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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3446, 2019 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371721

RESUMEN

Feeding is known to be profoundly affected by stress-related emotional states and eating disorders are comorbid with psychiatric symptoms and altered emotional responses. The neural basis underlying feeding regulation by stress-related emotional changes is poorly understood. Here, we identify a novel projection from the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) to the ventral lateral septum (LSv) that shows a scalable regulation on feeding and behavioral changes related to emotion. Weak photostimulation of glutamatergic PVH→LSv terminals elicits stress-related self-grooming and strong photostimulation causes fear-related escape jumping associated with respective weak and strong inhibition on feeding. In contrast, inhibition of glutamatergic inputs to LSv increases feeding with signs of reduced anxiety. LSv-projecting neurons are concentrated in rostral PVH. LSv and LSv-projecting PVH neurons are activated by stressors in vivo, whereas feeding bouts were associated with reduced activity of these neurons. Thus, PVH→LSv neurotransmission underlies dynamic feeding by orchestrating emotional states, providing a novel neural circuit substrate underlying comorbidity between eating abnormalities and psychiatric disorders.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Neuronas/fisiología , Núcleo Hipotalámico Paraventricular/fisiología , Animales , Conducta Animal , Fármacos actuantes sobre Aminoácidos Excitadores , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Masculino , Ratones , Modelos Animales , Proteína 2 de Transporte Vesicular de Glutamato/genética , Proteína 2 de Transporte Vesicular de Glutamato/metabolismo , Proteínas del Transporte Vesicular de Aminoácidos Inhibidores/metabolismo
2.
Zool Res ; 40(5): 449-455, 2019 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343856

RESUMEN

Investigations on manual laterality in non-human primates can help clarify human evolutionary origins of hand preference and cerebral cognition. Although body posture can influence primate hand preference, investigations on how posture affects hylobatid manual laterality are still in their infancy. This study focused on how spontaneous bipedal behavioral tasks affect hand preference in Hylobatidae. Ten captive northern white-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys) were chosen as focal subjects. Unimanual grooming during sitting posture and supported bipedal posture were applied as behavioral tasks. The gibbons displayed a modest tendency on left-hand preference during sitting posture and right-hand preference during supported bipedal posture, although no group-level hand preference was detected for either posture. From the sitting to supported bipedal posture, 70% of individuals displayed different degrees of right-side deviation trends. The strength of manual laterality in the supported bipedal posture was higher than that in the sitting posture. We found significant sex differences in manual laterality during supported bipedal posture but not during sitting posture. Thus, to a certain degree, bipedal posture in N. leucogenys facilitates stronger hand preference, elicits a rightward trend in manual laterality, and produces sex-specific hand preference.


Asunto(s)
Lateralidad Funcional , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Hylobates/fisiología , Postura , Animales , Femenino , Masculino
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(6): e1007105, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242178

RESUMEN

Mathematical modeling of behavioral sequences yields insight into the rules and mechanisms underlying sequence generation. Grooming in Drosophila melanogaster is characterized by repeated execution of distinct, stereotyped actions in variable order. Experiments demonstrate that, following stimulation by an irritant, grooming progresses gradually from an early phase dominated by anterior cleaning to a later phase with increased walking and posterior cleaning. We also observe that, at an intermediate temporal scale, there is a strong relationship between the amount of time spent performing body-directed grooming actions and leg-directed actions. We then develop a series of data-driven Markov models that isolate and identify the behavioral features governing transitions between individual grooming bouts. We identify action order as the primary driver of probabilistic, but non-random, syntax structure, as has previously been identified. Subsequent models incorporate grooming bout duration, which also contributes significantly to sequence structure. Our results show that, surprisingly, the syntactic rules underlying probabilistic grooming transitions possess action duration-dependent structure, suggesting that sensory input-independent mechanisms guide grooming behavior at short time scales. Finally, the inclusion of a simple rule that modifies grooming transition probabilities over time yields a generative model that recapitulates the key features of observed grooming sequences at several time scales. These discoveries suggest that sensory input guides action selection by modulating internally generated dynamics. Additionally, the discovery of these principles governing grooming in D. melanogaster demonstrates the utility of incorporating temporal information when characterizing the syntax of behavioral sequences.


