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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008511, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976499

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is endemic in Fiji but its prevalence is not known and likely to have changed after a decade of mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF). By linking with LF transmission assessment surveys (LF-TAS), we undertook the first nation-wide assessment of STH in Fijian primary schools, as well as an analysis of factors associated with STH infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional assessment for STH was conducted in all four Divisions of Fiji from 2014 to 2015. In the Western, Central, and Northern Divisions, schools were sub-sampled after LF-TAS, while, in the Eastern Division, schools were selected via simple random sampling. For the diagnosis of STH, stool samples were examined by coproscopy with a single Kato-Katz thick smear (KK) and the formol-ether-acetate concentration technique, except for the samples from the Eastern Division where only KK was used. Mean prevalence of any STH among class 1-2 students at the national level was 10.5% (95% CI: 6.9-15.5). Across the three Divisions via LF-TAS, the prevalence levels for ascariasis were 8.7% (95% CI: 4.3-16.6), hookworm 3.9% (95% CI: 2.3-6.6) and trichuriasis 0%. In the Eastern Division, ascariasis prevalence was 13.3% (95% CI: 6.4-25.6), and hookworm 0.7% (95% CI: 0.2-2.5), with one case of trichuriasis. Among class 3-8 students, ascariasis prevalence was lower. Lower risk of any STH was associated with wearing shoes (adjusted OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32-0.90) and having piped water from the Fiji Water Authority at home (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.25-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: After a decade of community-based LF-MDA, STH in school-age children in Fiji is now close to 10%, but localities of endemicity remain. Preventive chemotherapy should be maintained in areas with elevated STH prevalence alongside targeted delivery of integrated WASH interventions. LF-TAS has provided an opportunity to develop future public health surveillance platforms.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Infecciones por Uncinaria/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Filariasis Linfática/epidemiología , Femenino , Fiji/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Prevalencia , Zapatos , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Abastecimiento de Agua
2.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(3): 217-225, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135180

RESUMEN

Polyparasitism, involving soil-transmitted helminths. and Schistosoma blood flukes, is common in low to middle income countries. These helminths impact on the gut environment and can cause changes to the gut microbiome composition. Here we examined the gut microbiome in individuals with polyparasitism from two human cohorts in the Philippines utilising DNA sequencing-based profiling. Multiple helminth species infections were high with 70.3% of study participants harbouring at least two parasite species, and 16% harbouring at least five species. Increased numbers of helminth co-infections, in particular with the gut-resident soil-transmitted helminths, were significantly associated with increased bacterial diversity; however no significant parasite-gut microbiome associations were evident for individuals infected only with Schistosoma japonicum. In general, a healthy gut is associated with high bacterial diversity, which in these human cohorts may be the result of helminth-mediated immune modulation, or due to changes in the gut environment caused by these parasitic helminths.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Albendazol/uso terapéutico , Ancylostoma/aislamiento & purificación , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Coinfección/microbiología , Coinfección/parasitología , Heces/microbiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Genes Bacterianos , Helmintiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Helmintos/genética , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenómica , Interacciones Microbianas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Patología Molecular , Filipinas/epidemiología , Schistosoma/aislamiento & purificación , Esquistosomiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Suelo/parasitología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
3.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 22(85): 67-71, ene.-mar. 2020. ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193448

RESUMEN

La ascaridiasis es una de las parasitosis más comunes a nivel mundial. Es especialmente frecuente en países tropicales subdesarrollados, en los que las condiciones higiénicas y socioeconómicas favorecen la transmisión. El ciclo del parásito es entérico-neumoentérico y se inicia con la ingesta oral de huevos de este. La infestación puede ser asintomática o producir clínica gastrointestinal o respiratoria durante su paso pulmonar (neumonitis eosinofílica y síndrome de Loeffler). Durante la fase intestinal puede producir diarrea leve intermitente, dolor abdominal, náuseas y vómitos. En raras ocasiones aparece obstrucción intestinal, apendicitis aguda, invaginación, colecistitis, pancreatitis, absceso hepático o peritonitis. Se presenta un caso que cursó, de manera atípica, con una dilatación gástrica muy marcada


