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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243946, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320918

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH), i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms are among the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in Ethiopia. Although pre-school aged children pay a high morbidity toll associated with STH infections, evidence on prevalence, intensity and intervention status is lacking in Ethiopia. This study, therefore, aimed to address these gaps to inform decision made on STH. METHODS: We did a community-based cross-sectional study in five districts of Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia; in January 2019. Data were collected using pre-tested questionnaire, and the Kato-Katz technique was used to diagnose parasites eggs in stool. Then, collected data were edited and entered into EpiData 4.4.2, and exported to SPSS software (IBM, version 25) for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2462 PSAC participated in this study. Overall, the prevalence of STH was 23.5% (578/2462) (95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.8%-25.2%). As caris lumbricoides was the most prevalent (18.6%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (9.2%), and hookworms (3.1%). Of the total, 7.4% PSAC were infected with two STH species. Most of the positive cases with STH showed low infection intensities, while 15.1% ascariasis cases showed moderate infection intensities. The study found that 68.7% of PSAC were treated with albendazole. Also, household's level data showed that 39.4% used water from hand-dug well; 52.5% need to travel ≥30 minutes to collect water; 77.5% did not treat water, and 48.9% had no hand washing facility. In addition, almost 93% care givers achieved less than the mean knowledge and practice score (≤5) on STH prevention. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that significant proportions of pre-school aged children are suffering from STH infections despite preventive chemotherapy exist at the study area. Also, gaps in the interventions against STH were highlighted. Thus, a call for action is demanding to eliminate STH among PSAC in Ethiopia by 2030.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/transmisión , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Adolescente , Anciano , Ancylostomatoidea/patogenicidad , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascaris lumbricoides/patogenicidad , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/patología , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Helmintos/patogenicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/prevención & control , Trichuris/patogenicidad
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236924, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735608

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have many negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies) that can also exacerbate poverty. These infections are generally highest among low-income populations, many of which are also undergoing market integration (MI; increased participation in a market-based economy). Yet the direct impact of MI-related social and environmental changes on STH infection patterns is poorly understood, making it unclear which lifestyle factors should be targeted to better control disease spread. This cross-sectional study examines if household infrastructure associated with greater MI is associated with lower STH burdens among Indigenous Ecuadorian Shuar. METHODS: Kato-Katz fecal smears were used to determine STH infection status and intensity (n = 620 participants; 308 females, 312 males, aged 6 months-86 years); Ascaris lumbricoides (ascarid) and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) were the primary infection types detected. Structured interviews assessing lifestyle patterns (e.g., measures of household infrastructure) measured participant MI. Multilevel regression analyses and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models tested associations between MI measures and STH infection status or intensity, controlling for individual and community characteristics. RESULTS: Participants residing in more market-integrated households exhibited lower infection rates and intensities than those in less market integrated households. Parasite infection status and T. trichiura infection intensity were lower among participants living in houses with wood floors than those with dirt floors, while individuals using well or piped water from a spring exhibited lower A. lumbricoides infection intensities compared to those using river or stream water. Unexpectedly, latrine type was not significantly related to STH infection status or intensity. These results suggest that sources of exposure differ between the two helminth species. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents associations between household measures and STH infection among an Indigenous population undergoing rapid MI. These findings can help healthcare programs better target interventions and reduce STH exposure among at-risk populations.


Asunto(s)
Heces/parasitología , Helmintiasis , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Suelo/parasitología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Ecuador/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos de Población/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008600, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853225