Asunto(s)
Drosophila melanogaster/fisiología , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Modelos Biológicos , Animales , Biología Computacional , Factores de Tiempo
4.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(1): 1-12, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038481

RESUMEN

This study examined low-frequency ultrasonic vocalizations (lUSVs) in rats during two types of sexual interactions; postejaculatory interval (PEI) and barrier - noncontact (NC) test. We report distinct classes of lUSVs that can be assigned to different emotional states; relaxation vs. frustration. Totally flat, 22-kHz calls (Class A), were observed during the relaxation state following ejaculation; characterized by immobilization or grooming during the PEI. On the other hand, two-three component lUSVs (Class B) that start at a higher frequency (45-kHz: flat, upward or short signal) and then shift to 35-23-kHz (mostly to 28-23-kHz), correspond as we assume, to arousal and frustration - active states associated with sniffing a hole or exploration during the NC test. We suggest that momentary, abrupt decreases of arousal during the frustration state correspond to Class B lUSVs. The detailed spectral analysis of the high-frequency component of two-component lUSVs is crucial for establishing the relationship between such lUSVs and the corresponding behavior and emotional states. Our studies indicate that while the two-component Class B 22-kHz lUSVs may relate to the frustration state, a single component, flat, Class A lUSV relates to the relaxation state. The results of these studies support a notion that rats emit distinct vocalization patterns, reflecting their emotional states.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Caracteres Sexuales , Conducta Sexual Animal/fisiología , Ultrasonido , Vocalización Animal/fisiología , Animales , Conducta Exploratoria/fisiología , Femenino , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Pérdida de Tono Postural/fisiología , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Long-Evans
5.
Epilepsy Res ; 151: 67-74, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836238

RESUMEN

Extracellular proteolysis initiated by the binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) to its receptor (uPAR) regulates the development of inhibitory neuronal circuits in the cerebral cortex and tissue remodeling after epileptogenic brain injury. To study the function of different components of the uPA-uPAR system on behavior and epileptogenesis, and to complement our previous studies on naïve and injured mice deficient in the uPA-encoding gene Plau or the uPAR-encoding gene Plaur, we analyzed the behavioral phenotype, seizure susceptibility, and perineuronal nets surrounding parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons in Plau and Plaur (double knockout dKO) mice. In a climbing test, dKO mice showed reduced interest towards the environment as compared with Wt mice (p < 0.01). In a social approach test, however, dKO mice spent more time than Wt mice exploring the compartment containing a stranger mouse than the empty compartment (p < 0.05). Moreover, in a social interaction test, dKO mice exhibited increased contact time (p < 0.01). Compared with Wt mice, the dKO mice also had a longer single contact duration (p < 0.001) with the stranger mouse. In the elevated plus-maze, grooming, and marble burying tests, the anxiety level of dKO mice did not differ from that of Wt mice. Rearing time in an exploratory activity test, and spatial learning and memory in the Morris swim navigation task were also comparable between dKO and Wt mice. In the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure-susceptibility test, dKO mice had a shorter latency to the first epileptiform spike (p = 0.0001) and a greater total number of spikes (p < 0.001) than Wt mice. The dKO genotype did not affect the number of cortical perineuronal nets. Our findings indicate that Plau/Plaur-deficiency leads to a more social phenotype toward other mice with diminished interest in the surrounding environment, and increased seizure susceptibility.


Asunto(s)
Regulación de la Expresión Génica/genética , Receptores del Activador de Plasminógeno Tipo Uroquinasa/deficiencia , Convulsiones/metabolismo , Conducta Social , Activador de Plasminógeno de Tipo Uroquinasa/deficiencia , Animales , Ansiedad/etiología , Ansiedad/genética , Reacción de Prevención/fisiología , Ondas Encefálicas/efectos de los fármacos , Ondas Encefálicas/genética , Convulsivantes/toxicidad , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/inducido químicamente , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/fisiopatología , Conducta Exploratoria/efectos de los fármacos , Conducta Exploratoria/fisiología , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Masculino , Aprendizaje por Laberinto/efectos de los fármacos , Aprendizaje por Laberinto/fisiología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Pentilenotetrazol/toxicidad , Receptores del Activador de Plasminógeno Tipo Uroquinasa/genética , Convulsiones/inducido químicamente , Convulsiones/patología , Activador de Plasminógeno de Tipo Uroquinasa/genética
6.
Behav Brain Res ; 359: 516-527, 2019 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472113