Ascaridiasis is one of the most common parasitosis worldwide. It is especially prevalent in underdeveloped tropical countries where hygienic and socioeconomic conditions favor transmission. The parasite cycle is enteric-pneumo-enteric, and begins with the oral intake of eggs from it. The infestation can be asymptomatic or produce gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms during pulmonary passage (eosinophilic pneumonitis and Loeffler syndrome). During intestinal phase, it can cause intermittent mild diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Rarely, intestinal obstruction, acute appendicitis, invagination, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, liver abscess or peritonitis appear. We report a case, atypically, with a mega-stomach


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Niño , Dilatación Gástrica/parasitología , Ascariasis/diagnóstico , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Mebendazol/uso terapéutico , Parasitosis Intestinales/diagnóstico , Intubación Gastrointestinal/métodos , Descompresión Quirúrgica/métodos
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 644, 2019 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585533

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Soil-transmitted helminthes are among the most common infections worldwide and affect the poorest and most deprived communities. A health facility based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending at Maytsebri primary hospital. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 20 software. Multivariate analyses were used to identify determinant factors associated with soil transmitted helminthiasis. A total of 448 pregnant women were examined microscopically with a Katokatz technique for parasitological study to each women. RESULTS: Out of the total 448 pregnant women examined in the primary hospital, 229 (51.5%) women were infected by at least one of the soil transmitted helminthiasis. Hookworm was the most prevalent 179 (78.16%) soil transmitted helminthes infection. Women who had a habit of eating soil were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by soil transmitted helminthes compared to who do not eat soil. Participants who wear shoe always were 95% less likely to be infected by soil transmitted helminthes. Efforts should be done to advance the awareness of women how to prevent soil transmitted helminthes.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Etiopía/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Helmintiasis/diagnóstico , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Hospitales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
5.
Environ Pollut ; 248: 621-626, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844698

RESUMEN

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the contamination of sewage sludge produced by municipal waste treatment plants in Poland by viable eggs of intestinal parasites of the genera Ascaris, Toxocara and Trichuris (ATT). Ninety-two municipal, mechanical-biological sewage treatment plants located within Poland were selected. These plants belonged to types of agglomerations: group 0 (large), group 1 (medium), group 2 (smaller) and group 3 (small). Samples were collected at the final stage of sewage treatment after the addition of flocculent to sludge, followed by dehydration. The samples were examined by a method adjusted to examine sewage sludge dehydrated using polyelectrolytes. The viability of the isolated eggs was evaluated based on incubation in a moist chamber. Live eggs of intestinal nematodes were found in 99% of samples. Most samples were contaminated by the eggs of Ascaris spp. (95%) and Toxocara spp. (96%). However, Trichuris spp. eggs were detected in 60% of samples. The mean number of eggs in 1 kg of dry mass (eggs/kg d.m.) was 5600 for Ascaris, 3700 for Toxocara and 1100 for Trichuris. The highest number of ATT eggs was detected in samples from sewage treatment plants located in south-eastern and central Poland. The highest number of ATT eggs was found in sewage sludge produced in large sewage treatment plants (agglomeration Groups 0 and 1), with mean values of 15,000 and 8900 eggs/kg d.m. The present study is the first parasitological investigation conducted on a large number of samples (92 samples) taken from various types of municipal sewage treatment plants located throughout Poland (16 regions) after the common introduction of polyelectrolytes during sewage sludge dehydration. The results of this study indicate that sludge produced in municipal sewage treatment plants is highly contaminated with parasite eggs.


Asunto(s)
Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Óvulo , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Aguas del Alcantarillado/parasitología , Toxocara/aislamiento & purificación , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Deshidratación , Floculación , Polonia , Aguas del Alcantarillado/química
7.
Int J Parasitol ; 49(5): 389-396, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802450

