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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e19785, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358350

RESUMEN

The main aims of this study were, firstly, to investigate the frequency, location, and severity of injuries in amateur badminton players, and then to determine risk factors that may be associated with a higher incidence of injuries.A cross-sectional study, composed of 150 players drawn from the 2018 BWF European Senior Championships, was analyzed. The definitions and types of injury included in the study are based on those published in previous epidemiology studies.Among the 150 players analyzed, 221 injuries were observed, of which the highest proportion (40.3%, n = 89) affected the lower limb. Of these 22.44% were to the knee and 18.3% to the leg. In the upper limb, the shoulder was most frequently affected (11.8%). The mean rate of injuries per 1000 hours of play was 0.134 (standard deviation [SD]: 0.1), with 0.138 (SD: 0.1) among the male players and 0.131 (SD: 0.08) among the female players (P = .981: F = 0.001). The average duration of the injuries suffered exceeded 28 days in 34.5% of the cases.The incidence of injury varied according to sex and age. Most injuries affected the muscles, especially those of the knee (in the lower limbs) and the shoulder (in the upper limbs).


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Deportes de Raqueta/lesiones , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo
2.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 39(1): 5, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143706

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether or not the breakpoint (BP), at which the proportion of each of fat mass (FM) and fat-free soft tissue mass (FFSTM) to body mass (BM) alter, exists in male athletes. We examined the hypothesis that in male athletes, the regional FM and FFSTM-BM relationships have a BP, but the body mass at BP (BMBP) differs among the arms, trunk, and legs. METHODS: By using a dual X-ray absorptiometry, whole-body and regional FMs and FFSTMs in the arms, trunk, and legs were estimated in 198 male athletes (20.8 ± 2.1 years; 1.73 ± 0.07 m; 72.7 ± 14.8 kg). To detect the BP in the relationship between each of FM and FFSTM and BM, a piecewise linear regression analysis was used. If a BP was detected in the corresponding relationship, the significant difference between the regression slopes above and below the BP was examined. RESULTS: The regression analysis indicated that the BMBP existed in the FM- and FFSTM-BM relationships regardless of region and whole body. For the whole body, BMBP was 81.8 kg for FM and 82.2 kg for FFSTM. In regional FM-BM relationships, BMBP was 80.5 kg for arms, 82.6 kg for trunk, and 63.3 kg for legs, and the regression slopes above the BMBP became higher than those below the BP, and vice versa in regional FFSTM-BM relationships (BMBP 104.6 kg for arms, 80.9 kg for trunk, and 79.0 kg for legs). The relative differences in the slopes between below and above BMBP in the regional FM-BM relationships were higher in the arms and trunk than in the legs, and those in the regional FFSTM-BM relationships in the legs than in the trunk. CONCLUSION: Whole-body and regional FM- and FFSTM-BM relationships for male athletes have breakpoints at which the proportion of the tissue masses to BM alters. The BMBP and differences in the distribution of regional FM and FFSTM around the breakpoint are region specific.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Distribución de la Grasa Corporal , Absorciometría de Fotón , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropología Física , Estatura/fisiología , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Adulto Joven
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228611, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059000

RESUMEN

The relative age effect (RAE) refers to the asymmetrical distribution of birthdates in a cohort found in many achievement domains, particularly in sports with many participants like soccer. Given the uniqueness of the one-child policy in China, this study examined the existence of the RAE in elite Chinese male and female soccer players generally and relative to their playing position on the field. Results showed a clear and obvious RAE for all age groups (U20 male, U18 male, adult female and U18 female) with the observed birthdate distributions for each age group significantly different from expected distributions (p<0.05). Additionally, we noticed a differential RAE according to the players' position on the field as reflected in different effect sizes. In male players, the RAE was significantly greater in Defenders (DF) and Goalkeepers (GK) compared to Midfielders (MF) and Forwards (FW) (VDF = 0.266>VGK = 0.215>VMF = 0.178>VFW = 0.175). In female players, GKs had a larger RAE (VGK = 0.184>0.17, VDF = 0.143, VMF = 0.127, VFW = 0.116). To reduce the negative consequences associated with RAEs throughout player development systems, potential solutions are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Distribución por Edad , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Regulación de la Población/estadística & datos numéricos , Fútbol/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Atletas/clasificación , China , Femenino , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227746, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945108