RESUMEN

Dopamine (DA) is a key neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, whose availability is regulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT). Deletion of DAT gene leading to hyperdopaminergia was previously performed on mouse models. This enabled recapitulation of the core symptoms of Attention-Deficit / Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD), which include hyperactivity, inattention and cognitive impairment. We used recently developed DAT knockout (DAT-KO) rats to carry out further behavioral profiling on this novel model of hyperdopaminergia. DAT-KO rats display elevated locomotor activity and restless environmental exploration, associated with a transient anxiety profile. Furthermore, these rats show pronounced stereotypy and compulsive-like behavior at the Marble-Burying test. Homozygous DAT-KO rats mantain intact social interaction when tested in a social-preference task, while heterozygous (HET) rats show high inactivity associated with close proximity to the social stimulus. Ex-vivo evaluation of brain catecholamines highlighted increased levels of norepinephrine in the hippocampus and hypothalamus exclusively of heterozygous rats. Taken together, our data present evidence of unexpected asocial tendencies in heterozygous (DAT-HET) rats associated with neurochemical alterations in norepinephrine neurotransmission. We shed light on the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of altered DAT function in a higher, more complex model of hyperdopaminergia. Unraveling the role of DA neurotransmission in DAT-KO rats has very important implications in the understanding of many psychiatric illnesses, including ADHD, where alterations in DA system have been demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Dopamina a través de la Membrana Plasmática/deficiencia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Conducta Social , Animales , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/metabolismo , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Conducta Compulsiva/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Proteínas de Transporte de Dopamina a través de la Membrana Plasmática/genética , Conducta Exploratoria/fisiología , Miedo/fisiología , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Heterocigoto , Homocigoto , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Fenotipo , Ratas Transgénicas , Ratas Wistar
7.
Biogerontology ; 20(2): 141-148, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415295

RESUMEN

Studies of senescence in the wild have traditionally focused on traits like survival or fecundity. Although efforts to measure other salient phenotypic traits and markers of relevant physiological processes are rapidly increasing, traits related to self-maintenance remain understudied in the context of aging. Uropygial or preen gland is a holocrine gland, exclusive to birds, directly linked to self-maintenance of the quality of plumage. We measured the size of uropygial glands of common gulls (Larus canus) in a cross sectional manner in order to test whether it shows the similar age-related decline as reproductive traits previously recorded in this species. Gulls with larger glands started breeding earlier in the season, indicating that gland size is a marker of individual phenotypic quality. We found a senescent decline in the onset of breeding and the size of white wing patches, a sexually dimorphic ornamental trait, while in contrast, preen gland increased with advancing age. This finding supports the view of life-history theory that in long-lived species whose lifetime reproductive success depends heavily on lifespan, self-maintenance is prioritized over reproduction. Altogether our results support the concept that senescence in the wild can be asynchronous for traits related to maintenance versus reproduction.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Glándulas Sebáceas , Animales , Aves , Charadriiformes , Fertilidad/fisiología , Longevidad/fisiología , Glándulas Sebáceas/patología , Glándulas Sebáceas/fisiología
8.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 168(1): 92-103, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368773

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The impact of anthropogenic environmental changes may impose strong pressures on the behavioral flexibility of free-ranging animals. Here, we examine whether rates of interactions with humans had both a direct and indirect influence on the duration and distribution of social grooming in commensal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected in two locations in the city of Shimla in northern India: an urban setting and a temple area. We divided these two locations in a series of similar-sized physical blocks (N = 48) with varying rates of human-macaque interactions. We conducted focal observations on three free-ranging rhesus macaque groups, one in the urban area and two in the temple area. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that macaques engaged in shorter grooming bouts and were more vigilant while grooming in focal sessions during which they interacted with people more frequently, suggesting that humans directly affected grooming effort and vigilance behavior. Furthermore, we found that in blocks characterized by higher rates of human-macaque interactions grooming bouts were shorter, more frequently interrupted by vigilance behavior, and were less frequently reciprocated. DISCUSSION: Our work shows that the rates of human-macaque interaction had both a direct and indirect impact on grooming behavior and that macaques flexibly modified their grooming interactions in relation to the rates of human-macaque interaction to which they were exposed. Because grooming has important social and hygienic functions in nonhuman primates, our work suggests that human presence can have important implications for animal health, social relationships and, ultimately, fitness. Our results point to the need of areas away from people even for highly adaptable species where they can engage in social interactions without human disruption.


