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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246087, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720944

RESUMEN

AIM: To identify laboratory biomarkers that predict disease severity and outcome among COVID-19 patients admitted to the Millennium COVID-19 Care Center in Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 429 COVID-19 patients who were on follow up from July to October 2020. Data was described using frequency tables. Robust Poisson regression model was used to identify predictors of COVID-19 severity where adjusted relative risk (ARR), P-value and 95 CI for ARR were used to test significance. Binary Logistic regression model was used to assess the presence of statistically significant association between the explanatory variables and COVID-19 outcome where adjusted odds ratio (AOR), P-value and 95%CI for AOR were used for testing significance. RESULTS: Among the 429 patients studied, 182 (42.4%) had Severe disease at admission and the rest 247 (57.6%) had Non-severe disease. Regarding disease outcome, 45 (10.5%) died and 384 (89.5%) were discharged alive. Age group (ARR = 1.779, 95%CI = 1.405-2.252, p-value <0.0001), Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (ARR = 4.769, 95%CI = 2.419-9.402 p-value <0.0001), Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (ARR = 1.358, 95%CI = 1.109-1.662 p-value = 0.003), Sodium (ARR = 1.321, 95%CI = 1.091-1.600 p-value = 0.004) and Potassium (ARR = 1.269, 95%CI = 1.059-1.521 p-value = 0.010) were found to be significant predictors of COVID-19 severity. The following factors were significantly associated with COVID-19 outcome; age group (AOR = 2.767, 95%CI = 1.099-6.067, p-value = 0.031), white blood cell count (WBC) (AOR = 4.253, 95%CI = 1.918-9.429, p-value = 0.0001) and sodium level (AOR = 3.435, 95%CI = 1.439-8.198, p-value = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Assessing and monitoring the laboratory markers of WBC, NLR, SGOT, sodium and potassium levels at the earliest stage of the disease could have a considerable role in halting disease progression and death.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/análisis , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Comorbilidad , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Linfocitos/citología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neutrófilos/citología , Oportunidad Relativa , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
2.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(2): 535-541, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711574

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been an extremely difficult pandemic to contain and it has affected more than 148 countries worldwide. The main aim of this systematic review is to provide a comprehensive summary of clinical and laboratory parameters that are associated with and indicative of increased severity among COVID-19 patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the available data from high-quality research articles relevant to the epidemiology, demographics, trends in hospitalization and outcomes, clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic methods and treatment methods of COVID-19 were retrieved and evaluated for inclusion. RESULTS: As per our review, the mean age of patients in the severe group was 59.3 years compared to 46.5 years in non severe group. COVID-19 was more severe among men than women. Clinical presentation was variable among different studies. and dyspnea was the factor indicating severe disease. Laboratory parameters associated with increased severity were lymphopenia <0.8 × 109/L, thrombocytopenia 100 × 109/L, leucocytosis TC > 11 × 109/L, procalcitonin >0.5 ng/mL, d dimer >2 mcg/mL, aspartate transaminase elevation >150U/L, LDH >250U/L. CONCLUSION: This systematic review suggests that COVID-19 is a disease with varied clinical presentation and laboratory parameters. The commonest clinical symptoms were fever, cough and dyspnea. The laboratory parameters associated with severe disease were lymphopenia, elevated LDH, D dimer and Procalcitonin.


Asunto(s)
Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/metabolismo , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/sangre , Leucocitosis/sangre , Linfopenia/sangre , Polipéptido alfa Relacionado con Calcitonina/sangre , Trombocitopenia/sangre , /epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Tos/fisiopatología , Disnea/fisiopatología , Fiebre/fisiopatología , Humanos , Respiración Artificial , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e24884, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761646

