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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 111(5): 966-978, 2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701746

RESUMEN

Replicability is the cornerstone of modern scientific research. Reliable identifications of genotype-phenotype associations that are significant in multiple genome-wide association studies (GWASs) provide stronger evidence for the findings. Current replicability analysis relies on the independence assumption among single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ignores the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure. We show that such a strategy may produce either overly liberal or overly conservative results in practice. We develop an efficient method, ReAD, to detect replicable SNPs associated with the phenotype from two GWASs accounting for the LD structure. The local dependence structure of SNPs across two heterogeneous studies is captured by a four-state hidden Markov model (HMM) built on two sequences of p values. By incorporating information from adjacent locations via the HMM, our approach provides more accurate SNP significance rankings. ReAD is scalable, platform independent, and more powerful than existing replicability analysis methods with effective false discovery rate control. Through analysis of datasets from two asthma GWASs and two ulcerative colitis GWASs, we show that ReAD can identify replicable genetic loci that existing methods might otherwise miss.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo/métodos , Humanos , Asma/genética , Cadenas de Markov , Colitis Ulcerosa/genética , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Fenotipo , Genotipo
2.
Chron Respir Dis ; 21: 14799731241251827, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717428

RESUMEN

Asthma and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are common respiratory disorders. They share characteristics such as airway obstruction, poor sleep quality, and low quality of life. They are often present as comorbidities, along with obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and allergic rhinitis (AR), which impacts the disease's control. In recent years, there has been discussion about the association between these conditions and their pathophysiological and clinical consequences, resulting in worse health outcomes, increased healthcare resource consumption, prolonged hospital stays, and increased morbidity and mortality. Some studies demonstrate that treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can have a beneficial effect on both pathologies. This review summarizes the existing evidence of the association between asthma and OSA at their pathophysiological, epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic levels. It intends to raise awareness among healthcare professionals about these conditions and the need for further research.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Presión de las Vías Aéreas Positiva Contínua , Reflujo Gastroesofágico , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , Humanos , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/terapia , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/epidemiología , Asma/terapia , Asma/epidemiología , Asma/complicaciones , Presión de las Vías Aéreas Positiva Contínua/métodos , Reflujo Gastroesofágico/terapia , Reflujo Gastroesofágico/epidemiología , Rinitis Alérgica/terapia , Rinitis Alérgica/complicaciones , Rinitis Alérgica/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/terapia , Obesidad/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida , Atención Integral de Salud/métodos
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10694, 2024 05 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724620

RESUMEN

This study investigated the potential associations between allergic diseases (asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis) and the development of primary open-angle glaucoma. We utilized authorized data from the Korean National Health Information Database (KNHID), which provides comprehensive medical claims data and information from the National Health Screening Program. We compared the baseline characteristics of subjects with and without allergic diseases and calculated the incidence and risk of glaucoma development. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to determine the risk of glaucoma development in subjects with allergic diseases. A total of 171,129 subjects aged 20-39 with or without allergic diseases who underwent a general health examination between 2009 and 2015 were included. Subjects with allergic diseases exhibited a higher incidence of glaucoma compared to the control group. The hazard ratio (HR) of glaucoma onset was 1.49 and 1.39 in subjects with at least one allergic disease before and after adjusting for potential confounding factors, respectively. Among allergic diseases, atopic dermatitis showed the highest risk for glaucoma development (aHR 1.73) after adjusting for confounders. Allergic rhinitis showed an increased risk for incident glaucoma after adjustment (aHR 1.38). Asthma showed the lowest but still increased risk for glaucoma (aHR 1.22). The associations were consistent in all subgroup analyses stratified by sex, smoking, drinking, exercise, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or history of steroid. In conclusion, allergic diseases are associated with increased risk of glaucoma development. Among allergic diseases, atopic dermatitis showed the highest risk for glaucoma development followed by allergic rhinitis and asthma.