Asunto(s)
Aseo Animal/fisiología , Macaca mulatta/fisiología , Conducta Social , Población Urbana , Animales , Antropología Física , Ecosistema , Femenino , Humanos , India , Masculino
9.
Zool Res ; 40(2): 139-145, 2019 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955029

RESUMEN

In some nonhuman primates, infants function as a social tool that can bridge relationships among group members. Infants are a desired commodity for group members, and mothers control access to them. The biological market theory suggests that grooming is widespread and represents a commodity that can be exchanged for infant handling. As a limited resource, however, the extent to which infants are interchanged between mothers (females with an infant) and non-mothers (potential handlers, females without an infant) remains unclear. In this study, we collected behavioral data to investigate the relationship between grooming and infant handling in free-ranging Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China. Our results showed that females with infants received more grooming than females without infants. After her infant was handled, mother females received more grooming than they did during daily grooming interactions. However, with the increasing number of infants within the social group, both the grooming that mothers received and the grooming that non-mothers invested for handling infants decreased. We also found that non-mothers invested more time in grooming to gain access to younger infants than older infants. Our results provide evidence that infants are social commodities for both mother and non-mother females. Mothers use infants for obtain grooming and non-mothers use grooming to gain access to infants. The current study implies a bidirectional and complex interchange pattern between grooming and infant handling to compensate for the dyadic grooming disparity in non-human primates.


Asunto(s)
Aseo Animal/fisiología , Macaca/fisiología , Conducta Social , Animales , Femenino
10.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208089, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517160

RESUMEN

Loss of one sensory modality can cause other types to become more perceptive (cross-modal plasticity). To test the hypothesis that the loss of vision changes the perceptual threshold in the somatosensory system, we applied optogenetics to directly manipulate the afferent inputs involved in the whisker-barrel system using a transgenic rat (W-TChR2V4) that expresses channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) selectively in the large mechanoreceptive neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and their peripheral nerve terminals. The licking behavior of W-TChR2V4 rat was conditioned to a blue LED light cue on the whisker area while the magnitude and duration of light pulses were varied. The perceptual threshold was thus quantitatively determined for each rat according to the relationship between the magnitude/duration of light and the reaction time between the LED light cue and the first licking event after it. We found that the perceptual threshold was more significantly reduced than the control non-deprived rats when the rats were visually deprived at postnatal 26-30 days (P26-30, early VD group), but not at P58-66 (late VD group). However, the sensory threshold of a late VD animal was similar to that of a control. Our results suggest the presence of cross-modal plasticity by which the loss of vision at the juvenile period increased the sensitivity of the somatosensory system involved in the touch of whiskers.


Asunto(s)
Plasticidad Neuronal/fisiología , Umbral Sensorial/fisiología , Corteza Somatosensorial/fisiología , Tacto/fisiología , Vibrisas/fisiología , Visión Ocular/fisiología , Animales , Femenino , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Luz , Masculino , Mecanorreceptores/citología , Mecanorreceptores/fisiología , Optogenética/métodos , Nervios Periféricos/citología , Nervios Periféricos/fisiología , Ratas , Ratas Transgénicas , Corteza Somatosensorial/citología , Factores de Tiempo , Ganglio del Trigémino/citología , Ganglio del Trigémino/fisiología , Vibrisas/citología
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(45): 11393-11400, 2018 11 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397113

RESUMEN

Understanding intraspecific variation in sociality is essential for characterizing the flexibility and evolution of social systems, yet its study in nonhuman animals is rare. Here, we investigated whether chimpanzees exhibit population-level differences in sociality that cannot be easily explained by differences in genetics or ecology. We compared social proximity and grooming tendencies across four semiwild populations of chimpanzees living in the same ecological environment over three consecutive years, using both linear mixed models and social network analysis. Results indicated temporally stable, population-level differences in dyadic-level sociality. Moreover, group cohesion measures capturing network characteristics beyond dyadic interactions (clustering, modularity, and social differentiation) showed population-level differences consistent with the dyadic indices. Subsequently, we explored whether the observed intraspecific variation in sociality could be attributed to cultural processes by ruling out alternative sources of variation including the influences of ecology, genetics, and differences in population demographics. We conclude that substantial variation in social behavior exists across neighboring populations of chimpanzees and that this variation is in part shaped by cultural processes.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Competitiva/fisiología , Conducta Cooperativa , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Modelos Estadísticos , Pan troglodytes/psicología , Conformidad Social , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/fisiología , Dinámica Poblacional , Predominio Social , Zambia
12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2508, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429853

