 sports from 2011 through 2017 was performed as part of a statewide standardized concussion assessment and management program. RESULTS: A total of 5993 concussions were identified among 92,966 athletes. The overall concussion rate was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94-0.99). Girls' judo had the highest concussion rate (1.92; 95% CI, 1.68-2.17) followed by football (1.60; 95% CI, 1.53-1.66). The concussion rate for boys (1.0; 95% CI, 0.97-1.03) was higher than that for girls (0.91; 95% CI, 0.87-0.95); however, in 4 of the 5 sports in which both girls and boys participated, girls had a higher rate of concussion injury. CONCLUSION: The likelihood of concussion among student-athletes aged 13 to 18 years may be higher than previously thought and varies depending on sport and sex. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Epidemiologic data on concussion injury in children and adolescents are useful in accurately determining the relative risks of high school sports participation and may be valuable in determining the appropriate allocation of health care and scholastic resources for student-athletes, as well as the impact of rule and training modifications designed to improve participant safety.


Asunto(s)
Conmoción Encefálica/epidemiología , Deportes Juveniles/lesiones , Adolescente , Femenino , Fútbol Americano/lesiones , Hawaii/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Instituciones Académicas , Distribución por Sexo , Fútbol/lesiones
3.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(16): 976-983, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669263

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To report the epidemiology of injuries in Olympic-style karate competitions. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pooled estimates of injury incidence rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (IIRAE) and per 1000 min of exposure (IIRME) were obtained by fitting random-effects models. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, SPORTDiscus and AusportMed databases were searched from inception to 21 August 2019. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Prospective cohort studies published in peer-reviewed journals and reporting injury data (ie, incidence, severity, location, type, mechanism or risk factors) among athletes participating in Olympic-style karate competition. RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies were included. The estimated IIRAE and IIRME were 88.3 (95%CI 66.6 to 117.2) and 39.2 (95%CI 30.6 to 50.2), respectively. The most commonly injured body region was the head and neck (median: 57.9%; range: 33.3% to 96.8%), while contusion (median: 68.3%; range: 54.9% to 95.1%) and laceration (median: 18.6%; range: 0.0% to 29.3%) were the most frequently reported types of injury. Despite inconsistency in classifying injury severity, included studies reported that most injuries were in the least severe category. There was no significant difference in IIRME between male and female karate athletes (rate ratio 1.09; 95%CI 0.88 to 1.36). CONCLUSION: Karate athletes sustain, on average, 1 injury every 11 exposures (bouts) or approximately 25 min of competition. The large majority of these injuries were minor or mild in severity.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Conducta Competitiva , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Distribución por Edad , Contusiones/epidemiología , Traumatismos Craneocerebrales/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Puntaje de Gravedad del Traumatismo , Laceraciones/epidemiología , Traumatismos del Cuello/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo
4.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(11): 729-735, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492733

RESUMEN

Side differences in the limb symmetry index during hop tests have been rarely investigated in uninjured athletes. Unknown differences can result in false interpretation of hop tests and affect return to sport decision. Hypothesis was that un-injured athletes in Judo and Taekwondo have side differences in hop test and that asymmetries can be predicted based on the athletes fighting display. Differences, risk relationships were analyzed using the chi-squared test and the odds ratio. A two-tailed p value of<0.05 was considered statistically significant. 115 athletes from the national teams were included (mean age 18.4 years; range 13-27 years). 93, 97.4 and 98.3% did not have symmetric hop distance for three hop tests. Up to a quarter did not reach a limb symmetry index of>90. Moreover, 57.4% (n=66) reached longer jumping distance with the standing leg. Ignoring such pre-existent side differences in evaluation of hop tests and not knowing which limb was dominant prior the injury, can lead to premature or delayed return to sports in the rehabilitation process. Therefore, it might be helpful to refer to individual jump lengths for each limb in case of injury by using hop tests in pre-season screening in professional athletes in Judo and Taekwondo.


