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1.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 35-44, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414549

RESUMEN

Little is known about the genetic architecture of traits affecting educational attainment other than cognitive ability. We used genomic structural equation modeling and prior genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of educational attainment (n = 1,131,881) and cognitive test performance (n = 257,841) to estimate SNP associations with educational attainment variation that is independent of cognitive ability. We identified 157 genome-wide-significant loci and a polygenic architecture accounting for 57% of genetic variance in educational attainment. Noncognitive genetics were enriched in the same brain tissues and cell types as cognitive performance, but showed different associations with gray-matter brain volumes. Noncognitive genetics were further distinguished by associations with personality traits, less risky behavior and increased risk for certain psychiatric disorders. For socioeconomic success and longevity, noncognitive and cognitive-performance genetics demonstrated associations of similar magnitude. By conducting a GWAS of a phenotype that was not directly measured, we offer a view of genetic architecture of noncognitive skills influencing educational success.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Toma de Decisiones , Escolaridad , Fertilidad , Humanos , Inteligencia , Trastornos Mentales/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Anotación de Secuencia Molecular , Herencia Multifactorial/genética , Personalidad , Fenotipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Asunción de Riesgos
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190006, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1145143

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the sexual practices adopted by university students for the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections Method: a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted in 2016, at a private university in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A convenience sample was selected, stratified by gender, of 768 students who answered a self-administered questionnaire, structured with variables of sociodemographic characterization and related to knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, sexual practices, prevention practices and care with sexual health. In the analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and analysis of variance were used, with a significance level of 5%. Results: most of the university students ‒ 654 (85.16%) ‒ had an active sex life and 480 (62.54%) did not use condoms in all their sexual encounters. Among the participants, 509 (84.83%) said they had sexual intercourse with a steady partner, of which 224 (44.01%) used a condom. In the investigated group, 313 (47.86%) had relationships with casual partners, with 199 (63.58%) reporting having used a condom. Among the participants, 174 (26.61%) had their sexual practices classified as adequate/satisfactory. Conclusion: the findings show that the university students investigated present a risk behavior for Sexually Transmitted Infections due to inadequate/unsatisfactory sexual practices. Health education actions should consider cultural and individual aspects of the group in order to encourage reflection on practices for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar las prácticas sexuales adoptadas por estudiantes universitarios para prevenir Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual. Método: estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y transversal, realizado en el año 2016 en una universidad privada del municipio de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. Ajustada por conveniencia y estratificada por sexo, la muestra estuvo compuesta por 768 estudiantes que respondieron un cuestionario autoaplicado, estructurado con variables de caracterización sociodemográfica y relacionadas con el conocimiento sobre infecciones de transmisión sexual, prácticas sexuales, prácticas de prevención y cuidados con la salud sexual. En el análisis se empleó la estadística descriptiva, pruebas de Chi-cuadrado y análisis de variancia, con un nivel de significancia del 5%. Resultados: la mayoría de los universitarios ‒ 654 (85,16%) ‒ tenía una vida sexual activa y 480 (62,54%) no usaban preservativo en todos sus encuentros sexuales. Entre los participantes, 509 (84,83%) afirmaron tener relaciones sexuales con una pareja fija y, de ellos, 224 (44,01%) utilizaban preservativo. En el grupo investigado, 313 (47,86%) tuvieron relaciones con parejas casuales, y 199 (63,58%) declararon haber usado preservativo. Entre los participantes, las prácticas sexuales de 174 (26,61%) de ellos se clasificaron como adecuadas/satisfactorias. Conclusión: las conclusiones del estudio evidencian que los universitarios investigados presentan un comportamiento de riesgo para contraer Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual como resultado de prácticas sexuales inadecuadas/insatisfactorias. Las medidas de educación en salud deben considerar aspectos culturales e individuales del grupo para favorecer la reflexión sobre las prácticas de prevención de enfermedades de transmisión sexual.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar as práticas sexuais adotadas por estudantes universitários para prevenção de Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis Método: estudo quantitativo, descritivo e transversal, realizado em 2016, em uma universidade privada no município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Selecionou-se amostra por conveniência, estratificada por sexo, de 768 estudantes que responderam a um questionário autoaplicado, estruturado com variáveis de caracterização sociodemográfica e relacionadas ao conhecimento sobre infecções sexualmente transmissíveis, práticas sexuais, práticas de prevenção e cuidados com a saúde sexual. Na análise, empregou-se a estatística descritiva, testes de quiquadrado e análise de variância, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: a maioria dos universitários ‒ 654(85,16%) ‒ tinha vida sexual ativa e 480(62,54%) não fazia uso do preservativo em todos os intercursos sexuais. Entre os participantes, 509(84,83%) afirmaram ter relação sexual com parceiro fixo, dos quais 224(44,01%) utilizaram o preservativo. No grupo investigado, 313(47,86%) tiveram relações com parceiros casuais, sendo que 199 (63,58%) informaram ter usado o preservativo. Entre os participantes, 174(26,61%) tiveram suas práticas sexuais classificadas como adequadas/satisfatórias. Conclusão: os achados evidenciam que os universitários investigados apresentam um comportamento de risco para Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis decorrente de práticas sexuais inadequadas/insatisfatórias. Ações de educação em saúde devem considerar aspectos culturais e individuais do grupo para favorecer a reflexão sobre as práticas de prevenção de doenças transmitidas pelo sexo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Prevención Primaria , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Adulto Joven , Salud Sexual
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22236, 2020 12 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335136

