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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21815, 2020 12 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311542

RESUMEN

Ascariasis is a common public health problem of preschool and primary school children in developing countries like Pakistan. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of Ascaris lumbericoides (A. lumbricoides) infection among children residing in urban areas of Lahore, to provide information on ascariasis to promote awareness and prevention programs between the participants specially on the months or season of higher prevalence. To investigate the prevalence of Ascaris Lumbricoides in the contaminated faecal samples of children residing in urban areas of Lahore, a study was conducted from November 2010 to October 2012 and we collected 3600 stratified faecal samples from six urban study areas. Overall 32/3600 (0.88%) prevalence of fecal samples was found positive for eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides. Area wise highest presence positivity 1.67% was observed in Allama Iqbal Town followed by 1.17% in Samanabad, 1.00% in Wapda Town, 1.00% in Gulberg, 0.50% in Cantt, and the lowest 0.00% in Valencia Town respectively (p < 0.001) The highest month wise positivity prevalence 3/300 (3.33%) (p < 0.001) was observed in the month of September that gradually declined up to 0/300 (0.00%) in the month of March. The results reveal that urban areas of Lahore are susceptible to Ascaris Lubricoides infection and the highest prevalence were observed autumn on the month of September.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris lumbricoides , Heces/parasitología , Animales , Ascariasis/terapia , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pakistán/epidemiología , Prevalencia
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008002, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351816

RESUMEN

Although the prevalence of helminths infection among schoolchildren is known, there has been little progress in the application of count model for modelling the risk factors of helminths egg. Only a few studies applied multilevel analysis to explore the variation in helminths prevalence across schools and classes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, intensity of helminths infection, and identify risk factors at the individual-, household-, and school-level among schoolchildren in Southern Ethiopia. Using multistage random sampling, we recruited 864 students in the Wonago District. We applied multilevel-logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models (ZINB). Risk factors were concentrated at the individual level; school-level and class-level variables explained less than 5% of the variance. The overall helminths prevalence was 56% (479/850); Trichuris trichiura prevalence was 42.4% (360/850); and Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was 18.7% (159/850). The rate of any helminths increased among thin children (AOR: 1.73 [95% CI: (1.04, 2.90]), anemic (AOR: 1.45 [95% CI: 1.04, 2.03]), mothers who had no formal education (AOR: 2.08 [95% CI: 1.25, 3.47]), and those in households using open containers for water storage (AOR: 2.06 [95% CI: 1.07, 3.99]). In the ZINB model, A. lumbricoides infection intensity increased with increasing age (AOR: 1.08 [95% CI: 1.01, 1.16]) and unclean fingernails (AOR: 1.47 [95% CI: 1.07, 2.03]). Handwashing with soap (AOR: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.48, 0.95]), de-worming treatment [AOR: 0.57 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.98)], and using water from protected sources [AOR: 0.46 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.77)] were found to be protective against helminths infection. After controlling for clustering effects at the school and class levels and accounting for excess zeros in fecal egg counts, we found an association between helminths infection and the following variables: age, thinness, anemia, unclean fingernails, handwashing, de-worming treatment, mother's education, household water source, and water storage protection. Improving hygiene behavior, providing safe water at school and home, and strengthening de-worming programs is required to improve the health of schoolchildren in rural Gedeo.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Animales , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Higiene , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Suelo/parasitología
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243946, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320918

