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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243946, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320918

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH), i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms are among the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in Ethiopia. Although pre-school aged children pay a high morbidity toll associated with STH infections, evidence on prevalence, intensity and intervention status is lacking in Ethiopia. This study, therefore, aimed to address these gaps to inform decision made on STH. METHODS: We did a community-based cross-sectional study in five districts of Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia; in January 2019. Data were collected using pre-tested questionnaire, and the Kato-Katz technique was used to diagnose parasites eggs in stool. Then, collected data were edited and entered into EpiData 4.4.2, and exported to SPSS software (IBM, version 25) for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2462 PSAC participated in this study. Overall, the prevalence of STH was 23.5% (578/2462) (95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.8%-25.2%). As caris lumbricoides was the most prevalent (18.6%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (9.2%), and hookworms (3.1%). Of the total, 7.4% PSAC were infected with two STH species. Most of the positive cases with STH showed low infection intensities, while 15.1% ascariasis cases showed moderate infection intensities. The study found that 68.7% of PSAC were treated with albendazole. Also, household's level data showed that 39.4% used water from hand-dug well; 52.5% need to travel ≥30 minutes to collect water; 77.5% did not treat water, and 48.9% had no hand washing facility. In addition, almost 93% care givers achieved less than the mean knowledge and practice score (≤5) on STH prevention. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that significant proportions of pre-school aged children are suffering from STH infections despite preventive chemotherapy exist at the study area. Also, gaps in the interventions against STH were highlighted. Thus, a call for action is demanding to eliminate STH among PSAC in Ethiopia by 2030.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/transmisión , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Adolescente , Anciano , Ancylostomatoidea/patogenicidad , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascaris lumbricoides/patogenicidad , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/patología , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Helmintos/patogenicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/prevención & control , Trichuris/patogenicidad
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239680, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986746

RESUMEN

Geohelminthiasis is a worldwide problem, especially in low-income countries. Children from rural areas and those living in poverty, lacking basic health amenities and having poor environmental sanitation are likely to be affected. Adverse effects such as anemia, protein malnutrition, colitis are common which can affect both the children's physical and mental growing development. A cross-sectional study on geohelminthiasis was conducted among children from 238 households in 13 villages in Kota Marudu of northern Sabah, East Malaysia. The study involved interviewing villagers using questionnaires to collect demographic and socio-economic data, getting faecal samples from the children, collecting soil samples and identifying parasite eggs with microscopy and molecular methods. A total of 407 children (6 months-17 years old) enrolled in the study. Geohelminthiasis was detected in the faecal samples of children from 54% (7/13) of the villages with mean prevalence of infection per village of 9.0% (0%-34.9%). On a household basis, 18% (43/238) of the households sampled had infected children, with mean prevalence rate per household of 11% (0%-43%). The prevalence was for Ascaris lumbricoides: 9.6% (39/407), Trichuris trichiura: 2.7% (11/407) and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma sp.): 2.7% (11/407). The overall mean infection rate of the children examined was 14.3%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded for the children of mothers who did not have any formal education (p = 0.003); household income of less than USD119 (RM500) (p<0.001); children from homes without proper sanitation facilities (p<0.001); children who usually go about barefoot (p<0.001) and not washing feet before entering the house (p = 0.017). Soil samples were found to have geohelminth eggs or larvae which could be due to unhygienic sanitation practices. This study shows the geohelminthiasis is prevalent in the villages, and the risk factors are lack of maternal education, low income, poor sanitation facilities and irregular deworming practice. Expanding deworming coverage in the study region may help reduce the worm infections in these communities, so that the mental and physical development of the children would not be affected by geohelminthiasis. The data on the prevalence of geohelminthiasis in this study would contribute to better public health monitoring and operation to reduce the infection in rural areas.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Animales , Ascariasis/parasitología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Humanos , Lactante , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Salud Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural , Saneamiento , Tricuriasis/parasitología
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237112, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790693