Asunto(s)
Glaucoma de Ángulo Abierto , Humanos , Glaucoma de Ángulo Abierto/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , República de Corea/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Factores de Riesgo , Incidencia , Estudios de Cohortes , Rinitis Alérgica/epidemiología , Dermatitis Atópica/epidemiología , Asma/epidemiología , Asma/complicaciones , Hipersensibilidad/epidemiología , Hipersensibilidad/complicaciones , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales
4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 230, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730359

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Spirofy™ is India's first portable, pneumotach flow-sensor-based digital spirometer developed to diagnose asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we compared the performance of the Spirofy™ device with that of the Vitalograph Alpha Touch™ spirometer in measuring the lung capacities of healthy individuals, asthmatics, and COPD patients. We also assessed the inter-device variability between two Spirofy™ devices. METHODS: In a randomized, three-way crossover, open-label study, we measured the differences in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) between the Spirofy™ and Vitalograph Alpha Touch™ spirometers. A proportion of the FEV1/FVC ratio distribution of < 0.7 was used to compare the diagnostic accuracies of the Spirofy™ with Vitalograph™ Alpha Touch™ spirometers. RESULTS: Ninety subjects participated in this study. The mean ± SD FVC values obtained from the Spirofy™ 1, Spirofy™ 2, and Vitalograph Alpha Touch™ devices were 2.60 ± 1.05 L, 2.64 ± 1.04 L, and 2.67 ± 1.04 L, respectively. The mean ± SD FEV1 values obtained from the Spirofy™ 1, Spirofy™ 2, and Vitalograph Alpha Touch™ devices were 1.87 ± 0.92 (L), 1.88 ± 0.92 (L), and 1.93 ± 0.93 (L), respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the FVC and FEV1 values recorded by Vitalograph Alpha Touch™, Spirofy™ 1, and Spirofy™ 2. As compared to Vitalograph Alpha Touch™, the Spirofy™ device showed good sensitivity (97%), specificity (90%), and overall accuracy (93.3%) at an FEV1/FVC ratio < 0.7. No inter-device variability was observed between the two Spirofy™ devices. CONCLUSION: Spirofy™ is a portable and easy-to-use device and is as accurate as the standard Vitalograph Alpha Touch™ spirometer for the diagnosis of COPD and asthma. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2021/09/036492 (Clinical Trials Registry - India).


Asunto(s)
Asma , Estudios Cruzados , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Espirometría , Humanos , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/fisiopatología , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Espirometría/instrumentación , Femenino , Adulto , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado , Capacidad Vital , Anciano , India , Adulto Joven
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731941

RESUMEN

Micro- and nanoplastic particles, including common forms like polyethylene and polystyrene, have been identified as relevant pollutants, potentially causing health problems in living organisms. The mechanisms at the cellular level largely remain to be elucidated. This study aims to visualize nanoplastics in bronchial smooth muscle (BSMC) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC), and to assess the impact on mitochondrial metabolism. Healthy and asthmatic human BSMC and SAEC in vitro cultures were stimulated with polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs) of 25 or 50 nm size, for 1 or 24 h. Live cell, label-free imaging by holotomography microscopy and mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis assessment were performed. Furthermore, 25 and 50 nm NPs were shown to penetrate SAEC, along with healthy and diseased BSMC, and they impaired bioenergetics and induce mitochondrial dysfunction compared to cells not treated with NPs, including changes in oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate. NPs pose a serious threat to human health by penetrating airway tissues and cells, and affecting both oxidative and glycolytic metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Bronquios , Células Epiteliales , Mitocondrias , Humanos , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Mitocondrias/efectos de los fármacos , Bronquios/metabolismo , Bronquios/citología , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Glucólisis/efectos de los fármacos , Nanopartículas , Miocitos del Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miocitos del Músculo Liso/efectos de los fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Poliestirenos , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patología , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Microplásticos/toxicidad , Consumo de Oxígeno/efectos de los fármacos
6.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 11(1)2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692709