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent chronic liver disease characterized by excess accumulation of fat in hepatocytes. Because no drug has been approved for NAFLD treatment, this work analyzed the effects of agents resulting from 2 research hotspots, metabolic target agents, and natural plant drugs, on NAFLD with network meta-analysis. METHODS: Public databases were searched through August 14, 2020. Randomized controlled trials that compared obeticholic acid, elafibranor, cenicriviroc, selonsertib, curcumin, silymarin, and resveratrol to placebo were included. Liver pathology improvement, hepatic biochemical indicators, and lipid metabolism indicators were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Obeticholic acid was found to significantly increase the frequency of liver biopsy improvement compared to placebo (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.60, 2.77). The ranking results among the hepatic biochemical indicators showed that obeticholic acid (94.9%) and elafibranor (86.3%) have a relative advantage in reducing alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, and obeticholic acid also had an advantage (95.4%) in reducing aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. Considering lipid metabolic indicators, elafibranor (expSMD: 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.05; SUCRA: 100%), and obeticholic acid (expSMD: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28,0.84; SUCRA: 75.6%) significantly reduced triglyceride (TG) levels compared with placebo; moreover, obeticholic acid, but not elafibranor, caused a serious increase in total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. CONCLUSIONS: Novel metabolic targeted agents generally have better effects than natural plant drugs, especially obeticholic acid, and elafibranor. However, obeticholic acid showed serious adverse effects such as increasing LDL-C levels and decreasing HDL-C levels. Curcumin showed potential advantages for NAFLD but lacked statistical significance.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Preparaciones de Plantas/uso terapéutico , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Chalconas/uso terapéutico , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/efectos adversos , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/uso terapéutico , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , HDL-Colesterol/efectos de los fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/efectos de los fármacos , Curcumina/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Metaanálisis en Red , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/sangre , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/enzimología , Propionatos/uso terapéutico , Triglicéridos/sangre
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e23931, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725927

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is very commonly performed among the cardiovascular surgeries, and delayed recovery (DR) is a kind of serious complications in patients with CPB. It is necessary to assess the risk factors for DR in patients with CPB, to provide evidence into the management of CPB patients.Patients undergoing CPB in our hospital from January 2018 to March 2020 were included. Cases that consciousness has not recovered 12 hours after anesthesia were considered as DR. The preoperative and intraoperative variables of CPB patients were collected and analyzed. Logistic regressions were conducted to analyze the potential influencing factor.A total of 756 CPB patients were included, and the incidence of DR was 9.79%. There were significant differences on the age, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamic pvruvic transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCr) between patients with and without DR (all P < .05); there were no significant differences in the types of surgical procedure (all P > .05); there were significant differences on the duration of CPB, duration of aortic cross clamp (ACC), duration of surgery, minimum nasopharyngeal temperature, and transfusion of packed red blood cells between patients with and without DR (all P < .05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that duration of CPB ≥132 minutes (odds ratio [OR] 4.12, 1.02-8.33), BUN ≥9 mmol/L (OR 4.05, 1.37-8.41), infusion of red blood cell suspension (OR 3.93, 1.25-7.63), duration of surgery ≥350 minutes (OR 3.17, 1.24-5.20), age ≥6 (OR 3.01, 1.38-6.84) were the independent risk factors for DR in patients with CPB (all P < .05).Extra attention and care are needed for those CPB patients with duration of CPB ≥132 minutes, BUN ≥9 mmol/L, infusion of red blood cell suspension, duration of surgery ≥350 minutes, and age ≥60.


Asunto(s)
Puente Cardiopulmonar/efectos adversos , Retraso en el Despertar Posanestésico/epidemiología , Retraso en el Despertar Posanestésico/etiología , Anciano , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Transfusión Sanguínea/estadística & datos numéricos , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Creatinina/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Tempo Operativo , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 672-680, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545796