RESUMEN

Covid-19 pandemic is exerting a tragic impact all around the world. First-person experience of life-threatening and stressful events can modify individuals' risk perception, and, consequently, risk-taking behaviours. Here we investigated risk-taking profiles in 130 Italian residents, and compared healthcare to non-healthcare workers, during the lockdown phase. We ad hoc developed the "Covid-19 Risk Task", including the classic monetary Holt-Laury Paired Lottery Task (Monetary Condition, MC) and two new ecological conditions exploring Covid-19 related risk-taking aptitudes in relation to different health (Health Status Condition, HsC) and employment (Employment Status Condition, EsC) outcomes. Results showed that, in the whole sample, individuals were more risk-averse in MC than in HsC and EsC. Moreover, a payoff increase produced a shift toward more risk-averse behaviours in MC, but not in HsC and EsC, where we found an opposite trend suggesting a more risk-loving behaviour. Finally, we found that healthcare workers were significantly less risk-averse compared to non-healthcare workers in EsC, but not in MC and HsC. These findings provided evidence of the possible effects of Covid-19 outbreak on risk-taking aptitudes. The negative impact on human choices and, consequently, on the whole world economy of this catastrophic life event must not be underestimated.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Asunción de Riesgos , Desempleo/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , /patogenicidad
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(12): 1427-1434, 2020 Dec 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333662

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the characteristics of HIV-related risk behaviors and needs for prevention services among males who sell sex for money or anything of value (commonly known as money boys or MB), and to provide evidence for the development of targeted interventions. Methods: Using non-probability purposive sampling method and one-on-one interviews. Results: A total of 28 MBs were interviewed, with age range between 20 and 67, and education primarily at junior high school level. Among them 6 were married. Their household registration for residency cut across 15 provinces, and their sexual orientation is diverse. They migrate primarily among tier one cities and provincial capitals. Most enter the trade for economic reasons, relying on clubs and personal networks to find clients, and on word of mouth to obtain knowledge and skills. In addition to their primary clientele of the male homosexual community, 5 out of 28 serve male heterosexuals and 6 out of 28 also serve females. They have some awareness of self protection from diseases, primarily from word of mouth. Nevertheless, over half of them cannot maintain consistent condom use, and 12 out of 28 have a history of illegal drug use. Three of them reported being tested positive for HIV, and all continue to engage in sex work. They prefer their communication messages to be simple and straight-forward. Privacy comes first when they are accessing testing and treatment services. Conclusion: The bridge role of the MB community in transmitting HIV to the general population cannot be ignored, and interventions targeting the MB population need to be strengthened.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Asunción de Riesgos , Condones , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Trabajo Sexual , Conducta Sexual
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(12): 1435-1440, 2020 Dec 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333663