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH), i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms are among the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in Ethiopia. Although pre-school aged children pay a high morbidity toll associated with STH infections, evidence on prevalence, intensity and intervention status is lacking in Ethiopia. This study, therefore, aimed to address these gaps to inform decision made on STH. METHODS: We did a community-based cross-sectional study in five districts of Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia; in January 2019. Data were collected using pre-tested questionnaire, and the Kato-Katz technique was used to diagnose parasites eggs in stool. Then, collected data were edited and entered into EpiData 4.4.2, and exported to SPSS software (IBM, version 25) for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2462 PSAC participated in this study. Overall, the prevalence of STH was 23.5% (578/2462) (95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.8%-25.2%). As caris lumbricoides was the most prevalent (18.6%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (9.2%), and hookworms (3.1%). Of the total, 7.4% PSAC were infected with two STH species. Most of the positive cases with STH showed low infection intensities, while 15.1% ascariasis cases showed moderate infection intensities. The study found that 68.7% of PSAC were treated with albendazole. Also, household's level data showed that 39.4% used water from hand-dug well; 52.5% need to travel ≥30 minutes to collect water; 77.5% did not treat water, and 48.9% had no hand washing facility. In addition, almost 93% care givers achieved less than the mean knowledge and practice score (≤5) on STH prevention. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that significant proportions of pre-school aged children are suffering from STH infections despite preventive chemotherapy exist at the study area. Also, gaps in the interventions against STH were highlighted. Thus, a call for action is demanding to eliminate STH among PSAC in Ethiopia by 2030.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/transmisión , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Adolescente , Anciano , Ancylostomatoidea/patogenicidad , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascaris lumbricoides/patogenicidad , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/patología , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Helmintos/patogenicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/prevención & control , Trichuris/patogenicidad
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008907, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370267

RESUMEN

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Indonesia. However, prevalence data for many parts of the country are incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine human STH prevalence and knowledge and practices relating to STH risk behaviour, to provide a current view of the status of STH infection in rural communities in Central Java. A cross-sectional survey of 16 villages was conducted in Semarang, Central Java in 2015. Demographic and household data together with information about knowledge and practices relating to STH and hygiene were elicited through face-to-face interviews. Stool samples were collected and examined using the flotation method. Children (aged 2-12 years) also had their haemoglobin (Hb) levels, height and weight data collected, and BMI estimated. Data were analysed using univariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 6,466 individuals with a mean age of 33.5 years (range: 2-93) from 2,195 households were interviewed. The overall prevalence of STH was 33.8% with Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) the predominant nematode identified (prevalence = 26.0%). Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) were found in 7.9% and 1.8% of participants, respectively. Females were at increased odds of infection with A. lumbricoides (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI [1.02-1.29], p = 0.02). Adults in age groups 51-60 and over 60 years had the highest odds of being infected with hookworm (adjusted OR 3.01, 95% CI [1.84-4.91], p<0.001 and adjusted OR 3.79, 95% CI [2.30-6.26], p<0.001, respectively) compared to 6-12 year olds. Farmers also had higher odds of being infected with hookworm (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI [1.17-4.76], p = 0.02) compared to other occupation categories. Poverty (OR 2.14, 95% CI [1.77-2.58], p<0.001), overcrowding (OR 1.35, 95% CI [1.27-1.44], p<0.001), goat ownership (OR 1.61, 95% CI [1.10-2.41], p = 0.02) and the presence of dry floor space in the home (OR 0.73, 95% CI [0.58-0.91], p = 0.01) were all household factors significantly associated with an increased odds of infection. Infection with STH was not significantly associated with the gastrointestinal illness (p>0.05), BMI or Hb levels; however, one third of all 2-12 year olds surveyed were found to be anaemic (i.e. Hb concentrations below 110g/l or 115g/l for children under 5 and 5 years or older, respectively), with a greater proportion of school-age children at risk. Knowledge and behaviour related to hygiene and gastrointestinal diseases varied widely and were generally not associated with STH infection. The study revealed that STH infection remains endemic in Central Java despite ongoing deworming programs. Current control efforts would benefit from being re-evaluated to determine a more effective way forward.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Agricultores/estadística & datos numéricos , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Higiene , Indonesia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Saneamiento , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
5.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 61(4): 103-108, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012763

RESUMEN

Ascaris lumbricoides or roundworm is one of the key soil-transmitted helminths affecting humans. A small number of infections continue to occur in Japan, suggesting plant foodstuff contamination as the source of infection. To understand the current status of ascariasis incidence and to identify potential sources of infection, we extensively surveyed the available literature and collected data from testing facilities that examined clinical samples or foodstuffs. We observed that from 2002 onwards, there was a decrease in the number of ascariasis cases reported in scientific journals. Data from a clinical testing facility indicated that the number of detected cases declined remarkably from 2009. Foodstuff testing facilities reported that 11 of 10,223 plant foodstuff specimens were contaminated with anisakid nematodes but not with Ascaris. Imported kimchi was suspected as the most probable source of ascarid nematode infection, as one Ascaris egg-positive sample was detected among 60 kimchi samples in a testing facility. Therefore, the sources of Ascaris infection are still not fully known and need to be clarified to establish preventive countermeasures to safeguard Ascaris infections that continue to occur in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis , Ascaris lumbricoides , Parasitología de Alimentos , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Humanos , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Suelo
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008511, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976499