RESUMEN

Th17-lymphocytes are well known for their deleterious role in autoimmunity. But does the notoriety of this repertoire extend beyond autoimmunity? In the present study we employed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis as model system to study the role auto-reactive Th17 cells in neuropsychiatric disorders. The mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis exhibited exaggerated grooming activity. The observed behavioral anomaly resembled obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) upon analysis of grooming microstructure, induced grooming, marble burying and nestlet shredding. The observed OCD like behavior was relieved upon Th17 cell depletion; alternatively, it could alone be induced by adoptive transfer of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35-55) reactive Th17 in B6.Rag1 -/- mice. The observed OCD like behavior was also alleviated upon treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine.


Asunto(s)
Autoinmunidad/inmunología , Encefalomielitis Autoinmune Experimental/inmunología , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/inmunología , Células Th17/inmunología , Traslado Adoptivo/métodos , Animales , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Fluoxetina/farmacología , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Proteínas de Homeodominio/inmunología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/inmunología , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Captación de Serotonina/farmacología
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(49): 12377-12382, 2018 12 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455290

RESUMEN

The cat tongue is covered in sharp, rear-facing spines called papillae, the precise function of which is a mystery. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use high-speed film, grooming force measurements, and computed tomography (CT) scanning to elucidate the mechanism by which papillae are used to groom fur. We examine the tongues of six species of cats from domestic cat to lion, spanning 30-fold in body weight. The papillae of these cats each feature a hollow cavity at the tip that spontaneously wicks saliva from the mouth and then releases it onto hairs. The unique shape of the cat's papillae may inspire ways to clean complex hairy surfaces. We demonstrate one such application with the tongue-inspired grooming (TIGR) brush, which incorporates 3D-printed cat papillae into a silicone substrate. The TIGR brush experiences lower grooming forces than a normal hairbrush and is easier to clean.


Asunto(s)
Gatos/anatomía & histología , Gatos/fisiología , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Cabello , Saliva , Lengua/anatomía & histología , Animales , Lengua/fisiología , Grabación en Video
14.
Brain Behav ; 8(11): e01107, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317697

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have supported the use of enriched environments to prevent the manifestation of ASD-like phenotypes in laboratory rodents. While the translational value of such experiments is unknown, the findings have been relatively consistent across many different models. METHODS: In the current study, we tested the effects of early environmental enrichment on a mouse model of ASD with high construct validity, the Shank3 ∆e4-22 mice our laboratory previously generated and characterized. RESULTS: Contrary to previous reports, we found no benefits of enriched rearing, including no change in repetitive self-grooming or hole-board exploration. Instead, we found that early environmental enrichment increased anxiety-like behavior in all mice regardless of genotype and decreased motor performance specifically in wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: Although using a different enrichment protocol may have rescued the phenotypes in our mouse model, these results suggest that a "one-size fits all" approach may not be the best when it comes to behavioral intervention for ASD and underscores the need for effective pharmaceutical development in certain genetic syndromes with severe symptom presentation.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Ambiente , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Ansiedad/etiología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Conducta Exploratoria/fisiología , Femenino , Genotipo , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/deficiencia , Fenotipo
15.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0201810, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204753

RESUMEN

Allogrooming is a key aspect of chimpanzee sociality and many studies have investigated the role of reciprocity in a biological market. One theoretical form of reciprocity is time-matching, where payback consists of an equal duration of effort (e.g. twenty seconds of grooming repaid with twenty seconds of grooming). Here, we report a study of allogrooming in a group of twenty-six captive chimpanzees (Chester Zoo, UK), based on more than 150 hours of data. For analysis, we introduce a methodological innovation called the "Delta scale", which unidimensionally measures the accuracy of time-matching according to the extent of delay after the cessation of grooming. Delta is positive when reciprocation occurs after any non-zero delay (e.g. A grooms B and then B grooms A after a five second break) and it is negative when reciprocation begins whilst the original grooming has not yet ceased. Using a generalized linear mixed-method, we found evidence for time-matched reciprocation. However, this was true only for immediate reciprocation (Delta less than zero). If there was a temporal break in grooming between two members of a dyad, then there was no evidence that chimpanzees were using new bouts to retroactively correct for time-matching imbalances from previous bouts. Our results have implications for some of the cognitive constraints that differentiate real-life reciprocation from abstract theoretical models. Furthermore, we suggest that some apparent patterns of time-matched reciprocity may arise merely due to the law of large numbers, and we introduce a statistical test which takes this into account when aggregating grooming durations over a window of time.