Asunto(s)
Lateralidad Funcional , Extremidad Inferior/fisiología , Artes Marciales/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Prueba de Esfuerzo/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Extremidad Inferior/lesiones , Masculino , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Volver al Deporte , Adulto Joven
5.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(2): 124-132, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428145

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Taekwondo is a martial art that emphasizes blows using the feet and fists, and it is characterized by direct and continuous body contact, which subjects their practitioners to a higher number of injuries. This study aimed to determine the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in Portuguese taekwondo athletes and analyze its associated factors. METHODS: The sample included 341 taekwondo athletes, aged between 4 and 62 years (18.77±12.77 years), 237 (69.5%) were male, and 104 (30.5%) female. A questionnaire was administered at a national level in taekwondo training and competitions via interview. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-two (38.7%) taekwondo athletes reported having suffered an injury since they began their practice, totaling 294 injuries. Seventy-six (22.3%) athletes had an injury in the previous 12-months period, with a total of 112 injuries. There were 2.15 injuries per 1,000 hours of taekwondo training. The most common of all injuries was muscle injury (strain, contusion) (58.6%), in the foot and fingers (18.9%). The attack technique (28.8%) was the most prevalent injury mechanism. Adult athletes presented a higher risk of sustaining taekwondo-related injuries than adolescents (odds ratio = 3.91; 95%CI: 1.13-13.55; p=0.032), and athletes who trained more than 1 hour had a risk 4.20 times greater (95%CI: 1.44-12.29; p=0.009) than those who trained up to 1 hour per session. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries were frequent among Portuguese taekwondo athletes, with specific body areas affected, mainly caused by the attack technique. It is necessary to create injury prevention strategies, including specific training and the use of protective equipment.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesiones , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Portugal/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
6.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 32(1): 89-95, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587599

RESUMEN

It has long been established that fighting sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts can lead to head injury. Prior work from this group on the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study found that exposure to repetitive head impacts is associated with lower brain volumes and decreased processing speed in fighters. Current and previously licensed professional fighters were recruited, divided into active and retired cohorts, and matched with a control group that had no prior experience in sports with likely head trauma. This study examined the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to fighting sports and brain structure (MRI regional volume), cognitive performance (CNS Vital Signs, iComet C3), and clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms (PHQ-9, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale). Brain MRI data showed significant correlations between earlier AFE and smaller bilateral hippocampal and posterior corpus callosum volumes for both retired and active fighters. Earlier AFE in active fighters was correlated with decreased processing speed and decreased psychomotor speed. Retired fighters showed a correlation between earlier AFE and higher measures of depression and impulsivity. Overall, the results help to inform clinicians, governing bodies, parents, and athletes of the risks associated with beginning to compete in fighting sports at a young age.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas , Síntomas Conductuales , Boxeo/lesiones , Lesiones Encefálicas , Disfunción Cognitiva , Cuerpo Calloso , Depresión , Hipocampo , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Traumatismos en Atletas/complicaciones , Traumatismos en Atletas/patología , Traumatismos en Atletas/fisiopatología , Síntomas Conductuales/etiología , Síntomas Conductuales/patología , Síntomas Conductuales/fisiopatología , Lesiones Encefálicas/complicaciones , Lesiones Encefálicas/patología , Lesiones Encefálicas/fisiopatología , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/patología , Disfunción Cognitiva/fisiopatología , Cuerpo Calloso/patología , Depresión/etiología , Depresión/patología , Depresión/fisiopatología , Hipocampo/patología , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva/fisiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Jubilación
7.
JAMA Neurol ; 77(1): 35-42, 2020 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498371

RESUMEN

Importance: Many studies have investigated the imaging findings showing sequelae of repetitive head trauma, with mixed results. Objective: To determine whether fighters (boxers and mixed martial arts fighters) with cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and cavum vergae (CV) have reduced volumes in various brain structures or worse clinical outcomes on cognitive and mood testing. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study assessed participants from the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study. Data were collected from April 14, 2011, to January 17, 2018, and were analyzed from September 1, 2018, to May 23, 2019. This study involved a referred sample of 476 active and retired professional fighters. Eligible participants were at least 18 years of age and had at least a fourth-grade reading level. Healthy age-matched controls with no history of trauma were also enrolled. Exposures: Presence of CSP, CV, and their total (additive) length (CSPV length). Main Outcomes and Measures: Information regarding depression, impulsivity, and sleepiness among study participants was obtained using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale, Barrett Impulsiveness Scale, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Cognition was assessed using raw scores from CNS Vital Signs. Volumes of various brain structures were measured via magnetic resonance imaging. Results: A total of 476 fighters (440 men, 36 women; mean [SD] age, 30.0 [8.2] years [range, 18-72 years]) and 63 control participants (57 men, 6 women; mean [SD] age, 30.8 [9.6] years [range, 18-58 years]) were enrolled in the study. Compared with fighters without CV, fighters with CV had significantly lower mean psychomotor speed (estimated difference, -11.3; 95% CI, -17.4 to -5.2; P = .004) and lower mean volumes in the supratentorium (estimated difference, -31 191 mm3; 95% CI, -61 903 to -479 mm3; P = .05) and other structures. Longer CSPV length was associated with lower processing speed (slope, -0.39; 95% CI, -0.49 to -0.28; P < .001), psychomotor speed (slope, -0.43; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.32; P < .001), and lower brain volumes in the supratentorium (slope, -1072 mm3 for every 1-mm increase in CSPV length; 95% CI, -1655 to -489 mm3; P < .001) and other structures. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that the presence of CSP and CV is associated with lower regional brain volumes and cognitive performance in a cohort exposed to repetitive head trauma.