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is endemic in Fiji but its prevalence is not known and likely to have changed after a decade of mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF). By linking with LF transmission assessment surveys (LF-TAS), we undertook the first nation-wide assessment of STH in Fijian primary schools, as well as an analysis of factors associated with STH infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional assessment for STH was conducted in all four Divisions of Fiji from 2014 to 2015. In the Western, Central, and Northern Divisions, schools were sub-sampled after LF-TAS, while, in the Eastern Division, schools were selected via simple random sampling. For the diagnosis of STH, stool samples were examined by coproscopy with a single Kato-Katz thick smear (KK) and the formol-ether-acetate concentration technique, except for the samples from the Eastern Division where only KK was used. Mean prevalence of any STH among class 1-2 students at the national level was 10.5% (95% CI: 6.9-15.5). Across the three Divisions via LF-TAS, the prevalence levels for ascariasis were 8.7% (95% CI: 4.3-16.6), hookworm 3.9% (95% CI: 2.3-6.6) and trichuriasis 0%. In the Eastern Division, ascariasis prevalence was 13.3% (95% CI: 6.4-25.6), and hookworm 0.7% (95% CI: 0.2-2.5), with one case of trichuriasis. Among class 3-8 students, ascariasis prevalence was lower. Lower risk of any STH was associated with wearing shoes (adjusted OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32-0.90) and having piped water from the Fiji Water Authority at home (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.25-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: After a decade of community-based LF-MDA, STH in school-age children in Fiji is now close to 10%, but localities of endemicity remain. Preventive chemotherapy should be maintained in areas with elevated STH prevalence alongside targeted delivery of integrated WASH interventions. LF-TAS has provided an opportunity to develop future public health surveillance platforms.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Filariasis Linfática/epidemiología , Femenino , Fiji/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Prevalencia , Zapatos , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Abastecimiento de Agua
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239680, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986746

RESUMEN

Geohelminthiasis is a worldwide problem, especially in low-income countries. Children from rural areas and those living in poverty, lacking basic health amenities and having poor environmental sanitation are likely to be affected. Adverse effects such as anemia, protein malnutrition, colitis are common which can affect both the children's physical and mental growing development. A cross-sectional study on geohelminthiasis was conducted among children from 238 households in 13 villages in Kota Marudu of northern Sabah, East Malaysia. The study involved interviewing villagers using questionnaires to collect demographic and socio-economic data, getting faecal samples from the children, collecting soil samples and identifying parasite eggs with microscopy and molecular methods. A total of 407 children (6 months-17 years old) enrolled in the study. Geohelminthiasis was detected in the faecal samples of children from 54% (7/13) of the villages with mean prevalence of infection per village of 9.0% (0%-34.9%). On a household basis, 18% (43/238) of the households sampled had infected children, with mean prevalence rate per household of 11% (0%-43%). The prevalence was for Ascaris lumbricoides: 9.6% (39/407), Trichuris trichiura: 2.7% (11/407) and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma sp.): 2.7% (11/407). The overall mean infection rate of the children examined was 14.3%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded for the children of mothers who did not have any formal education (p = 0.003); household income of less than USD119 (RM500) (p<0.001); children from homes without proper sanitation facilities (p<0.001); children who usually go about barefoot (p<0.001) and not washing feet before entering the house (p = 0.017). Soil samples were found to have geohelminth eggs or larvae which could be due to unhygienic sanitation practices. This study shows the geohelminthiasis is prevalent in the villages, and the risk factors are lack of maternal education, low income, poor sanitation facilities and irregular deworming practice. Expanding deworming coverage in the study region may help reduce the worm infections in these communities, so that the mental and physical development of the children would not be affected by geohelminthiasis. The data on the prevalence of geohelminthiasis in this study would contribute to better public health monitoring and operation to reduce the infection in rural areas.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Animales , Ascariasis/parasitología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Humanos , Lactante , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Salud Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Saneamiento , Tricuriasis/parasitología
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236924, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735608