RESUMEN

Helminth infections are among the World Health Organization's top neglected diseases with significant impact in many Less Economically Developed Countries. Despite no longer being endemic in Europe, the widespread presence of helminth eggs in archaeological deposits indicates that helminths represented a considerable burden in past European populations. Prevalence of infection is a key epidemiological feature that would influence the elimination of endemic intestinal helminths, for example, low prevalence rates may have made it easier to eliminate these infections in Europe without the use of modern anthelminthic drugs. To determine historical prevalence rates we analysed 589 grave samples from 7 European sites dated between 680 and 1700 CE, identifying two soil transmitted nematodes (Ascaris spp. and Trichuris trichiura) at all locations, and two food derived cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum and Taenia spp.) at 4 sites. The rates of nematode infection in the medieval populations (1.5 to 25.6% for T. trichiura; 9.3-42.9% for Ascaris spp.) were comparable to those reported within modern endemically infected populations. There was some evidence of higher levels of nematode infection in younger individuals but not at all sites. The genetic diversity of T. trichiura ITS-1 in single graves was variable but much lower than with communal medieval latrine deposits. The prevalence of food derived cestodes was much lower (1.0-9.9%) than the prevalence of nematodes. Interestingly, sites that contained Taenia spp. eggs also contained D. latum which may reflect local culinary practices. These data demonstrate the importance of helminth infections in Medieval Europe and provide a baseline for studies on the epidemiology of infection in historical and modern contexts. Since the prevalence of medieval STH infections mirror those in modern endemic countries the factors affecting STH decline in Europe may also inform modern intervention campaigns.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Intestinos/parasitología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris , Niño , Preescolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Variación Genética , Helmintiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Nematodos , Prevalencia , Suelo/parasitología , Cuartos de Baño , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Trichuris , Adulto Joven
4.
Ann Glob Health ; 85(1)2019 09 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517465

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) have remained a major threat to humans, especially children in developing countries, including Nigeria. Interventions have always been geared towards school-aged children, neglecting preschool-aged children and occupational risk adults. The Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Advisory Committee (STHAC) recently suggested incorporating other at-risk groups. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the associated risk of STH infection among agrarian communities of Kogi State, Nigeria. METHODS: A total of 310 individuals of all ages participated in the cross-sectional survey. Stool samples were analyzed using standard Kato-Katz method. RESULTS: A total of 106 (34.2%) individuals were infected with at least one STH. Hookworm was the most prevalent (18.1%); followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (16.8%). Worm intensity was generally light. Prevalence of infection was similar between four age groups considered (preschool, school, 'women of reproductive age' and older at-risk group). Poor socio-economic status (SES) was a major risk for STH infection. Using a 20-asset based criteria, 68 (23.1%) and 73 (24.7%) of 295 questionnaire respondents were classified into first (poorest) and fifth (richest) wealth quintiles respectively. Risk of infection with STH was 60% significantly lower in the richest wealth quintile compared to the poorest (Prevalence Ratio [PR] = 0.4843, 95% CI = 0.2704-0.8678, p = 0.015). Open defecators were more likely to harbour STH than those who did not (PR = 1.7878, 95% CI = 1.236-2.5846, p = 0.00201). Pit latrine and water closet toilets each approximately reduced STH infection by 50% (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Preventive chemotherapy for all age groups, health education and provision of basic amenities especially toilets are needed in order to achieve the goal toward the 2020 target of STH control.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura , Animales , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Defecación , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo , Clase Social , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Adulto Joven
5.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(2 (Supplementary)): 799-803, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103975

RESUMEN

Information on prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among school children is scarce in Pakistan. This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth in school children of three districts in, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 300 stool samples were examined from August 2015 to August 2016 using direct smear (Normal saline and Lugol's Iodine solution) and the concentration methods. One hundred and eighty seven (62.3%) pupils were found infected with soil-transmitted helminths. One hundred and forty five (77.5%) were infected with single parasite and forty two (22.4%) with multiple infections. Ascaris lumbricoides 125 (66.4%), Trichuris trichura 50 (26.5%) and Ancylostoma duedenale 13 (6.91%) were detected. The children above 8 years in age were more parasitized than below 8 years (p=0.7832; P>0.05). Males were found more parasitized than females (p=0.9315; P>0.05). Children in lower Dir district were found more infected followed by Swat and upper Dir (P< 0.0001; p<0.05). No significant relationship was found among the examined and that of infected children for ages and sex in all the districts. Malakand division is an area with poor hygiene located in temperate zone near the border of Afghanistan and China. The prevalence of reported nematode parasites here compared with the same studies is unexpectedly high. These types of studies should continue time to time to know the hazardous nature of such parasitic infections for the betterment of the human health.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/parasitología , Estudios Transversales , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Humanos , Masculino , Pakistán/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Microbiología del Suelo , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Trichuris/patogenicidad
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 231, 2019 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992048