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Asthma remains a common cause of hospital admissions across the life course. We estimated the contribution of key risk factors to asthma-related hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in children, adolescents and adults. METHODS: This was a UK-based cohort study using linked primary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum) and secondary care (Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care) data. Patients were eligible if they were aged 5 years and older and had been diagnosed with asthma. This included 90 989 children aged 5-11 years, 114 927 adolescents aged 12-17 years and 1 179 410 adults aged 18 years or older. The primary outcome was asthma-related hospital admissions from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2019. The secondary outcome was asthma-related ICU admissions. Incidence rate ratios adjusted for demographic and clinical risk factors were estimated using negative binomial models. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated for modifiable risk factors. RESULTS: Younger age groups, females and those from ethnic minority and lower socioeconomic backgrounds had an increased risk of asthma-related hospital admissions. Increasing medication burden, including excessive use of short-acting bronchodilators, was also strongly associated with the primary outcome. Similar risk factors were observed for asthma-related ICU admissions. The key potentially modifiable or treatable risk factors were smoking in adolescents and adults (PAF 6.8%, 95% CI 0.9% to 12.3% and 4.3%, 95% CI 3.0% to 5.7%, respectively), and obesity (PAF 23.3%, 95% CI 20.5% to 26.1%), depression (11.1%, 95% CI 9.1% to 13.1%), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (2.3%, 95% CI 1.2% to 3.4%), anxiety (2.0%, 95% CI 0.5% to 3.6%) and chronic rhinosinusitis (0.8%, 95% CI 0.3% to 1.3%) in adults. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant sociodemographic inequalities in the rates of asthma-related hospital and ICU admissions. Treating age-specific modifiable risk factors should be considered an integral part of asthma management, which could potentially reduce the rate of avoidable hospital admissions.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Hospitalización , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Atención Secundaria de Salud , Humanos , Asma/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Niño , Adolescente , Factores de Riesgo , Atención Secundaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Preescolar , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Cohortes , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano
7.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 11(1)2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697675

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Methods used to assess ventilation heterogeneity through inert gas washout have been standardised and showed high sensitivity in diagnosing many respiratory diseases. We hypothesised that nitrogen single or multiple breath washout tests, respectively nitrogen single breath washout (N2SBW) and nitrogen multiple breath washout (N2MBW), may be pathological in patients with clinical suspicion of asthma but normal spirometry. Our aim was to assess whether N2SBW and N2MBW are associated with methacholine challenge test (MCT) results in this population. We also postulated that an alteration in SIII at N2SBW could be detected before the 20% fall of forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) in MCT. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This prospective, observational, single-centre study included patients with suspicion of asthma with normal spirometry. Patients completed questionnaires on symptoms and health-related quality-of-life and underwent the following lung function tests: N2SBW (SIII), N2MBW (Lung clearance index (LCI), Scond, Sacin), MCT (FEV1 and sGeff) as well as N2SBW between each methacholine dose. RESULTS: 182 patients were screened and 106 were included in the study, with mean age of 41.8±14 years. The majority were never-smokers (58%) and women (61%). MCT was abnormal in 48% of participants, N2SBW was pathological in 10.6% at baseline and N2MBW abnormality ranged widely (LCI 81%, Scond 18%, Sacin 43%). The dose response rate of the MCT showed weak to moderate correlation with the subsequent N2SBW measurements during the provocation phases (ρ 0.34-0.50) but no correlation with N2MBW. CONCLUSIONS: Both MCT and N2 washout tests are frequently pathological in patients with suspicion of asthma with normal spirometry. The weak association and lack of concordance across the tests highlight that they reflect different but not interchangeable pathological pathways of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Pruebas Respiratorias , Pruebas de Provocación Bronquial , Cloruro de Metacolina , Nitrógeno , Espirometría , Humanos , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/fisiopatología , Cloruro de Metacolina/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto , Pruebas Respiratorias/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nitrógeno/análisis , Pruebas de Provocación Bronquial/métodos , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria/métodos , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Broncoconstrictores/administración & dosificación
8.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 11(1)2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697674

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Effective treatment of severe asthma requires patient adherence to inhaled and biological medications. Previous work has shown that patient support programmes (PSP) can improve adherence in patients with chronic diseases, but the impact of PSPs in patients with severe asthma treated with biologics has not been thoroughly investigated. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review to understand the impact of PSPs on treatment adherence, asthma control and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with severe asthma. Embase, MEDLINE and EconLit databases were searched for studies published from 2003 (the year of the first biological approval for severe asthma) to June 2023 that described PSP participation among patients with severe asthma on biological treatment. Direct pooling of outcomes was not possible due to the heterogeneity across studies, so an indirect treatment comparison (ITC) was performed to determine the effect of PSP participation on treatment discontinuation. The ITC used patient-level data from patients treated with benralizumab either enrolled in a PSP (VOICE study, Connect 360 PSP) or not enrolled in a PSP (Benralizumab Patient Access Programme study) in the UK. FINDINGS: 25 records of 21 studies were selected. Six studies investigated the impact of PSPs on treatment adherence, asthma control or HRQoL. All six studies reported positive outcomes for patients enrolled in PSPs; the benefits of each PSP were closely linked to the services provided. The ITC showed that patients in the Connect 360 PSP group were less likely to discontinue treatment compared with the non-PSP group (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.57, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PSPs contribute to positive clinical outcomes in patients with severe asthma on biological treatment. Future analyses will benefit from thorough descriptions of PSP services, and study designs that allow direct comparisons of patient outcomes with and without a PSP.


