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1.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923663

RESUMEN

The main objective of this research was to carry out an experimental study, triple-blind, on the possible immunophysiological effects of a nutritional supplement (synbiotic, Gasteel Plus®, Heel España S.A.U.), containing a mixture of probiotic strains, such as Bifidobacterium lactis CBP-001010, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036, and Bifidobacterium longum ES1, as well as the prebiotic fructooligosaccharides, on both professional athletes and sedentary people. The effects on some inflammatory/immune (IL-1ß, IL-10, and immunoglobulin A) and stress (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol) biomarkers were evaluated, determined by flow cytometer and ELISA. The effects on metabolic profile and physical activity, as well as on various parameters that could affect physical and mental health, were also evaluated via the use of accelerometry and validated questionnaires. The participants were professional soccer players in the Second Division B of the Spanish League and sedentary students of the same sex and age range. Both study groups were randomly divided into two groups: a control group-administered with placebo, and an experimental group-administered with the synbiotic. Each participant was evaluated at baseline, as well as after the intervention, which lasted one month. Only in the athlete group did the synbiotic intervention clearly improve objective physical activity and sleep quality, as well as perceived general health, stress, and anxiety levels. Furthermore, the synbiotic induced an immunophysiological bioregulatory effect, depending on the basal situation of each experimental group, particularly in the systemic levels of IL-1ß (increased significantly only in the sedentary group), CRH (decreased significantly only in the sedentary group), and dopamine (increased significantly only in the athlete group). There were no significant differences between groups in the levels of immunoglobulin A or in the metabolic profile as a result of the intervention. It is concluded that synbiotic nutritional supplements can improve anxiety, stress, and sleep quality, particularly in sportspeople, which appears to be linked to an improved immuno-neuroendocrine response in which IL-1ß, CRH, and dopamine are clearly involved.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Inmunológico/microbiología , Sistemas Neurosecretores/microbiología , Fútbol/fisiología , Estrés Psicológico/microbiología , Simbióticos/administración & dosificación , Acelerometría , Adulto , Ansiedad/sangre , Ansiedad/microbiología , Ansiedad/terapia , Atletas/psicología , Bifidobacterium animalis , Bifidobacterium longum , Biomarcadores/sangre , Hormona Liberadora de Corticotropina/sangre , Dopamina/sangre , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangre , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Masculino , Oligosacáridos/administración & dosificación , Proyectos Piloto , Probióticos/administración & dosificación , Proyectos de Investigación , Conducta Sedentaria , Sueño , Estrés Psicológico/sangre , Estrés Psicológico/terapia , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800853

RESUMEN

Cognitive functions are essential in any form of exercise. Recently, interest has mounted in addressing the relationship between caffeine intake and cognitive performance during sports practice. This review examines this relationship through a structured search of the databases Medline/PubMed and Web of Science for relevant articles published in English from August 1999 to March 2020. The study followed PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria were defined according to the PICOS model. The identified records reported on randomized cross-over studies in which caffeine intake (as drinks, capsules, energy bars, or gum) was compared to an identical placebo situation. There were no filters on participants' training level, gender, or age. For the systematic review, 13 studies examining the impacts of caffeine on objective measures of cognitive performance or self-reported cognitive performance were selected. Five of these studies were also subjected to meta-analysis. After pooling data in the meta-analysis, the significant impacts of caffeine only emerged on attention, accuracy, and speed. The results of the 13 studies, nevertheless, suggest that the intake of a low/moderate dose of caffeine before and/or during exercise can improve self-reported energy, mood, and cognitive functions, such as attention; it may also improve simple reaction time, choice reaction time, memory, or fatigue, however, this may depend on the research protocols.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Cafeína/farmacología , Cognición/efectos de los fármacos , Sustancias para Mejorar el Rendimiento/farmacología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248345, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720968

