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1.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925633

RESUMEN

(1) Purpose: Performing strenuous exercises negatively impacts the immune and gastrointestinal systems. These alterations cause transient immunodepression, increasing the risk of minor infections, especially in the upper respiratory tract. Recent studies have shown that supplementation of probiotics confers benefits to athletes. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to verify the effects of probiotic supplementation on cytokine production by monocytes and infections in the upper respiratory tract after an acute strenuous exercise. (2) Methods: Fourteen healthy male marathon runners received either 5 billion colony forming units (CFU) of a multi-strain probiotic, consisting of 1 billion CFU of each of Lactobacillus acidophilus LB-G80, Lactobacillus paracasei LPc-G110, Lactococcus subp. lactis LLL-G25, Bifidobacterium animalis subp. lactis BL-G101, and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-G90, or a placebo for 30 days before a marathon. Plasma cytokines, salivary parameters, glucose, and glutamine were measured at baseline, 24 h before, immediately after, and 1 h after the race. Subjects self-reported upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) using the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21). The statistical analyses comprised the general linear model (GLM) test followed by the Tukey post hoc and Student's t-test with p < 0.05. (3) Results: URTI symptoms were significantly lower in the probiotic group compared to placebo. The IL-2 and IL-4 plasma cytokines were lower 24 h before exercise, while the other cytokines showed no significant differences. A lower level of IL-6 produced by monocytes was verified immediately after the race and higher IL-10 at 1 h post. No differences were observed in salivary parameters. Conclusion: Despite the low number of marathoners participating in the study, probiotic supplementation suggests its capability to preserve the functionality of monocytes and mitigate the incidence of URTI.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Citocinas/sangre , Monocitos/metabolismo , Probióticos/farmacología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Adulto , Citocinas/efectos de los fármacos , Citocinas/inmunología , Método Doble Ciego , Humanos , Masculino , Monocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Monocitos/inmunología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/inmunología
2.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920560

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Athletes maintain a balance between stress and recovery and adopt recovery modalities that manage fatigue and enhance recovery and performance. Optimal TST is subject to individual variance. However, 7-9 h sleep is recommended for adults, while elite athletes may require more quality sleep than non-athletes. METHODS: A total of 338 (elite n = 115, 74 males and 41 females, aged 23.44 ± 4.91 years; and sub-elite n = 223, 129 males and 94 females aged 25.71 ± 6.27) athletes were recruited from a variety of team and individual sports to complete a battery of previously validated and reliable widely used questionnaires assessing sleep, recovery and nutritional practices. RESULTS: Poor sleep was reported by both the elite and sub-elite athlete groups (i.e., global PSQI score ≥5-elite 64% [n = 74]; sub-elite 65% [n = 146]) and there was a significant difference in sport-specific recovery practices (3.22 ± 0.90 vs. 2.91 ± 0.90; p < 0.001). Relatively high levels of fatigue (2.52 ± 1.32), stress (1.7 ± 1.31) and pain (50%, n = 169) were reported in both groups. A range of supplements were used regularly by athletes in both groups; indeed, whey (elite n = 22 and sub-elite n = 48) was the most commonly used recovery supplement in both groups. Higher alcohol consumption was observed in the sub-elite athletes (12%, n = 26) and they tended to consume more units of alcohol per drinking bout. CONCLUSION: There is a need for athletes to receive individualised support and education regarding their sleep and recovery practices.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Rendimiento Atlético/estadística & datos numéricos , Suplementos Dietéticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Sueño , Deportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Recuperación de la Función/fisiología , Deportes/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos en la Nutrición Deportiva , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
3.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921150