RESUMEN

Knowledge of spatial movement patterns in soccer occurring on a regular basis can give a soccer coach, analyst or reporter insights in the playing style or tactics of a group of players or team. Furthermore, it can support a coach to better prepare for a soccer match by analysing (trained) movement patterns of both his own as well as opponent players. We explore the use of the Qualitative Trajectory Calculus (QTC), a spatiotemporal qualitative calculus describing the relative movement between objects, for spatial movement pattern recognition of players movements in soccer. The proposed method allows for the recognition of spatial movement patterns that occur on different parts of the field and/or at different spatial scales. Furthermore, the Levenshtein distance metric supports the recognition of similar movements that occur at different speeds and enables the comparison of movements that have different temporal lengths. We first present the basics of the calculus, and subsequently illustrate its applicability with a real soccer case. To that end, we present a situation where a user chooses the movements of two players during 20 seconds of a real soccer match of a 2016-2017 professional soccer competition as a reference fragment. Following a pattern matching procedure, we describe all other fragments with QTC and calculate their distance with the QTC representation of the reference fragment. The top-k most similar fragments of the same match are presented and validated by means of a duo-trio test. The analyses show the potential of QTC for spatial movement pattern recognition in soccer.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/estadística & datos numéricos , Reconocimiento de Normas Patrones Automatizadas/métodos , Carrera/estadística & datos numéricos , Fútbol/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Algoritmos , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Baloncesto/estadística & datos numéricos , Simulación por Computador , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227815, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978072

RESUMEN

Caribbean nations stand to benefit significantly from the potential insights that can be gained from the assessment of their athlete talent development environments; which in turn can lead to the formulation of evidence-based strategies and improvements to their sport development pathways. The principal aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 25-item TDEQ-5 to determine its validity to assess the development environments of talented youth track and field athletes from six English-speaking Caribbean countries. As a secondary aim, we sought to examine athletes' perceptions of their talent development environment within this context. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed adequate model fit of a re-specified model and good overall internal reliability of the scale, therefore offering support for its use within this context. Furthermore, adequate construct validity and internal reliability was found within three subscales (i.e., communication, holistic quality preparation and support network) with subpar scores within two subscales (i.e., long-term development focus and alignment of expectations). Preliminary findings on athletes' perceptions of their environment revealed key strengths in coaches' long-term development focus and communication, however deficiencies were noted in the accessibility and availability of sport-related support and preparation of athletes. In conclusion, the re-specified TDEQ-5 with 25 items appears to be a reliable and valid measure within the Caribbean context. However, it is recommended that the scale be used with some caution with regard to the interpretation of results for the 'long-term development focus' and 'alignment of expectations' subscales.


Asunto(s)
Aptitud , Atletas/psicología , Psicometría/métodos , Atletismo/psicología , Adolescente , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Región del Caribe , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoría/estadística & datos numéricos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Atletismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906403

RESUMEN

The objectives of the present study were to assess general perceptions of safety in snow parks (SPs), general knowledge of rules existence, and both active and passive awareness of the International Ski Federation (FIS) rules contained in its Code of Conduct for SPs in order to define target groups for injury prevention-specific education interventions. Data were drawn from 436 freestylers randomly interviewed. The study was conducted during the 2018-2019 winter season in the SP of a major winter resort located in the Spanish Pyrenees. A questionnaire assessing personal data (gender, age, gear used, self-reported skill, and frequency of use), general perceptions on safety, general request for rules, and awareness of existing rules in SPs was developed. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests were used to compare characteristics between groups. It was revealed, for accident prevention purposes, a concerning general lack of knowledge of existing rules in SPs (63% of participants ignored them). Risk-inducing situations that could result in severe injuries, such as familiarity with the right progression in choosing features and/or stunts or with safety equipment, were largely assessed incorrectly (94% and 70% of participants, respectively). Appropriate intuitive behavior increases with experience: youths and beginners are less able to implement FIS rules than more experienced freestylers.