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The effect of nutritional supplements on the re-infection rate of species-specific soil-transmitted helminth infections in school-aged children remains complex and available evidence on the subject matter has not been synthesized. METHODS: The review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs investigating food supplements on school-aged children between the age of 4-17 years. A search for RCTs was conducted on eight databases from inception to 12th June 2019. Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess the risk of bias in all included studies. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis were conducted to describe and analyze the results of the review. Outcomes were summarized using the mean difference or standardized mean difference where appropriate. RESULTS: The search produced 1,816 records. Six studies met the inclusion criteria (five individually RCTs and one cluster RCT). Four studies reported data on all three STH species, while one study only reported data on Ascaris lumbricoides infections and the last study reported data on only hookworm infections. Overall, the risk of bias in four individual studies was low across most domains. Nutritional supplementation failed to statistically reduce the re-infection rates of the three STH species. The effect of nutritional supplements on measures of physical wellbeing in school-aged children could not be determined. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this systematic review suggest that nutritional supplements for treatment of STH in children should not be encouraged unless better evidence emerges. Conclusion of earlier reviews on general populations may not necessarily apply to children since children possibly have a higher re-infection rate.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/prevención & control , Suplementos Dietéticos , Micronutrientes/uso terapéutico , Tricuriasis/prevención & control , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico , Ascariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Niño , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administración & dosificación , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Vitaminas/administración & dosificación
4.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 195-200, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418390

RESUMEN

Soil-transmitted helminths, including Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, are important intestinal parasites mostly affecting younger people in developing countries. In 2014-2015, we performed mass fecal examinations targeting a total of 2,227 schoolchildren in 3 districts (South Dagon, North Dagon, and Hlaing-thar-yar) of Yangon Region, Myanmar, using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The egg positive children were subjected to a mass drug administration (MDA) using a single oral dose of 400 mg albendazole. The pre-treatment egg positive rate (EPG/person) of A. lumbricoides averaged 17.2% (15,532); it was 25.2% (21,796), 14.2% (11,816), and 12.8% (12,983) in 3 districts, respectively, and that of T. trichiura averaged 19.4% (1,074), and was 24.1% (1,040), 12.3% (852), and 21.2% (1,330) in 3 districts, respectively. Follow-up fecal examinations performed 4 months post-MDA revealed considerable decreases of A. lumbricoides prevalence (EPG/person) to av. 8.3% (12,429), and 13.7% (17,640), 8.0% (7,797), and 4.5% (11,849) in 3 districts, respectively. However, T. trichiura did not show any recognizable decrease in the prevalence (EPG/person) remaining at av. 18.2% (862), and 18.5% (888), 11.5% (812), and 23.3% (887) in 3 districts, respectively. The results demonstrated difficulty in short-term control of T. trichiura by MDA using albendazole and suggested necessity of either a long-term MDA (>10 years) or changing the albendazole regimen into 2~3-day course (total 800 or 1,200 mg), or using an alternative drug/drug combination.


Asunto(s)
Albendazol/administración & dosificación , Ascariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris lumbricoides , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Niño , Humanos , Mianmar/epidemiología
5.
J Helminthol ; 94: e128, 2020 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100653

RESUMEN

Ascariasis is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, affecting 800 million people worldwide. Studies focused on the early stage of parasite infection, occurring in the gut, liver and lungs, require the use of a mouse model. In these models, the porcine ascarid, Ascaris suum, is often used. The results obtained from these studies are then used to draw conclusions about A. lumbricoides infections in humans. In the present study, we sought to compare larval migration of A. suum and A. lumbricoides in mouse models. We used a previously developed mouse model of ascariasis, which consists of two mouse strains, where one mouse strain - C57BL/6J - is a model for relative susceptibility and the other - CBA/Ca - for relative resistance. Mice of both strains were infected with either A. suum or A. lumbricoides. The larval burden was assessed in two key organs, the liver and lungs, starting at 6 h post infection (p.i.) and ending on day 8 p.i. Additionally, we measured the larval size of each species (µm) at days 6, 7 and 8 p.i. in the lungs. We found that larval burden in the liver is significantly higher for A. lumbricoides than for A. suum. However, the inverse is true in the lungs. Additionally, our results showed a reduced larval size for A. lumbricoides compared to A. suum.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris lumbricoides/fisiología , Ascaris suum/fisiología , Hígado/parasitología , Pulmón/parasitología , Carga de Parásitos/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Larva , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Endogámicos CBA
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 86, 2020 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070412

RESUMEN

An aberrant Ascaris suum infection in a domestic dog in China in 2019 is described for the first time. This pathogen is a common roundworm of pigs with few reported cases in domestic animals. Our findings suggest a wider infection range with a possible transmission of A. suum to domestic animals that interact with humans.