RESUMEN

Low vitamin D is usual; however, data are limited for elite team players. The aim was to investigate the vitamin D levels in Football Club Barcelona (FCB) first division players of six sport modalities. Ninety-five elite male players (27.3 ± 4.6 y) belonging to FCB provided data for vitamin D throughout a season. In this study, 25(OH)D was measured in serum by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Outdoor/indoor training and supplementation were also considered. Total mean 25(OH)D concentrations were 91.9 ± 23.1 nmol/L in all players, with higher mean levels among supplemented players (94.7 ± 24.3 nmol/L). Around 25% of the team players were below optimal levels (<75 nmol/L), but none were below 50 nmol/L. Caucasian, supplemented football and handball players had the highest mean vitamin D concentrations over the whole year, whereas basketball players (indoor training) had the lowest ones. The highest rate of vitamin D insufficiency was found in spring (40%). A positive significant effect was observed for the interaction between indoor/outdoor training and supplementation with 25(OH)D concentrations (p < 0.05). Those team players training outdoors with supplementation had higher total vitamin D concentrations than those with indoors training and/or supplementation. A positive interaction of outdoor training with supplementation exists to determine 25(OH)D concentrations in team players.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado Nutricional , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/epidemiología , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Suplementos Dietéticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Ayuno/sangre , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estaciones del Año , España/epidemiología , Vitamina D/análisis , Vitamina D/sangre
4.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923156

RESUMEN

Elite volleyball athletes experience significant physical and psychological demands during the competitive season. The aim was to compare the dietary intake of male volleyball athletes with recommendations for sport and health, and to examine the association of physique traits and knee health on eating behaviours and of eating behaviours on reported dietary intake. Using a retrospective cross-sectional design, 22 male athletes from a national indoor volleyball program underwent anthropometric, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and resting metabolic rate testing, 4-day dietary intake and hematological analysis, and also completed the three-factor eating questionnaire-R18 for eating behaviours and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-patellar tendon (VISA-P) questionnaire for knee health. Most players under-consumed energy compared to reference guidelines, secondary to under-consuming carbohydrate for exercise. The primary eating behaviour was cognitive restraint, which was associated with body mass index and ectomorphy. Emotional eating behaviour was associated with VISA-P. Differences in emotional and cognitive restraint eating behaviours did not impact dietary intake. The findings suggest that players are at risk of an impaired ability to adapt to and recover from training during an important segment of the competitive season. Future work should explore the presence of low energy availability in elite male volleyball players.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Ingestión de Energía , Encuestas Nutricionales/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Voleibol , Absorciometría de Fotón , Adulto , Antropometría , Metabolismo Basal , Composición Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800051

RESUMEN

Low energy availability (LEA) causes impaired physiological functioning. Cross-country running is a weight-sensitive sport, making athletes more prone to LEA. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of elite European cross-country athletes at risk of LEA using the LEA in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) and to analyze demographic and physical characteristics that are associated with LEA. Athletes ≥ 18 years competing at the 26th European Cross-Country Championships (n = 602) were invited to complete a questionnaire (sociodemographic, training, anthropometric characteristics, and LEAF-Q). A total of 207 valid surveys were collected (83 females, 22.1 (4.0) years, and 124 males, 22.3 (4.1) years), and 16 surveys were excluded. A high prevalence of athletes at risk of LEA (64.3%) was observed, being higher in females than in males (79.5 and 54.0% respectively, p < 0.001). More than half of athletes (54.1%, n = 112) reported bowel movements once a week or more rarely, while 33 female athletes (41.3%) did not report normal menstruation. Overall, cross-country athletes are at high risk of LEA. Moreover, a high prevalence of gastrointestinal and menstrual impairments was reported. Hence, athletes should be followed by multidisciplinary teams to inform, prevent, and treat LEA and its effects.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Desnutrición Proteico-Calórica/epidemiología , Carrera/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos en la Nutrición Deportiva , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/etiología , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos de la Menstruación/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Menstruación/etiología , Prevalencia , Desnutrición Proteico-Calórica/etiología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805862