RESUMEN

The outbreak of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) created an international public health emergency, challenging the psychological resilience of the general population. Regarding this matter, a web-based survey was performed. Data were collected from the following 1,668 self-selected volunteers: 800 athletes (28.30 ± 10.93 years old); 558 coaches (36.91 ± 11.93 years old); and 310 sports managers (42.07 ± 13.38 years old). To assess the level of psychological stress, an Impact of the Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) questionnaire was used. The results indicated that 34.4% of the participants who were interviewed were affected by subjective distress while 26.4% rated their psychological impact from the sports activity interruption as severe. Separated one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed significant differences in the IES-R total score (TS), indicating that the level of stress in terms of gender revealed that women were more stressed than men (p = 0.000), for "sports roles" in which the manager and coaches were more stressed than the athletes (p < 0.05), and "type of sport" in which fitness and individual athletes were more stressed than team athletes (p < 0.01). The middle-level athletes showed significantly more hyperarousal levels than high-level athletes (p = 0.012). The results of this survey may raise awareness of this problem and help athletic associations to have appropriate guidelines in order to better sustain their memberships and organize an optimal resumption of their sports activities. Along these lines, social interactions, which are typical of team sports, are crucial to warrant resilience and psychological health. The athletes by managing independently the new rules and measures, thanks to a clear communication, could improve their adaptive stress reaction.


Asunto(s)
Personal Administrativo/psicología , Atletas/psicología , Deportes , Adulto , /virología , Femenino , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuarentena , Resiliencia Psicológica , Estrés Psicológico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249045, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765075

RESUMEN

We study the gender differences in aversion to COVID-19 exposure using a natural experiment of the 2020 US Open. It was the first major tennis tournament after the season had been paused for six months, held with the same rules and prize money for men and women. We analyze the gender gap in the propensity to voluntarily withdraw because of COVID-19 concerns among players who were eligible and fit to play. We find that female players were significantly more likely than male players to have withdrawn from the 2020 US Open. While players from countries characterized by relatively high levels of trust and patience and relatively low levels of risk-taking were more likely to have withdrawn than their counterparts from other countries, female players exhibited significantly higher levels of aversion to pandemic exposure than male players even after cross-country differences in preferences are accounted for. About 15% of the probability of withdrawing that is explained by our model can be attributed to gender.


Asunto(s)
/patología , Adulto , Atletas/psicología , /virología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuales , Tenis , Adulto Joven
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24874, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607863

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Competition anxiety is also known as pre-competition anxiety (PCA), because this anxiety state often occurs before the athletes face the competition. If it is not adjusted in time, which will greatly affect the performance of athletes, even the mental health and physical health of athletes. Therefore, the selection of appropriate methods to intervene the athletes, reducing the PCA of athletes, and it has an important effect on the competition performance of athletes. Therefore, based on the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine and sports psychology principles, this study adopts a way of systematic evaluation to study the effect of health-care Qigong Baduanjin (HCQB) combined with auricular point sticking (APS)in the treatment of athletes' PCA (APA), the purpose is to help the majority of athletes to eliminate the PCA. METHODS: Two searchers independently retrieve CNKI, WANFANG databases, VIP, CBM, Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, The Cochran Library and other Chinese and English databases. It is supplemented by manual retrieval to comprehensively collect the relevant literature data of the clinical controlled study of HCQB combined with APS in the treatment of APA. The retrieval time is from January 1, 1990 to October 1, 2020, using the subject word and keywords to retrieve, developing a retrieval style according to the characteristics of the database. The two evaluators independently use the above-mentioned retrieval methods to retrieve the main literature database, summarizing and removing the duplicate literature, then reading the title and abstract of the literature separately, excluding the literature that clearly does not meet the inclusion criteria, and finally reading the literature, and finally including the literature in line with the study, in case of disagreement, with the third researcher to decide. The quality evaluation of the literature is independently evaluated using the bias risk assessment criteria for randomized controlled trials in Cochrane Manual 5.1.0. Using the RevMan 5.3 software for meta-analysis. RESULTS: This study will study the effect of HCQB combined with APS on reducing APA, and the results of the study will be published in high-impact academic journals. CONCLUSION: The quality of athletes' mental state is related to whether athletes can play their true level of sports in the competition, and good mental state is also the prerequisite to ensure that athletes get better results. The conclusions reached by this study will provide quantifiable reference for coaches and athletes, with the aim of providing theoretical basis for helping the athletes eliminate PCA. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The type of this study belongs to the category of systematic evaluation, the data in this study are derived from published research papers and public data in the Internet, so ethical review is not suitable for this study. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2021 CRD42021228254.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Atletas/psicología , Medicina China Tradicional/métodos , Qigong/métodos , Puntos de Acupuntura , Trastornos de Ansiedad/prevención & control , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Manejo de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina China Tradicional/efectos adversos , Qigong/efectos adversos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477791