Asunto(s)
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Calidad de Vida , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Asma/terapia , Humanos , Antiasmáticos/uso terapéutico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Terapia Biológica/métodos
9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 232, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745268

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Excessive use of short-acting ß2 agonists (SABA) in patients with asthma continues to be a notable concern due to its link to higher mortality rates. Global relevance of SABA overuse in asthma management cannot be understated, it poses significant health risk to patients with asthma and imposes burden on healthcare systems. This study, as part of global SABINA progamme, aimed to describe the prescribing patterns and clinical outcomes associated with SABA use in the Chinese population. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study was conducted using anonymized electronic healthcare records of Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System (CDARS) from Hong Kong Hospital Authority (HA). Patients newly diagnosed with asthma between 2011 and 2018 and aged ≥12 years were included, stratified by SABA use (≤2, 3-6, 7-10, or ≥11 canisters/year) during one-year baseline period since asthma diagnosis date. Patients were followed up from one-year post-index until earliest censoring of events: outcome occurrence and end of study period (31 December 2020). Cox proportional regression and negative binomial regression were used to estimate the mortality risk and frequency of hospital admissions associated with SABA use respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose. Outcomes include all-cause, asthma-related, and respiratory-related mortality, frequency of hospital admissions for any cause, and frequency of hospital admissions due to asthma. RESULTS: 17,782 patients with asthma (mean age 46.7 years, 40.8% male) were included and 59.1% of patients were overusing SABA (≥ 3 canisters per year). Each patient was prescribed a median of 5.61 SABA canisters/year. SABA overuse during baseline period was associated with higher all-cause mortality risk compared to patients with ≤2 canisters/year. Association was dose-dependent, highest risk in those used ≥11 canisters/year (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.79) and 3-6 canisters/year (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.50). Higher SABA prescription volume associated with increased frequency of hospital admissions with greatest risk observed in 7-10 canisters/year subgroup (adjusted rate ratio: 4.81, 95% CI: 3.66, 6.37). CONCLUSIONS: SABA overuse is prevalent and is associated with increased all-cause mortality risk and frequency of hospital admissions among the patients with asthma in Hong Kong.


Asunto(s)
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2 , Asma , Humanos , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Masculino , Femenino , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapéutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administración & dosificación , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/tendencias , Anciano , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Pueblos del Este de Asia
10.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 35(5): e14143, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745384

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Childhood allergies of asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD) involve an overactive T-cell immune response triggered by allergens. However, the impact of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires on allergen sensitization and their role in mediating different phenotypes of asthma and AD in early childhood remains unclear. METHODS: A total of 78 children, comprising 26 with asthma alone, 26 with AD alone, and 26 healthy controls (HC), were enrolled. TCR repertoire profiles were determined using a unique molecular identifier system for next-generation sequencing. Integrative analyses of their associations with allergen-specific IgE levels and allergies were performed. RESULTS: The diversity in TCR alpha variable region (TRAV) genes of TCR repertoires and complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) clonality in TRAV/TRBV (beta) genes were significantly higher in children with AD compared with those with asthma and HC (p < .05). Compared with HC, the expression of TRAV13-1 and TRAV4 genes was significantly higher in both asthma and AD (p < .05), with a significant positive correlation with mite-specific IgE levels (p < .01). In contrast, TRBV7-9 gene expression was significantly lower in both asthma and AD (p < .01), with this gene showing a significant negative correlation with mite-specific IgE levels (p < .01). Furthermore, significantly higher TRAV8-3 gene expression, positively correlated with food-specific IgE levels, was found in children with AD compared with those with asthma (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Integrated TCR repertoires analysis provides clinical insights into the diverse TCR genes linked to antigen specificity, offering potential for precision immunotherapy in childhood allergies.