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes among primary school children. School based cross-sectional study design was employed. A total of six hundred study subjects were selected by a multistage sampling method. Fresh stool specimens were collected using clean, dry and wide mouthed labeled stool cups. It was processed by Kato-Katz technique. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULT: The overall prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes was 57 (9.5%). Hookworm was the most prevalent helminthes species isolated (4.2%) followed by A. lumbricoide (3%). The prevalence of Taenia species, T. trichiura, H. nana and E. vermicularis were; 1.2%, 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.8% respectively. The prevalence of the Soil transmitted helminthes infection was low and all cases of Soil transmitted infections in this study were with low infection intensity. This might be due to the preventive chemotherapy given to the school children.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Taenia/aislamiento & purificación , Teniasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/clasificación , Animales , Antihelmínticos/administración & dosificación , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/clasificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/prevención & control , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Humanos , Masculino , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas , Suelo/parasitología , Taenia/clasificación , Teniasis/parasitología , Teniasis/prevención & control , Teniasis/transmisión
7.
Int J Parasitol ; 49(5): 389-396, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802450

RESUMEN

Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions have been advocated as important complements to deworming programs to improve soil-transmitted helminth control. Evidence for the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene on soil-transmitted helminth infections is mixed, and based mainly on cross-sectional studies. In this study, we assessed associations between individual- and household-level water, sanitation and hygiene variables and soil-transmitted helminth infections, using data collected during the 2 year follow-up study period of the WASH for WORMS randomised controlled trial in Timor-Leste. Data were collected across four surveys, conducted at 6 monthly intervals in 23 communities. We analysed water, sanitation and hygiene and sociodemographic variables as risk factors for infection with Necator americanus, Ascaris spp., and undifferentiated soil-transmitted helminth infection, using generalised linear mixed models to account for clustering at community, household and participant levels. Water, sanitation and hygiene risk factors were examined both concurrently and with a 6 month lag period that coincided with the most recent deworming. The analysis included 2333 participants. Factors associated with N. americanus infection included age group, male sex (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4-4.2), working as a farmer (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4), and completing secondary school or higher (aOR 0.29, 95% CI 0.16-0.53). Risk factors for Ascaris spp. infection included age group, living in a dwelling with more than six people (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3), having a tube well or borehole as the household water source (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3-10.8), and using a latrine shared between households 6 months previously (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.3). Handwashing before eating was protective against infection with any soil-transmitted helminth (aOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.95). In the context of regular deworming, few water, sanitation and hygiene-related factors were associated with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Future research examining the role of water, sanitation and hygiene in soil-transmitted helminth transmission is required, particularly in low transmission settings after cessation of deworming. Identifying improved indicators for measuring water, sanitation and hygiene behaviours is also a key priority.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris/fisiología , Necator americanus/fisiología , Necatoriasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Necatoriasis/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología , Agua/parasitología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris/efectos de los fármacos , Ascaris/genética , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Higiene , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Necator americanus/efectos de los fármacos , Necator americanus/genética , Necator americanus/aislamiento & purificación , Necatoriasis/parasitología , Necatoriasis/transmisión , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo , Saneamiento , Timor Oriental/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Parasitol Int ; 70: 1-4, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630115

RESUMEN

Yearly, several reports of unknown boats and corpses brought by the Tsushima Current are found ashore Japanese coast. Niigata prefecture had the highest number of the drifting ashore corpses in Japan with 45.7% (16/35) in 2017. Corpses from North Korea, confirmed by documents and photos were autopsied and in 3/16 was possible to recover worms full of eggs, morphologically identified as ascarids. Further molecular analysis of ITS1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 sequences confirmed all specimens were Ascaris lumbricoides. The contamination level by Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in the coast, the health impact and consequences of the epidemiological bridging produced by this forced migration in public health should be investigated. Moreover, control of helminthiases might be a necessary task in North Korea.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris lumbricoides/genética , Cadáver , Enfermedades Transmisibles Importadas/parasitología , Patologia Forense , Animales , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Autopsia , Enfermedades Transmisibles Importadas/transmisión , ADN Ribosómico/genética , República Popular Democrática de Corea/epidemiología , Humanos , Japón , Salud Pública , Navíos , Migrantes
9.
J Helminthol ; 93(2): 154-158, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502555