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The novel 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) has largely abated in China; however, sporadic or imported cases are still a concern, while in other countries, the COVID-19 pandemic persists as a major health crisis. METHODS: All patients enrolled in this study were diagnosed with COVID-19 from February 21, 2020 to April 14, 2020 in Wuhan. We retrospectively analyzed the patients admitted to the ICU (137 patients) and general wards (114 patients) of Wuhan Leishenshan Hospital in China. The population characteristics, symptoms, and laboratory examination results between the patients in the ICU and those in the general wards were compared. Furthermore, the differences between the deceased patients in the ICU and those discharged from the ICU were compared. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of symptoms, including fever, shortness of breath, no presence of complications, presence of 1 complication, and presence of 3 or more complications (P<0.05). There were also significant differences between the patients in terms of the laboratory examination results including elevated urea nitrogen, creatinine, direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, albumin, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cells, C-reactive protein, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, interleukin 2 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α, troponin I, phosphokinase isoenzyme-MB, and B-type natriuretic peptide; and decreased platelets, lymphocyte absolute value, and eosinophil absolute value (<0.05). There were 45 patients who died in ICU and 57 improved and discharged patients. There were significant differences between the two groups in the number of patients that had 1 complication and 3 or more complications (P<0.05). There were also significant differences in the laboratory examination results between the patients including elevated urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, procalcitonin, white blood cells, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, phosphokinase isoenzyme-MB, and B-type natriuretic peptide; and decreased platelets and eosinophil absolute value (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight that the identified determinants may help to improve treatment of COVID-19 patients, to predict the risk of developing severe illness and to optimizing arrangement of health resources.


Asunto(s)
/sangre , Hospitalización , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Bilirrubina/sangre , Recuento de Células Sanguíneas , Pruebas de Coagulación Sanguínea , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análisis , Sedimentación Sanguínea , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Creatina Quinasa/sangre , Creatinina/análisis , Citocinas/sangre , Femenino , Fiebre/virología , Humanos , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Péptido Natriurético Encefálico/sangre , Polipéptido alfa Relacionado con Calcitonina/sangre , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
6.
J Int Med Res ; 49(2): 300060521990248, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541176

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Lead is a toxic heavy metal, which causes irreversible damage in children. Oxidative stress is the underlying mechanism of lead toxicity, and monitoring oxidative stress of lead poisoning children in vivo is important. Our study aimed to investigate blood serum levels of biochemical parameters, including albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, and uric acid, which are regarded as non-enzymatic antioxidants, in children with lead poisoning. METHODS: We studied 355 children with lead poisoning and 355 age- and sex-matched controls. We analyzed clinical characteristics and measured serum levels of total protein, globulin, albumin, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine. RESULTS: We found that albumin, bilirubin, urea, and creatinine levels were significantly lower and AST, total protein, and globulin levels were higher in children with lead poisoning than in controls. Direct bilirubin, albumin, total protein, urea, creatinine, and AST levels were associated with lead poisoning after adjustment for other covariates. Spearman analysis showed that direct bilirubin, albumin, and urea levels were independent indicators (i.e., not related to hemoglobin or weight), while creatinine levels showed a moderate correlation with weight. CONCLUSION: Lead interferes with the non-enzymatic antioxidant system in children, and lead poisoning results in a decrease in serum bilirubin levels.


Asunto(s)
Bilirrubina/sangre , Intoxicación por Plomo/sangre , Plomo/toxicidad , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Creatinina/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Albúmina Sérica Humana/análisis , Ácido Úrico/sangre
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 816, 2021 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547301

RESUMEN

Serum liver enzyme concentrations are the most frequently-used laboratory markers of liver disease, a major cause of mortality. We conduct a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of liver enzymes from UK BioBank and BioBank Japan. We identified 160 previously-unreported independent alanine aminotransferase, 190 aspartate aminotransferase, and 199 alkaline phosphatase genome-wide significant associations, with some affecting multiple different enzymes. Associated variants implicate genes that demonstrate diverse liver cell type expression and promote a range of metabolic and liver diseases. These findings provide insight into the pathophysiology of liver and other metabolic diseases that are associated with serum liver enzyme concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Alanina Transaminasa/genética , Fosfatasa Alcalina/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/genética , Genoma Humano , Hepatopatías/genética , Hígado/enzimología , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Fosfatasa Alcalina/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Células Endoteliales/enzimología , Células Endoteliales/patología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Hepatocitos/enzimología , Hepatocitos/patología , Humanos , Japón , Células Asesinas Naturales/enzimología , Células Asesinas Naturales/patología , Macrófagos del Hígado/enzimología , Macrófagos del Hígado/patología , Hígado/patología , Hepatopatías/sangre , Hepatopatías/clasificación , Hepatopatías/patología , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo , Carácter Cuantitativo Heredable , Análisis de la Célula Individual , Reino Unido
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24723, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578617