Asunto(s)
Alérgenos , Asma , Dermatitis Atópica , Inmunoglobulina E , Humanos , Asma/inmunología , Asma/genética , Dermatitis Atópica/inmunología , Dermatitis Atópica/genética , Masculino , Femenino , Alérgenos/inmunología , Niño , Inmunoglobulina E/sangre , Inmunoglobulina E/inmunología , Preescolar , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfocitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfocitos T/inmunología , Regiones Determinantes de Complementariedad/genética , Regiones Determinantes de Complementariedad/inmunología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Animales
11.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 214, 2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698432

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In western Yokohama, our hospital and primary care clinics manage adults with asthma via a coordinated care system. We investigated the changes in the fractional expired nitric oxide (FeNO), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and forced oscillation technique (FOT) parameters over 3 years in a cohort of patients in our collaborative system. METHODS: From 288 adults with well controlled asthma managed under the Yokohama Seibu Hospital coordinated care system between January 2009 and May 2018, we selected 99 subjects to undergo spirometry, FeNO and FOT testing over 3 years and analyzed the changes in these parameters. RESULTS: Of the 99 patients enrolled, 17 (17.2%) experienced at least one exacerbation (insufficiently controlled (IC)), whereas, 82 (82.8%) remained in well controlled during the 3-year study period. Of well-controlled patients, 54 patients (54.5%) met the criteria for clinical remission under treatment (CR); the remaining 28 patients did not meet the CR criteria (WC). There were no differences in FeNO, FEV1, or FOT parameters at baseline among the IC, WC, and CR groups. The levels of FEV1 decreased gradually, whereas the levels of FeNO decreased significantly over 3 years. The levels of percent predicted FEV1 (%FEV1) significantly increased. We also observed significant improvement in FOT parameters; reactance at 5 Hz (R5), resonant frequency (Fres), and integral of reactance up to the resonant frequency (AX). The CR group demonstrated significant relationships between the change in FeNO and the change in FEV1 and between the change in FEV1 and the change in FOT parameters. No significant correlations emerged in the IC or WC group. CONCLUSION: The decrease in FeNO and increase in %FEV1, we observed in all study participants suggest that the coordinated care system model benefits patients with asthma. Although it is difficult to predict at baseline which patients will experience an exacerbation, monitoring changes in FeNO and FEV1 is useful in managing patients with asthma. Furthermore, monitoring changes in R5, Fres, and AX via forced oscillation technique testing is useful for detecting airflow limitation.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Espirometría , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Asma/fisiopatología , Asma/terapia , Asma/diagnóstico , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Óxido Nítrico/análisis , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Anciano , Prueba de Óxido Nítrico Exhalado Fraccionado
12.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 18: 17534666241232264, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698565

RESUMEN

What is this summary about?This summary describes the results of a clinical study called MANDALA that was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2022. In the MANDALA study, researchers looked at a new asthma rescue inhaler that contains both albuterol and budesonide in a single inhaler (known as albuterol-budesonide, AIRSUPRA™). This summary describes the results for people aged 18 yearsand older who took part in the study.


Asunto(s)
Albuterol , Asma , Broncodilatadores , Budesonida , Combinación de Medicamentos , Nebulizadores y Vaporizadores , Humanos , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Albuterol/administración & dosificación , Administración por Inhalación , Broncodilatadores/administración & dosificación , Budesonida/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , Femenino , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Anciano , Antiasmáticos/administración & dosificación
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10404, 2024 05 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710930