RESUMEN

Ascaris sp. is a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) significantly affecting the health of human and swine populations. Health inequities and poverty, with resulting deficiencies in water, sanitation and hygiene, are directly associated with Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in humans. Resource constraints also lead to small-scale livestock production under unsanitary conditions. Free-ranging pigs, for instance, are exposed to a number of infectious agents, among which Ascaris suum is one of the most common. Under these conditions, close proximity between people and pigs can result in cross-contamination; that is, pigs harbouring human Ascaris and vice versa. Moreover, the potential interbreeding between these two Ascaris species has been demonstrated. The present study analysed Ascaris worms obtained from children and pigs in Honduras. Adult worms were collected from stool samples of children after pharmacological treatment, and from pigs' intestines after slaughter for commercial purposes at a local abattoir. A nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and digested with a restriction enzyme in order to separate putative human- and pig-derived Ascaris isolates. PCR products were also sequenced, and cladograms were constructed. All parasites isolated from children showed the typical human-derived genotype of Ascaris, whereas 91% of parasites from pigs showed the expected pig-derived genotype. Cross-infections between hosts were not demonstrated in this study. Nine per cent of pig-derived worms showed a restriction band pattern highly suggestive of a hybrid human-pig Ascaris genotype. These results contribute to the understanding of ascariasis epidemiology and its zoonotic potential in a highly endemic region.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris/genética , ADN de Helmintos/genética , Genotipo , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Animales , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascariasis/veterinaria , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Ascaris lumbricoides/genética , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Ascaris suum/genética , Ascaris suum/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , ADN Espaciador Ribosómico/genética , Heces/parasitología , Honduras/epidemiología , Humanos , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/parasitología , Zoonosis/transmisión
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(6): 1591-1597, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298802

RESUMEN

The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in schoolchildren from Corn Islands (Nicaragua) were examined to detect mono- or poly-STH infected children, measuring different intensity levels, and to elucidate measurably increased odds of being anemic. A total of 341 stool samples provided by 2- to 15-year-old children were examined using a concentration technique and a Kato-Katz slide. Intensity of infection was expressed as eggs per gram (epg) of feces to classify light, moderate, or heavy intensity infection. A finger-prick blood sample was obtained from each student in the field. Soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 54.3%, with Trichuris trichiura as the most prevalent species (48.9%). The combination T. trichiura/Ascaris lumbricoides (12.6%) was the most common. When T. trichiura or A. lumbricoides appeared as a single infection, light or moderate intensity infections were seen, whereas when multiple species were identified, heavy infections were present. Anemia was detected in those with any kind of STH infection (42.7%), with statistically significant differences (P = 0.004) when compared with uninfected individuals (28.2%). Polyparasite infection with one parasite species at moderate intensity and the other parasite species at light intensity or absent was found to be a significant factor for the odds of being anemic (odds ratio = 2.07). The present study reveals a high level of STH transmission requiring a deworming control program in Corn Islands and pointing to the need of improving the education and sanitary conditions of the population to avoid environmental contamination and reinfection.