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have many negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies) that can also exacerbate poverty. These infections are generally highest among low-income populations, many of which are also undergoing market integration (MI; increased participation in a market-based economy). Yet the direct impact of MI-related social and environmental changes on STH infection patterns is poorly understood, making it unclear which lifestyle factors should be targeted to better control disease spread. This cross-sectional study examines if household infrastructure associated with greater MI is associated with lower STH burdens among Indigenous Ecuadorian Shuar. METHODS: Kato-Katz fecal smears were used to determine STH infection status and intensity (n = 620 participants; 308 females, 312 males, aged 6 months-86 years); Ascaris lumbricoides (ascarid) and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) were the primary infection types detected. Structured interviews assessing lifestyle patterns (e.g., measures of household infrastructure) measured participant MI. Multilevel regression analyses and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models tested associations between MI measures and STH infection status or intensity, controlling for individual and community characteristics. RESULTS: Participants residing in more market-integrated households exhibited lower infection rates and intensities than those in less market integrated households. Parasite infection status and T. trichiura infection intensity were lower among participants living in houses with wood floors than those with dirt floors, while individuals using well or piped water from a spring exhibited lower A. lumbricoides infection intensities compared to those using river or stream water. Unexpectedly, latrine type was not significantly related to STH infection status or intensity. These results suggest that sources of exposure differ between the two helminth species. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents associations between household measures and STH infection among an Indigenous population undergoing rapid MI. These findings can help healthcare programs better target interventions and reduce STH exposure among at-risk populations.


Asunto(s)
Heces/parasitología , Helmintiasis , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Suelo/parasitología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos de Población/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237112, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790693

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The effect of nutritional supplements on the re-infection rate of species-specific soil-transmitted helminth infections in school-aged children remains complex and available evidence on the subject matter has not been synthesized. METHODS: The review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs investigating food supplements on school-aged children between the age of 4-17 years. A search for RCTs was conducted on eight databases from inception to 12th June 2019. Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess the risk of bias in all included studies. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis were conducted to describe and analyze the results of the review. Outcomes were summarized using the mean difference or standardized mean difference where appropriate. RESULTS: The search produced 1,816 records. Six studies met the inclusion criteria (five individually RCTs and one cluster RCT). Four studies reported data on all three STH species, while one study only reported data on Ascaris lumbricoides infections and the last study reported data on only hookworm infections. Overall, the risk of bias in four individual studies was low across most domains. Nutritional supplementation failed to statistically reduce the re-infection rates of the three STH species. The effect of nutritional supplements on measures of physical wellbeing in school-aged children could not be determined. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this systematic review suggest that nutritional supplements for treatment of STH in children should not be encouraged unless better evidence emerges. Conclusion of earlier reviews on general populations may not necessarily apply to children since children possibly have a higher re-infection rate.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos , Micronutrientes/uso terapéutico , Tricuriasis/prevención & control , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico , Ascariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Niño , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administración & dosificación , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008600, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853225