RESUMEN

Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions have been advocated as important complements to deworming programs to improve soil-transmitted helminth control. Evidence for the impact of water, sanitation and hygiene on soil-transmitted helminth infections is mixed, and based mainly on cross-sectional studies. In this study, we assessed associations between individual- and household-level water, sanitation and hygiene variables and soil-transmitted helminth infections, using data collected during the 2 year follow-up study period of the WASH for WORMS randomised controlled trial in Timor-Leste. Data were collected across four surveys, conducted at 6 monthly intervals in 23 communities. We analysed water, sanitation and hygiene and sociodemographic variables as risk factors for infection with Necator americanus, Ascaris spp., and undifferentiated soil-transmitted helminth infection, using generalised linear mixed models to account for clustering at community, household and participant levels. Water, sanitation and hygiene risk factors were examined both concurrently and with a 6 month lag period that coincided with the most recent deworming. The analysis included 2333 participants. Factors associated with N. americanus infection included age group, male sex (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4-4.2), working as a farmer (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4), and completing secondary school or higher (aOR 0.29, 95% CI 0.16-0.53). Risk factors for Ascaris spp. infection included age group, living in a dwelling with more than six people (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3), having a tube well or borehole as the household water source (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3-10.8), and using a latrine shared between households 6 months previously (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.3). Handwashing before eating was protective against infection with any soil-transmitted helminth (aOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.95). In the context of regular deworming, few water, sanitation and hygiene-related factors were associated with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Future research examining the role of water, sanitation and hygiene in soil-transmitted helminth transmission is required, particularly in low transmission settings after cessation of deworming. Identifying improved indicators for measuring water, sanitation and hygiene behaviours is also a key priority.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris/fisiología , Necator americanus/fisiología , Necatoriasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Necatoriasis/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología , Agua/parasitología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascaris/efectos de los fármacos , Ascaris/genética , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Higiene , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Necator americanus/efectos de los fármacos , Necator americanus/genética , Necator americanus/aislamiento & purificación , Necatoriasis/parasitología , Necatoriasis/transmisión , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo , Saneamiento , Timor Oriental/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(2): 357-364, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628564

RESUMEN

Gastrointestinal parasites have diverse life cycles that can involve people, animals, and the environment (e.g., water and soil), demonstrating the utility of One Health frameworks in characterizing infection risk. Kosumpee Forest Park (Thailand) is home to a dense population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) that frequently interact with tourists and local residents. Our study investigated the presence of zoonotic parasites, and barriers to healthy coexistence by conducting stool analysis on macaques (N = 102) and people (N = 115), and by examining risk factors for infection with a household questionnaire (N = 95). Overall, 44% of macaques and 12% of people were infected with one or more gastrointestinal helminths, including Strongyloides spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris sp. An adults-only generalized linear mixed model identified three factors significantly associated with human infection: household size, occupational exposure, and contact with macaque feces at home. Participants identified both advantages and disadvantages to living in close contact with macaques, suggesting that interventions to improve human and animal health in Kosumpee Forest Park would be welcome.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis Animal/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/veterinaria , Macaca fascicularis/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Monos/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Animales , Ascaris/clasificación , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Composición Familiar , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Helmintiasis Animal/parasitología , Helmintiasis Animal/transmisión , Humanos , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Parasitosis Intestinales/transmisión , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades de los Monos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Monos/transmisión , Parques Recreativos , Strongyloides/clasificación , Strongyloides/aislamiento & purificación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tailandia/epidemiología , Trichuris/clasificación , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación
9.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(6): 587-593, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914509

RESUMEN

Excavation (2008-2014) carried out under the Uffizi Gallery (Florence, Italy) led to the discovery of 75 individuals, mostly buried in multiple graves. Based on Roman minted coins, the graves were preliminarily dated between the second half of the 4th and the beginning of the 5th centuries CE. Taphonomy showed that this was an emergency burial site associated with a catastrophic event, possibly an epidemic of unknown etiology with high mortality rates. In this perspective, paleoparasitological investigations were performed on 18 individuals exhumed from 9 multiple graves to assess the burden of gastrointestinal parasitism. Five out of eighteen individuals (27.7%) tested positive for ascarid-type remains; these are considered as "decorticated" Ascaris eggs, which have lost their outer mammillated coat. Roundworms (genus Ascaris) commonly infest human populations under dire sanitary conditions. Archaeological and historical evidence indicates that Florentia suffered a period of economic crisis between the end of 4th and the beginning of the 5th centuries CE, and that the aqueduct was severely damaged at the beginning of the 4th century CE, possibly during the siege of the Goths (406 CE). It is more than plausible that the epidemic, possibly coupled with the disruption of the aqueduct, deeply affected the living conditions of these individuals. A 27.7% frequency suggests that ascariasis was widespread in this population. This investigation exemplifies how paleoparasitological information can be retrieved from the analysis of sediments sampled in cemeteries, thus allowing a better assessment of the varying frequency of parasitic infections among ancient populations.