Asunto(s)
Animales Domésticos/parasitología , Ascariasis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antihelmínticos , Ascariasis/diagnóstico , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris suum/genética , Ascaris suum/patogenicidad , China , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Perros , Granjas , Femenino , Pulmón/parasitología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 6, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915050

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Japan is one of the few countries believed to have eliminated soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). In 1949, the national prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 62.9%, which decreased to 0.6% in 1973 due to improvements in infrastructure, socioeconomic status, and the implementation of national STH control measures. The Parasitosis Prevention Law ended in 1994 and population-level screening ceased in Japan; therefore, current transmission status of STH in Japan is not well characterized. Sporadic cases of STH infections continue to be reported, raising the possibility of a larger-scale recrudescence of STH infections. Given that traditional microscopic detection methods are not sensitive to low-intensity STH infections, we conducted targeted prevalence surveys using sensitive PCR-based assays to evaluate the current STH-transmission status and to describe epidemiological characteristics of areas of Japan believed to have achieved historical elimination of STHs. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 682 preschool- and school-aged children from six localities of Japan with previously high prevalence of STH. Caregivers of participants completed a questionnaire to ascertain access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and potential exposures to environmental contamination. For fecal testing, multi-parallel real-time PCR assays were used to detect infections of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale and Trichuris trichiura. RESULTS: Among the 682 children, no positive samples were identified, and participants reported high standards of WASH. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first STH-surveillance study in Japan to use sensitive molecular techniques for STH detection. The results suggest that recrudescence of STH infections has not occurred, and that declines in prevalence have been sustained in the sampled areas. These findings suggest that reductions in prevalence below the elimination thresholds, suggestive of transmission interruption, are possible. Additionally, this study provides circumstantial evidence that multi-parallel real-time PCR methods are applicable for evaluating elimination status in areas where STH prevalence is extremely low.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostoma/aislamiento & purificación , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Necator americanus/aislamiento & purificación , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Ancylostoma/genética , Anquilostomiasis/parasitología , Animales , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris lumbricoides/genética , Niño , Preescolar , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Helmintos , Humanos , Higiene , Japón , Masculino , Necator americanus/genética , Necatoriasis/parasitología , Suelo/parasitología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Trichuris/genética
8.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(6): 603-608, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412763

RESUMEN

This study was performed to find out the clusters with high parasite infection risk to discuss the geographical pattern. Clusters were detected using SatScan software, which is a statistical spatial scan program using Kulldorff's scan statistic. Information on the parasitic infection cases in Korea 2011-2019 were collected from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clusters of Ascaris lumbricoides infection were detected in Jeollabuk-do, and T. trichiura in Ulsan, Busan, and Gyeongsangnam-do. C. sinensis clusters were detected in Ulsan, Daegu, Busan, Gyeongsangnam-do, and Gyeongsangbuk-do. Clusters of intestinal trematodes were detected in Ulsan, Busan, and Gyeongsangnam-do. P. westermani cluster was found in Jeollabuk-do. E. vermicularis clusters were distributed in Gangwon-do, Jeju-do, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju. This clustering information can be referred for surveillance and control on the parasitic infection outbreak in the infection-prone areas.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Parasitarias/epidemiología , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascaris lumbricoides , Clonorquiasis/epidemiología , Clonorquiasis/parasitología , Clonorquiasis/prevención & control , Clonorchis sinensis , Análisis por Conglomerados , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Enterobiasis/epidemiología , Enterobiasis/parasitología , Enterobiasis/prevención & control , Enterobius , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedades Parasitarias/parasitología , Enfermedades Parasitarias/prevención & control , República de Corea/epidemiología , Programas Informáticos , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/prevención & control , Trichuris
9.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 4236825, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886302