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Like other combat sports, sambo has competition rules that divide athletes into categories based on gender, age and weight. Athletes in combat sports often resort to rapid weight loss (RWL) methods to be more competitive in lower weight categories and gain an advantage against lighter, smaller and weaker competitors. The aim of this study was to examine the methodology implemented by two different sambo age categories, junior and senior athletes, in order to attain RWL. METHODS: The sample consisted of 103 male sambo elite athletes (seniors/juniors: age 28.5 ± 4.3/18.9 ± 0.8; height (m): 1.7 ± 0.1/1.8 ± 0.1; weight (kg): 76.3 ± 17.8/74.4 ± 16.3; BMI (kg/m2): 25.0 ± 3.8/23.7 ± 3.9) who completed a survey on RWL. RESULTS: Athletes reported losing a mean of 5 kg starting approximately 12 days before a competition. The most common methodology reported by senior and junior sambo athletes was gradually increasing dieting, followed by sauna and plastic suit training. Less common methods adopted were laxatives, diuretics, the use of diet pills and vomiting. There were significant group differences for sauna and diet pill ingestion. Coaches and parents are influential people in the lives of athletes concerning the weight loss strategy to be adopted. CONCLUSIONS: This study's results unequivocally confirm the prevalent practice of RWL in both senior and junior sambo athletes. Although athletes prevalently chose "less harmful" methods, there is a need to inform parents and coaches of the risks and benefits of RWL.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Artes Marciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Pérdida de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Diuréticos/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Laxativos/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Baño de Vapor/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tiempo , Vómitos
7.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805883

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of simultaneous supplementation of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate and L-Arginine α-ketoglutarate on lower limb power and muscle damage in medium distance runners aged 15.3 (±0.9) years old. METHODS: The study group consisted of 40 volunteers aged 14-17 years practicing medium distance running for at least two years. The study lasted 12 days and followed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design. All subjects attended a familiarization session on day 0 before the test. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: supplements and placebo group. The same training cycle protocol was used in both groups during the 12-day training period. Morning warm-up involved 10 min jogging at 60-75% of maximal heart rate and countermovement jump height measurement. Main training units were carried out for both groups with the same volume. Training load assessment (the daily session Rating of Perceived Exertion (s-RPE) method) method takes into consideration the intensity and the duration of the training session to calculate the "training load" (TL). RESULTS: At the end of the training cycle, a significant (p = 0.002) decrease in the countermovement jump (CMJ) height was found in the placebo group when compared to the baseline. In the supplement group, there was no decrease in the countermovement jump height. Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase concentration increased during the training days similarly in both groups and decreased on rest days. There were no differences between groups in enzymes concentration. The research results indicate that the supplement combination used in the supplements group prevented a reduction in the CMJ values. In contrast to the supplements group, in the placebo group, the CMJ changes were statistically significant: a noticeable (p = 0.002) decrease in CMJ was noted between the baseline measurement and the 6th measurement. The well-being of the subjects from both groups changed significantly during the training period, and the intergroup differences in the mood level were similar and not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the daily co-supplementation with calcium salt of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (7.5 g) and L-Arginine α-ketoglutarate (10 g) during training might help to prevent decline in jump performance. No influence on muscle damage markers or mood was shown.


Asunto(s)
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Rendimiento Atlético/estadística & datos numéricos , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/farmacología , Músculo Esquelético/efectos de los fármacos , Atletismo , Valeratos/farmacología , Adolescente , Arginina/sangre , Arginina/farmacología , Creatina Quinasa/sangre , Creatina Quinasa/efectos de los fármacos , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/sangre , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/sangre , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/efectos de los fármacos , Pierna/fisiología , Masculino , Fuerza Muscular/efectos de los fármacos , Valeratos/sangre
8.
J Safety Res ; 76: 262-268, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653558