RESUMEN

Objective: To compare the difference of HIV infection risk among student Men who have sex with men (sMSM) attending secondary vocational colleges or high school, sMSM attending universities or above, and non-student men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and October, 2019. Inclusion criteria of participants include: 15-24 years old, male at birth, had homosexual oral or anal intercourse before survey, self-reported HIV negative or unclear. Demographic information, HIV testing history and social media usage were collected by a self-reporting questionnaire, the HIV risk assessment tool was used for HIV infection risk assessment. We used Logistic regression to analyze the difference of HIV infection risk among student sMSM attending secondary vocational colleges or high school, sMSM attending universities or above, and non-student MSM. Results: Of the 1 707 participants, 45% (771 projects) reported homosexual debut before the age of 19, the proportion of HIV self-testing was 49% (833 projects), and 34% (587 projects) received facility-based testing. Comparing with sMSM attending universities or above, non-student MSM and sMSM attending secondary vocational colleges or high school had higher probability of medium and high HIV infection risk [OR(95%CI): 1.53(1.10-2.12), 1.80(1.06-3.07), respectively], while the probability of medium and high HIV infection risk between sMSM attending secondary vocational colleges and non-student MSM was not statistically different. Conclusion: Non-student MSM and sMSM attending secondary vocational college or high school have higher risk of HIV infection, health staff should allocate more education resources to Non-student MSM and sMSM attending secondary vocational college or high school, in order to alleviate HIV threat to them.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0240201, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382720

RESUMEN

Driving is an everyday task involving a complex interaction between visual and cognitive processes. As such, an increase in the cognitive and/or visual demands can lead to a mental overload which can be detrimental for driving safety. Compiling evidence suggest that eye and head movements are relevant indicators of visuo-cognitive demands and attention allocation. This study aims to investigate the effects of visual degradation on eye-head coordination as well as visual scanning behavior during a highly demanding task in a driving simulator. A total of 21 emmetropic participants (21 to 34 years old) performed dual-task driving in which they were asked to maintain a constant speed on a highway while completing a visual search and detection task on a navigation device. Participants did the experiment with optimal vision and with contact lenses that introduced a visual perturbation (myopic defocus). The results indicate modifications of eye-head coordination and the dynamics of visual scanning in response to the visual perturbation induced. More specifically, the head was more involved in horizontal gaze shifts when the visual needs were not met. Furthermore, the evaluation of visual scanning dynamics, based on time-based entropy which measures the complexity and randomness of scanpaths, revealed that eye and gaze movements became less explorative and more stereotyped when vision was not optimal. These results provide evidence for a reorganization of both eye and head movements in response to increasing visual-cognitive demands during a driving task. Altogether, these findings suggest that eye and head movements can provide relevant information about visuo-cognitive demands associated with complex tasks. Ultimately, eye-head coordination and visual scanning dynamics may be good candidates to estimate drivers' workload and better characterize risky driving behavior.


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Movimientos Oculares/fisiología , Movimientos de la Cabeza/fisiología , Desempeño Psicomotor , Adulto , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Asunción de Riesgos , Entrenamiento Simulado , Visión Ocular/fisiología
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374702

RESUMEN

Analyzing 311 news articles published in representative Chinese newspapers, this study investigated how cosmetic surgery (CS) was represented in Chinese media from 2000 to 2019. Employing a coding scheme based on prior literature and sampled data, the study analyzed both features of the articles and profiles of the patients in the media. Results showed significant differences in media reporting across issue categories, reporting frames (benefit-focused, risk-focused, neutral), sources of information, drivers for and impacts of having surgeries. Among all the reasons for obtaining CS, boosting career confidence was ranked at the top. Additionally, significant differences in reporting were observed across types of the newspapers, gender of the patients, and time periods of the coverage. Implications of the findings for health promotion and regulation were discussed in reference to the social, cultural, and media context in China.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Asunción de Riesgos , Cirugía Plástica , China , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos
9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(11): 1227-1231, 2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147921