RESUMEN

Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common soil-transmitted helminth and infects 447 million people in impoverished areas worldwide. It causes serious morbidity including wheezing and influences various aspects of human immunity, such as type 2 innate lymphoid cells, regulatory T cell function, and acquired immunity. Thus, it is crucial to elucidate its influence on human immunity. We aimed to classify wheezing children based on their Ascaris infection intensity and other risk factors using hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the mechanisms of and the degree to which Ascaris contributes to childhood wheezing in rural Bangladesh. We analyzed relevant data collected in 2001. The participants included 219 5-year-old wheezing children who were randomly selected from 1705 children living in the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance area of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using variables of history of pneumonia, total and specific immunoglobulin E levels, Ascaris infection intensity, and parental asthma. Three distinct wheezing groups were identified. Children in Cluster 1 (n = 50) had the highest titers of the total, anti-Ascaris, anti-Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and anticockroach IgEs and experienced the fewest episodes of pneumonia. Cluster 2 (n = 114), the largest group, experienced few episodes of pneumonia and had the lowest titers of the total, anti-Ascaris, anti-Dp, and anticockroach IgEs. Cluster 3 (n = 32) consisted of participants with the most episodes of pneumonia and lower titers of the total and specific IgEs. The extremely high prevalence of Ascaris infection found in Clusters 1-3 was 78%, 77%, and 72%, respectively. Childhood wheezing in rural Bangladesh could be divided into three groups, with 26% of wheezing attributable to anti-Ascaris IgE and 16% to history of pneumonia during early childhood, and 58% might have been due to Ascaris infection without elevated anti-Ascaris IgE.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/complicaciones , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Inmunoglobulina E/inmunología , Neumonía/complicaciones , Ruidos Respiratorios/etiología , Población Rural , Animales , Ascariasis/inmunología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris/inmunología , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neumonía/epidemiología , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo
10.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224108, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622428

RESUMEN

The main control strategy for Ascaris lumbricoides is mass drug administration (especially with benzimidazoles), which can select strains of parasites resistant to treatment. Mutations in the beta-tubulin isotype-1 gene at codons 167, 198 and 200 have been linked to benzimidazole resistance in several nematodes. The mutation in codon 200 is the most frequent in different species of parasites, as previously observed in Necator americanus and Trichuris trichiura; however, this mutation has never been found in populations of A. lumbricoides. This study aimed to screen for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the beta-tubulin isotype-1 gene at codon 200 in A. lumbricoides. We developed a technique based on an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS-PCR) for the analysis of 854 single A. lumbricoides eggs collected from 68 human stool samples from seven Brazilian states. We detected the mutation in codon 200 at a frequency of 0.5% (4/854). This is the first report of this mutation in A. lumbricoides. Although the observed frequency is low, its presence indicates that these parasite populations have the potential to develop high levels of resistance in the future. The methodology proposed here provides a powerful tool to screen for the emergence of anthelmintic resistance mutations in parasitic nematode populations.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Ascaris lumbricoides/efectos de los fármacos , Bencimidazoles/farmacología , Resistencia a Medicamentos/genética , Proteínas del Helminto/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Animales , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Ascariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris lumbricoides/genética , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Bencimidazoles/uso terapéutico , Heces/parasitología , Genotipo , Humanos , Óvulo/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007778, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658264

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A DNA extraction and preservation protocol that yields sufficient and qualitative DNA is pivotal for the success of any nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), but it still poses a challenge for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), including Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale). In the present study, we assessed the impact of different DNA extraction and preservativation protocols on STH-specific DNA amplification from stool. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a first experiment, DNA was extracted from 37 stool samples with variable egg counts for T. trichiura and N. americanus applying two commercial kits, both with and without a prior bead beating step. The DNA concentration of T. trichiura and N. americanus was estimated by means of qPCR. The results showed clear differences in DNA concentration across both DNA extraction kits, which varied across both STHs. They also indicated that adding a bead beating step substantially improved DNA recovery, particularly when the FECs were high. In a second experiment, 20 stool samples with variable egg counts for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and N. americanus were preserved in either 96% ethanol, 5% potassium dichromate or RNAlater and were stored at 4°C for 65, 245 and 425 days. DNA was extracted using the DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit with a bead beating step. Stool samples preserved in ethanol proved to yield higher DNA concentrations as FEC increased, although stool samples appeared to be stable over time in all preservatives. CONCLUSIONS: The choice of DNA extraction kit significantly affects the outcome of NAATs. Given the clear benefit of bead beating and our validation of ethanol for (long-term) preservation, we recommend that these aspects of the protocol should be adopted by any stool sampling and DNA extraction protocol for downstream NAAT-based detection and quantification of STHs.