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Concussion is traumatic brain injury with associated tissue damage commonly produced by an indirect or direct head or facial trauma that can negatively impact an athletes' career and personal life. In this context, the importance on how to deal with a concussion has received attention from worldwide literature and has become a topic of enormous interest in the sports medicine arena. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to investigate how sports-related concussion is being managed regarding athletic injuries, athletes' age, clinical signs of concussion, adopted questionnaires, as well as decision making in sports medicine. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed searching 10 electronic databases with no limitations for year of publication up to December 2019. The search terms used were: Brain Concussion, Athletes, Sports Medicine, Athletic Injuries, Clinical Decision-Making, and Decision Making. The articles were considered eligible when the studies related to populations of regular sports practitioners, professional or recreational, of any age; sports injury; articles reporting concussion evaluation in at least 30 athletes; and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, Italian. We excluded systematic review articles, reviews, editorials, sport-unrelated concussion, no questionnaire application, approaching retired athletes, consensus statement letters, author's reply to editorials, synopsis, and abstracts. RESULTS: The parameters adopted for decision-making and management were broadly variable and were based on a variety of clinical signs or scoring outcomes from a myriad of questionnaires with little consistency in protocol or management guidelines, which could guide the average clinician. CONCLUSION: This systematic review provides current evidence that post-concussion management in sports medicine has yet to accomplish a standardized protocol that clinicians could use to optimally care for athletes. The extensive number of manuscripts and studies addressing the topic confirms that sports-related concussion in the pediatric and adolescent population has come to the forefront in the sports medicine field.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Traumatismos en Atletas/terapia , Conmoción Encefálica/terapia , Medicina Deportiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Traumatismos en Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos en Atletas/etiología , Conmoción Encefálica/diagnóstico , Conmoción Encefálica/etiología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 36, 2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752592

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Among former Olympic-level athletes, engagement in different sport disciplines has been associated with mortality risk in subsequent years. However, limited evidence is available on whether engagement in different sport disciplines at a young age is associated with locomotive syndrome (LS) risk later in life. This study examined the relationship between engagement in different sport disciplines during university years and LS risk in older age among former university athletes. METHODS: Participants were 274 middle-aged and 294 older men alumni who graduated from a school of physical education in Japan. LS risk was defined as answering "yes" to any of the Loco-check questions. Data on university sports club membership were collected using questionnaires. University clubs were classified into three groups of cardiovascular intensity (low, moderate, high), following the classification system of sport disciplines by the American College of Cardiology. This classification considers the static and dynamic components of an activity, which correspond to the estimated percent of maximal voluntary contraction reached and maximal oxygen uptake achieved, respectively. University clubs were grouped based on the risk of bodily collision (no, yes) and extent of physical contact (low, moderate, high). Relationships between engagement in different sport disciplines and LS risk were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models, and adjusted for age, height, weight, joint disease, habitual exercise, and smoking and drinking status. RESULTS: Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with the low, moderate, and high cardiovascular intensity sports were 1.00 (reference), 0.48 (0.22-1.06, P = 0.070), and 0.44 (0.20-0.97, P = 0.042) in older men, respectively; however, there was no significant association between these parameters among middle-aged men. Engagement in sports associated with physical contact and collision did not affect LS risk in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Engagement in sports associated with high cardiovascular intensity during university years may reduce the risk of LS in later life. Encouraging young people to participate in such activities might help reduce LS prevalence among older populations.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Locomoción , Limitación de la Movilidad , Trastornos Motores/epidemiología , Equilibrio Postural , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ejercicio Físico , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Motores/etiología , Prevalencia , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores de Riesgo , Deportes/fisiología , Deportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome , Adulto Joven
11.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(4): 1017-1032, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714599

RESUMEN

The oxygen transport cascade describes the physiological steps that bring atmospheric oxygen into the body where it is delivered and consumed by metabolically active tissue. As such, the oxygen cascade is fundamental to our understanding of exercise in health and disease. Our narrative review will highlight each step of the oxygen transport cascade from inspiration of atmospheric oxygen down to mitochondrial consumption in both healthy active males and females along with clinical conditions. We will focus on how different steps interact along with principles of homeostasis, physiological redundancies, and adaptation. In particular, we highlight some of the parallels between elite athletes and clinical conditions in terms of the oxygen cascade.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Voluntarios Sanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Resistencia Física/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
12.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 14(1): 45-52, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-200380