Asunto(s)
Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Parasitosis Intestinales/historia , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Animales , Arqueología/historia , Ascaris/citología , Cementerios/historia , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Italia , Óvulo/citología , Parasitología/historia
10.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(6): 601-605, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914511

RESUMEN

As we learn more about parasites in ancient civilizations, data becomes available that can be used to see how infection may change over time. The aim of this study is to assess how common certain intestinal parasites were in China and Korea in the past 2000 years, and make comparisons with prevalence data from the 20th century. This allows us to go on to investigate how and why changes in parasite prevalence may have occurred at different times. Here we show that Chinese liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis) dropped markedly in prevalence in both Korea and China earlier than did roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and whipworm (Trichuris trichiura). We use historical evidence to determine why this was the case, exploring the role of developing sanitation infrastructure, changing use of human feces as crop fertilizer, development of chemical fertilizers, snail control programs, changing dietary preferences, and governmental public health campaigns during the 20th century.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Clonorquiasis/epidemiología , Clonorchis sinensis/aislamiento & purificación , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascariasis/historia , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris/citología , China/epidemiología , Clonorquiasis/historia , Clonorquiasis/parasitología , Clonorchis sinensis/citología , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/historia , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Trichuris/citología
11.
J Helminthol ; 93(2): 154-158, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502555

RESUMEN

Ascaris sp. is a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) significantly affecting the health of human and swine populations. Health inequities and poverty, with resulting deficiencies in water, sanitation and hygiene, are directly associated with Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in humans. Resource constraints also lead to small-scale livestock production under unsanitary conditions. Free-ranging pigs, for instance, are exposed to a number of infectious agents, among which Ascaris suum is one of the most common. Under these conditions, close proximity between people and pigs can result in cross-contamination; that is, pigs harbouring human Ascaris and vice versa. Moreover, the potential interbreeding between these two Ascaris species has been demonstrated. The present study analysed Ascaris worms obtained from children and pigs in Honduras. Adult worms were collected from stool samples of children after pharmacological treatment, and from pigs' intestines after slaughter for commercial purposes at a local abattoir. A nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and digested with a restriction enzyme in order to separate putative human- and pig-derived Ascaris isolates. PCR products were also sequenced, and cladograms were constructed. All parasites isolated from children showed the typical human-derived genotype of Ascaris, whereas 91% of parasites from pigs showed the expected pig-derived genotype. Cross-infections between hosts were not demonstrated in this study. Nine per cent of pig-derived worms showed a restriction band pattern highly suggestive of a hybrid human-pig Ascaris genotype. These results contribute to the understanding of ascariasis epidemiology and its zoonotic potential in a highly endemic region.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascaris/genética , ADN de Helmintos/genética , Genotipo , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Animales , Ascariasis/transmisión , Ascariasis/veterinaria , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Ascaris lumbricoides/genética , Ascaris lumbricoides/aislamiento & purificación , Ascaris suum/genética , Ascaris suum/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , ADN Espaciador Ribosómico/genética , Heces/parasitología , Honduras/epidemiología , Humanos , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Porcinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/parasitología , Zoonosis/transmisión
12.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207495, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30440026

RESUMEN

Relocation is one of the mitigating measures taken by either local people or related officers to reduce the human-bonnet macaque Macaca radiata conflict in India. The review on relocations of primates in India indicates that monkeys are unscreened for diseases or gastrointestinal parasites (henceforth endoparasites) before relocation. We collected 161 spatial samples from 20 groups of bonnet macaque across their distribution range in south India and 205 temporal samples from a group in Chiksuli in the central Western Ghats. The isolation of endoparasite eggs/cysts from the fecal samples was by the centrifugation flotation and sedimentation method. All the sampled groups, except one, had an infection of at least one endoparasite taxa, and a total of 21 endoparasite taxon were recorded. The number of helminth taxon (16) were more than protozoan (5), further, among helminths, nematodes (11) were more common than cestodes (5). Although the prevalence of Ascaris sp. (26.0%), Strongyloides sp. (13.0%), and Coccidia sp. (13.0%) were greater, the load of Entamoeba coli, Giardia sp., Dipylidium caninum and Diphyllobothrium sp. were very high. Distant groups had more similarity in composition of endoparasites taxon than closely located groups. Among all the variables, the degree of provisioning was the topmost determinant factor for the endoparasite taxon richness and their load. Temporal sampling indicates that the endoparasite infection remains continuous throughout the year. Monthly rainfall and average maximum temperature in the month did not influence the endoparasite richness. A total of 17 taxon of helminths and four-taxon of protozoan were recorded. The prevalence of Oesophagostomum sp., and Strongyloides sp., and mean egg load of Spirurids and Trichuris sp. was higher than other endoparasite taxon. The overall endoparasite load and helminth load was higher in immatures than adults, where, adult females had the highest protozoan load in the monsoon. The findings indicate that relocation of commensal bonnet macaque to wild habitat can possible to lead transmission of novel endoparasites that can affect their population. Thus, we suggest avoidance of such relocations, however, if inevitable the captured animals need to be screened and treated for diseases and endoparasites before relocations.