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: This study objected to evaluate the accuracy of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-platelet ratio (GPR), aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), red cell distribution width (RDW), and fibrosis-4 index (FIB4) index, compared with liver biopsy (LB), in predicting the severity of inflammation in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) patients.We evaluated patients with DILI who were followed at the First Hospital of Jilin University and underwent LB. Accuracy of each method was analyzed using ROC analysis. Classifications of liver inflammation included G0-4.One hundred fifty six DILI patients were included with LB and complete medical records. 62.8% (98), 39.1% (61), and 16.7% (26) were classified as ≥G2, ≥G3, or G4, respectively. The AUROCs, by degree of inflammation, were: ≥G2: GPR: 0.654, RDW: 0.635, APRI: 0.728, and FIB4: 0.739; ≥G3: GPR: 0.623, RDW: 0.703, APRI: 0.777, and FIB4: 0.781; and G4: GPR: 0.556, RDW: 0.647, APRI: 0.729, and FIB4: 0.714. To predict ≥G2 inflammation, there were no differences between the AUROCs for GPR, RDW, APRI, and FIB4. To predict ≥G3 inflammation, the AUROCs for FIB4 and APRI were higher than that for GPR (0.781 vs 0.623, P < .01; 0.777 vs 0.623, P < .05). As for G4 inflammation, the AUROCs for FIB4 and APRI were also higher than GPR (0.714 vs 0.556, P < .05, 0.729 vs 0.556, P < .05).When the level of inflammation was higher than G2 in patients with DILI, it could be predicted using APRI and FIB4 as non-invasive markers for this condition.


Asunto(s)
Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/sangre , Índices de Eritrocitos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , gamma-Glutamiltransferasa/sangre , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Biopsia , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/complicaciones , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/enzimología , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/patología , Femenino , Hepatitis/etiología , Humanos , Hígado/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recuento de Plaquetas
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4304, 2021 02 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619362

RESUMEN

To determine the correlation between the clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings and the hospitalization days in Coronavirus Infectious Disease-19 (COVID-19) discharged patients. We retrospectively identified 172 discharged patients with COVID-19 pneumonia from January 10, 2020, to February 28, 2020, in Hunan province. The patients were categorized into group 1 (≤ 19 days) and group 2 (> 19 days) based on the time from symptom onset to discharge. Cough during admission occurred more commonly in group 2 (68.4%) than in group 1 (53.1%, p = 0.042). White blood cell (p = 0.045), neutrophil counts (p = 0.023), Alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.029), Aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.027) and Lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.021) that were above normal were more common in group 2. Patients with single lesions were observed more in group 1(17.7%, p = 0.018) and multiple lesions observed more in group 2(86.8%, p = 0.012). The number of lobes involved (p = 0.008) in the CT score (p = 0.001) for each patient was all differences between the two groups with a statistically significant difference. Mixed ground-glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation appearances were observed in most patients. GGO components > consolidation appearance was more common in group 1 (25.0%) than in group 2 (8.0%) with a significant difference (0.015), GGO < consolidation was more common in group 2(71.1%, p = 0.012). From the logistic regression analysis, the CT score (OR, 1.223; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.491, p = 0.046) and the appearance of GGO > consolidation (OR, 0.150; 95% CI, 0.034 to 0.660, p = 0.012) were independently associated with the hospitalization days. Thus, special attention should be paid to the role of radiological features in monitoring the disease prognosis.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico por imagen , /patología , Adulto , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , China , Femenino , Humanos , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Pronóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 14, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407216