RESUMEN

To date, most studies to identify biomarkers associated with response to the anti-interleukin 5 agent, mepolizumab, and to the anti-immunoglobulin E agent, omalizumab have focused on clinically available biomarkers, such as the peripheral blood eosinophil counts (BEC) and total immunoglobulin E (IgE). However, these biomarkers often have low predictive accuracy, with many patients with eosinophilic or allergic asthma failing to demonstrate clinical response to mepolizumab or omalizumab respectively. In this study, we evaluated the association of baseline pre-biologic plasma levels of 26 cytokines and chemokines, including T-helper 1 (Th1)-, Th2-, Th17-related cytokines, and their ratios with subsequent clinical response to mepolizumab or omalizumab. We defined clinical response as a reduction in the baseline annual exacerbation rate by half or more over the one-year period following initiation of the biologic. Baseline levels of plasma IL-13 were differentially elevated in responders versus non-responders to mepolizumab and plasma CXCL10 levels were differentially elevated in responders to omalizumab. The ratio of IL-13/TNF-α had the best sensitivity and specificity in predicting response to mepolizumab and CXCL10/CCL17 to omalizumab, and these performed better as predictive biomarkers of response than BEC and IgE. Cytokines and chemokines associated with airway eosinophilia, allergic inflammation, or Th2 inflammation, such as IL-13 and CXCL10, may be better predictors of clinical response to mepolizumab and omalizumab, than IL-5 or IgE, the targets of mepolizumab and omalizumab.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , Asma , Quimiocina CCL17 , Quimiocina CXCL10 , Eosinófilos , Inmunoglobulina E , Interleucina-13 , Omalizumab , Humanos , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Asma/sangre , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Omalizumab/uso terapéutico , Inmunoglobulina E/sangre , Femenino , Masculino , Quimiocina CCL17/sangre , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangre , Interleucina-13/sangre , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/sangre , Biomarcadores/sangre , Antiasmáticos/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Leucocitos , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1362404, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745671

RESUMEN

Introduction: The anti-inflammatory effect of green tea extract (GTE) has been confirmed in asthmatic mice, however, the pharmacological mechanism is not fully elucidated. Methods: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of GTE in asthma and identify specific pathways, murine model of allergic asthma was established by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and the challenge for 4 weeks, with oral treatment using GTE and dexamethasone (DEX). Inflammatory cell counts, cytokines, OVA-specific IgE, airway hyperreactivity, and antioxidant markers in the lung were evaluated. Also, pulmonary histopathological analysis and western blotting were performed. In vitro, we established the model by stimulating the human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292 using lipopolysaccharide, and treating with GTE and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) inhibitors. Results: The GTE100 and GTE400 groups showed a decrease in airway hyperresponsiveness and the number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) compared to the OVA group. GTE treatment also reduced interleukin (IL)-13, IL-5, and IL-4 levels in the BALF, and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E levels in the serum compared to those in the OVA group. GTE treatment decreased OVA-induced mucus secretion and airway inflammation. In addition, GTE suppressed the oxidative stress, and phosphorylation of MAPKs, which generally occurs after exposure to OVA. GTE administration also reduced matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and protein levels. Conclusion: GTE effectively inhibited asthmatic respiratory inflammation and mucus hyperproduction induced by OVA inhalation. These results suggest that GTE has the potential to be used for the treatment of asthma.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Células Epiteliales , Metaloproteinasa 9 de la Matriz , Estrés Oxidativo , Extractos Vegetales , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Asma/inmunología , Asma/metabolismo , Animales , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Metaloproteinasa 9 de la Matriz/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Té/química , Femenino , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratoria/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratoria/efectos de los fármacos , Mucosa Respiratoria/inmunología , Mucosa Respiratoria/patología , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ovalbúmina/inmunología , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e02362023, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747763

RESUMEN

This article aims to evaluate the association between birth weight and asthma in adulthood, estimated by employing structural equation modeling. Cohort study with 1,958 participants aged 23-25 years from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Standardized questionnaires were applied and pulmonary function evaluated, including bronchial reactivity with methacholine. A theoretical model was proposed to explore the effects of birth weight and asthma in adulthood. Asthma, socioeconomic status at birth (Birth SES), and current socioeconomic status (Adult SES) were obtained by constructs. Maternal age, sex, skin color, body mass index (BMI), smoking, parental asthma history, history of respiratory infection before five years old, history of hospitalization for lung disease before two years old, and atopy were the studied variables. 14.1% of participants were diagnosed with asthma. Birth weight was associated with asthma (Standardized Coefficient - SCtotal=-0.110; p=0.030), and an indirect effect was also observed (SCindirect=-0.220; p=0.037), mediated by hospitalization before two years and respiratory infection before five years. Lower birth weight showed an increased risk of asthma in adulthood and the SES Birth and Adult SES variables underlie this association.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Peso al Nacer , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiología , Asma/epidemiología , Femenino , Adulto , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Estudios de Cohortes , Factores de Riesgo , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cohorte de Nacimiento , Factores Socioeconómicos , Clase Social , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria , Modelos Teóricos
16.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 332, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745118