RESUMEN

Excessive sun exposure is the main avoidable cause of skin cancer. Outdoor sports performed without adequate photoprotection are risky practices in this respect. This study examines whether elite athletes in water sports (specifically surfing, windsurfing, and sailing) take appropriate measures to protect their skin from the sun, and whether there are differences in this respect according to age, gender, or sports discipline. This study is based on a questionnaire-based health survey. World championship competitors completed a self-administered questionnaire on their sun protection and exposure habits, as well as sunburns during the last sports season. In total, 246 participants, with an age range of 16-30 years, completed the questionnaire. Of these, 49.6% used inadequate sun protection. Those who protected their skin appropriately tended to be older than those who did not (average age = 23.28 and 20.69 years, respectively; p = 0.000). There were no significant differences in sun protection habits between male and female athletes. The rate of sunburn was very high (76.7%). A high proportion (22.5%) of participants never used sunscreen. Elite athletes in water sports are at real risk of skin lesions from overexposure to the sun, associated with inadequate photoprotection practices. Campaigns to raise awareness and to promote the early detection of skin cancer should target these risk groups.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Neoplasias Cutáneas/prevención & control , Quemadura Solar/prevención & control , Luz Solar/efectos adversos , Protectores Solares/administración & dosificación , Deportes Acuáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Protectores Solares/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
9.
J Sports Sci ; 39(11): 1223-1235, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381986

RESUMEN

The purpose of this paper is to present a player-centred performance analysis method as an effective mechanism to enhance expert players' performance in professional soccer. Data were collected through an application of a developed performance analysis method and subsequent unstructured interviews to explore participants' experience of the applied methodology. Grounded by an enactive perspective of human activity, the applied methodology foregrounds the player's intrinsic experience and places the player at the centre of the analysis and interpretation process. The sample included thirty professional soccer players with professional playing experience ranging from 2 years to 19 years and representing three professional teams. Using an interpretive data analysis approach results were considered from a methodological perspective concerning the core functions of a performance analysis method. Categories regarding performance analysis and performance development were highlighted. Findings demonstrate that adopting a player-centred approach to performance analysis in professional soccer provides advancement of the understanding of the collective performance of the expert player and may increase the opportunity for sustained learning.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/educación , Rendimiento Atlético/educación , Fútbol/educación , Adulto , Atletas/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Hermenéutica , Humanos , Solución de Problemas , Investigación Cualitativa , Proyectos de Investigación , Carrera , Fútbol/psicología , Desarrollo de Personal/métodos , Deportes de Equipo , Adulto Joven
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23647, 2020 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327346

RESUMEN

This study aimed to describe the sport injuries of elite collegiate athletes, and to examine the influence of career length, past injuries, and psychological factors on the treatment period and willingness to pay (WTP) for treatment.A survey was conducted among students of the Department of Physical Education, Korea National Sport University. Results were interpreted through frequency analysis and multiple linear regression analysis.All students currently in training (n = 624, mean age 21 ±â€Š2 years) participated in this study. 12-month prevalence of sports injuries was 56%. The locations of the most common and severe injuries were the knee, ankle, and back. The most frequent types of common injury were sprain, ruptured ligament, and bruising. The location of injuries varied according to the sports discipline. The treatment period was influenced by sports discipline, career length, location, and type of injury, and fear of further injuries. Treatment period was associated with the reason for fear of injuries, and WTP was influenced by fear of further injuries.Our study suggests that specific management plans for athletes based on disciplines, past injuries, and their emotional responses to previous injuries are required for rehabilitation and return to sports following treatment.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Traumatismos en Atletas/psicología , Traumatismos en Atletas/terapia , Deportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Traumatismos en Atletas/clasificación , Traumatismos en Atletas/economía , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , República de Corea , Factores Sexuales , Índices de Gravedad del Trauma , Adulto Joven
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244579, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382733