Asunto(s)
Heces/parasitología , Helmintiasis/diagnóstico , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Preservación Biológica/métodos , Suelo/parasitología , Adolescente , Ancylostoma/genética , Ancylostoma/aislamiento & purificación , Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ancylostomatoidea/parasitología , Animales , Ascariasis/diagnóstico , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris lumbricoides/genética , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , ADN/aislamiento & purificación , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Necator americanus/aislamiento & purificación , Necatoriasis/diagnóstico , Necatoriasis/patología , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Tricuriasis/diagnóstico , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Trichuris/genética , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación
12.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 82, 2019 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575378

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The goal of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) control programmes is to eliminate STH-associated morbidity in the target population by reducing the prevalence of moderate- and heavy-intensity infections and the overall STH infection prevalence mainly through preventive chemotherapy (PC) with either albendazole or mebendazole. Endemic countries should measure the success of their control programmes through regular epidemiological assessments. We evaluated changes in STH prevalence in countries that conducted effective PC coverage for STH to guide changes in the frequency of PC rounds and the number of tablets needed. METHODS: We selected countries from World Health Organization (WHO)'s Preventive Chemotherapy and Transmission control (PCT) databank that conducted ≥5 years of PC with effective coverage for school-age children (SAC) and extracted STH baseline and impact assessment data using the WHO Epidemiological Data Reporting Form, Ministry of Health reports and/or peer-reviewed publications. We used pooled and weighted means to plot the prevalence of infection with any STH and with each STH species at baseline and after ≥5 years of PC with effective coverage. Finally, using the WHO STH decision tree, we estimated the reduction in the number of tablets needed. RESULTS: Fifteen countries in four WHO regions conducted annual or semi-annual rounds of PC for STH for 5 years or more and collected data before and after interventions. At baseline, the pooled prevalence was 48.9% (33.1-64.7%) for any STH, 23.2% (13.7-32.7%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, 21.01% (9.7-32.3%) for Trichuris trichiura and 18.2% (10.9-25.5%) for hookworm infections, while after ≥5 years of PC for STH, the prevalence was 14.3% (7.3-21.3%) for any STH, 6.9% (1.3-12.5%) for A. lumbricoides, 5.3% (1.06-9.6%) for T. trichiura and 8.1% (4.0-12.2%) for hookworm infections. CONCLUSIONS: Countries endemic for STH have made tremendous progress in reducing STH-associated morbidity, but very few countries have data to demonstrate that progress. In this study, the data show that nine countries should adapt their PC strategies and the frequency of PC rounds to yield a 36% reduction in drug needs. The study also highlights the importance of impact assessment surveys to adapt control strategies according to STH prevalence.


Asunto(s)
Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Quimioprevención/estadística & datos numéricos , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Mebendazol/uso terapéutico , Albendazol/provisión & distribución , Animales , Antihelmínticos/provisión & distribución , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascaris lumbricoides/fisiología , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/prevención & control , Humanos , Mebendazol/provisión & distribución , Prevalencia , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/prevención & control , Trichuris/fisiología
13.
Ann Glob Health ; 85(1)2019 09 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517465