Asunto(s)
Anemia/epidemiología , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Anemia/complicaciones , Anemia/parasitología , Animales , Ascariasis/complicaciones , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/clasificación , Niño , Preescolar , Coinfección , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Islas/epidemiología , Masculino , Nicaragua/epidemiología , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/complicaciones , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Trichuris/clasificación
11.
Parasitol Res ; 117(11): 3507-3517, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120589

RESUMEN

Infections due to soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, and Strongyloides stercoralis, are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas in which approximately 1.5 billion people are infected. A clear understanding of the epidemiology and distribution of diseases is an important aid for control and prevention. The aim of our study was to identify the effects of environmental and climatic factors on distribution patterns of STHs and to develop a risk map for STH infections under current environmental and climate regimes in Thailand. Geographical information systems (GIS), remote sensing, and Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm software were used to determine the significant factors and to create predictive risk maps for STH infections in Thailand. The disease data from Thailand covered the years from 1969 to 2014, while environmental and climatic data were compiled from the Worldclim database, MODIS satellite imagery, Soilgrids and ISCGM. The models predicted that STHs occur mainly in southern Thailand. Mean annual precipitation was the factor most affecting the current distribution of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and S. stercoralis. Land cover class was the main predictor for distribution of S. stercoralis and important for hookworms. Altitude was the dominant factor affecting the distribution of hookworms, and mean temperature of the wettest quarter was significantly associated with A. lumbricoides distribution. A predicted distribution map of STHs to identify environmental risk factors in Thailand is presented. This work provides a model for use in STH monitoring and health planning not only in Thailand but also in other countries with similar disease conditions.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/parasitología , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Suelo/parasitología , Strongyloides stercoralis/aislamiento & purificación , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Niño , Clima , Entropía , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Humanos , Prevalencia , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Estrongiloidiasis/epidemiología , Estrongiloidiasis/parasitología , Estrongiloidiasis/transmisión , Tailandia/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/transmisión
12.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(3): 291-294, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996634

RESUMEN

Soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) are now no longer public health problems in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), but their status are unavailable in the residents of North Korea (NK) despite the expectation of large scale traffic and future reunification of the Korean Peninsula. A total of 20 female refugees from NK who had been admitted to the Division of Gastroenterology, Dankook University Hospital, were subjected in this study. Among them, 15 refugees were examined by the colonoscopy and 10 ones were examined with the stool examination (formalin-ether sedimentation). Both diagnostic methods were commonly adopted in 5 patients. Eggs of Trichuris trichiura were detected in 7 out of 10 refugees in the stool examination. In the colonoscopy, T. trichiura worms were found in 6 (40.0%) out of 15 refugees. Total 9 (45.0%) peoples were confirmed to be infected with human whipworms. Additionally, 1 case of clonorchiasis was diagnosed in the stool examination and a worm of Ascaris lumbricoides was discovered from a trichuriasis case. These findings suggested that STH is highly prevalent in NO, in which living conditions are not so good in the aspect of general hygiene and medical care.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Parasitosis Intestinales/transmisión , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Colonoscopía , República Popular Democrática de Corea/epidemiología , República Popular Democrática de Corea/etnología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , República de Corea , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(6): e0006562, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864132

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Over one billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STH), i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura. For estimating drug efficacy and monitoring anthelminthic drug resistance, accurate diagnostic methods are critical. FECPAKG2 is a new remote-diagnostic tool used in veterinary medicine, which produces an image of the stool sample that can be stored on an internet cloud. We compared for the first time FECPAKG2 with the recommended Kato-Katz method. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two stool samples were collected from adolescent participants (age 15-18 years) at baseline and 14 to 21 days after treatment in the framework of a randomized clinical trial on Pemba Island, Tanzania. Stool samples were analyzed with different diagnostic efforts: i) one or ii) two Kato-Katz thick smears from the first sample, iii) two Kato-Katz thick smears from two samples and iv) FECPAKG2 from the first sample. Parameters were calculated based on a hierarchical Bayesian egg count model. Complete data for all diagnostic efforts were available from 615 participants at baseline and 231 hookworm-positive participants at follow-up. At baseline FECPAKG2 revealed a sensitivity of 75.6% (72.0-77.7) for detecting A. lumbricoides, 71.5% (67.4-95.3) for hookworm and 65.8% (64.9-66.2) for T. trichiura, which was significantly lower (all p<0.05) than any of the Kato-Katz methods and highly dependent on infection intensity. Despite that the egg counts based on FECPAKG2 were relatively lower compared to Kato-Katz by a ratio of 0.38 (0.32-0.43) for A. lumbricoides, 0.36 (0.33-0.40) for hookworm and 0.08 (0.07-0.09) for T. trichiura, the egg reduction rates (ERR) were correctly estimated with FECPAKG2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The sensitivity to identify any STH infection was considerably lower for FECPAKG2 compared to Kato-Katz. Following rigorous development, FECPAKG2 might be an interesting tool with unique features for epidemiological and clinical studies.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/diagnóstico , Heces/parasitología , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos/métodos , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Teorema de Bayes , Femenino , Helmintiasis/diagnóstico , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Parasitosis Intestinales/diagnóstico , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Masculino , Juego de Reactivos para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(1): e0006195, 2018 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346383