Asunto(s)
Prevención de Accidentes , Atletas , Parques Recreativos , Nieve , Prevención de Accidentes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas/psicología , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Concienciación , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Parques Recreativos/estadística & datos numéricos , Esquí , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948074

RESUMEN

Young judo athletes are bio-banding based on age and body mass and compete in weight classes. The purposes of this study were to investigate the influences of maturation on physical performance in young judokas through controlling the chronological age and body mass, and to examine the mediating role of anthropometric variables. Sixty-seven judokas, aged 11.0-14.7, were measured for 11 anthropometric and seven physical performance variables. Pearson partial correlations were conducted to verify the relationship between the maturational indicator and the dependent variables. Mediation analyses were performed to identify the extent to which anthropometric variables mediate the relationship. The maturation effect remained on the aerobic capacity and handgrip strength (p < 0.05). Fat mass (b = 80.335, 95%CI 11.580-204.270) and fat-free mass (b = 108.256, 95%CI 39.508-207.606) totally mediated the effect on aerobic capacity. Fat mass (b = 0.023, 95%CI 0.004-0.057), fat-free mass (b = 0.029, 95%CI 0.011-0.058), stature (b = 0.031, 95%CI 0.008-0.061), arm span (b = 0.021, 95%CI 0.003-0.044), and inferior members length (b = 0.022, 95%CI 0.005-0.049) totally mediated the effect on handgrip strength. The effect of biological maturation is noticeable even after age and body mass control, being mediated by anthropometric variables related to body composition and size.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo del Adolescente , Antropometría , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Artes Marciales/fisiología , Adolescente , Composición Corporal , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Niño , Fuerza de la Mano , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciales/normas
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948103

RESUMEN

Alpine ski racing is a sport with a high risk of injuries. In order to contribute to the longitudinal career development of young athletes, prevention measures should be elaborated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate prospectively the role of biological maturity status, and changes in anthropometric characteristics and physical fitness parameters over one season in elite youth ski racers younger than 15 years. Eighty-nine elite youth ski racers (39 females, 50 males), aged 10-14 years (mean age: 12.1 ± 1.3), were investigated. Anthropometric characteristics and physical fitness parameters were assessed prior and after the winter season; traumatic and overuse injuries were recorded over the 32 weeks. Binary logistic regression analyses (R² = 0.202-0.188) revealed that the biological maturity (Wald = 4.818; p = 0.028), and changes over the season in the jump agility test (Wald = 4.692; p = 0.03), in body height (Wald = 6.229; p = 0.013), and in leg length (Wald = 4.321; p = 0.038) represented significant injury risk factors. Athletes who could improve their jump agility performance more, had smaller changes in the anthropometric characteristics and who were closer to their peak height velocity were at a lower injury risk. In the context of injury prevention, regular neuromuscular training should be incorporated, and phases of rapid growth have to be considered.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo del Adolescente , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Aptitud Física , Esquí/lesiones , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Antropometría , Traumatismos en Atletas/etiología , Austria/epidemiología , Estatura , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año , Esquí/fisiología
9.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(1): 140-151, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640313