Asunto(s)
Tracto Gastrointestinal/parasitología , Helmintos/patogenicidad , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Monos/parasitología , Animales , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Ascaris/patogenicidad , Cestodos/aislamiento & purificación , Cestodos/patogenicidad , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Tracto Gastrointestinal/fisiopatología , Giardia/aislamiento & purificación , Giardia/patogenicidad , Helmintos/clasificación , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , India , Parasitosis Intestinales/veterinaria , Macaca radiata/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Monos/epidemiología , Nematodos/aislamiento & purificación , Nematodos/patogenicidad
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(4): 1033-1040, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062984

RESUMEN

Appropriate diagnostic techniques are crucial to global soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control efforts. The recommended Kato-Katz method has low sensitivity in low-transmission settings. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a highly sensitive alternative diagnostic option. However, little is known about the variability in qPCR results, and there are few published comparisons between qPCR and other microscopy-based techniques such as sodium nitrate flotation (SNF). Using 865 stool samples collected from 571 individuals, we compared SNF and qPCR in terms of diagnostic sensitivity and infection intensity measurements. In addition, we conducted repeated examinations on a single Necator americanus-positive stool sample over a 6-month period. Results showed good diagnostic agreement between SNF and qPCR for Ascaris spp. (κ = 0.69, P < 0.001), and moderate agreement for hookworm (κ = 0.55, P < 0.001) and Trichuris spp. (κ = 0.50, P < 0.001). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated higher sensitivity than SNF for Ascaris spp. (94.1% versus 68.1%) and hookworm (75.7% versus 66.9%) but not for Trichuris spp. (53.1% versus 81.3%), which had very low prevalence. Sodium nitrate flotation and qPCR infection intensity measurements were strongly correlated for Ascaris spp. (ρ = 0.82, P < 0.001) and moderately correlated for hookworm (ρ = 0.58, P < 0.001). Repeated examinations using qPCR showed that N. americanus cycle threshold values decreased significantly at 1 month and remained stable thereafter. Results confirm the high diagnostic sensitivity of qPCR for Ascaris spp. and hookworm, particularly for light-intensity infections, which is ideal for settings approaching transmission elimination. Results support the potential for qPCR to be used as a quantitative assay for STH. Further research is needed in settings where Trichuris trichiura is endemic.


Asunto(s)
Bioensayo/normas , ADN de Helmintos/genética , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/normas , Helmintiasis/diagnóstico , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/normas , Adolescente , Ancylostomatoidea/clasificación , Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Ancylostomatoidea/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris/clasificación , Ascaris/genética , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Preescolar , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Humanos , Masculino , Necator americanus/clasificación , Necator americanus/genética , Necator americanus/aislamiento & purificación , Nitratos/química , Proyectos Piloto , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Suelo/parasitología , Trichuris/clasificación , Trichuris/genética , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación
14.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(2): 175-181, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742872