RESUMEN

There is clear empirical evidence that environmental conditions can influence Ascaris spp. free-living stage development and host reinfection, but the impact of these differences on human infections, and interventions to control them, is variable. A new model framework reflecting four key stages of the A. lumbricoides life cycle, incorporating the effects of rainfall and temperature, is used to describe the level of infection in the human population alongside the environmental egg dynamics. Using data from South Korea and Nigeria, we conclude that settings with extreme fluctuations in rainfall or temperature could exhibit strong seasonal transmission patterns that may be partially masked by the longevity of A. lumbricoides infections in hosts; we go on to demonstrate how seasonally timed mass drug administration (MDA) could impact the outcomes of control strategies. For the South Korean setting the results predict a comparative decrease of 74.5% in mean worm days (the number of days the average individual spend infected with worms across a 12 month period) between the best and worst MDA timings after four years of annual treatment. The model found no significant seasonal effect on MDA in the Nigerian setting due to a narrower annual temperature range and no rainfall dependence. Our results suggest that seasonal variation in egg survival and maturation could be exploited to maximise the impact of MDA in certain settings.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos/administración & dosificación , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascaris lumbricoides/efectos de los fármacos , Quimioprevención/métodos , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Animales , Ascariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Ascariasis/transmisión , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Lluvia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(11): e0006088, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176840

RESUMEN

Human excreta is a low cost source of nutrients vital to plant growth, but also a source of pathogens transmissible to people and animals. We investigated the cost-savings and infection risk of soil transmitted helminths (STHs) in four scenarios where farmers used either inorganic fertilizer or fresh/composted human excreta supplemented by inorganic fertilizer to meet the nutrient requirements of rice paddies in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Our study included two main components: 1) a risk estimate of STH infection for farmers who handle fresh excreta, determined by systematic review and meta-analysis; and 2) a cost estimate of fertilizing rice paddies, determined by nutrient assessment of excreta, a retailer survey of inorganic fertilizer costs, and a literature review to identify region-specific inputs. Our findings suggest that farmers who reuse fresh excreta are 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13-1.37, p-value<0.001) times more likely to be infected with any STH than those who do not handle excreta or who compost appropriately, and that risk varies by STH type (Ascaris lumbricoides RR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.87-1.58, p-value = 0.29; Hookworm RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.50-2.06, p-value = 0.96; Trichuris trichiura RR = 1.38, 95% CI = 0.79-2.42, p-value = 0.26). Average cost-savings were highest for farmers using fresh excreta (847,000 VND) followed by those who composted for 6 months as recommended by the WHO (312,000 VND) and those who composted for a shorter time (5 months) with lime supplementation (37,000 VND/yr); however, this study did not assess healthcare costs of treating acute or chronic STH infections in the target group. Our study provides evidence that farmers in the Red River Delta are able to use a renewable and locally available resource to their economic advantage, while minimizing the risk of STH infection.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/métodos , Ascariasis/transmisión , Heces/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Líquidos Corporales/parasitología , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Vietnam
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(5): 1616-1618, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28820692