RESUMEN

Helminth infections are among the World Health Organization's top neglected diseases with significant impact in many Less Economically Developed Countries. Despite no longer being endemic in Europe, the widespread presence of helminth eggs in archaeological deposits indicates that helminths represented a considerable burden in past European populations. Prevalence of infection is a key epidemiological feature that would influence the elimination of endemic intestinal helminths, for example, low prevalence rates may have made it easier to eliminate these infections in Europe without the use of modern anthelminthic drugs. To determine historical prevalence rates we analysed 589 grave samples from 7 European sites dated between 680 and 1700 CE, identifying two soil transmitted nematodes (Ascaris spp. and Trichuris trichiura) at all locations, and two food derived cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum and Taenia spp.) at 4 sites. The rates of nematode infection in the medieval populations (1.5 to 25.6% for T. trichiura; 9.3-42.9% for Ascaris spp.) were comparable to those reported within modern endemically infected populations. There was some evidence of higher levels of nematode infection in younger individuals but not at all sites. The genetic diversity of T. trichiura ITS-1 in single graves was variable but much lower than with communal medieval latrine deposits. The prevalence of food derived cestodes was much lower (1.0-9.9%) than the prevalence of nematodes. Interestingly, sites that contained Taenia spp. eggs also contained D. latum which may reflect local culinary practices. These data demonstrate the importance of helminth infections in Medieval Europe and provide a baseline for studies on the epidemiology of infection in historical and modern contexts. Since the prevalence of medieval STH infections mirror those in modern endemic countries the factors affecting STH decline in Europe may also inform modern intervention campaigns.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Intestinos/parasitología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris , Niño , Preescolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Variación Genética , Helmintiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Nematodos , Prevalencia , Suelo/parasitología , Cuartos de Baño , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Trichuris , Adulto Joven
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 727-734, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588800

RESUMEN

We reported 865 cases of soil-transmitted nematodiasis occurring in Japan during 2000-2017. The predominant nematode was Strongyloides stercoralis (n = 279, 32.3% of all cases), and other species included Ascaris lumbricoides (30.7%), Trichuris trichiura (23.1%), and Ancylostomidae spp. (13.9%). Strongyloides stercoralis was detected primarily in patients in Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures, which are in the south of Japan and are endemic areas for this parasitic infection, and also in about half of the prefectures of all Japan. At least 15.5 cases of strongyloidiasis occurred on average each year. The period incidence rate of strongyloidiasis cases relative to the total population of Japan was 0.012 cases per 105 person-years. The male-to-female ratio was 2.1. The average age was 75.1 ± 16.9 years, and 96.1% of patients were older than 50 years. Several reasons may explain why this previously non-endemic outside of Okinawa region, serious nematode disease is now found in much of Japan, including the increased number of transmigration and sightseeing trips in Japan, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and lack of awareness of the risks. Thus, information of strongyloidiasis and its risks must be disseminated to travelers, residents, and physicians to prevent this life-threatening parasite infection.


Asunto(s)
Anquilostomiasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Estrongiloidiasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Ascaris lumbricoides , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Strongyloides stercoralis , Trichuris , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233423, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511237

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ascariasis, Trichuriasis and Hookworm infections poses a considerable public health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa, and a sound understanding of their spatial distribution facilitates to better target control interventions. This study, therefore, assessed the prevalence of the trio, and mapped their spatial distribution in the 20 administrative regions of Ogun State, Nigeria. METHODS: Parasitological surveys were carried out in 1,499 households across 33 spatially selected communities. Fresh stool samples were collected from 1,027 consenting participants and processed using ether concentration method. The locations of the communities were georeferenced using a GPS device while demographic data were obtained using a standardized form. Data were analysed using SPSS software and visualizations and plotting maps were made in ArcGIS software. RESULTS: Findings showed that 19 of the 20 regions were endemic for one or more kind of the three infections, with an aggregated prevalence of 17.2%. Ascariasis was the most frequently observed parasitic infection in 28 communities with a prevalence of 13.6%, followed by hookworm infections with a prevalence of 4.6% while Trichuriasis was the least encountered with a prevalence of 1.7%. The spatial distribution of infections ranges between 5.3-49.2% across the regions. The highest and lowest distribution of overall helminth infections was recorded in Egbado South and Egbado North respectively. Nine regions had infection status between 20.0%-49.2%, while 10 regions had infection status between 5.3%-15.8%. CONCLUSION: This study provides epidemiological data on the prevalence and spatial distribution of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections which will add to the baseline data and guide the public health officers in providing appropriate control strategies in the endemic communities.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ancylostomatoidea/parasitología , Animales , Ascaris/parasitología , Niño , Preescolar , Composición Familiar , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Población Rural , Suelo/parasitología , Trichuris/parasitología
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008322, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574160