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The levels of serum D-dimer (D-D) in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) were assessed to explore the clinical significance of D-D levels in refractory MPP (RMPP). METHOD: A total of 430 patients with MPP were enrolled between January 2015 and December 2015 and divided into a general MPP (GMPP) group (n = 306) and a RMPP group (n = 124). Clinical data, D-D level, white blood cell (WBC) count, proportion of neutrophils (N%), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were compared between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of RMPP. RESULTS: (1) Hospitalization time, preadmission fever duration, total fever duration, WBC, N %, CRP, LDH, ESR, ALT, AST, and D-D were significantly higher in the RMPP group than those in the GMPP group (all P < 0.05). (2) Correlation analysis showed that D-D was positively correlated with WBC, CRP, ESR, and LDH, and could be used to jointly evaluate the severity of the disease. (3) Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified preadmission fever duration, CRP, LDH and DD as independent risk factors for RMPP (all P < 0. 05). D-D had the highest predictive power for RMPP (P < 0.01). The D-D level also had a good ability to predict pleural effusion and liver injury (all P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Serum D-D levels were significantly increased in patients with RMPP, indicating that excessive inflammatory response and vascular endothelial injury with prolonged duration existed in this patient population. Increased levels of serum D-D may be used as an early predictor of RMPP and the occurrence of complications. Our findings provide a theoretical basis for the early diagnosis of RMPP, early intervention and excessive inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of mycoplasma.


Asunto(s)
Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/análisis , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/sangre , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Sedimentación Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/sangre , Recuento de Leucocitos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Neutrófilos/patología , Derrame Pleural/etiología , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/complicaciones , Neumonía por Mycoplasma/microbiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
11.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 933-947, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480574

RESUMEN

The blue iguana (Cyclura lewisi) is an endangered rock iguana species native to Grand Cayman, in the Cayman Islands. Health assessments were conducted on captive and free-roaming iguanas in 2001 and 2003-2014 and were performed in the summer wet season (June-July) of 2003-2004 and 2010-2014 and in the winter dry season (November-December) of 2001 and 2005-2009. Morphometric data were recorded from iguanas when blood samples were collected: 903 samples were collected and data from 890 samples from 775 iguanas were included. Samples were analyzed for hematology, plasma biochemistry, protein electrophoresis, mineral panels, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and testosterone. Reference intervals were created for captive subadults, captive adults, and free-roaming adults when data were sufficient. Significant differences among these groups were described, as were differences on the basis of sex, season, and origin (captive vs free-roaming). In captive iguanas, most analytes were significantly different between subadults and adults, mature heterophils and copper were significantly higher in the dry season, zinc levels were significantly higher in the wet season, and cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher in adult females than adult males. Testosterone in adult males was significantly higher in the dry season. These results will aid in future health assessments and disease investigations in wild and captive populations of blue iguanas and are of comparative value for other Cyclura species that are free-roaming, captive, and, especially, in similar conservation release programs.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Electroforesis/veterinaria , Recuento de Eritrocitos/veterinaria , Hematócrito/veterinaria , Iguanas/sangre , Recuento de Leucocitos/veterinaria , Amilasas/sangre , Animales , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Glucemia , Nitrógeno de la Urea Sanguínea , Cloruros/sangre , Colesterol/sangre , Creatina Quinasa/sangre , Creatinina/sangre , Electrólitos/sangre , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/sangre , Minerales/sangre , Valores de Referencia , Indias Occidentales
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401717

RESUMEN

Risperidone, a second-generation antipsychotic drug used for schizophrenia treatment with less-severe side effects, has recently been applied in major depressive disorder treatment. The mechanism underlying risperidone-associated metabolic disturbances and liver and renal adverse effects warrants further exploration. This research explores how risperidone influences weight, glucose homeostasis, fatty liver scores, liver damage, and renal impairment in high-fat diet (HFD)-administered C57BL6/J mice. Compared with HFD control mice, risperidone-treated obese mice exhibited increases in body, liver, kidney, and retroperitoneal and epididymal fat pad weights, daily food efficiency, serum triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, hepatic triglyceride, and aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels, and hepatic fatty acid regulation marker expression. They also exhibited increased insulin resistance and glucose intolerance but decreased serum insulin levels, Akt phosphorylation, and glucose transporter 4 expression. Moreover, their fatty liver score and liver damage demonstrated considerable increases, corresponding to increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 mRNA, fatty acid-binding protein 4 mRNA, and patatin-like phospholipid domain containing protein 3 expression. Finally, these mice demonstrated renal impairment, associated with decreases in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels. In conclusion, long-term administration of risperidone may exacerbate diabetes syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and kidney injury.