Asunto(s)
Boxeo/lesiones , Encéfalo/patología , Traumatismos Cerrados de la Cabeza/complicaciones , Traumatismos Cerrados de la Cabeza/patología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Adolescente , Adulto , Afecto/fisiología , Anciano , Cognición/fisiología , Trastornos del Conocimiento/etiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Traumatismos Cerrados de la Cabeza/etiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Humor/etiología , Tabique Pelúcido/patología , Adulto Joven
9.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(1): 54-58, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747701

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate exposure adjusted injury incidence rates and profiles associated with training and competition in an elite taekwondo athlete population. 82 athletes were investigated for injuries over a period of 5 years. Individual fight time exposure for training and competition was recorded. The type and location of the injuries were classified and exposure-adjusted injury incidence rates (IIR) were calculated per 1000 h for training and competition. 66 athletes with a mean age of 19.3±4.2 years and 172 injuries were included in the final data assessment. The exposure adjusted IIR was significantly higher during competition (p<0.001) with a rate ratio of 6.33 (95% CI 4.58-8.69). Ankle and foot region as well as hand and wrist were most affected with significant higher IIR in competition (p<0.001). Joint injuries, fractures, and bruising occurred the most. Fractures occurred mainly to the hand and wrist region. Future investigations should focus on exposure adjusted injury data including analyses of the detailed mechanism leading to especially severe injuries to improve specific injury prevention in competition and promote evolution of protective gear.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Conducta Competitiva/fisiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Acondicionamiento Físico Humano/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Traumatismos del Tobillo/epidemiología , Femenino , Traumatismos de los Pies/epidemiología , Traumatismos de la Mano/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Traumatismos de la Muñeca/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(2): 263-269, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665871

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In an attempt to improve the technical quality of sparring taekwondo, the World Taekwondo Federation has amended the competition rule for a head kick (HK), increasing the number of points awarded for this type of attack. The purpose of the current study was to: 1) evaluate the incidence of HKs and concussions; and 2) identify potential risk factors of concussions in sparring taekwondo. METHODS: A postmatch, interview-based prospective cohort study was conducted with 145 sparring taekwondo athletes (12-16 years of age) who: 1) competed at a 2018 sparring-Taekwondo tournament; and 2) received a valid HK during competition. Incidence rates of HKs and concussions were estimated; possible risk factors or prognosticators of concussions were also analyzed using the chi-square test and binary logistic analysis. RESULTS: Incidence rates of HKs and concussions were 133.5 (95% CI: 113.3-153.8) and 41.4 (95% CI: 29.6-53.3) per 1000 athlete-exposures, respectively. The binary logistic model revealed that athletes with no prior concussion history were less likely to experience a concussion (OR, 0.27; 95% CI: 0.1-0.7). CONCLUSIONS: Although the incidence rates of HKs and concussions are considerably high, they are not increased compared with the results of pre-2009 studies. Therefore, the new competition rule relating to HKs did not appear to increase the incidence rates of HKs or concussions in our research participants. To prevent adverse effects related to repetitive HKs and concussions, continuous research is needed.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Conmoción Encefálica/epidemiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Traumatismos en Atletas/psicología , Conmoción Encefálica/psicología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Artes Marciales/psicología , Motivación , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
11.
Clin J Sport Med ; 29(6): e76-e79, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688186

RESUMEN

Proximal hamstring tendon avulsions are typically sustained during forced hip hyperflexion combined with knee extension. We present 3 cases of athletes with a proximal hamstring tendon avulsion caused by an alternative injury mechanism that also involves a considerable hip abduction component (flexion-abduction injury mechanism). All cases had at least one concurrent injury of the medial thigh muscles, either on the ipsilateral or contralateral side. The 2 elite athletes with this injury mechanism returned to sport at preinjury level relatively quickly. A history of the flexion-abduction mechanism should raise suspicion of a hamstring tendon avulsion with concomitant injury of the medial thigh muscles. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol should include both legs, and any concurrent injury may need to be addressed as well. In future studies, it would be interesting to investigate whether injury mechanism holds prognostic value in proximal hamstring tendon avulsions.