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) have remained a major threat to humans, especially children in developing countries, including Nigeria. Interventions have always been geared towards school-aged children, neglecting preschool-aged children and occupational risk adults. The Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Advisory Committee (STHAC) recently suggested incorporating other at-risk groups. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the associated risk of STH infection among agrarian communities of Kogi State, Nigeria. METHODS: A total of 310 individuals of all ages participated in the cross-sectional survey. Stool samples were analyzed using standard Kato-Katz method. RESULTS: A total of 106 (34.2%) individuals were infected with at least one STH. Hookworm was the most prevalent (18.1%); followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (16.8%). Worm intensity was generally light. Prevalence of infection was similar between four age groups considered (preschool, school, 'women of reproductive age' and older at-risk group). Poor socio-economic status (SES) was a major risk for STH infection. Using a 20-asset based criteria, 68 (23.1%) and 73 (24.7%) of 295 questionnaire respondents were classified into first (poorest) and fifth (richest) wealth quintiles respectively. Risk of infection with STH was 60% significantly lower in the richest wealth quintile compared to the poorest (Prevalence Ratio [PR] = 0.4843, 95% CI = 0.2704-0.8678, p = 0.015). Open defecators were more likely to harbour STH than those who did not (PR = 1.7878, 95% CI = 1.236-2.5846, p = 0.00201). Pit latrine and water closet toilets each approximately reduced STH infection by 50% (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Preventive chemotherapy for all age groups, health education and provision of basic amenities especially toilets are needed in order to achieve the goal toward the 2020 target of STH control.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura , Animales , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Defecación , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo , Clase Social , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007580, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398200

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In South Asia, hundreds of millions of people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura). However, high-resolution risk profiles and the estimated number of people infected have yet to be determined. In turn, such information will assist control programs to identify priority areas for allocation of scarce resource for the control of soil-transmitted helminth infection. METHODOLOGY: We pursued a systematic review to identify prevalence surveys pertaining to soil-transmitted helminth infections in four mainland countries (i.e., Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan) of South Asia. PubMed and ISI Web of Science were searched from inception to April 25, 2019, without restriction of language, study design, and survey date. We utilized Bayesian geostatistical models to identify environmental and socioeconomic predictors, and to estimate infection risk at high spatial resolution across the study region. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 536, 490, and 410 georeferenced surveys were identified for A. lumbricoides, hookworm, and T. trichiura, respectively. We estimate that 361 million people (95% Bayesian credible interval (BCI) 331-395 million), approximately one-quarter of the South Asia population, was infected with at least one soil-transmitted helminth species in 2015. A. lumbricoides was the predominant species. Moderate to high prevalence (>20%) of any soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted in the northeastern part and some northern areas of the study region, as well as the southern coastal areas of India. The annual treatment needs for the school-age population requiring preventive chemotherapy was estimated at 165 million doses (95% BCI: 146-185 million). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our risk maps provide an overview of the geographic distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infection in four mainland countries of South Asia and highlight the need for up-to-date surveys to accurately evaluate the disease burden in the region.


Asunto(s)
Teorema de Bayes , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Asia/epidemiología , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Nepal/epidemiología , Pakistán/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(8)2019 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466983

RESUMEN

Ascariasis is a soil-sourced, second most common parasitic infection worldwide. Because of its wandering nature, it migrates from the intestine to other organs of the body like the lungs and biliary system. This results in complications such as biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, pyogenic cholangitis, liver abscesses, pancreatitis and loeffler's pneumonia. We report a unique case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with upper gastrointestinal bleed and chest infection. He was diagnosed as haemobilia and loeffler's pneumonia caused by ascaris lumbricoides.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/complicaciones , Ascariasis/parasitología , Hemobilia/etiología , Eosinofilia Pulmonar/etiología , Albendazol/administración & dosificación , Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antihelmínticos/administración & dosificación , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Ascariasis/inmunología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Hematemesis/diagnóstico , Hematemesis/etiología , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina E/sangre , Masculino , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007593, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329586