Asunto(s)
Intolerancia a la Glucosa/metabolismo , Insulina/sangre , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/enzimología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , Risperidona/farmacología , Adipocitos/citología , Adipocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Animales , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Catalasa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Unión al ADN/metabolismo , Ácido Graso Sintasas/sangre , Proteínas de Unión a Ácidos Grasos/genética , Proteínas de Unión a Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Resistencia a la Insulina , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Obesos , Fosfolipasas A2 Calcio-Independiente/metabolismo , Fosforilación , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Unión a los Elementos Reguladores de Esteroles/genética , Proteína 1 de Unión a los Elementos Reguladores de Esteroles/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa-1/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo , Triglicéridos/sangre
14.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 83: 103597, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493675

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to confirm the limit of salinity tolerance in juvenile olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) by changes in blood parameters, AChE, antioxidant and stress responses. The P. olivaceus (mean weight 38.8 ± 4.2 g and mean length 16.4 ± 1.2 cm) were exposed to different concentrations of salinity (seawater, 16, 8, 4, 2, and 0 psu) for 2 weeks. Plasma osmotic pressure was significantly decreased in the P. olivaceus at 0 psu. Hematological parameters such as hematocrit and hemoglobin were significantly decreased in the P. olivaceus at low salinity. Plasma components also changed significantly in the low salinity environment. As a stress indicator, cortisol was significantly increased at low salinity. SOD and GST antioxidant responses, were significantly increased. GSH level in the liver was significantly increased, whereas a significant decrease was observed in the gill GSH level. AChE was significantly increased in P. olivaceus at low salinity. The results of this study indicate that exposure to salinities lower than 8 psu leads to changes in hematological parameters, neurotransmitter, antioxidant and stress responses of P. olivaceus.


Asunto(s)
Lenguado/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Salinidad , Acetilcolinesterasa/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Fosfatasa Alcalina/sangre , Animales , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Proteínas de Peces/metabolismo , Lenguado/sangre , Branquias/efectos de los fármacos , Branquias/metabolismo , Glutatión/metabolismo , Glutatión Transferasa/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
15.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(6): 304-312, 2021 Jan 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390570

RESUMEN

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) remains lethal as a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Inflammatory responses play an important role in aGvHD. 5-Aminolevulinic acid combined with sodium ferrous citrate (5-ALA/SFC) has been widely reported to have a major effect on the anti-inflammatory response; however, these effects in aGvHD models have never been reported. In this study, a murine aGvHD model was developed by transferring spleen cells from donor B6/N (H-2kb) mice into recipient B6D2F1 (H-2kb/d) mice. In addition to evaluating manifestations in aGvHD mice, we analyzed the serum ALT/AST levels, liver pathological changes, infiltrating cells and mRNA expression of inflammation-related cytokines and chemokines. 5-ALA/SFC treatment significantly ameliorated liver injury due to aGvHD and decreased the population of liver-infiltrating T cells, resulting in a reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Furthermore, the mRNA expression proliferator-activated receptor-γcoactivator (PGC-1α) was enhanced, which might explain why 5-ALA/SFC treatment downregulates inflammatory signaling pathways. Our results indicated that 5-ALA/SFC can ameliorate liver injury induced by aGvHD through the activation of PGC-1α and modulation of the liver mRNA expression of inflammatory-related cytokines and chemokines. This may be a novel strategy for treating this disease.


Asunto(s)
Citocinas/genética , Compuestos Ferrosos/administración & dosificación , Enfermedad Injerto contra Huésped/tratamiento farmacológico , Ácidos Levulínicos/administración & dosificación , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Coactivador 1-alfa del Receptor Activado por Proliferadores de Peroxisomas gamma/genética , Regulación hacia Arriba , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Animales , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Quimioterapia Combinada , Compuestos Ferrosos/química , Compuestos Ferrosos/farmacología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedad Injerto contra Huésped/etiología , Enfermedad Injerto contra Huésped/genética , Ácidos Levulínicos/farmacología , Hígado/inmunología , Hígado/patología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Citrato de Sodio/química , Linfocitos T/metabolismo , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
Clin Lab ; 67(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491433