Asunto(s)
Tendones Isquiotibiales/lesiones , Tendones Isquiotibiales/fisiopatología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Fútbol/lesiones , Femenino , Músculos Isquiosurales/diagnóstico por imagen , Músculos Isquiosurales/lesiones , Tendones Isquiotibiales/diagnóstico por imagen , Tendones Isquiotibiales/cirugía , Cadera/fisiopatología , Humanos , Rodilla/fisiopatología , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Rotura/diagnóstico por imagen , Rotura/cirugía
13.
Brain Inj ; 33(13-14): 1646-1651, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454275

RESUMEN

Primary Objective: To assess a rapid concussion screening tool in Service members participating in combatives (mixed martial arts; MMA) training school.Research Design: This prospective study included baseline and either post-training or post-injury assessments.Methods and Procedures: Baseline (N = 152) and post-assessments (n = 129) of Service members included symptom reporting and the King-Devick (KD) oculomotor test.Outcomes and Results: Headache, balance problems, and dizziness were the most severe concussive symptoms. KD scores for those who sustained a concussion (n = 31) were significantly worse compared to baseline, but not for participants who finished the course with no concussion (n = 98). For concussed, 74.2% had scores that were worse from baseline (slower) compared to 39.8% of the post-training group. KD scores were worse 34.4% more in individuals who sustained a concussion compared to those who did not. However, there was poor discriminant ability of the KD test (AUC = .60, sensitivity/specificity) to distinguish between concussed and non-concussed participants.Conclusions: The KD test should not be used in isolation as a sideline or field concussion assessment during training scenarios. Rather, it has potential utility for evaluating individual cases to supplement decision making when an established baseline is available.


Asunto(s)
Conmoción Encefálica/diagnóstico , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Tamizaje Masivo/normas , Personal Militar , Examen Neurológico/normas , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Adulto , Conmoción Encefálica/fisiopatología , Conmoción Encefálica/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciales/psicología , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Personal Militar/psicología , Examen Neurológico/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos
14.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 98(10): 859-865, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441834

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Concussion with transient loss of consciousness is a commonly observed but poorly understood phenomenon with mounting clinical significance. This study aimed to examine the relationship between head motion in varying planes and transient loss of consciousness in athletes with brain injuries. STUDY DESIGN: A case-control design was used. The Ultimate Fighting Championship database was screened for events ending with knockouts from 2013 to 2016. Time of strike, striking implement, strike location, and head motion were recorded for all knockout strikes (cases) and for a subset of nonknockout strikes (controls). Characteristics of winners and losers were compared using two-tailed t tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios for strike characteristics associated with transient loss of consciousness. The Kaplan-Meier estimate was used to describe the temporal distribution of knockouts. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-six fights were identified and 110 videos were included. Head motion in the axial plane was strongly associated with transient loss of consciousness (odds ratio, 45.3; 95% confidence interval, 20.8-98.6). Other predictors of transient loss of consciousness were head motion in sagittal and coronal planes, nonfist striking implements, and strikes to the mandible or maxilla. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve demonstrated a decreasing rate of knockouts through time. CONCLUSIONS: Rotational head acceleration, particularly in the axial plane, is strongly associated with transient loss of consciousness.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos Craneocerebrales/fisiopatología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Inconsciencia/etiología , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Traumatismos Craneocerebrales/etiología , Femenino , Cabeza/fisiopatología , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Movimiento (Física) , Oportunidad Relativa
15.
Phys Ther Sport ; 39: 107-113, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288212