Asunto(s)
Aseo Animal/fisiología , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Pan troglodytes
16.
Am J Primatol ; 80(10): e22877, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797338

RESUMEN

In highly social species, like primates, oxytocin plays an important role in cooperation, and in the formation and maintenance of social relationships. Despite recent interest in the relationship between oxytocin and social behavior in nonhuman primates, relatively little is known about endogenous oxytocin in social New World Monkeys. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between oxytocin and affiliative behaviors in socially-housed captive capuchin monkeys (Sapajus [Cebus] apella) by first validating methods of analysis of urinary oxytocin in this species and, second, examining the effects of grooming and fur-rubbing behavior on oxytocin concentrations and further affiliative behavior. In the validation, we found that intranasal exogenous oxytocin significantly increased urinary oxytocin 15-60 min post-administration. Oxytocin was also implicated in both grooming and fur-rubbing behaviors. We found that oxytocin concentrations increased after subjects engaged in grooming or fur-rubbing. In addition, we found that fur-rubbing influenced affiliative behaviors, both during and after a social fur-rubbing bout. While individuals spent more time in contact and proximity while fur-rubbing, immediately following the fur-rubbing event (15-30 min afterwards) all affiliative behaviors decreased. This supports previous research that oxytocin may, in fact, initially be related to increased social distance in this species. Yet, an increase in all affiliative behaviors 30-45 min after the onset of fur-rubbing suggests that fur-rubbing, like grooming, may ultimately function to strengthen social relationships. Overall, these results support a critical role for oxytocin in affiliative behaviors that maintain and strengthen social relationships in capuchin monkeys, and highlight the complexity of the interactions among oxytocin, affiliative behaviors, and social bonding.


Asunto(s)
Cebinae/fisiología , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Oxitocina/farmacología , Administración Intranasal , Pelaje de Animal , Animales , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Cebinae/orina , Femenino , Masculino , Cebollas , Oxitocina/administración & dosificación , Oxitocina/orina , Conducta Social
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(24): 6255-6260, 2018 06 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844179

RESUMEN

Many animals participate in biological markets, with strong evidence existing for immediate cooperative trades. In particular, grooming is often exchanged for itself or other commodities, such as coalitionary support or access to food and mates. More contentious is the possibility that nonhuman animals can rely on memories of recent events, providing contingent cooperation even when there is a temporal delay between two cooperative acts. Here we provide experimental evidence of delayed cross-commodity grooming exchange in wild dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula). First, we use natural observations and social-network analyses to demonstrate a positive link between grooming and sentinel behavior (acting as a raised guard). Group members who contributed more to sentinel behavior received more grooming and had a better social-network position. We then used a field-based playback experiment to test a causal link between contributions to sentinel behavior and grooming received later in the day. During 3-h trial sessions, the perceived sentinel contributions of a focal individual were either up-regulated (playback of its surveillance calls, which are given naturally during sentinel bouts) or unmanipulated (playback of its foraging close calls as a control). On returning to the sleeping refuge at the end of the day, focal individuals received more grooming following surveillance-call playback than control-call playback and more grooming than a matched individual whose sentinel contributions were not up-regulated. We believe our study therefore provides experimental evidence of delayed contingent cooperation in a wild nonprimate species.