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sleep is an important recovery period for athletes. In general, women are not satisfied with their sleep quality, which is also true for female soccer players, although the reasons remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to confirm sex difference in sleep quality among athletes from various fields of sport, and to investigate factors related to poor subjective sleep quality in male and female athletes. METHODS: We collected data concerning subjective sleep quality, measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), from athletes who were 16 to 40 years of age and played various types of sports. Data concerning their sports, lifestyle, and sleep issues and sleep environments, and also menstrual issues for females, were collected. RESULTS: Data from 207 male athletes and 215 female athletes were assessed. Among them, 31.4% of men and 48.8% of women had poor subjective sleep quality (i.e., PSQI≥6). In male athletes, witnessed apnea, episodes of disorientation or confusion during the time of sleep, long time gap between dinner and bedtime, and turning on the heating in the winter, were identified as factors associated with poor sleep quality by multivariate analysis, whereas in female athletes, bathing close to bedtime, habitual drinking, and being annoyed by noises at bedtime were identified. CONCLUSIONS: In both populations, females had poorer subjective sleep quality than males. Sex differences exist in factors associated with poor subjective sleep quality. Thus, different approaches should be considered to improve their sleep quality.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/etiología , Sueño/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/psicología , Somnolencia , Adulto Joven
10.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 30(3): 531-539, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663164

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is common among visitors of fitness centers. Knowledge about health risks of AAS use is limited due to lack of clinical studies. METHODS: One hundred men, at least 18 years old, intending to start a cycle of AAS were recruited. Baseline demographical data and reasons for AAS use were recorded. Subjects provided samples of AAS for analysis with UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven men were seen for a baseline visit. Nineteen percent had competed in bodybuilding competitions. Recent illicit drug use was reported by 56%. Seventy-seven percent of participants had used AAS in the past, and 97% of them had experienced side effects. After exclusion, 100 men comprised the cohort for follow-up. The AAS cycle performed had a median duration of 13 weeks (range 2-52), and the average dose of AAS equivalents was 901 mg per week (range 250-3.382). Subjects used other performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) such as growth hormone (21%). In total, 272 AAS samples were analyzed and 47% contained the AAS indicated on the label. The principal reason for AAS use was gain of muscle mass (44%). Forty-eight percent self-reported to being addicted to AAS. CONCLUSION: The HAARLEM study cohort shows that strength athletes use AAS in a wide variety of cycles and often also use illicit drugs and other potentially harmful PIEDs. The quality of the AAS used is strikingly low. Follow-up of the cohort will provide novel data regarding health risks of AAS use.


Asunto(s)
Anabolizantes/efectos adversos , Andrógenos/efectos adversos , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Drogas Ilícitas/efectos adversos , Sustancias para Mejorar el Rendimiento/efectos adversos , Esteroides/efectos adversos , Adulto , Anciano , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
11.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(1): 102-109, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818053

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: High incidence of sports injury occurring during marathon competitions urges a pressing demand for a convenient and accurate diagnostic tool of such injuries. However, contemporary information on the application of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) in sports injury is not sufficient. METHODS: A repeated measures study was used to describe the distribution of lower limb injuries in the Chongqing marathon and the application of MSUS in assessing these sports injuries. To verify the diagnostic accuracy of MSUS for sports injury, participants were assigned to group A (MSUS group) or group B (Sports medicine physician, i.e. SMP group), each group had an independent procedure of making a diagnosis. That is, ultrasound physicians in group A made a diagnosis from the ultrasonographic images while sports medicine physicians in group B synthesizing symptoms and signs of patients to identify the exact injury. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found in the participants of the baseline characteristics between the two groups (P>0.05). In both groups, the knee was accounted as the vast majority of running injury sites, followed by the ankle (P=0.152). Tendons and ligaments injuries (χ2=48.437 and P=0.000) were the most common types of injury. Visual Analog Scale (VAS), a higher score of which indicates severer pain (0 to 10), was used to evaluate the severity of pain from injuries. VAS scores decreased significantly (P<0.05) in both groups after immediate treatment and the decrease in group A was significantly greater than group B (P=0.007). For athletes with pain sustained or exacerbated, further MRI exam showed a concordance rate of approximately 100% between MSUS and MRI diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal ultrasonography could be applied as an efficient method for the diagnosis of sports injuries in the athletic competition field.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas/diagnóstico por imagen , Sistema Musculoesquelético/diagnóstico por imagen , Carrera/lesiones , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Adulto , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Extremidad Inferior/diagnóstico por imagen , Extremidad Inferior/lesiones , Masculino , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesiones , Medicina Deportiva/métodos , Adulto Joven
12.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 43-50, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730421