RESUMEN

Recent tragic events and data from official NCAA reports suggest student-athletes' well-being is compromised by symptoms of mental health (MH) disorders. Self-compassion (SC) and mental toughness (MT) are two psychological constructs that have been shown effective against stressors associated with sports. The purpose of this study was to investigate SC, MT, and MH in a NCAA environment for the first time and provide practical suggestions for MH best practice No.4. In total, 542 student-athletes participated across Divisions (Mage = 19.84, SD = 1.7). Data were collected through Mental Toughness Index, Self-Compassion Scale, and Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. MT, SC (including mindfulness), and MH were positively correlated. Males scored higher than females on all three scales. No differences were found between divisions. SC partially mediated the MT-MH relationship, but moderation was not significant. Working towards NCAA MH best practice should include training athletes in both MT and SC skills (via mindfulness).


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Empatía , Adulto , Femenino , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Pruebas Psicológicas
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374935

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on the world of sports due to periods of home quarantine, bans against public gatherings, travel restrictions, and a large number of postponed or canceled major sporting events. The literature hitherto is sparse, but early indications display signs of psychological impact on elite athletes due to the pandemic. However, beyond acute effects from lockdown and short-term interrupted athletic seasons, the postponed and still uncertain Olympic and Paralympic Games may represent a major career insecurity to many athletes world-wide, and may lead to severe changes to everyday lives and potentially prolonged psychological distress. Given the long-term perspective of these changes, researchers and stakeholders should address mental health and long-term job insecurity in athletes, including a specific focus on those with small financial margins, such as many female athletes, parasports athletes, athletes in smaller sports, and athletes from developing countries. Implications and the need for research are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Pandemias , Distrés Psicológico , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Deportes , Incertidumbre
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2031509, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372973

RESUMEN

Importance: Despite increased concern about the health consequences of contact sports, little is known about athletes' understanding of their own risk of sports-related injury. Objective: To assess whether college football players accurately estimate their risk of concussion and nonconcussion injury and to identify characteristics of athletes who misestimate their injury risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this survey study, questionnaires were given to 296 current college football players on 4 teams from the 3 of the 5 most competitive conferences of the US National Collegiate Athletic Association. Surveys were conducted between February and May 2017. Data were analyzed from June 2017 through July 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multiple approaches were taken to compare athlete perceptions of their risks of concussion and nonconcussion injury with individual probabilities of these risks, which were modeled using logistic regression. Results: Of 296 male college-aged athletes from 4 football teams who participated in the survey, 265 (89%) answered all questions relevant for this study. Participating teams were similar to nonparticipating teams across nearly all measured characteristics. One hundred athletes (34%) had sustained 1 or more concussions, and 197 (68% of the 289 who responded to the question) had sustained 1 or more injuries in the previous football season. Logistic regression models of single-season injury and concussion had reasonably good fit (area under the curve, 0.75 and 0.73, respectively). Of the 265 participants for whom all relevant data were available, 111 (42%) underestimated their risk of concussion (χ2 = 98.6; P = .003). A similar proportion of athletes (113 [43%]) underestimated their risk of injury, although this was not statistically significant (χ2 = 34.0; P = .09). An alternative analytic strategy suggested that 241 athletes (91%) underestimated their risk of injury (Wilcoxon statistic, 7865; P < .001) and 167 (63%) underestimated their risk of concussion (Wilcoxon statistic, 26 768; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this survey study suggest that college football players may underestimate their risk of injury and concussion. The implications for informed participation in sport are unclear given that people generally underestimate health risks. It is necessary to consider whether athletes are sufficiently informed and how much risk is acceptable for an athlete to participate in a sport.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Conmoción Encefálica/epidemiología , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Fútbol Americano/lesiones , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Atletas/psicología , Conmoción Encefálica/etiología , Fútbol Americano/psicología , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Universidades , Adulto Joven
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339278