Asunto(s)
Herpestidae/fisiología , Animales , Femenino , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Memoria/fisiología , Conducta Social , Vocalización Animal
18.
Physiol Behav ; 191: 91-94, 2018 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673859

RESUMEN

It was recently reported that spontaneous burrowing behavior is decreased after tibial nerve transection, spinal nerve transection and partial sciatic nerve ligation. It was proposed that spontaneous burrowing could be used as a measure of the impact of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. It has remained unclear whether the reduction in burrowing behavior is caused directly by pain or hypersensitivity in the affected limbs, making it more difficult to perform burrowing, or by a pain induced decrease in the general wellbeing, thus reducing the motivation to burrow. We studied burrowing behavior after infraorbital nerve injury, a model of orofacial neuropathic pain that does not affect the limbs. Burrowing behavior was significantly reduced after infraorbital nerve injury. Isolated face grooming and responsiveness to mechanical von Frey stimulation of the infraorbital nerve territory were significantly increased after infraorbital nerve injury, indicative, respectively, of spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia. It is concluded that spontaneous burrowing may provide a measure of the global impact of pain on the animal's wellbeing after peripheral nerve injury and incorporation of this behavioral assay in preclinical drug testing may improve the predictive validity of currently used pain models.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Exploratoria/fisiología , Dolor Facial/complicaciones , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Neuralgia/complicaciones , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatología , Ligadura/efectos adversos , Masculino , Dimensión del Dolor , Estimulación Física , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
19.
Exp Neurol ; 305: 1-12, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554474

RESUMEN

The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurological diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), whose unique clinical hallmark is a constellation of impaired social and/or cognitive behaviors. GluN3A (NR3A) is a unique inhibitory subunit in the NMDAR complex. The role of GluN3A in social behavioral activities is obscure. In this study, we sought to evaluate altered social activities in adult GluN3A knockout (KO) mice. GluN3A KO mice spent less time in reciprocal social interaction in the social interaction test compared to wild-type (WT) mice. A social approach test using a three-chamber system confirmed that mice lacking GluN3A had lower sociability and did not exhibit a preference for social novelty. GluN3A KO mice displayed abnormal food preference in the social transmission of food preference task and low social interaction activity in the five-trial social memory test, but without social memory deficits. Using a home cage monitoring system, we observed reduced social grooming behavior in GluN3A KO mice. Signaling genes that might mediate the altered social behaviors were examined in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. Among nine genes examined, the expression of the oxytocin receptor was significantly lower in the prefrontal cortex of GluN3A KO mice than that in WT mice. Oxytocin treatment rescued social activity deficits in GluN3A KO mice. These findings support a novel idea that a chronic state of moderate increases in NMDAR activities may lead to downregulation of the oxytocin signaling and impaired behavioral activities that are seen in psychiatric/neurodegenerative disorders.


Asunto(s)
Aseo Animal/fisiología , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/deficiencia , Receptores de Oxitocina/biosíntesis , Transducción de Señal/fisiología , Conducta Social , Factores de Edad , Animales , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones de la Cepa 129 , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Oxitocina/biosíntesis , Corteza Prefrontal/metabolismo , Subunidades de Proteína/biosíntesis
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531152

RESUMEN

Many wildlife species shift their diets to use novel resources in urban areas. The consequences of these shifts are not well known, and consumption of reliable-but low quality-anthropogenic food may present important trade-offs for wildlife health. This may be especially true for carnivorous species such as the American white ibis (Eudocimus albus), a nomadic wading bird which has been increasingly observed in urban parks in South Florida, USA. We tested the effects of anthropogenic provisioning on consumer nutrition (i.e. dietary protein), body condition and ectoparasite burdens along an urban gradient using stable isotope analysis, scaled mass index values and GPS transmitter data. Ibises that assimilated more provisioned food were captured at more urban sites, used more urban habitat, had lower mass-length residuals, lower ectoparasite scores, assimilated less δ15N and had smaller dietary isotopic ellipses. Our results suggest that ibises in urban areas are heavily provisioned with anthropogenic food, which appears to offer a trade-off by providing low-quality, but easily accessible, calories that may not support high mass but may increase time available for anti-parasite behaviours such as preening. Understanding such trade-offs is important for investigating the effects of provisioning on infection risk and the conservation of wildlife in human-modified habitats.This article is part of the theme issue 'Anthropogenic resource subsidies and host-parasite dynamics in wildlife'.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/provisión & distribución , Migración Animal/fisiología , Aves/fisiología , Infestaciones Ectoparasitarias/veterinaria , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Aves/parasitología , Dieta , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Proteínas en la Dieta/análisis , Ecosistema , Infestaciones Ectoparasitarias/epidemiología , Infestaciones Ectoparasitarias/parasitología , Florida/epidemiología , Aseo Animal/fisiología , Ácaros/fisiología , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Phthiraptera/fisiología , Dinámica Poblacional , Estaciones del Año , Urbanización
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