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Student-athletes are subject to significant demands due to their concurrent sporting and academic commitments, which may affect their sleep. This study aimed to compare the self-reported sleep quality, quantity, and intraindividual variability (IIV) of students and student-athletes through an online survey. HYPOTHESIS: Student-athletes will have a poorer sleep quality and quantity and experience more IIV. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while sleep quantity and IIV were assessed using the Consensus Sleep Diary. Initially, the PSQI and additional questions regarding sport participation habits were completed by 138 participants (65 students, 73 student-athletes). From within this sample, 44 participants were recruited to complete the sleep diary for a period of 14 days. RESULTS: The mean PSQI score was 6.89 ± 3.03, with 65% of the sample identified as poor sleepers, but no difference was observed between students and student-athletes. Analysis of sleep patterns showed only possibly to likely small differences in sleep schedule, sleep onset latency, and subjective sleep quality between groups. IIV analysis showed likely moderate to possibly small differences between groups, suggesting more variable sleep patterns among student-athletes. CONCLUSION: This study highlights that sleep issues are prevalent within the university student population and that student-athletes may be at greater risk due to more variable sleep patterns. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: University coaches should consider these results to optimize sleep habits of their student-athletes.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Sueño , Estudiantes/psicología , Rendimiento Académico , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Masculino , Autoinforme , Latencia del Sueño , Estrés Psicológico , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 6239058, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827687

RESUMEN

The effects of preexercise photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) to enhance performance, accelerate recovery, and attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress were still not fully investigated, especially in high-level athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PBMT (using infrared low-level laser therapy) applied before a progressive running test on functional aspects, muscle damage, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in high-level soccer players. A randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed. Twenty-two high-level male soccer players from the same team were recruited and treated with active PBMT and placebo. The order of interventions was randomized. Immediately after the application of active PBMT or placebo, the volunteers performed a standardized high-intensity progressive running test (ergospirometry test) until exhaustion. We analyzed rates of oxygen uptake (VO2 max), time until exhaustion, and aerobic and anaerobic threshold during the intense progressive running test. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1-ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) and carbonylated proteins, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured before and five minutes after the end of the test. PBMT increased the VO2 max (both relative and absolute values-p < 0.0467 and p < 0.0013, respectively), time until exhaustion (p < 0.0043), time (p < 0.0007) and volume (p < 0.0355) in which anaerobic threshold happened, and volume in which aerobic threshold happened (p < 0.0068). Moreover, PBMT decreased CK (p < 0.0001) and LDH (p < 0.0001) activities. Regarding the cytokines, PBMT decreased only IL-6 (p < 0.0001). Finally, PBMT decreased TBARS (p < 0.0001) and carbonylated protein levels (p < 0.01) and increased SOD (p < 0.0001)and CAT (p < 0.0001) activities. The findings of this study demonstrate that preexercise PBMT acts on different functional aspects and biochemical markers. Moreover, preexercise PBMT seems to play an important antioxidant effect, decreasing exercise-induced oxidative stress and consequently enhancing athletic performance and improving postexercise recovery. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03803956.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Ejercicio Físico , Inflamación/prevención & control , Terapia por Luz de Baja Intensidad/métodos , Fatiga Muscular/fisiología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de la radiación , Carrera , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análisis , Estudios Cruzados , Humanos , Inflamación/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatiga Muscular/efectos de la radiación , Oxidación-Reducción , Fútbol , Adulto Joven
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810337