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization now recommends semiannual mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole with integrated vector management as an option for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) in areas of loiasis-endemic countries where it may not be safe to use diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin in MDA programs. However, the published evidence base to support this policy is thin, and uptake by national programs has been slow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH) in two villages in the Bandundu province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo with moderately high prevalences for LF and hookworm infections. MDA with albendazole was provided every six months from June 2014 to December 2017 with treatment coverages of the eligible population (all ≥ 2 year of age) that ranged between 56% and 88%. No adverse effects were reported during the trial. Evaluation at 48 months, (i.e. 6 months after the 8th round of MDA), showed that W. bancrofti microfilaremia (Mf) prevalence in the study communities had decreased between 2014 to 2018 from 12% to 0.9% (p<0.001). The prevalence of W. bancrofti antigenemia was also significantly reduced from 31.6% to 8.5% (p<0.001). MDA with albendazole also reduced hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infection prevalences in the community from 58.6% to 21.2% (p<0.001), from 14.0% to 1.6% and 4.1% to 2.9%, respectively. Hookworm and Ascaris infection intensities were reduced by 93% (p = 0.02) and 57% (p = 0.03), respectively. In contrast, Trichuris infection intensity was not significantly reduced by MDA (p = 0.61) over this time period. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide strong evidence that semiannual MDA with albendazole alone is a safe and effective strategy for LF elimination in Central Africa. Community MDA also had a major impact on STH infections.


Asunto(s)
Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Filariasis Linfática/tratamiento farmacológico , Helmintiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Antígenos Helmínticos/inmunología , Ascariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris lumbricoides/efectos de los fármacos , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Filariasis Linfática/epidemiología , Femenino , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Trichuris/efectos de los fármacos , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Wuchereria bancrofti/efectos de los fármacos , Wuchereria bancrofti/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008069, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498074

RESUMEN

Africa is the second most populous continent and has perennial health challenges. Of the estimated 181 million school aged children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), nearly half suffer from ascariasis, trichuriasis, or a combination of these infections. Coupled with these is the problem of tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, which is a leading cause of death in the region. Compared to the effect of the human immunodeficiency virus on the development of TB, the effect of chronic helminth infections is a neglected area of research, yet helminth infections are as ubiquitous as they are varied and may potentially have profound effects upon host immunity, particularly as it relates to TB infection, diagnosis, and vaccination. Protection against active TB is known to require a clearly delineated T-helper type 1 (Th1) response, while helminths induce a strong opposing Th2 and immune-regulatory host response. This Review highlights the potential challenges of helminth-TB co-infection in Africa and the need for further research.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la Tuberculosis/inmunología , Tuberculosis/complicaciones , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adolescente , África/epidemiología , Ascariasis/complicaciones , Ascariasis/inmunología , Niño , Preescolar , Coinfección/inmunología , Coinfección/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Células TH1/inmunología , Células Th2/inmunología , Tricuriasis/complicaciones , Tricuriasis/inmunología , Tuberculosis/inmunología , Tuberculosis/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la Tuberculosis/administración & dosificación
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 325-333, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431272

RESUMEN

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection highly prevalent in Central Africa where it is co-endemic with many other parasitic infections, including soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). For its optimal control, there is a need of descriptive epidemiological data for each endemic region. The objective of the present study was to determine the epidemiological situation around schistosomiasis in Lambaréné, Gabon. A cross-sectional study was conducted among schoolchildren. One urine sample per day was collected on three consecutive days for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis using a urine filtration technique. One stool sample was collected for the detection of Schistosoma spp. and STH spp. eggs using the Kato-Katz technique, and for larvae, using the coproculture technique. A total of 614 schoolchildren were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis and STH infections was 26% (159/614) and 15% (70/473), respectively. Human-freshwater contact was the main risk factor for schistosomiasis in the area (relative risk (RR) = 2.96 [2.20-4.00], P < 0.001). Hematuria (RR = 5.53 [4.30-7.10], P < 0.001) and proteinuria (RR = 2.12 [1.63-2.75], P < 0.001) as well as infection with Trichuris trichiura (RR = 1.86 [1.33-2.61], P = 0.002) and Ascaris lumbricoides (RR = 1.96 [1.19-3.21], P = 0.039) were associated with an increased risk of schistosomiasis. Trichuris trichiura was the highest prevalent STH species in the area. Our study reports a moderate prevalence for schistosomiasis with human-water contact as the main risk factor, whereas the prevalence of STH infections appears to be low. Our results stress the need for the implementation of WHO recommendations for schistosomiasis control.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis Urinaria/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Ascariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Niño , Coinfección/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Técnicas de Cultivo , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Gabón/epidemiología , Hematuria/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Praziquantel/uso terapéutico , Prevalencia , Proteinuria/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Esquistosomiasis Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Estrongiloidiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Estrongiloidiasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/tratamiento farmacológico
16.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 195-200, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418390