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand sexual needs and factors of risky sexual behaviors among elderly men at different ages in two communities of Qiandongnan Miao and Dong autonomous prefecture and provide basis for targeted HIV prevention and intervention. Methods: Two communities in the prefecture were selected as study sites. Questionnaire surveys were carried out among elderly men aged 50 and over who visited or consulted in the communities from June to December 2018, and they were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results: Among 400 elderly men, 209 (52.2%) were 50-64 years old, and 191(47.8%) were above 65 years old. They were mainly Miao people, accounting for 66.3% (265/400), and 235 (58.8%) had an education no more than 6 years. HIV awareness of the two age groups were only 25.8% (54/199) and 26.2% (50/191), respectively. Among those aged 50-64, 142 (68.0%) felt normal sexual desire, and 153 (73.6%) reported penile erections or erections in most cases whenever sex, and 52.9% (110) ejaculated most of the time. HIV prevalence was 1.0% (4/400). Compared with the over 65-year-old group, the proportion of having sex with spouse/stable partners (89.5%, 179/200), proportion of no condom use with their spouse/stable sexual partners during the most recent sex (93.8%, 168/179), proportion of having casual sex (11.0%, 23/209) and commercial sex (3.8%, 8/209) were all higher among 50-64 age group. In comparison to those aged over 65 years old, average monthly income>3 000, and use of sex helper, aged 50-64 (OR=2.70, 95%CI: 1.22-5.95), average monthly income ≤1 000 yuan (OR=2.79, 95%CI: 1.25-6.21), and no use of sex helper (OR=3.78) (95%CI: 1.65-8.67) were related factors of HIV risky sexual behavior last time. Conclusion: Elderly men in the minority prefecture had low HIV awareness. Compared with those≥65 years old, the 50-64 age group had more active sexual behaviors and higher sexual needs. Those from 50-64 age group, with lower economic level and good sexual ability were more likely to have HIV risky sexual behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Trabajo Sexual , Anciano , Condones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(11): 1255-1260, 2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147926

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the relationship between multiple health-risk behaviors and emotional and behavioral problems in preschool children. Method: From October to November 2017, 27 987 children aged 3 to 6 years from 109 kindergartens of 11 cities from Hubei, Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were selected by using the cluster sampling method. Finally, 27 200 valid questionnaires were collected. A questionnaire was used to investigate the demographic characteristics, video time and outdoor activities, eating behavior, sleep time, emotional and behavioral problems of parents and children. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between multiple health-risk behaviors and emotional and behavioral problems. Results: Emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, total difficulties and prosocial behavior abnormalities were detected in 9.5% (2 587), 9.5% (2 590), 18.2% (4 958), 24.5% (6 670), 11.2% (3 058) and 10.2% (2 770), respectively. Three groups of low, medium and high scores of multiple health-risk behaviors were accounted for 30.6% (8 316), 60.9% (16 568) and 8.5% (2 316), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression model analysis showed that after controlling for the confounding factors, compared with those in the low score group, preschool children in the middle and high score groups had higher risks of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, total difficulties and prosocial behavior (all P values<0.05). Conclusion: Health-risk behaviors are associated with the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Problema de Conducta , Niño , Preescolar , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Humanos , Asunción de Riesgos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 28(10): 850-854, 2020 Oct 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105930

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the cognition, willingness to test and influencing factors of hepatitis C (HCV) based on social software for men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: An online questionnaire was used to investigate the target population of Blued platform users, including general demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, drug abuse behavior, cognition of hepatitis C prevention and treatment, past hepatitis C testing status and future testing willingness. There were 14 questions in the cognition part, and answering 10 or more questions were defined as "knowing" . Cognition rate, willingness to test and related influencing factors of hepatitis C were analyzed in different characteristics population. Data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: A total of 1800 valid questionnaires were completed, of which 58.9% (1 061/1 800) had heard of hepatitis C, and the overall cognition rate of hepatitis C was 33.5% (603/1 800). The cognition rate of hepatitis C among those aged 30 years old, monthly income among RMB 5 000~10 000, high school education or above, and previous HIV testing [42.5% (371/873), 36.7% (191/520), 35.1% (584/1 663) and 37.4% (544/1453)] was considerably higher than those of the corresponding low-age, low-income, low-educated, not having HIV testing and not insisting on condom use, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The proportion of respondents who were willing to undergo hepatitis C testing in the next 3 months was 82.5% (851/1 031). The proportion of respondents who were tested for HIV in the past, had anal sex in the past 6 months and had high-risk behaviors [85.2% (766/899), 86.1% (609/707) and 86.6% (610/704)] was considerably higher than those who had not been tested for HIV, had no anal sex and had no high-risk behaviors in the past 6 months, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The survey respondents have a low cognition rate of hepatitis C, but have a higher willingness to test. Targeted publicity and education should be strengthened for this population, and convenient conditions should be provided to promote regular testing.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Hepatitis C , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adulto , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Hepatitis C/diagnóstico , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Programas Informáticos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 795, 2020 Oct 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109139