RESUMEN

Doping is recognized as one of the most important problems in sports, but a limited number of studies have investigated doping problems in youth athletes. This study aimed to evaluate doping tendency (potential doping behavior (PDB)) and correlates of PDB in youth age swimmers. The participants were 241 competitive swimmers (131 females; 15.3 ± 1.1 years of age, all under 18 years old). Variables included predictors and PDB (criterion). Predictors consisted of sociodemographic factors (gender and age), sport-related variables (i.e., experience in swimming and sport achievement), variables explaining coaching strategy and training methodology, consumption of dietary supplements (DS), knowledge about doping, and knowledge about sports nutrition and DS (KSN). In addition to the descriptive statistics and differences between genders, a multinomial regression using PDB as the criterion (negative-, neutral-, or positive-PDB, with a negative-PDB as the reference value) was calculated to define associations between predictors and criterion. With only 71% of swimmers who declared negative-PDB results indicated an alarming figure. Boys with better KSN were more negatively oriented toward positive-PDB (OR: 0.77, 95%CI: 0.60-0.95). In girls, lower competitive achievement was evidenced as a risk factor for neutral-PDB (OR: 0.39, 95%CI: 0.24-0.63). Also, higher neutral-PDB (OR: 0.88, 95%CI: 0.81-0.96) and positive-PDB (OR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.83-0.99) were identified in girls who began with intensive training in younger age. Because of the alarming figures of PDB, there is an evident need for the development of systematic antidoping educational programs in youth swimming. In doing so, focus should be placed on girls who began intensive training at an earlier age and those who did not achieve high competitive results.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Atletas/psicología , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Doping en los Deportes/prevención & control , Doping en los Deportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Natación/estadística & datos numéricos , Deportes Juveniles/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Eslovenia
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810338

RESUMEN

Training load (TL) metrics are usually assessed to estimate the individual, physiological and psychological, acute, and adaptive responses to training. Cardiac troponins (cTn) reflect myocardial damage and are routinely analyzed for the clinical diagnosis of myocardial injury. The association between TL and post-exercise cTn elevations is scarcely investigated in young athletes, especially after playing common team sports such as soccer. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between TL measurements during a small-sided soccer game and the subsequent increase in cTn in young players. Twenty male soccer players (age 11.9 ± 2 years, height 151 ± 13 cm, weight 43 ± 13 kg) were monitored during a 5 × 5 small-sided game and had blood samples drawn before, immediately after, and 3 h after exercise for a posterior analysis of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). Internal, external, and mixed metrics of TL were obtained from the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), and GPS player tracking. The results show that the concentration of hs-cTnT peaked at 3 h post-exercise in all participants. The magnitude of hs-cTnT elevation was mainly explained by the exercise duration in the maximal heart rate zone (Maximum Probability of Effect (MPE) = 92.5%), time in the high-speed zone (MPE = 90.4 %), and distance in the high-speed zone (MPE = 90.45%). Our results support the idea that common metrics of TL in soccer, easily obtained using player tracking systems, are strongly associated with the release of hs-cTnT in children and adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Acondicionamiento Físico Humano/fisiología , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Fútbol , Troponina T/fisiología , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangre , Niño , Juegos Recreacionales , Humanos , Masculino , España , Troponina T/sangre
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861754