RESUMEN

Soil-transmitted helminths, including Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, are important intestinal parasites mostly affecting younger people in developing countries. In 2014-2015, we performed mass fecal examinations targeting a total of 2,227 schoolchildren in 3 districts (South Dagon, North Dagon, and Hlaing-thar-yar) of Yangon Region, Myanmar, using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The egg positive children were subjected to a mass drug administration (MDA) using a single oral dose of 400 mg albendazole. The pre-treatment egg positive rate (EPG/person) of A. lumbricoides averaged 17.2% (15,532); it was 25.2% (21,796), 14.2% (11,816), and 12.8% (12,983) in 3 districts, respectively, and that of T. trichiura averaged 19.4% (1,074), and was 24.1% (1,040), 12.3% (852), and 21.2% (1,330) in 3 districts, respectively. Follow-up fecal examinations performed 4 months post-MDA revealed considerable decreases of A. lumbricoides prevalence (EPG/person) to av. 8.3% (12,429), and 13.7% (17,640), 8.0% (7,797), and 4.5% (11,849) in 3 districts, respectively. However, T. trichiura did not show any recognizable decrease in the prevalence (EPG/person) remaining at av. 18.2% (862), and 18.5% (888), 11.5% (812), and 23.3% (887) in 3 districts, respectively. The results demonstrated difficulty in short-term control of T. trichiura by MDA using albendazole and suggested necessity of either a long-term MDA (>10 years) or changing the albendazole regimen into 2~3-day course (total 800 or 1,200 mg), or using an alternative drug/drug combination.


Asunto(s)
Albendazol/administración & dosificación , Ascariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris lumbricoides , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Niño , Humanos , Mianmar/epidemiología
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008037, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282815

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The scientific community has recently summarized the desired characteristics for diagnostic tools across the different phases of a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) mass drug administration (MDA) program. Although serology meets some of the desired criteria, there is a scarcity of data on baseline serological profiles in human populations, both prior to and during MDA programs. METHODS: In this study, we compared the copromicroscopic and the serological infection profiles in 600 school-aged children (SAC) and 600 adults at the advent of the MDA program in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. The serological profiles were examined by two ELISAs that measure IgG4 responses to the Ascaris suum haemoglobin antigen (AsHb) and a somatic extract of lung stage larvae (AsLungL3). Three years into the MDA program, we sampled another group of 600 SAC from the same schools to assess the reduction in prevalence and intensity of Ascaris infections measured by copromicroscopy and serology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prior to the start of MDA, copromicroscopy revealed an Ascaris prevalence of 31.0% and a mean fecal egg count of 2,919 eggs per gram (EPG) in SAC. Following three years of biannual treatment, the prevalence reduced to 13.2% (57.8% reduction) and the mean fecal egg count to 1,513 EPG (48.1% reduction). This reduction was also reflected in the serological results. The seroprevalence reduced with 40.9% and 27.4% and the mean optical density ratio reduced with 44.2% and 38.2% as measured by the AsHb or AsLungL3 ELISA respectively. We also showed that, despite a decreasing coproprevalence, seroprevalence to Ascaris increased with age. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to provide IgG4 response profiles of an endemic population to two different A. suum antigens. The results suggest that exposure to the infectious stages of Ascaris reaches beyond SAC alone. Furthermore, it highlights the possible use of serological assays to monitor changes in STH exposure during MDA programs.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/diagnóstico , Ascaris suum/inmunología , Ascaris suum/aislamiento & purificación , Monitoreo de Drogas/métodos , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Microscopía/métodos , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Antígenos Helmínticos/inmunología , Ascariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3680, 2020 02 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111922