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found that total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and allergen-specific IgE were associated with some metabolic diseases. However, the role of IgE in metabolism among adolescents is still unclear. Herein, this study aims to investigate the associations of serum total IgE and allergen-specific IgE with insulin resistance (IR) in adolescents, in order to provide some reference for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases in a young age. METHODS: Data of 870 adolescents were extracted from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database in 2005-2006 in this cross-sectional study. Weighted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were utilized to screen covariates and explore the relationships of serum total IgE and allergen-specific IgE with IR. The evaluation indexes were odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In addition, these relationships were also assessed in subgroups of allergy history, asthma history, and number of allergens. RESULTS: Among eligible adolescents, 168 had IR. No significant association between serum total IgE level and IR was found. However, adolescents with higher level of allergen-specific IgE to rye grass [OR = 0.47, 95%CI: (0.25-0.91)], white oak [OR = 0.57, 95%CI: (0.37-0.88)], or peanut [OR = 0.38, 95%CI: (0.15-0.97)] seemed to have lower odds of IR, whereas those had higher level of shrimp-specific IgE [OR = 2.65, 95%CI: (1.21-5.84)] have increased odds of IR. In addition, these associations between allergen-specific IgE and IR were also discovered in adolescents who had allergy history or asthma history, or had different numbers of allergens. CONCLUSION: Paying attention to different allergens in adolescents may be important in the early identification of IR among this high-risk population. The study results relatively provided some reference for further exploration on IR prevention.


Asunto(s)
Alérgenos , Inmunoglobulina E , Resistencia a la Insulina , Encuestas Nutricionales , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina E/sangre , Inmunoglobulina E/inmunología , Adolescente , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Alérgenos/inmunología , Modelos Logísticos , Niño , Asma/inmunología , Asma/sangre
17.
J Med Syst ; 48(1): 49, 2024 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739297

RESUMEN

Asthma, a common chronic respiratory disease among children and adults, affects more than 200 million people worldwide and causes about 450,000 deaths each year. Machine learning is increasingly applied in healthcare to assist health practitioners in decision-making. In asthma management, machine learning excels in performing well-defined tasks, such as diagnosis, prediction, medication, and management. However, there remain uncertainties about how machine learning can be applied to predict asthma exacerbation. This study aimed to systematically review recent applications of machine learning techniques in predicting the risk of asthma attacks to assist asthma control and management. A total of 860 studies were initially identified from five databases. After the screening and full-text review, 20 studies were selected for inclusion in this review. The review considered recent studies published from January 2010 to February 2023. The 20 studies used machine learning techniques to support future asthma risk prediction by using various data sources such as clinical, medical, biological, and socio-demographic data sources, as well as environmental and meteorological data. While some studies considered prediction as a category, other studies predicted the probability of exacerbation. Only a group of studies applied prediction windows. The paper proposes a conceptual model to summarise how machine learning and available data sources can be leveraged to produce effective models for the early detection of asthma attacks. The review also generated a list of data sources that other researchers may use in similar work. Furthermore, we present opportunities for further research and the limitations of the preceding studies.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Aprendizaje Automático , Asma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Progresión de la Enfermedad
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 16(746): eadk4728, 2024 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718131