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Some patients who test positive for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) fail to return for results and treatment. To target improvement actions, we need to find out who these patients are. This study aimed to explore factors associated with failure to return within 30 days (FTR30) after testing among patients with positive results in a free STI testing centre in Paris. METHODS: All patients with at least one positive result between October 2016 and May 2017 and who completed a self-administered questionnaire were included in this cross-sectional study (n = 214). The questionnaire included sociodemographic factors, sexual behaviour and history of testing. Factors associated with FTR30 were assessed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: More than two-thirds of patients were men (72%), and the median age of patients was 27 years. Most patients were born in metropolitan France (56%) or in sub-Saharan Africa (22%). Men who had sex with men represented 36% of the study population. The FTR30 rate was 14% (95% CI [10-19%]). In multivariate analysis, previous HIV testing in younger persons (aOR: 3.36, 95% CI [1.27-8.84]), being accompanied by another person at the pretest consultation (aOR: 3.45, 95% CI [1.36-8.91]), and lower self-perceived risk of HIV infection (aOR: 2.79, 95% CI [1.07-7.30]) were associated with a higher FTR30. Testing for chlamydia/gonorrhoea without presumptive treatment was associated with a lower FTR30 (aOR: 0.21, 95% CI [0.07-0.59]). CONCLUSIONS: These factors that affect failure to return are related to the patient's representations and involvement in the STI screening process. Increasing health literacy and patient empowerment could help to decrease failure to return after being tested positive for HIV/STI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , VIH/aislamiento & purificación , Tamizaje Masivo/economía , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Pacientes Desistentes del Tratamiento , Adulto , Chlamydia/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Chlamydia/microbiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/epidemiología , Gonorrea/microbiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/aislamiento & purificación , Paris/epidemiología , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1531-1535, 2020 Sep 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076613

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the correlation between alcohol drinking and high-risk sexual behaviors in HIV negative clients of female sex workers and provide scientific evidence for prevention of HIV sexual transmission. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in HIV negative clients in Ji'nan and Haikou from December 2018 to May 2019. The estimated sample size was 337, the information about their demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge awareness, sexual behaviors and alcohol drinking habit were collected through convenience sampling. The data were analyzed by using SPSS 24.0 software. Results: A total of 381 clients were included in this study. Most of them were less than 40 years old, accounting for 89.2% (340/381); 85.3% of them (325/381) reported an education level of high school and above; the clients who were married, had cohabitation with females or had girl friends accounted for 53.2% (202/380). The overall awareness rate of AIDS knowledge was 83.7% (318/380). Of all participants, 80.8% (308/381) had commercial sex in the past year, 79.8% (304/381) had non-commercial sex partners, 62.7% (239/381) had high-risk sexual behaviors. The results of logistic regression showed that compared with those with alcohol drinking frequency ≤2 times per month in last year, the clients with alcohol drinking frequency more than once a week (aOR=3.22, 95%CI: 1.25-8.27) were more likely to have high risk sexual behaviors after adjustment for age, living area, location type of residence, time of local residence, education level, monthly income level, occupation, marital status, knowledge awareness of AIDS and HIV related services, the number of commercial or non-commercial sexual partners in the past year, cost of commercial sex and HIV test frequency. Conclusions: Alcohol drinking is related to high risk sexual behaviors in HIV negative clients, and will increase the risk of HIV transmission. To control AIDS, the intervention of alcohol drinking should be combined with other preventions to improve the correct use of condoms.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Masculino , Trabajadores Sexuales
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 742, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036558