RESUMEN

If you think you are in control of your behavior, think again. Evidence suggests that behavioral modifications, as development and persistence of depression, maybe the consequence of a complex network of communication between macro and micro-organisms capable of modifying the physiological axis of the host. Some parasites cause significant nutritional deficiencies for the host and impair the effectiveness of cognitive processes such as memory, teaching or non-verbal intelligence. Bacterial communities mediate the establishment of parasites and vice versa but this complexity approach remains little explored. We study the gut microbiota-parasite interactions using novel techniques of network analysis using data of individuals from two indigenous communities in Guerrero, Mexico. Our results suggest that Ascaris lumbricoides induce a gut microbiota perturbation affecting its network properties and also subnetworks of key species related to depression, translating in a loss of emergence. Studying these network properties changes is particularly important because recent research has shown that human health is characterized by a dynamic trade-off between emergence and self-organization, called criticality. Emergence allows the systems to generate novel information meanwhile self-organization is related to the system's order and structure. In this way, the loss of emergence means a depart from criticality and ultimately loss of health.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis , Ascaris lumbricoides , Depresión , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/microbiología , Niño , Preescolar , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/microbiología , Depresión/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , México , Persona de Mediana Edad
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 60, 2020 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051006

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ascariasis, caused by Ascaris suum, is an important soil-transmitted parasitic disease of pigs worldwide. It leads to significant economic losses in the pork industry, as a consequence of low feed conversion efficiency in pigs and liver condemnation at slaughter. Despite ascariasis still being widespread on pig farms in many developing and the industrialised countries, there are surprisingly limited data on porcine ascariasis in China, where nearly half of the world's total pork is produced. METHODS: In the present study, using the recently developed A. suum-haemoglobin (As-Hb) antigen-based serological test, we screened 512 individual serum samples from fattening pigs from 13 farms across seven distinct locations of Sichuan Province in China for anti-Ascaris antibody. RESULTS: The prevalence of anti-Ascaris antibody ranged from 0% to 100% on the distinct farms, with the mean (overall) seroprevalence being > 60%. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between the intensive and extensive farms. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure anti-Ascaris seroprevalence in China. The results of this 'snapshot' investigation indicate that Ascaris infection in commercial pig farms in Sichuan Province is seriously underestimated, encouraging future, large-scale serological studies to assess the distribution and extent of Ascaris exposure and infection in various regions of China and the world.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos/sangre , Ascariasis/veterinaria , Ascaris suum/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Granjas , Industria de Alimentos , Hígado/parasitología , Carne de Cerdo/parasitología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Pruebas Serológicas , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología
20.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(6): 603-608, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412763

RESUMEN

This study was performed to find out the clusters with high parasite infection risk to discuss the geographical pattern. Clusters were detected using SatScan software, which is a statistical spatial scan program using Kulldorff's scan statistic. Information on the parasitic infection cases in Korea 2011-2019 were collected from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clusters of Ascaris lumbricoides infection were detected in Jeollabuk-do, and T. trichiura in Ulsan, Busan, and Gyeongsangnam-do. C. sinensis clusters were detected in Ulsan, Daegu, Busan, Gyeongsangnam-do, and Gyeongsangbuk-do. Clusters of intestinal trematodes were detected in Ulsan, Busan, and Gyeongsangnam-do. P. westermani cluster was found in Jeollabuk-do. E. vermicularis clusters were distributed in Gangwon-do, Jeju-do, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju. This clustering information can be referred for surveillance and control on the parasitic infection outbreak in the infection-prone areas.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Parasitarias/epidemiología , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascaris lumbricoides , Clonorquiasis/epidemiología , Clonorquiasis/parasitología , Clonorquiasis/prevención & control , Clonorchis sinensis , Análisis por Conglomerados , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Enterobiasis/epidemiología , Enterobiasis/parasitología , Enterobiasis/prevención & control , Enterobius , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedades Parasitarias/parasitología , Enfermedades Parasitarias/prevención & control , República de Corea/epidemiología , Programas Informáticos , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/prevención & control , Trichuris
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