RESUMEN

Approximately one-quarter of the world's population is infected with at least one species of soil-transmitted helminth (STH). The role of produce and hands in STH transmission is not well understood. We collected and processed mother hand rinse and garden-grown produce rinse samples from 116 rural households in Kakamega, Kenya, in an area previously identified to have high STH egg contamination in household soil. Ascaris was the only STH species detected; 0.9% of hand rinse, 3.5% of leafy produce, and 1.8% of root produce samples had Ascaris eggs. Our results indicate produce and hands can carry Ascaris eggs. However, due to the low detected prevalence of eggs on hands and produce, and a high prevalence of cooking the produce items tested, these pathways might have a minor contribution to STH exposure in this setting.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Mano/parasitología , Población Rural , Suelo/parasitología , Animales , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Productos Agrícolas/parasitología , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Contaminación de Alimentos , Parasitología de Alimentos , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Madres , Prevalencia
17.
Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist ; 7(3): 262-271, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28697451

RESUMEN

Control of human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) relies on preventive chemotherapy of schoolchildren applying the benzimidazoles (BZ) albendazole or mebendazole. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is a common problem in nematodes of veterinary importance but for human STHs, information on drug efficacy is limited and routine monitoring is rarely implemented. Herein, the efficacy of single dose albendazole (400 mg) was evaluated in 12 schools in the Huye district of Rwanda where Ascaris is the predominant STH. Ascaris eggs were detected by wet mount microscopy and the Mini-FLOTAC method to assess cure rate (CR) and faecal egg count reduction (FECR). Blood and faecal samples were analysed for co-infections with Plasmodium sp. and Giardia duodenalis, respectively. Ascaris positive samples collected before and after treatment were analysed for putatively BZ-resistance associated ß-tubulin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms. The overall CR was 69.9% by Mini-FLOTAC and 88.6% by wet mount microscopy. The FECR was 75.4% and the 95% calculated confidence intervals were 50.4-87.8% using sample variance, 55.4-88.8% by bootstrapping, and 75.0-75.7% applying a Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian approach. FECR varied widely between 0 and 96.8% for individual schools. No putative BZ-resistance associated polymorphisms were found in the four Ascaris ß-tubulin isotype genes examined. Since FECRs <95% indicate reduced efficacy, these findings raise the suspicion of BZ resistance. In the absence of respective molecular evidence, heritable AR in the local Ascaris populations cannot be formally proven. However, since FECRs <95% indicate reduced efficacy, BZ resistance may be suspected which would be alarming and calls for further analyses and routine monitoring in preventive chemotherapy programs.


Asunto(s)
Albendazol/administración & dosificación , Albendazol/efectos adversos , Antihelmínticos/administración & dosificación , Antihelmínticos/efectos adversos , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascaris lumbricoides/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/genética , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Teorema de Bayes , Bencimidazoles/administración & dosificación , Bencimidazoles/efectos adversos , Niño , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/parasitología , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Rwanda/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas , Suelo/parasitología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 6(1): 67, 2017 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28302147

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Plasmodium falciparum infections remain public health problems in Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mount Cameroon area to determine the prevalence and intensity of STHs and P. falciparum infections in individuals living in different agroecosystems; to assess the influence of these infections on haematological parameters; and to identify the risk factors associated with STH infections. METHODS: STH and malaria parasites were detected using the Kato-Katz method and Giemsa staining of blood films, respectively. Complete blood count values were obtained using an automatic haematology analyser. Soil samples were analysed using the sucrose floatation sedimentation method. Categorical and continuous variables were compared as required and logistic regression models were used to assess the risk factors for STH infections and anaemia. RESULTS: Of the 450 participants examined, STHs, P. falciparum and mixed co-infections were detected in 14.0, 33.3 and 5.6% of participants, respectively. Significantly higher prevalences of Ascaris (18.8%) and Trichuris (7.9%) infections were observed in participants from tea plantation areas compared to those from banana and palm plantation areas, with similar trends in egg density. P. falciparum prevalence and parasite density were comparable between the different agroecosystems. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 64.2%. The prevalence of haematological manifestations such as moderate (48.0%) and severe (8.0%) anaemia, leucopenia (26.9%) and microcytosis (30.8%) was significantly higher among Plasmodium-STH co-infected participants. Soil samples from plantations showed the highest prevalences of STH eggs compared to soil samples from areas around pit toilets and public water taps. Living in a tea plantation area (OR = 3.07), age (AOR = 1.49) and lack of access to potable water (OR = 2.25) were identified as risk factors for STH infections, while the age groups 15-25 years (OR = 2.928) and 26-35 years (OR = 2.832), and being female (OR = 2.671) were significant risk factors for anaemia. CONCLUSIONS: STHs, malaria and anaemia are still of public health concern in plantation communities. Co-infections negatively influence haematological parameters. The tea farming agroecosystem, age and lack of access to potable water were identified as significant risk factors for STH infections. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Salud Rural , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Ascariasis/sangre , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Camerún/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/parasitología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Malaria Falciparum/sangre , Malaria Falciparum/parasitología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Plasmodium falciparum/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tricuriasis/sangre , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
19.
Epidemics ; 18: 38-47, 2017 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28279454