RESUMEN

OBJETIVOS: identificar las principales causas de lesión de isquiosurales en las diferentes etapas de formación, desde la etapa sub-12 hasta la etapa profesional, y establecer la influencia de la lesión previa de isquiosurales como causa principal de sufrir una nueva lesión. MÉTODO: la búsqueda bibliográfica se realizó en Dialnet, Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus y SportDISCUS, entre las fechas de enero de 2010 hasta mayo de 2020. RESULTADOS: la búsqueda concluyó que el patrón de lesión isquiosural más concurrido es el de jugador de edad avanzada, con mayores valores de fuerza y menores valores de flexibilidad, y con un mayor grado de anteversión pélvica. El envejecimiento, los movimientos compensatorios en patrones motores fundamentales y otros factores de la competición se presentaron como las principales causas de lesión en jugadores profesionales. CONCLUSIONES: la lesión previa, con el mayor número de casos registrados de incidencia lesional, se estableció como principal factor de riesgo de lesión de la musculatura isquiosural


OBJECTIVES: to identify the main causes of hamstring injury in the different training stages, from the under-12 stage to the professional stage, and to establish the influence of the previous hamstring injury as the main cause of suffering a new injury. METHOD: the bibliographic search was carried out in Dialnet, Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus and SportDISCUS, between the dates of January 2010 to May 2020. RESULTS: the search concluded that the most frequent hamstring injury pattern is that of an elderly player, with higher strength values ​​and lower flexibility values, and a higher degree of pelvic anteversion. Aging, compensatory movements in fundamental motor patterns and other factors of the competition were presented as the main causes of injury in professional players. CONCLUSIONS: previous injury, with the highest number of recorded cases of injury incidence, was established as the main risk factor for hamstring injury


OBJETIVOS: identificar as principais causas de lesão de isquiotibiais nas diferentes etapas do treinamento, desde a fase de menores de 12 anos até a profissional, e estabelecer a influência da lesão anterior de isquiotibiais como principal causa de nova lesão. MÉTODO: o levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado no Dialnet, Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus e SportDISCUS, entre as datas de janeiro de 2010 a maio de 2020. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa concluiu que o padrão de lesão dos isquiotibiais mais comum é o de um jogador idoso, com maiores valores de força e menores valores de flexibilidade, e com maior grau de anteversão pélvica. O envelhecimento, os movimentos compensatórios nos padrões motores fundamentais e outros fatores da competição foram apresentados como as principais causas de lesões em jogadores profissionais. CONCLUSÕES: a lesão prévia, com maior número de casos registrados de incidência de lesões, foi apontada como o principal fator de risco para lesão de isquiotibiais


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Músculos/lesiones , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Traumatismos en Atletas , Fútbol/lesiones , Músculos Isquiosurales/lesiones , Tendones Isquiotibiales/lesiones , Factores de Riesgo , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
J Athl Train ; 56(2): 157-163, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596598

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Mandated concussion education has aimed to improve student-athlete knowledge; however, some collegiate student-athletes continue to not disclose concussion. Concussion knowledge may not be the only factor influencing reporting, as student-athlete sex, sport, and pressure from external stakeholders (eg, coaches, teammates, fans, parents or family) have all been documented as influencing collegiate concussion-reporting behavior. OBJECTIVE: To examine factors associated with concussion nondisclosure in collegiate student-athletes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Four National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and two Division II universities. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1125 collegiate student-athletes completed the survey, and 741 provided viable responses and were included for data analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We used a 10- to 15-minute electronic or paper-and-pencil survey that asked about personal and sport demographics, diagnosed concussions and nondisclosed concussion history, concussion knowledge, and level of agreement regarding pressure to play after a head impact experienced during collegiate sport participation. Significant univariable factors were entered into a multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Sex (P = .005), sport-risk type (P < .001), diagnosed concussion history (P < .001), concussion knowledge (P = .017), and pressure from coaches (P < .001), teammates (P < .001), fans (P = .024), and parents or family (P = .003) were factors associated with concussion nondisclosure in individual univariable logistic regressions. After we conducted multivariable analyses, male sex (P = .001), high concussion-risk sport participation (P = .048), diagnosed concussion history (P < .001), increased concussion knowledge (P = .013), and experiencing pressure from coaches to continue playing after sustaining a hit to the head (P = .002) were factors associated with concussion nondisclosure in collegiate student-athletes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that concussion-education programs should go beyond the identification of signs and symptoms to include the dangers of continuing to play, long-term consequences, and transparency about concussion protocols. Comprehensive concussion-education programs should involve coaches and athletes to improve the reporting culture.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Traumatismos en Atletas/diagnóstico , Conmoción Encefálica/diagnóstico , Revelación , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan , Ohio , Pennsylvania , South Carolina , Deportes , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
15.
J Athl Train ; 56(1): 92-100, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534900