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, a series of pneumonia cases caused by COVID-19 emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. People are generally susceptible to COVID-19 because people lack immunity to this new virus. With the spread of this epidemic disease from Wuhan, a national outbreak soon appeared, and now many countries have this disease. Unfortunately, no effective drug for COVID-19 treatment has been found so far. METHODS: We designed a retrospective study based on patients admitted to The Affiliated Infectious Hospital of Soochow University from January 22, 2020, to February 25, 2020, with diagnosed COVID-19. We analyzed correlations between RT-PCR negative time and laboratory indicators, then divided all cases into 2 groups according to oxygenation index, data of RT-PCR negative time and related laboratory indicators of the two groups were com-pared. RESULTS: We collected 84 confirmed patients whose RT-PCR had turned negative, including 23 patients with the lowest oxygenation index ≤ 300 mmHg and 61 patients had > 300 mmHg. There was a positive correlation between the RT-PCR negative time and age, WBC count, LDH, SCr. There were statistically significant differences in fever numbers, WBC count, lymphocyte count, CRP, ALT, AST, albumin, LDH, SCr, D-dimer, and fibrinogen between the two groups based on the oxygenation index. CONCLUSIONS: Age, WBC count, LDH, and SCr may be related to the duration of COVID-19 disease. Fever, WBC count, lymphocyte count, CRP, ALT, AST, albumin, LDH, SCr, D-dimer, and fibrinogen are related to the severity of acute lung injury.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Pulmonar Aguda/diagnóstico , Análisis Químico de la Sangre , /complicaciones , Lesión Pulmonar Aguda/sangre , Lesión Pulmonar Aguda/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Biomarcadores/sangre , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , /virología , Niño , Preescolar , China , Creatinina/sangre , Femenino , Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/análisis , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/sangre , Recuento de Leucocitos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oxígeno/sangre , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Estudios Retrospectivos , Albúmina Sérica Humana/análisis , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
17.
Anticancer Res ; 41(1): 429-436, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419840

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: The Aspartate aminotransaminase/Alanine aminotransaminase ratio (AST/ALT ratio) has been identified as a prognostic marker for several malignancies. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of the AST/ALT ratio in a large cohort of non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients (CRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 536 patients with stage II and III CRC, as well as available AST/ALT ratio were included in this single-center retrospective analysis. Laboratory data were measured within two weeks before histological tumor diagnosis. Co-Primary endpoints for this analysis were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: In univariate cox regression DFS was significantly shorter in patients with an elevated AST/ALT ratio (HR=1.568, 95%CI=1.10-2.23, p=0.012). In multivariable analysis, the prognostic association between an elevated AST/ALT ratio and a poor survival prevailed statistically significant (HR=1.53, 95%C=1.05-2.22, p=0.026). No statistically significant association between the AST/ALT ratio and OS was observed (HR=1.4, 95% CI=0.89-2.22, p=0.14). CONCLUSION: In this study, the serum AST/ALT ratio emerged as a valid prognostic marker for DFS in non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients at stage II and III.


Asunto(s)
Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Biomarcadores de Tumor , Neoplasias Colorrectales/sangre , Neoplasias Colorrectales/mortalidad , Anciano , Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(2): 414-425, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386433

RESUMEN

The hepatotoxic effects of sub-lethal concentrations of atrazine (2.5, 25, 250, and 500 µg L-1) on Clarias gariepinus juveniles were assessed for 28 days in a quality-controlled laboratory procedure. The study was designed to determine the effects of atrazine on selected liver function biomarkers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (ALB) and total protein (TP), and to analyze the liver tissues of the fish using a quantitative and qualitative histology-based health assessment protocol. The levels of ALB and TP in exposed specimens were observed to decrease with increasing concentrations of atrazine. However, the activities of ALT, AST, and ALP showed significant (p < 0.05) increase with increasing concentrations of atrazine. Hepatic assessment of the liver tissues revealed marked histopathological alterations, including structural changes (necrotic/apoptotic liver tissue, poor hepatic cord structure, and loss of normal architecture) in 52.2% of the liver tissues in the treatment groups; plasma alterations (vacuolation or fat inclusions, 22.9%) of hepatocytes; hypertrophied hepatocyte (55.2%); nuclear alterations (52.1%); focal necrosis (16.7%); complete degeneration of hepatocytes (60.45%); sinusoids congested with red blood cells or vascular congestion (70.8%); and karyolysis of the nucleus (18.8%). Findings from this study suggest that atrazine interferes with liver function markers and disrupts the normal architectural and structural components of the liver resulting in noninfectious liver injury. This condition resulted in repeated cycles, cell deaths, and inflammation, which could result in the eventual death of the exposed fish if exposure duration was prolonged.