RESUMEN

The giant roundworm Ascaris infects pigs and people worldwide and causes serious diseases. The taxonomic relationship between Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides is still unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of 258 Ascaris specimens from humans and pigs from 6 sympatric regions in Ascaris-endemic regions of China using existing simple sequence repeat data. The microsatellite markers showed a high level of allelic richness and genetic diversity in the samples. Each of the populations demonstrated excess homozygosity (Ho0). According to a genetic differentiation index (Fst=0.0593), there was a high-level of gene flow in the Ascaris populations. A hierarchical analysis on molecular variance revealed remarkably high levels of variation within the populations. Moreover, a population structure analysis indicated that Ascaris populations fell into 3 main genetic clusters, interpreted as A. suum, A. lumbricoides, and a hybrid of the species. We speculated that humans can be infected with A. lumbricoides, A. suum, and the hybrid, but pigs were mainly infected with A. suum. This study provided new information on the genetic diversity and population structure of Ascaris from human and pigs in China, which can be used for designing Ascaris control strategies. It can also be beneficial to understand the introgression of host affiliation.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/veterinaria , Ascaris/genética , Variación Genética/genética , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/parasitología , Alelos , Animales , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , China , Homocigoto , Humanos , Porcinos/parasitología
15.
Trop Doct ; 48(3): 242-245, 2018 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649951

RESUMEN

The most common cause of gallbladder perforation is calculous cholecystitis. Rarer causes include trauma, iatrogenic injuries, biliary stasis and gall bladder ischemia. We report a case of gall bladder gangrene with perforation, secondary to extensive ascariasis. A 45-year-old woman presented with acute intestinal obstruction and jaundice. She had abdominal distension and right hypochondrial tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed dilated bowel loops and ultrasonogram showed worms in the small intestine and biliary tree. On exploration, a bolus of worms 2 feet proximal to the ileocaecal junction was found causing obstruction. Worms were also present in the bile duct and gallbladder causing gangrene and perforation. She underwent cholecystectomy, bile-duct exploration and enterotomy. However, she died on the third postoperative day of overwhelming sepsis. Enteric complications of ascaris leading to bowel obstruction are well-known. Hepatobiliary complications such as cholangitis and obstructive jaundice are rare. However, such an extreme degree of infestation leading to gangrene and perforation of the gall bladder is extremely rare.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/parasitología , Enfermedades de las Vías Biliares/parasitología , Enfermedades de la Vesícula Biliar/parasitología , Gangrena/parasitología , Enfermedad Aguda , Animales , Ascariasis/diagnóstico por imagen , Ascariasis/cirugía , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de las Vías Biliares/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades de las Vías Biliares/cirugía , Colecistectomía , Femenino , Enfermedades de la Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades de la Vesícula Biliar/cirugía , Gangrena/diagnóstico por imagen , Gangrena/cirugía , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Rotura Espontánea/diagnóstico por imagen , Rotura Espontánea/parasitología , Rotura Espontánea/cirugía , Ultrasonografía
17.
Infect Genet Evol ; 63: 249-256, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705361

RESUMEN

In this study, we characterize the diversity and estimated infection levels of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in two galago species, Galago demidoff and G. thomasi in two sites situated in the Southeastern forests of Gabon. Our study reveals that eleven parasites including nine helminthes (Ascaris spp., Ankylostoma spp., Dicrocoelium spp., Gongylonema spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Lemuricola spp., Strongyloides spp. Trichostrongylus spp. and Trichuris spp.) and two protozoans (Balantidium spp. and Entamoeba spp.) may infect Galago spp. with high infection rates. The results show that: a very similar parasite spectrum is found in both host species; all the taxa identified were previously observed in other Primate species and/or Man. They also show that age, gender and forest type may influence infection rates and/or parasite diversity found in a particular host and/or geographic area.


Asunto(s)
Balantidiasis/veterinaria , Entamebiasis/veterinaria , Galago/parasitología , Parasitosis Intestinales/veterinaria , Infecciones por Nematodos/veterinaria , Ancylostoma/clasificación , Ancylostoma/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Ascaris/clasificación , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Balantidiasis/epidemiología , Balantidiasis/parasitología , Balantidium/clasificación , Balantidium/aislamiento & purificación , Dicrocoelium/clasificación , Dicrocoelium/aislamiento & purificación , Entamoeba/clasificación , Entamoeba/aislamiento & purificación , Entamebiasis/epidemiología , Entamebiasis/parasitología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Bosques , Gabón/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Masculino , Infecciones por Nematodos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Nematodos/parasitología , Oesophagostomum/clasificación , Oesophagostomum/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , Spiruroidea/clasificación , Spiruroidea/aislamiento & purificación , Strongyloides/clasificación , Strongyloides/aislamiento & purificación , Trichostrongylus/clasificación , Trichostrongylus/aislamiento & purificación , Trichuris/clasificación , Trichuris/aislamiento & purificación
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014816