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Many survey-based methods have been used to explore concussion-reporting behavior. However, because the decision to report or conceal a concussion is likely multifactorial, this may narrow the findings, as the surveys were largely designed by the researchers. OBJECTIVE: To explore student-athletes' perspectives regarding factors that may influence the reporting of sport-related concussion. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: We conducted 17 semistructured interviews with student-athletes who had sustained 1 or more concussions while attending a large university (men = 4, women = 13, age = 20.9 ± 1.3 years). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: After data saturation and member checks, a 5-cycle analytic process was completed: topical review, literature review, data collection and summarizing using a codebook developed by a 3-person research team, linking of findings to current research, and final interpretations. RESULTS: We discovered 3 themes. Participants discussed concussion perceptions by describing their understanding of a concussion, their own injury experiences, and their perceptions of symptom severity and duration. Regarding reporting behavior, participants described an order of individuals with whom they would speak, symptoms present in order to report (eg, feeling different from normal), immediate reactions, and influential factors for mitigating short- and long-term consequences. Lastly, participants discussed the value of support systems, such as how coaches can both positively and negatively influence reporting and athletic trainer involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Participants often drew from their own concussion experiences in naming common concussion signs and symptoms. Additionally, they indicated that both short- and long-term health consequences influenced and deterred their seeking care and that their support systems, including coaches and athletic trainers, played a role in their concussion experience. Research is needed to determine if using student-athletes' own words to describe a concussion and incorporating student-athletes' support systems, especially coaches and athletic trainers, is effective in increasing concussion reporting.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/diagnóstico , Conmoción Encefálica/diagnóstico , Revelación , Autoinforme , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Deportes , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
16.
J Athl Train ; 56(1): 85-91, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534901

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Collegiate student-athletes continue competing after experiencing symptoms of a concussion. Self-report of concussion symptoms is a critical element of the recovery process. Identifying factors related to concussion disclosure can aid in encouraging self-reporting. OBJECTIVE: To use latent profile analysis to categorize and describe athletes based on factors related to concussion disclosure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Web-based survey. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2 881 (52.4% female; 65.3% in-season; 40% collision sport) student-athletes from 16 National Collegiate Athletic Association member institutions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Student-athlete concussion expectations, attitudes, and norms were the profile variables and reporting intentions served as the distal outcome variable. We conducted latent profile analysis using select profile variables to determine the optimal number of classes. Differences in concussion-reporting intentions by profile assignment were then examined. Lastly, the extent to which a student-athlete's sex, season status, and level of contact predicted his or her intentions to report a concussion within each profile was investigated. RESULTS: Five unique student-athlete profiles emerged, including 1 profile that was most risky and another that was least risky. Females had significantly higher odds of being in the least risky profile. Those participating in collision sports had significantly higher odds of being in the top 2 most risky profiles. Contact-sport and in-season athletes were less likely to be in the least risky profile. CONCLUSIONS: With a better understanding of student-athlete profiles, athletic trainers have an opportunity to encourage concussion disclosure. Prompt disclosure would allow student-athletes to begin the return-to-play protocol in a more timely manner.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/diagnóstico , Conmoción Encefálica/diagnóstico , Revelación , Autoinforme , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Deportes , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades
17.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(6): 1335-1341, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619756