RESUMEN

The predictions of two mathematical models of the transmission dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection and the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) are compared, using data from India. One model has an age structured partial differential equation (PDE) deterministic framework for the distribution of parasite numbers per host and sexual mating. The second model is an individual-based stochastic model. Baseline data acquired prior to treatment are used to estimate key transmission parameters, and forward projections are made, given the known MDA population coverage. Predictions are compared with observed post-treatment epidemiological patterns. The two models could equally well predict the short-term impact of deworming on A. lumbricoides and hookworm infection levels, despite being fitted to different subsets and/or summary statistics of the data. As such, the outcomes give confidence in their use as aids to policy formulation for the use of PCT to control A. lumbricoides and hookworm infection. The models further largely agree in a qualitative sense on the added benefit of semi-annual vs. annual deworming and targeting of the entire population vs. only children, as well as the potential for interruption of transmission. Further, this study also illustrates that long-term predictions are sensitive to modelling assumptions about which age groups contribute most to transmission, which depends on human demography and age-patterns in exposure and contribution to the environmental reservoir of infection, the latter being notoriously difficult to empirically quantify.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Infecciones por Uncinaria/prevención & control , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos , Modelos Teóricos , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Humanos , India , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 91, 2017 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28212668

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, in 2010, approximately 1.5 billion people were infected with at least one species of soil-transmitted helminth (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Infection occurs through ingestion or contact (hookworm) with eggs or larvae in the environment from fecal contamination. To control these infections, the World Health Organization recommends periodic mass treatment of at-risk populations with deworming drugs. Prevention of these infections typically relies on improved excreta containment and disposal. Most evidence of the relationship between sanitation and STH has focused on household-level access or usage, rather than community-level sanitation usage. We examined the association between the proportion of households in a community with latrines in use and prevalence of STH infections among school-aged children. METHODS: Data on STH prevalence and household latrine usage were obtained during four population-based, cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2011 and 2014 in Amhara, Ethiopia. Multilevel regression was used to estimate the association between the proportion of households in the community with latrines in use and presence of STH infection, indicated by > 0 eggs in stool samples from children 6-15 years old. RESULTS: Prevalence of STH infection was estimated as 22% (95% CI: 20-24%), 14% (95% CI: 13-16%), and 4% (95% CI: 4-5%) for hookworm, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura, respectively. Adjusting for individual, household, and community characteristics, hookworm prevalence was not associated with community sanitation usage. Trichuris trichuria prevalence was higher in communities with sanitation usage ≥ 60% versus sanitation usage < 20%. Association of community sanitation usage with A. lumbricoides prevalence depended on household sanitation. Community sanitation usage was not associated with A. lumbricoides prevalence among households with latrines in use. Among households without latrines in use, A. lumbricoides prevalence was higher comparing communities with sanitation usage ≥ 60% versus < 20%. Households with a latrine in use had lower prevalence of A. lumbricoides compared to households without latrines in use only in communities where sanitation usage was ≥ 80%. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of a protective association between community sanitation usage and STH infection. The relationship between STH infection and community sanitation usage may be complex and requires further study.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Saneamiento , Suelo/parasitología , Cuartos de Baño , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Uncinaria/parasitología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/transmisión , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación
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