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With the expansion of soil transmitted helminth (STH) intervention efforts and the corresponding decline in infection prevalence, there is an increased need for sensitive and specific STH diagnostic assays. Previously, through next generation sequencing (NGS)-based identification and targeting of non-coding, high copy-number repetitive DNA sequences, we described the development of a panel of improved quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)-based assays for the detection of Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis. However, due to the phenomenon of chromosome diminution, a similar assay based on high copy-number repetitive DNA was not developed for the detection of Ascaris lumbricoides. Recently, the publication of a reference-level germline genome sequence for A. lumbricoides has facilitated our development of an improved assay for this human pathogen of vast global importance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Repurposing raw DNA sequence reads from a previously published Illumina-generated, NGS-based A. lumbricoides germline genome sequencing project, we performed a cluster-based repeat analysis utilizing RepeatExplorer2 software. This analysis identified the most prevalent repetitive DNA element of the A. lumbricoides germline genome (AGR, Ascaris germline repeat), which was then used to develop an improved qPCR assay. During experimental validation, this assay demonstrated a fold increase in sensitivity of ~3,100, as determined by relative Cq values, when compared with an assay utilizing a previously published, frequently employed, ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA target. A comparative analysis of 2,784 field-collected samples was then performed, successfully verifying this improved sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Through analysis of the germline genome sequence of A. lumbricoides, a vastly improved qPCR assay has been developed. This assay, utilizing a high copy-number repeat target found in eggs and embryos (the AGR repeat), will improve prevalence estimates that are fundamental to the programmatic decision-making process, while simultaneously strengthening mathematical models used to examine STH infection rates. Furthermore, through the identification of an optimal target for PCR, future assay development efforts will also benefit, as the identity of the optimized repeat DNA target is likely to remain unchanged despite continued improvement in PCR-based diagnostic technologies.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/diagnóstico , Ascaris lumbricoides/genética , ADN de Helmintos , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Secuencias Repetitivas de Ácidos Nucleicos , Animales , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular
17.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 7(3): 160-169, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256445

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological research on the prevalence of asthma and helminthic infections in various countries has led to the hypothesis that helminthic infections protect against asthma by suppressing the host's immune response. This study was conducted to elucidate whether decreased Ascaris infection following a national deworming program was associated with increased recurrent wheezing among rural Bangladeshi children and to test their anti-inflammatory immunity. METHODS: This nested case-control study was conducted from December 2015 to October 2016 in the rural service area of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Of the 1800 5-year old children randomly selected for the study, informed consent was obtained from the guardians of 1658 children. Data were collected using a semistructured questionnaire adopted from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and blood samples for the analysis of regulatory T (Treg) cell immune responses and the balance between Th1 and Th2 immunity in Ascaris infections. RESULTS: A total of 145 children were found to have wheezing, yielding a prevalence rate of 8.7%, which was significantly lower than the rate found in 2001 (16.2%, P < .001); Ascaris infection also decreased from 2001 to 2016. The 127 wheezing children who agreed to participate further were compared to 114 randomly selected never-wheezing children. Wheezing had a significant positive association with antibiotic use, history of pneumonia, parents' history of asthma, and Ascaris infection; children with Ascaris infection were twice as likely to have wheezing (adjusted odds ratio = 2.31, P = .053). Flow cytometry found no significant differences in the rates of Th1, Th2, and CD4 + CD25 + CD127low cells by the wheezing group. CONCLUSIONS: Ascaris infection had a positive rather than a negative association with wheezing and the rates of wheezing and Ascaris infections both decreased from 2001 to 2016. These findings undermines the hypothesis that such infections provide protection against asthma.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris/inmunología , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Ruidos Respiratorios/inmunología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Linfocitos T Reguladores/inmunología , Animales , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascaris/efectos de los fármacos , Ascaris/fisiología , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Prevalencia , Ruidos Respiratorios/efectos de los fármacos , Linfocitos T Reguladores/efectos de los fármacos , Linfocitos T Reguladores/parasitología
18.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218867, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233550