Asunto(s)
Atrazina/toxicidad , Bagres/fisiología , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Animales , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bagres/metabolismo , Eritrocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo
19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 534: 34-40, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310185

RESUMEN

Abnormal crosstalk between gut immune and the liver was involved in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Mice with methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH presented an imbalance of pro-(IL-6 and IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) in the intestine. We also clarified that the ratio of CD4+ T cells and found that the NASH mesenteric lymph node (MLN) presents decreased numbers of CD4+Th17 cells but increased numbers of CD4+CD8+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, the intestinal immune imbalance in NASH was attributed to impaired gut chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9)/chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25) signalling, which is a crucial pathway for immune cell homing in the gut. We also demonstrated that CD4+CCR9+ T cell homing was dependent on CCL25 and that the numbers and migration abilities of CD4+CCR9+ T cells were reduced in NASH. Interestingly, the analysis of dendritic cell (DC) subsets showed that the numbers and retinal dehydrogenase (RALDH) activity of CD103+CD11b+ DCs were decreased and that the ability of these cells to upregulate CD4+ T cell CCR9 expression was damaged in NASH. Taken together, impaired intestinal CCR9/CCL25 signalling induced by CD103+CD11b+ DC dysfunction contributes to the gut immune imbalance observed in NASH.


Asunto(s)
Quimiocinas CC/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/inmunología , Intestinos/inmunología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/inmunología , Receptores CCR/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Animales , Antígenos CD/inmunología , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Antígeno CD11b/inmunología , Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/inmunología , Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/patología , Quimiocinas CC/genética , Deficiencia de Colina/complicaciones , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Cadenas alfa de Integrinas/inmunología , Cadenas alfa de Integrinas/metabolismo , Intestinos/fisiopatología , Masculino , Metionina/deficiencia , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , Receptores CCR/genética , Transducción de Señal
20.
Biosci Rep ; 41(1)2021 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350432

RESUMEN

Millions of people infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been diagnosed with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19). The prevalence and severity of COVID-19 differ between sexes. To explain these differences, we analyzed clinical features and laboratory values in male and female COVID-19 patients. The present study included a cohort of 111 people, i.e. 36 COVID-19 patients, 54 sex- and age-matched common viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients, and 21 healthy controls. Monocyte counts, lymphocyte subset counts, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the peripheral blood were analyzed. Higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, monocyte counts, and CRP and ALT levels were found in male COVID-19 patients. Decreased lymphocyte subset counts and proportions were observed in COVID-19 patients, except for the CD3+ and CD8+ T cell proportions. The lower CD4+ T cell proportions and higher CD8+ T cell proportions were observed in male and severe COVID-19 patients and the differences were independent of estrogen level. The CD4+ T cell proportion was negatively associated with the CD8+ T cell proportion in male COVID-19 patients; this correlation was non-significant in females. Our work demonstrates differences between sexes in circulating monocyte counts and CD4+ T cell and CD8+ T cell proportions in COVID-19 patients, independent of estrogen levels, are associated with the clinical manifestations in COVID-19 patients with high specificity.


Asunto(s)
/inmunología , Inmunidad Innata , Linfocitos/virología , Monocitos/virología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , /patogenicidad , Adulto , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Proteína C-Reactiva/metabolismo , Relación CD4-CD8 , /virología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas , Estradiol/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Recuento de Leucocitos , Linfocitos/inmunología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Monocitos/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/patología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales
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