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The surge of methamphetamine use has been a complicating factor compounding the steeply increasing number of drug overdose deaths in the U.S. Infection from blood-borne viruses including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV, related to methamphetamine use continue to grow. This study aims to examine the risk factors associated with HBV, HCV and HIV among people who used methamphetamine. METHODS: People who ever used methamphetamine were identified from five National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohorts, 2007 to 2016. The outcome was either positive or negative for blood-borne viruses as identified from laboratory tests. Weighted statistics for the combined ten years of data were calculated by multiplying the weighted variable for laboratory measurements by 0.2. We examined the association of sexual activities (sexual partners, sexual identity), drug use behaviors (poly-drug use, injection drug use, frequency of drug use, age started using methamphetamine), demographics, and socio-economic status with blood-borne viruses using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: There were 1132 participants representing approximately 11,996,319 persons who ever used methamphetamine in the U.S. Blood-borne viruses' positive rate was 13.0 per 100,000. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed significant associations of blood-borne infections with age 40-49 years (vs. age 20-29 years, adjusted odds ratio 4.77, 95% CI 1.11-20.55), age 50-59 years (vs. age 20-29 years, 10.25, 2.40-43.82), living within poverty index 1-1.9 (vs. poverty index > = 2, 2.55; 1.19-5.49), living below the poverty threshold (vs. poverty index > = 2, 2.55; 1.11-5.86), having lower than high school education (vs. equal or higher than high school education, 3.13; 1.51-6.46), sexual identity as other than heterosexual (vs. heterosexual, 5.60; 1.72-18.28), using methamphetamine and heroin and cocaine (vs. using methamphetamine alone, 4.24; 1.06-16.92), injection drug use (vs. no injection drug use, 3.15; 1.61-6.16), and started using methamphetamine at age above 25 (vs. started using methamphetamine at age between 10 and 17, 2.09; 1.01-4.35). CONCLUSIONS: Among people who use methamphetamine, those who use polysubstance, or who inject substances, are in urgent need for vaccination and interventions to avoid further harm from blood borne infections.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , VIH-1/inmunología , VIH-2/inmunología , Hepacivirus/inmunología , Virus de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Metanfetamina , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Hepatitis B/virología , Hepatitis C/virología , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Oportunidad Relativa , Factores de Riesgo , Asunción de Riesgos , Pruebas Serológicas , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Adulto Joven
15.
Cir Cir ; 88(5): 562-568, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064695

RESUMEN

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the state of anxiety, depression, and stress present in the society during the development of the 2019 coronavirus pandemic. Methods: Mixed methods study; a three-section questionnaire was developed which included sociodemographic, perceptions, emotions, and behaviors related to the 2019 coronavirus pandemic, and two emotional assessment psychometric tests. The proportions and confidence intervals of the variables were calculated and compared using the Chi-square test. Results: More than 40% of the subjects presented some degree of anxiety and 41.3% depression; the proportion of stress was < 30%. Of the subjects who experienced anxiety, 18.6% also had moderate-to-very severe depression or stress. Conclusion: There are emotional indicators derived from the 2019 coronavirus pandemic in almost half of the study population. The identification and timely treatment of these states could lessen the psychological impact due to 2019 coronavirus.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/etiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Depresión/etiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/etiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo/etiología , Emociones , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , México , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Psicometría , Asunción de Riesgos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 732, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028241

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex have been linked to higher sexual risk and STI infection in adulthood among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries. This study aimed to examine adolescent and non-consensual anal sexual debut among Chinese MSM and to evaluate factors associated with adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual anal sex. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted recently among Chinese men assigned male sex at birth, ≥18 years old, and who had ever engaged in anal sex with a man. Participants answered questions regarding socio-demographics, condomless sex, age at anal sexual debut with a man, and whether the first anal sex was consensual. Factors associated with an adolescent sexual debut (< 18 years old) and non-consensual sex at sexual debut were evaluated. We defined adolescent sexual debut as having anal sex with another man at 17 years old or younger, and the participants were asked whether their first male-to-male anal sex was non-consensual. RESULTS: Overall, 2031 eligible men completed the survey. The mean age of sexual debut was 20.7 (SD = 4.3) years old. 17.6% (358/2031) of men reported adolescent sexual debut, and 5.0% (101/2031) reported a non-consensual sexual debut. The adolescent sexual debut was associated with having more male sexual partners (adjusted OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.15) and condomless anal sex in the last three months (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.34-2.18). MSM whose sexual debut was non-consensual were more likely to have condomless anal sex (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.17-2.66), and to have reported an adolescent sexual debut (AOR = 2.72, 95% CI 1.75-4.21). CONCLUSIONS: Many Chinese MSM reported adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex, both of which are associated with sexual risk behaviors and drive STI transmission. These findings highlight the need for designing tailored interventions for MSM who experienced adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex at debut.