RESUMEN

A group of 4-month-old beef calves were examined for clinical respiratory disease with labored breathing, coughing, and fevers of over 104°F. Necropsy of one of the calves revealed lungs that were not collapsed but had red mottled appearance on cut surface. Assessment of lung tissue by bacterial culture and PCR did not reveal bovine bacterial or viral respiratory pathogens. Histopathology of affected tissues and lymph nodes revealed larval ascarid nematodes. In combination with phylogenetic analysis, amplification and sequencing of ITS1 was used to identify the larvae as Ascaris.


Asunto(s)
Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Enfermedades Respiratorias/veterinaria , Animales , Ascaris/genética , Bovinos , ADN Espaciador Ribosómico/genética , Larva , Pulmón/patología , Ganglios Linfáticos/parasitología , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Enfermedades Respiratorias/parasitología
19.
Int J Paleopathol ; 19: 37-42, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198398

RESUMEN

The aim of this research was to determine the species of intestinal parasite present in a Roman Imperial period population in Asia Minor, and to use this information to improve our understanding of health in the eastern Mediterranean region in Roman times. We analyzed five samples from the latrines of the Roman bath complex at Sagalassos, Turkey. Fecal biomarker analysis using 5ß-stanols has indicated the feces were of human origin. The eggs of roundworm (Ascaris) were identified in all five samples using microscopy, and the cysts of the protozoan Giardia duodenalis (which causes dysentery) were identified multiple times in one sample using ELISA. The positive G. duodenalis result at Sagalassos is particularly important as it represents the earliest reliable evidence for this parasite in the Old World (i.e. outside the Americas). As both these species of parasite are spread through the contamination of food and water by fecal material, their presence implies that Roman sanitation technologies such as latrines and public baths did not break the cycle of reinfection in this population. We then discuss the evidence for roundworm in the writings of the Roman physician Galen, who came from Pergamon, another town in western Asia Minor.


Asunto(s)
Balneología/historia , Parasitosis Intestinales/historia , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Paleopatología/métodos , Parásitos/aislamiento & purificación , Parasitología/métodos , Mundo Romano/historia , Cuartos de Baño/historia , Animales , Ascariasis/historia , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/parasitología , Giardia lamblia/aislamiento & purificación , Giardiasis/historia , Giardiasis/parasitología , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Parasitosis Intestinales/patología , Parásitos/clasificación , Turquia
20.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 20(5): 260-266, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023038

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sludge stabilization process in terms of operational, environmental and economic indexes is the most important stage of treatment and its disposal. This study was aimed to determine the performance of Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) system as one of the low-cost and biocompatible methods of sludge treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study has been done using a laboratory scale Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD). The reactor was consisted of two polyethylene tanks with a final capacity of 100 L for each tank. Both tanks with all fittings were installed on a metal frame. The variables of study were temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, volatile organic compounds, total solids, COD and the number of Ascaris eggs and fecal coliforms per gram of dry matter of the sludge. The temperature was measured hourly and the pH and dissolved oxygen were measured and controlled twice per day. One-way ANNOVA was applied to analyze reasults. RESULTS: According to the results, the temperature of sludge increased from 11.7-61.2°C by biological reactions. Pathogen organisms were reduced from 80×106 to 503 in number during 72 h. After 6 days pathogen organisms and Ascaris eggs were removed completely. Volatile organic compounds and COD were reduced 42 and 38.3% respectively during the 6 days. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the performance of ATAD in removing organic compounds from wastewater sludge were desirable. Resulted sludge from stabilization process were appropriate for use in agriculture as a soil supplement and met the indexes of class A sludge according to EPA's standards (CFR 40 Part 503).


Asunto(s)
Bacterias Aerobias/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Reactores Biológicos , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/instrumentación , Purificación del Agua/instrumentación , Abastecimiento de Agua , Animales , Ascaris/aislamiento & purificación , Enterobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/microbiología , Heces/parasitología , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Polietileno/química , Aguas del Alcantarillado/parasitología , Temperatura , Factores de Tiempo , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/metabolismo , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Purificación del Agua/métodos
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