RESUMEN

Sports performance depends on a complex interaction of variables, such as psychological, physical, technical and tactical abilities. The purpose of the three studies described in this article was to validate an instrument to measure perceived performance in athletes (studies 1 and 2), and to analyze the predictive power of perceived performance, basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation on the intention to be physically active (which was used as a predictor of adherence to sport) (study 3). In study 1, the Perceived Performance in Sports Questionnaire was validated in the Spanish sports context, analyzing its factorial structure, reliability, and temporal stability with 146 soccer players. The objective of study 2 was to check the factorial structure of the questionnaire with an objective performance measure (points scored and time played). The sample was 180 young basketball players. The objective of study 3 was to analyze the predictive power of basic psychological needs in exercise, intrinsic motivation, and perceived performance on the intention to be physically active in 339 athletes of fifteen different sports. The results show the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, and positive correlations with the points scored. Finally, the analysis of the structural equation model showed that the satisfaction of the need for competence predicted perceived performance and intrinsic motivation predicted perceived performance and intention to remain physically active.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Rendimiento Atlético , Motivación , Atletas/psicología , Humanos , Autonomía Personal , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
15.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(6): 788-792, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341218

RESUMEN

Epidemiologic studies suggest that individuals with tattoos are more extroverted, aggressive, and more likely to take risks than individuals with no tattoos. Whether these personality traits affect athletic performance is uncertain. We compared behavioral patterns and rates of success of football players at the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) World Cup 2018 by tattoo status. In this cross-sectional study, 32.7% of football players had visible tattoos (241 of 736), mostly on their arms (97.1%). Footballers with tattoos played longer on average (208 versus 160 minutes; P < .001), received more cards (.38 versus .27; P < .001), and committed more fouls per player (2.64 versus 2.2; P < .001). Players with tattoos attempted more shots at goal (P = .016), but without higher goal success (P = .204). The higher number of disciplinary events (being whistled for fouls and given yellow or red cards) and longer playing time of football players with tattoos may reflect personality traits reported in nonathletic individuals with tattoos, such as dominance, extroversion, aggressiveness, and willingness to take risks.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético , Fútbol Americano , Tatuaje/psicología , Tatuaje/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Agresión , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidad , Asunción de Riesgos , Adulto Joven
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198389

RESUMEN

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious viral disease that has spread globally, resulting in the ongoing pandemic. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific treatment for COVID-19. Preventive measures to reduce the chances of contagion consist mainly of confinement, avoiding crowded places, social distancing, masks, and applying strict personal hygiene as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). After the first wave of infection in many countries, the potential effects of relaxing containment and physical distancing control measures suggest that as a result of these measures, a second wave of COVID-19 appears probable in these countries. In sport, the period of self-isolation, and quarantine, for COVID-19 affects the physical preparation of athletes as well as their mental health and quality of life to an even greater extent (i.e., nutrition, sleep, healthy lifestyle), and thus, relevant and practical recommendations are needed to help alleviate these physical and mental health concerns. Our review aims to summarize the physiological and psychological effects of detraining associated with athletes' confinement during the proposed second wave of COVID-19. This article also proposes answers to questions that concern the advantages and disadvantages of different types of social media platforms, the importance of nutrition, and the effects of sleep disturbance on the health and modified lifestyle of athletes during this worldwide pandemic. Thus, this review provides some general guidelines to better manage their modified lifestyle and optimally maintain their physical and mental fitness with respect to measures taken during this restrictive proposed second wave of the COVID-19 confinement period.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Salud Mental , Necesidades Nutricionales , Pandemias , Calidad de Vida , Cuarentena , Sueño
17.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 553-560, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195672

RESUMEN

El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer cómo se ha llevado a cabo el trabajo psicológico en el proceso de formación deportiva de los luchadores olímpicos españoles. Partiendo de un enfoque cualitativo, el instrumento utilizado fue una entrevista semi-estructurada, la cual se aplicó a 21 luchadores olímpicos. Los resultados muestran que los deportistas conceden gran importancia a los factores psicológicos en su disciplina, y que son fundamentales en la etapa de alta competición para alcanzar la excelencia. Consideran la motivación y la autoconfianza como las variables psicológicas más significativas en el rendimiento deportivo y predictoras del éxito en lucha. También se valoran aspectos necesarios como la capacidad de sacrificio, constancia, disciplina y perseverancia. Estiman que no han trabajado adecuadamente los aspectos psicológicos, y solo en épocas recientes se ha incorporado la figura del psicólogo deportivo a su entrenamiento