RESUMEN

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) rapidly induce a type 2 inflammation in the lungs in response to allergens. Here, we focused on the role of iron, a critical nutritional trace element, on ILC2 function and asthma pathogenesis. We found that transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) is rapidly up-regulated and functional during ILC2 activation in the lungs, and blocking transferrin uptake reduces ILC2 expansion and activation. Iron deprivation reprogrammed ILC2 metabolism, inducing a HIF-1α-driven up-regulation of glycolysis and inhibition of oxidative mitochondrial activity. Consequently, we observed that in vivo iron chelation or induction of hypoferremia reduced the development of airway hyperreactivity in experimental models of ILC2-driven allergic asthma. Human circulating ILC2s rapidly induced TfR1 during activation, whereas inhibition of iron uptake or iron deprivation reduced effector functions. Last, we found a negative relationship between circulating ILC2 TfR1 expression and airway function in cohorts of patients with asthma. Collectively, our studies define cellular iron as a critical regulator of ILC2 function.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Hierro , Linfocitos , Receptores de Transferrina , Receptores de Transferrina/metabolismo , Hierro/metabolismo , Animales , Linfocitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Asma/inmunología , Asma/metabolismo , Pulmón/metabolismo , Pulmón/patología , Inmunidad Innata , Subunidad alfa del Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL
19.
Ter Arkh ; 96(3): 240-245, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713038

RESUMEN

AIM: To assess effectiveness and safety of biological therapy in patients with severe asthma during 5 yr follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 129 adult outpatients (29% males) aged 18-81 yrs with severe asthma were followed up during 5 yrs and were examined for every 3-6 months. Eighty five patients were treated by conventional therapy (ICS/LABA ± tiotropium, montelukast, OCS) only and 44 pts additionally received biologicals (оmalizumab - 9 pts, мepolizumab - 8 pts, benralizumab - 11 pts, dupilumab - 16 pts). Pulmonary function tests were measured by dry spirometer (2120, Vitalograph Ltd., UK). Eosinophil count in blood was assessed by automatic haemoanalyser. Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide was measured by a chemiluminescence analyzer (LR4100; Logan Research, UK). Asthma control and quality of life were assessed by using Russian versions of ACQ-5 and SGRQ. RESULTS: The use of biologicals led to a more significant reduction of exacerbations and OCS use, improvement of lung function, asthma control and quality of life, decrease of eosinophil and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide than conventional therapy of severe asthma (p<0.05). Systemic side effects were not registered, frequency of local adverse reactions (edema, hyperemia and itching at injection site) was 14%. CONCLUSION: Long-term use of biologicals added to conventional therapy in patients with severe asthma is characterized by high effectiveness and favorable safety profile.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Humanos , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Asma/fisiopatología , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/administración & dosificación , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/efectos adversos , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Antiasmáticos/administración & dosificación , Antiasmáticos/efectos adversos , Antiasmáticos/uso terapéutico , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Calidad de Vida , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Anciano , Terapia Biológica/métodos , Terapia Biológica/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven , Adolescente
20.
Ter Arkh ; 96(3): 212-217, 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713034

RESUMEN

AIM: To assess clinical and demographic characteristics of severe asthma (SA) patients and their management in Russian Federation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This publication provides data for Russian part of population of the international observational study. In Phase I, retrospective analysis of medical records of patients with SA was performed with assessment of clinical and demographic data, medical history, comorbidities, treatment approaches and healthcare utilization. Phase II was a cross-sectional collection of patient-reported outcomes: level of asthma control assessed by ACT (Asthma Control Test) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measured using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. Phase I patients were enrolled into Phase II if they signed a written consent form. RESULTS: A total of 315 patients were included in Phase I of the study, 106 (33.6%) of them entered Phase II. Majority of study participants were either obese (n=103; 39.8%) or overweight (n=94; 36.3%). The most common comorbidities were cardiovascular diseases (n=217; 71.4%), followed by chronic respiratory diseases (n=198; 68.8%). There were 268 (85.1%) patients who had at least one exacerbation during last 12 months. Data for blood eosinophil count were available in 176 patients; 81.3% of them (n=143) had only one test in the last 12 months. The mean (SD) last available blood eosinophil count was 161.2 (181.2) cells/mm3. Serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) value was known for 88 patients, and the mean (SD) last measured IgE value was 254.3 (249.7) ng/mL. Only 4.7% of Phase II participants had ACT scores indicative of controlled asthma (>20). As much as 74.5% had scores ≤15 suggesting uncontrolled disease. Most patients also had impaired HRQoL. CONCLUSION: Most SA patients had poor disease control with frequent exacerbations and high number of comorbidities. Blood eosinophils and IgE level measurements were not evaluated routinely which might be a barrier for appropriate phenotyping and treatment selection.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Asma/epidemiología , Asma/terapia , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Comorbilidad , Costo de Enfermedad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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