Asunto(s)
Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , China , Condones , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Asunción de Riesgos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 757, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059623

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Individuals that work and sleep in remote forest and farm locations in the Greater Mekong Subregion continue to remain at high risk of both acquiring and transmitting malaria. These difficult-to-access population groups largely fall outside the reach of traditional village-centered interventions, presenting operational challenges for malaria programs. In Vietnam, over 60% of malaria cases are thought to be individuals who sleep in forests or on farms. New malaria elimination strategies are needed in countries where mobile and migrant workers frequently sleep outside of their homes. The aim of this study was to apply targeted surveillance-response based investigative approaches to gather location-specific data on confirmed malaria cases, with an objective to identify associated malaria prevention, treatment and risk behaviors of individuals sleeping in remote forest and farms sites in Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using novel targeted reactive investigative approaches at remote area sleeping sites was conducted in three mountainous communes in Phu Yen province in 2016. Index cases were defined as individuals routinely sleeping in forests or farms who had tested positive for malaria. Index cases and non-infected neighbors from forest and farm huts within 500 m of the established sleeping locations of index cases were interviewed at their remote-area sleeping sites. RESULTS: A total of 307 participants, 110 index cases and 197 neighbors, were enrolled. Among 93 participants who slept in the forest, index cases were more likely to make > 5 trips to the forest per year (prevalence odds ratio (POR) 7.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.66-20.63), sleep in huts without walls (POR 44.00, 95% CI 13.05-148.33), sleep without mosquito nets (POR 2.95, 95% CI 1.26-6.92), and work after dark (POR 5.48, 95% CI 1.84-16.35). Of the 204 farm-based respondents, a significantly higher proportion of index cases were involved in non-farming activities (logging) (POR 2.74, 95% CI 1.27-5.91). CONCLUSION: Investigative approaches employed in this study allowed for the effective recruitment and characterization of high-priority individuals frequently sleeping in remote forest and farm locations, providing relevant population and site-specific data that decision makers can use to design and implement targeted interventions to support malaria elimination.


Asunto(s)
Bosques , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/transmisión , Adulto , Terapia Conductista , Estudios Transversales , Granjas , Femenino , Vivienda , Humanos , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria/prevención & control , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mosquiteros , Oportunidad Relativa , Asunción de Riesgos , Vietnam/epidemiología , Vietnam/etnología
18.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 41(9): e10-e11, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001662

RESUMEN

Occasionally, a patient may present with an intraoral tattoo, such as the patient in this instance who presented with one on the lower orolabial mucosa. Both extraoral and intraoral tattooing could be considered a potential indicator of risk-taking behaviors and possible increased risk of mental health or sleep disorders in this patient population. This article discusses risks of ornamental tattooing and the role oral healthcare providers can play in early identification of possible systemic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Boca , Tatuaje , Atención Odontológica , Humanos , Salud Mental , Asunción de Riesgos
20.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868471

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Legal performance-enhancing substance(s) (PES) (eg, creatine) are widely used among adolescent boys and young men; however, little is known about their temporal associations with substance use behaviors. METHODS: We analyzed prospective cohort data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, Waves I to IV (1994-2008). Logistic regressions were used to first assess adolescent substance use (Wave I) and use of legal PES (Wave III) and second to assess use of legal PES (Wave III) and subsequent substance use-associated risk behaviors (Wave IV), adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among the sample of 12 133 young adults aged 18 to 26 years, 16.1% of young men and 1.2% of young women reported using legal PES in the past year. Adolescent alcohol use was prospectively associated with legal PES use in young men (odds ratio 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.70). Among young men, legal PES use was prospectively associated with higher odds of problematic alcohol use and drinking-related risk behaviors, including binge drinking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.35; 95% CI 1.07-1.71), injurious and risky behaviors (aOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.43-2.21), legal problems (aOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.08-2.13), cutting down on activities and socialization (aOR 1.91; 95% CI 1.36-2.78), and emotional or physical health problems (aOR 1.44; 95% CI 1.04-1.99). Among young women, legal PES use was prospectively associated with higher odds of emotional or physical health problems (aOR 3.00; 95% CI 1.20-7.44). CONCLUSIONS: Use of legal PES should be considered a gateway to future problematic alcohol use and drinking-related risk behaviors, particularly among young men.


Asunto(s)
Sustancias para Mejorar el Rendimiento/efectos adversos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Intoxicación Alcohólica/complicaciones , Aminoácidos/efectos adversos , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Intervalos de Confianza , Creatina/efectos adversos , Deshidroepiandrosterona/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/efectos adversos , Oportunidad Relativa , Estudios Prospectivos , Asunción de Riesgos , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/efectos adversos , Esteroides/efectos adversos , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores , Adulto Joven
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