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the 6-month incidence rate and pattern of Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ)-related injuries and characterize associations between injuries and experience level, demographic factors, and training variables. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. SETTING: Online survey. PARTICIPANTS: 1287 adult BJJ practitioners. OUTCOME MEASURES: 6-month BJJ-related injury incidence, anatomical pattern of injuries, and injury-associated demographic and training variable identification. RESULTS: 59.2% of practitioners reported at least one injury over 6 months. The knee was the most common site. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated 6-month injury incidence was negatively associated with years of training and body weight, and positively associated with training days per week and instructor status. More experienced athletes were more likely to report low back injury, while less experienced athletes more frequently reported head, upper extremity, and elbow injuries. None of the following variables were predictive of injury risk: gi preference, instruction on break-falling, and participation in a structured beginner's program. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factor analysis is applicable to BJJ instructors interested in reducing student injury risk. The widespread pattern of injuries and the distinction between types of injuries sustained at different levels of experience are notable findings that sports medicine practitioners should keep in mind when working with BJJ athletes.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Acondicionamiento Físico Humano , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
Clin J Sport Med ; 29(4): 336-340, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241538

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the injury incidence rate (IIR) and injury pattern, and to identify risk factors for injury, among elite adult European judo athletes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The 2015 Under 23 European Judo Championships, Bratislava, Slovakia. PARTICIPANTS: All registered athletes (N = 295). INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Sex, weight division, and fight outcome. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Injury incidence rates were calculated per 1000 athlete-exposures (IIRAE) and per 1000 minutes of exposure (IIRME) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Subgroups were compared by calculating the injury incidence rate ratio (RR) with a 95% CI. RESULTS: The overall IIRAE and IIRME were 35.6 (95% CI, 22.8-53.0) and 10.9 (95% CI, 7.0-16.2), respectively. The most frequently injured anatomical region was the head/neck (41%), whereas the most common type of injury was contusion (33%). The risk of injury was almost 4 times greater for defeated athletes compared with winners [RRME 3.80 (95% CI, 1.47-9.82)]. Athletes in middleweight divisions had a greater risk of injury compared with their lightweight [RRME 3.58 (95% CI, 1.24-10.35)] and heavyweight [RRME 2.34 (95% CI, 0.93-5.89)] counterparts. The risk of injury for women was not significantly different from their male counterparts [RRME 1.33 (95% CI, 0.61-2.90)]. CONCLUSIONS: Weight division (middle) and fight outcome (losing) are significant risk factors for injury. The IIR in elite adult judo competition is lower than that in taekwondo and karate. Future research is encouraged to investigate the actual severity of judo injuries, and to investigate potentially modifiable risk factors to mitigate the risk of injury in judo.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Atletas , Rendimiento Atlético , Peso Corporal , Conducta Competitiva , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
17.
Sports Health ; 11(5): 432-439, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173700

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a grappling-based martial art that can lead to injuries both in training and in competition. There is a paucity of data regarding injuries sustained while training in BJJ, in both competitive and noncompetitive jiu-jitsu athletes. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that most BJJ practitioners sustain injuries to various body locations while in training and in competition. Our primary objective was to describe injuries sustained while training for BJJ, both in practice and in competition. Our secondary objectives were to classify injury type and to explore participant and injury characteristics associated with wanting to quit jiu-jitsu after injury. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS: We conducted a survey of all BJJ participants at a single club in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. We developed a questionnaire including questions on demographics, injuries in competition and/or training, treatment received, and whether the participant considered discontinuing BJJ after injury. RESULTS: A total of 70 BJJ athletes participated in this study (response rate, 85%). Ninety-one percent of participants were injured in training and 60% of competitive athletes were injured in competitions. Significantly more injuries were sustained overall for each body region in training in comparison with competition (P < 0.001). Two-thirds of injured participants required medical attention, with 15% requiring surgery. Participants requiring surgical treatment were 6.5 times more likely to consider quitting compared with those requiring other treatments, including no treatment (odds ratio [OR], 6.50; 95% CI, 1.53-27.60). Participants required to take more than 4 months off training were 5.5 times more likely to consider quitting compared with those who took less time off (OR, 5.48; 95% CI, 2.25-13.38). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of injury is very high among BJJ practitioners, with 9 of 10 practitioners sustaining at least 1 injury, commonly during training. Injuries were primarily sprains and strains to fingers, the upper extremity, and neck. Potential participants in BJJ should be informed regarding significant risk of injury and instructed regarding appropriate precautions and safety protocols. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Clinicians should be aware of the substantial risk of injury among BJJ practitioners and the epidemiology of the injuries as outlined in this article.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Conducta Competitiva , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Acondicionamiento Físico Humano , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(8): 902-906, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979675