RESUMEN

In this study, we assessed the genetic diversity of Ascaris lumbricoides / Ascaris suum circulating in humans and pigs, exploring potential zoonotic cycles in endemic areas in Brazil. We carried out cross-sectional surveys in four municipalities: Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (SIRN-AM) (n = 328); Nossa Senhora de Nazaré (NSN-PI) and Teresina (TER-PI) (n = 605 and n = 297, respectively); and Cachoeiras de Macacu (CAM-RJ) (n = 543). We also studied 61 fecal samples/adult worms obtained from pigs (n = 53 in NSN-PI and n = 8 in TER-PI). A ~450 bp fragment of the Ascaris cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and ~400 bp of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) were amplified and sequenced. Maximum-likelihood (ML) tree and Median-joining (MJ) haplotype network analyses were performed. We also performed scanning electron micrographs of adult specimens. Positivity rates were 93/328 (28.4%) in SIRN-AM, 6/297 (2.0%) in TER-PI, 0/605 (0%) in NSN-PI, and 6/543 (1.1%) in CAM-RJ. In NSN-PI it reached 11/53 (20.7%) in pigs. The MJ network based on cox1 locus (383 bp) revealed three main clusters, one centered around haplotypes H01/H28/H32 and the other around H07/H11. The cox1 haplotypes had a heterogeneous distribution, showing no pattern by geographic region, and high haplotype diversity. The ML trees based on cox1 and nad1 loci showed a similar topology with each other, and with the haplotype networks. Three distinct clusters were observed. Sequences of cox1 and nad1 from humans and animals were distributed throughout the tree and it was not possible to differentiate specimens of human and swine origin. Ascaris populations obtained from humans and swine in different Brazilian regions are not discriminable through the genetic markers used, which indicates the potential for zoonotic transmission and the need for better control of these infections in swine herds, mainly when created in a peridomestic environment.


Asunto(s)
Ascaris lumbricoides/genética , Ascaris suum/genética , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Variación Genética/genética , Mitocondrias/genética , Animales , Ascariasis/parasitología , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Haplotipos/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología
19.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 211: 6-9, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084896

RESUMEN

Helminth parasites are highly prevalent in swine production, causing chronic infections and considerable morbidity due to growth retardation. Moreover, helminths actively modulate host immune responses to other pathogens and/or vaccines. Here, we investigated the modulatory effects of Ascaris suum adult body fluid (ABF) and Trichuris suis Soluble Products (TsSP) on the cytokine response in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2. In PBMCs, TsSP induced the secretion of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1ß, but not TNF-α. Moreover, TsSP significantly enhanced the production of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 and IL-10 but suppressed the production of LPS-induced TNF-α. ABF did not induce cytokine secretion from PBMC, but suppressed LPS-induced secretion of TNF-α and IL-6. ABF did not have any effect on cytokine production in IPEC-J2 cells. In contrast, TsSP selectively induced the secretion of IL-6, and enhanced the IL-6 response induced by LPS. The IL-6 response appeared to be a conserved response to T. suis products, as significant secretion was also observed in alveolar macrophages. Thus, T. suis products have diverse modulatory effects on cytokine secretion in vitro, with IL-6 production a consistent feature of the innate host response.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Helmínticos/inmunología , Ascaris suum/inmunología , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales/inmunología , Leucocitos Mononucleares/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Trichuris/inmunología , Animales , Ascariasis/inmunología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/veterinaria , Citocinas/inmunología , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales/parasitología , Femenino , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Leucocitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucocitos Mononucleares/parasitología , Masculino , Porcinos/inmunología , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Tricuriasis/inmunología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/veterinaria
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 231, 2019 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992048

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes among primary school children. School based cross-sectional study design was employed. A total of six hundred study subjects were selected by a multistage sampling method. Fresh stool specimens were collected using clean, dry and wide mouthed labeled stool cups. It was processed by Kato-Katz technique. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULT: The overall prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes was 57 (9.5%). Hookworm was the most prevalent helminthes species isolated (4.2%) followed by A. lumbricoide (3%). The prevalence of Taenia species, T. trichiura, H. nana and E. vermicularis were; 1.2%, 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.8% respectively. The prevalence of the Soil transmitted helminthes infection was low and all cases of Soil transmitted infections in this study were with low infection intensity. This might be due to the preventive chemotherapy given to the school children.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Taenia/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/clasificación , Animales , Antihelmínticos/administración & dosificación , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/clasificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/prevención & control , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Humanos , Masculino , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas , Suelo/parasitología , Taenia/clasificación , Teniasis/parasitología , Teniasis/prevención & control , Teniasis/transmisión
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