RESUMEN

Athletes of pediatric age are growing in number. They are subject to a number of risks, among them sudden cardiac death (SCD). This study aimed to characterize the pediatric athlete population in Switzerland, to evaluate electrocardiographic findings based on the International Criteria for electrocardiography (ECG) Interpretation in Athletes, and to analyze the association between demographic data, sport type, and ECG changes. Retrospective, observational study of pediatric athletes (less than 18 years old) including medical history, physical examination, and a 12-lead resting ECG. The primary focus was on identification of normal, borderline, and abnormal ECG findings. The secondary observation was the relation between ECG and demographic, anthropometric, sport-related, and clinical data. The 891 athletes (mean 14.8 years, 35% girls) practiced 45 different sports on three different levels, representing all types of static and dynamic composition of the Classification of Sports by Mitchell. There were 75.4% of normal ECG findings, among them most commonly early repolarization, sinus bradycardia, and left ventricular hypertrophy; 4.3% had a borderline finding; 2.1% were abnormal and required further investigations, without SCD-related diagnosis. While the normal ECG findings were related to sex, age, and endurance sports, no such observation was found for borderline or abnormal criteria. Our results in an entirely pediatric population of athletes demonstrate that sex, age, and type of sports correlate with normal ECG findings. Abnormal ECG findings in pediatric athletes are rare. The International Criteria for ECG Interpretation in Athletes are appropriate for this age group.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Electrocardiografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Especialización , Medicina Deportiva , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Bradicardia/diagnóstico , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Muerte Súbita Cardíaca , Electrocardiografía/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Derecha/diagnóstico , Masculino , Examen Físico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Sexuales , Deportes/clasificación , Deportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Suiza
18.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 112(2): 159-166, feb. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-200868

RESUMEN

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVOS: El cáncer cutáneo está aumentando su incidencia de forma alarmante en nuestra sociedad, debido a la sobreexposición a la radiación ultravioleta solar (RUV), ya sea por motivos laborales o por ocio. El objetivo del presente estudio es valorar los conocimientos, actitudes y hábitos sobre la exposición solar y la fotoprotección en corredores participantes en una ultramaratón de montaña, así como estimar los factores de riesgo para sufrir quemadura solar. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal, prospectivo descriptivo a los participantes de la «Gran Trail Aneto-Posets» (GTTAP). Se evaluaron las características sociodemográficas, la experiencia como corredor, la historia de quemadura solar en el verano previo y los hábitos y prácticas de exposición solar mediante una encuesta validada. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo, bivariado y multivariante, tomando como variable principal de resultado la presencia de quemadura solar, estableciendo un nivel de significación en p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 657 corredores, 72,1% fueron hombres, con una media de edad de 39,71 años. El 45,1% de los encuestados reconocían haberse quemado en el último año. Las gafas fue el método fotoprotector más utilizado (74,7%), seguido del fotoprotector (factor de protección solar [FPS] > 15) (61,9%), el gorro/a (52,2%), y por último, la ropa (7,4%). Mientras que tener menos edad, fototipo bajo (I y II), correr durante tres o más horas al día y resguardarse a la sombra como medida de fotoprotección se comportaron como factores de riesgo para haber sufrido quemadura solar; las actitudes favorables al uso de cremas y a la búsqueda de la sombra al mediodía, en vez de estar al sol, se comportaron como factores protectores (p < 0,001). CONCLUSIÓN: La incidencia de quemaduras solares es alta entre los corredores de trails de larga distancia en montaña, pese a que sus conocimientos y hábitos parecen adecuados. Se necesita diseñar estrategias para mejorar los hábitos de fotoprotección adaptados a su práctica deportiva


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The incidence of skin cancer in our society is growing at an alarming rate due to overexposure to solar UV radiation in recreational and occupational settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate sun exposure and protection attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge among mountain ultramarathon runners and to assess risk factors for sunburn in this population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of runners who participated in the «Gran Trail Aneto-Posets» race in Aragon, Spain. Using a validated questionnaire, we collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, running experience, sunburn in the previous summer, and sun exposure and protection behaviors. We calculated descriptive statistics and performed bivariate and multivariate analyses of associations using history of sunburn as the primary outcome. Statistical significance was set at a p level of less than 0.05. RESULTS: We surveyed 657 runners (72.1% men) with a mean age of 39.71 years; 45.1% reported sunburn in the past year. The most common protective measures used were sunglasses (74.7%), sunscreen (sun protection factor ≥ 15) (61.9%), a hat (52.2%), and other protective clothing (7.4%). Risk factors for sunburn were younger age, low Fitzpatrick skin type (I and II), running for three or more hours a day, and staying in the shade as a protective measure. By contrast, protective factors were use of sunscreen and seeking shade rather than sun at midday (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Sunburn is common among long-distance mountain runners, despite what appears to be adequate sun protection knowledge and behaviors. Targeted strategies are needed to improve sun protection behaviors among mountain runners