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to assess the 1-year retrospective prevalence of athletes reporting a sports-related injury among Paralympic judokas with visual impairment (VI), and to identify any associations between injury, vision class, gender and weight category. DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective study. METHODS: The data were collected through an adapted questionnaire given to athletes with VI during an international training camp. A total of 45 Paralympic judokas answered the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and chi-square statistics (p < 0.05) were used to analyse the data. Spearman's correlation was used to analyse multiple injuries. RESULTS: Thirty-eight of the athletes reported an injury, giving a 1-year prevalence of 84% (95% CI 71-93). Male athletes reported significantly more injuries compared to female athletes (p = 0.023). Over two thirds of the injuries (71%; 95% CI 55-83) had a traumatic onset. The majority of injuries (74%; 95% CI 58-85) occurred during judo training, and in the standing technique tachi waza (82%; 95% CI 66-91). The shoulder was the most single affected body location (29%). Forty-five percent of the injuries led to a time loss from sport for more than three weeks, and 40% of judokas reported multiple injuries. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study demonstrate a high prevalence of mainly traumatic and severe sports-related injuries amongst athletes with VI participating in Paralympic judo. A first step towards prevention could be to minimize the time in tachi waza. However, to improve sports safety and to develop effective strategies for injury prevention, more comprehensive epidemiological studies, and also technical studies assessing injury mechanisms are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Personas con Daño Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Sports Health ; 11(3): 280-285, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768376

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Brain injury arising from head trauma is a major concern in mixed martial arts (MMA) because knockout (KO) and technical knockout (TKO) are frequent fight outcomes. Previous studies have shown a high incidence of matches ending due to strikes to the head but did not consider weight categories and female fights. This study aimed at analyzing match stoppages in MMA and the exposure to head trauma distinguished by sex and weight categories. HYPOTHESIS: The heavier the weight class, the greater the risk and incidence of head trauma will be, regardless of sex. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Publicly available data of 167 MMA events from 1903 fights between 2014 and 2017 were assessed, comprising 8 male and 2 female weight categories. RESULTS: The combined KO/TKO rates per 100 athlete-exposures in the middleweight (19.53), light heavyweight (20.8), and heavyweight (26.09) divisions were greater than previously reported for MMA. While stoppage via KO/TKO occurred in 7.9% of combats in the female strawweight division, it occurred in 52.1% of the male heavyweight fights. The male middleweight ( P = 0.001), light heavyweight ( P < 0.001), and heavyweight divisions ( P < 0.001) had an increased risk of KO/TKO due to strikes to the head by 80%, 100%, and 206%, respectively. The risk in the flyweight division decreased 62% ( P = 0.001). All categories were compared with the lightweight division. The female bantamweight category presented a 221% increased risk in matches ending due to KO/TKO compared with the strawweight division ( P = 0.012). Punches to the head were the major technique used to end a combat via KO/TKO, regardless of sex and weight class. CONCLUSION: Head injury risk and incidence varies considerably according to sex and weight category in MMA. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The analysis of head trauma exposure in MMA athletes should be distinguished according to sex and weight category.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Traumatismos Craneocerebrales/epidemiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Factores Sexuales , Atletas , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino
20.
Brain Inj ; 33(3): 349-354, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507317

RESUMEN

The aim of this prospective cohort study was to determine the effect of an 'event,' defined as a knock-out (KO), technical knock-out (TKO), choke, or submission, on King-Devick (K-D) test times in mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes. MMA athletes (28.3 ± 6.6 years, n = 92) underwent K-D testing prior to and following a workout or match. Comparison of baseline and post-workout/match K-D times to assess any significant change. K-D tests worsened (longer) in a majority of athletes following an 'event' (N = 21) (49.6 ± 7.8 s vs 46.6 ± 7.8 s, p = 0.0156, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). K-D tests improved (shorter) following a standard workout or match in which no 'event' occurred in a majority of cases (n = 69) (44.2 ± 7.2 s vs 49.2 ± 10.9 s, p = <0.0001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Longer duration (worsening) of post-match K-D tests occurred in most athletes sustaining an 'event'; K-D tests shortened (improved) in a majority of athletes not sustaining an 'event'. Our study suggests MMA athletes suffering an 'event' may have sustained a brain injury similar to a concussion.


Asunto(s)
Obstrucción de las Vías Aéreas/psicología , Conmoción Encefálica/psicología , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/diagnóstico , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/etiología , Artes Marciales/lesiones , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Adulto , Atletas , Conmoción Encefálica/etiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto Joven
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