RESUMEN

Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have reduced drastically in size, cost, and power consumption, while improving accuracy. The combination of different sensor technologies is considered a promising step in the monitoring of athletes. Those "wearables" enable the capturing of relevant physiological and tactical information in individual and team sports and thus replacing subjective, time-consuming and qualitative methods with objective, quantitative ones. Prior studies mainly comprised sports categories such as: targeting sports, batting and fielding games as well as net and wall games, focusing on the detection of individual, non-locomotive movements. The increasing capabilities of wearables allow for more complex and integrative analysis expanding research into the last category: invasion sports. Such holistic approaches allow the derivation of metrics, estimation of physical conditions and the analysis of team strategic behavior, accompanied by integrative knowledge gains in technical, tactical, physical, and mental aspects of a sport. However, prior and current researchers find the precise measurement of the actual movement within highly dynamic and non-linear movement difficult. Thus, the present article showcases an overview of the environments in which the wearables are employed. It elaborates their use in individual as well as team-related performance analyses with a special focus on reliability and validity, challenges, and future directions.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo Fisiológico/instrumentación , Monitoreo Fisiológico/métodos , Movimiento/fisiología , Deportes/fisiología , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles/tendencias , Adulto , Predicción , Humanos , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven
17.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717985

RESUMEN

The study objective was to validate a food frequency and lifestyle questionnaire (FFLQ) to assess vitamin D intake and lifestyle factors affecting status. METHODS: Data collected previously during the fall (n = 86), winter (n = 49), and spring (n = 67) in collegiate-athletes (Study 1) and in active adults (n = 123) (Study 2) were utilized. Study 1: Vitamin D intake and ultraviolet B exposure were estimated using the FFLQ and compared to serum 25(OH)D concentrations via simple correlation and linear regression modeling. Study 2: Vitamin D intake from food was estimated using FFLQ and compared to vitamin D intake reported in 7-Day food diaries via paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS: Study 1: Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with vitamin D intake from food, food plus supplements, or sun exposure, but was associated with tanning bed use (r = 0.39) in spring, supplement use in fall (r = 0.28), and BMI (body mass index) (r = -0.32 to -0.47) across all seasons. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were explained by BMI, tanning bed use, and sun exposure in fall, (R = 0.42), BMI in winter (R = 0.32), and BMI and tanning bed use in spring (R = 0.52). Study 2: Estimated Vitamin D intake from food was 186.4 ± 125.7 via FFLQ and 148.5 ± 228.2 IU/day via food diary. There was no association between intake estimated by the two methodologies (r = 0.12, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: FFLQ-estimated vitamin D intake was not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration or food-record-estimated vitamin D intake. Results highlight the difficulty of designing/utilizing intake methodologies for vitamin D, as its status is influenced by body size and both endogenous and exogenous (dietary) sources.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Nutricionales/normas , Luz Solar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Vitamina D/sangre , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Adulto Joven
18.
J Athl Train ; 54(12): 1229-1236, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714144

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: California is currently the only state that does not regulate who can and cannot call themselves athletic trainers (ATs). Therefore, previous national or state-specific investigations may not have provided an accurate representation of AT availability at the secondary school level in California. Similarly, it is unknown whether the factors that influence AT availability in California, such as socioeconomic status, are similar to or different from those identified in previous studies. OBJECTIVE: To describe the availability of ATs certified by the Board of Certification in California secondary schools and to examine potential factors influencing access to AT services in California secondary schools. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Online survey. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Representatives of 1270 California high schools. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Officials from member schools completed the 2017-2018 California Interscholastic Federation Participation Census. Respondents provided information regarding school type, student and student-athlete enrollment, whether the school had ATs on staff, and whether the ATs were certified by the Board of Certification. The socioeconomic status of public and charter schools was determined using the percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. RESULTS: More than half (54.6%) of schools reported that they either did not employ ATs (47.6%) or employed unqualified health personnel (UHP) in the role of AT (7.0%). Nearly 30% of student-athletes in California participated in athletics at a school that did not employ ATs (n = 191 626, 28.9%) and 8% of student-athletes participated at a school that employed UHP in the role of AT (n = 54 361, 8.2%). Schools that reported employing ATs had a lower proportion of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch than schools that did not employ ATs and schools that employed UHP (both P values < .001). CONCLUSIONS: With ongoing legislative efforts to obtain regulation of ATs in California, secondary school administrators are encouraged to hire ATs with the proper certification to enhance the patient care provided to student-athletes and improve health outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicina Deportiva/educación , Deportes/educación , Adulto , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , California , Certificación , Estudios Transversales , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Deportes/normas , Medicina Deportiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 19(1): 117, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675953