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Quemadura Solar/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Carrera/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Exposición a la Radiación , Quemadura Solar/etiología , Ropa de Protección/estadística & datos numéricos , Protectores Solares , Equipos de Seguridad/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(1): 7-11, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417591

RESUMEN

To safely resume sports, college and university athletic programs and regional athletic conferences created plans to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mitigation measures included physical distancing, universal masking, and maximizing outdoor activity during training; routine testing; 10-day isolation of persons with COVID-19; and 14-day quarantine of athletes identified as close contacts* of persons with confirmed COVID-19. Regional athletic conferences created testing and quarantine policies based on National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) guidance (1); testing policies varied by conference, school, and sport. To improve compliance with quarantine and reduce the personal and economic burden of quarantine adherence, the quarantine period has been reduced in several countries from 14 days to as few as 5 days with testing (2) or 10 days without testing (3). Data on quarantined athletes participating in NCAA sports were used to characterize COVID-19 exposures and assess the amount of time between quarantine start and first positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. Despite the potential risk for transmission from frequent, close contact associated with athletic activities (4), more athletes reported exposure to COVID-19 at social gatherings (40.7%) and from roommates (31.7%) than they did from exposures associated with athletic activities (12.7%). Among 1,830 quarantined athletes, 458 (25%) received positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results during the 14-day quarantine, with a mean of 3.8 days from quarantine start (range = 0-14 days) until the positive test result. Among athletes who had not received a positive test result by quarantine day 5, the probability of having a positive test result decreased from 27% after day 5 to <5% after day 10. These findings support new guidance from CDC (5) in which different options are provided to shorten quarantine for persons such as collegiate athletes, especially if doing so will increase compliance, balancing the reduced duration of quarantine against a small but nonzero risk for postquarantine transmission. Improved adherence to mitigation measures (e.g., universal masking, physical distancing, and hand hygiene) at all times could further reduce exposures to SARS-CoV-2 and disruptions to athletic activities because of infections and quarantine (1,6).


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , /diagnóstico , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , /epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Universidades
20.
Phys Ther Sport ; 48: 76-82, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387901

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Determine the association between concussion and subsequent contact, non-contact, and overuse lower extremity (LE) injuries in a cohort of adolescent athletes. Secondarily, to identify this association between males and females. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Summer athletic events with participants ages 12-18. MAIN OUTCOME: Anonymous survey included sport-related injuries (injury month/year) and participants classified injuries as a contact, non-contact, overuse injury, or concussion. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between a concussion event and a subsequent LE injury while controlling for age and any previous LE injury. RESULTS: A concussion was reported in 219 athletes (Female = 96, 44%) and were matched with 219 non-concussed athletes (438 total participants). Concussion was not association with a specific injury mechanism but was significant for any subsequent LE injury (OR = 1.58 95%CI = [1.03-2.41]; p < 0.05). Concussed females were more likely to report any subsequent LE injury compared to non-concussed female athletes (2.49[1.31, 4.74]; p < 0.01). This relationship was not observed between concussed and non-concussed males (1.11[0.62-1.99]; p > 0.5). CONCLUSION: A history of concussion was associated with any subsequent LE injury, but not associated with a specific mechanism of injury. The association with concussion and a subsequent LE injury was different between males and females.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Conmoción Encefálica/epidemiología , Extremidad Inferior/lesiones , Adolescente , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Trastornos de Traumas Acumulados/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Traumatismos de la Pierna/epidemiología , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Deportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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