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Exercise is known to induce multiple beneficial conditioning processes. Conversely, although exercise may generate several hormonal effects, an intrinsic hormonal conditioning process has not been reported. In the Endocrine and Metabolic Responses on Overtraining Syndrome (EROS) study, we observed inherent and independent conditioning processes of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes in athletes. Our objective is to describe the theory of the novel hormonal conditioning mechanism using the findings from the EROS study. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we selected 25 healthy athletes (ATL) and 12 non-physically active healthy controls (NPAC), 18-50 years old, males, with BMI 20-30 kg/m2, with similar baseline characteristics, who underwent gold-standard exercise-independent tests: cosyntropin stimulation test (CST) and insulin tolerance test (ITT), to evaluate cortisol response to CST, and ACTH, cortisol, GH, and prolactin responses to an ITT. RESULTS: Responses to ITT were significantly earlier and higher in ATL than NPAC for cortisol [Mean ± SD: 21.7 ± 3.1 vs 16.9 ± 4.1 µg/dL; p < 0.001], GH [Median (95% CI): 12.73 (1.1-38.1) vs 4.80 (0.33-27.36) µg/L; p = 0.015], and prolactin [24.3 (10.5-67.45) vs 10.50 (6.21-43.44) ng/mL; p = 0.002]. Cortisol response to CST was similar between ATL and NPAC. During ITT, cortisol, GH, and ACTH mean increase in ATL were 52.2, 265.2, and 18.6% higher than NPAC, respectively. Prolactin response was absent in NPAC, while present in ATL. CONCLUSIONS: We found sufficient evidence to propose the existence of a diffuse enhancement of the hypothalamic-pituitary activity in athletes, not restricted to any axis, showing an intrinsic and independent process of "hormonal conditioning" in athletes, similar to those observed in the cardiovascular and neuromuscular systems. This novel conditioning process may be the missing link for understanding the improved responses observed in athletes to harmful situations, traumas, infections, inflammations, and psychiatric conditions.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Cosintropina/administración & dosificación , Ejercicio Físico , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/metabolismo , Insulina/administración & dosificación , Sistema Hipófiso-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Hormonas/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/administración & dosificación , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sistema Hipófiso-Suprarrenal/efectos de los fármacos , Prolactina/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
20.
J Trauma Nurs ; 26(6): 297-311, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714490

RESUMEN

Despite increasing attention to concussion safety, many young athletes still do not report concussion-like symptoms to athletic staff. This systematic review was conducted to identify barriers and facilitators to reporting of concussions by high school and collegiate athletes. The review was conducted using PubMed, SCOPUS, CINAHL Complete, and Cochrane Library. Original research articles were deemed eligible if they contained either qualitative or quantitative data on barriers and facilitators of high school and collegiate athletes self-reporting concussion symptoms to athletic staff. For those articles that met inclusion criteria, both authors critically read each article, summarized reasons given by the authors, and then categorized this information into a barrier or a facilitator of concussion-reporting behavior. Of the 878 articles returned, 24 articles met inclusion criteria. Major facilitators were female sex and younger age. Major barriers were a fear of losing current or future playing time, a misconception that concussive injury is not serious, a fear of letting one's team down, and a lack of knowledge of concussion signs and symptoms. Future interventions should address these issues, incorporate primary and secondary prevention strategies, and emphasize the long-term risks of playing while concussed.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Traumatismos en Atletas/fisiopatología , Conmoción Encefálica/fisiopatología , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Gestión de Riesgos/estadística & datos numéricos , Gestión de Riesgos/normas , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Atletas/psicología , Traumatismos en Atletas/diagnóstico , Conmoción Encefálica/diagnóstico , Curriculum , Educación Continua en Enfermería , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto Joven
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