The aim of this study was to know how psychological work has been carried out in sports training process of Spanish Olympic wrestlers. From a qualitative perspective, the instrument used was a semi-structured interview, which was applied to 21 Olympic wrestlers. The results show that athletes attach great importance to psychological factors in their discipline, and that they are essential at the high competition stage to achieve excellence.They consider motivation and self-confidence as the most significant psychological variables in sports performance, and predictors of wrestling success. Also necessary aspects such as a capacity for self-sacrifice, constancy, discipline and perseverance are valued. They estimate that psychological aspects have not been properly trained, and only in recent times has the figure of the sports psychologist been incorporated into their training


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Psicología del Deporte/métodos , Atletas/psicología , Lucha/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Motivación , Conducta Competitiva
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899526

RESUMEN

The spread of COVID-19 has altered sport in Spain, forcing athletes to train at home. The objectives of the study were: (i) to compare training and recovery conditions before and during the isolation period in handball players according to gender and competitive level, and (ii) to analyse the impact of psychological factors during the isolation period. A total of 187 participants (66 women and 121 men) answered a Google Forms questionnaire about demographics, training, moods, emotional intelligence, and resilience sent using the snowball sampling technique. T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare sport level and gender differences. Linear regressions were used to analyse the psychological influence on training. Handball players reduced training intensity (in the whole sample; p = 0.44), training volume (especially in professional female handball players; p < 0.001), and sleep quality (especially in professional male handball players; p = 0.21) and increased sleep hours (especially in non-professional female players; p = 0.006) during the isolation period. Furthermore, psychological factors affected all evaluated training and recovery conditions during the quarantine, except for sleep quantity. Mood, emotional intelligence, and resilience have an influence on physical activity levels and recovery conditions. In addition, training components were modified under isolation conditions at p < 0.001. We conclude that the COVID-19 isolation period caused reductions in training volume and intensity and decreased sleep quality. Furthermore, psychological components have a significant impact on training and recovery conditions.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Deportes , Afecto , Betacoronavirus , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Resiliencia Psicológica , Sueño , Aislamiento Social , España
19.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(5): 662-670, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943294

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Physical distancing measures to combat the spread of the novel coronavirus have presented challenges for the mental health and well-being of college students. As campus activities ceased, student-athletes abruptly became isolated from teammates and were no longer able to participate in sport activities that are often central to their identity as an athlete. However, student-athletes who have supportive social connections with teammates during this pandemic may maintain their athletic identity to a greater extent and report better mental health. The present study examined how student-athletes' mental health was associated with teammate social support, connectedness, and changes to athletic identity from before to during COVID-19. METHOD: A sample of 234 student-athletes completed surveys before COVID-19 physical distancing (February 2020), with 135 (63% female) participating in a follow-up in the month following school closures (April 2020). Path models estimated the effects of teammate social support and connectedness (during COVID-19), as well as changes in athletic identity on indices of mental health. RESULTS: Considering all path models tested, student-athletes who received more social support and reported more connectedness with teammates reported less dissolution of their athletic identity and-in most models-reported better mental health and well-being. Indirect effects indicated that student-athletes' change in athletic identity mediated the effects of teammate social support on psychological well-being and depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to advancing theory on how small groups relate to mental health, these findings demonstrate the value in remaining socially connected with peers and maintaining role identities during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Salud Mental , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Identificación Social , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Deportes/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Pandemias , Grupo Paritario , Apoyo Social , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 236-243, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970642

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Systematic and continuous physical exercise of certain intensity and volume is irreplaceable in the stages of growth and development and in preventing impairments of the biological, functional and health state of the human organism.Many studies show that physical exercise contributes to development and reinforcement of mental health and increases self-esteem. Examine mental health and self-esteem of active athletes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The subjects of the study are active athletes from Herzegovina and students of the Faculty of Health Studies in Mostar. Mental health and self-esteem were measured by a sociodemographic questionnaire, The Symptom Checklist-90 and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. RESULTS: There is a statistically significant difference in the frequency of exercise, active athletes have the highest percentage (100%) and state that they exercise often (almost every day) while university students have a significantly lower percentage (20%).Students scored significantly higher on the subscales for somatization, obsessive - compulsive symptoms, interpersonal vulnerability, depression, anxiety, aggression, phobia, and paranoia than active athletes. Active athletes have statistically higher scores for almost all the claims of the subjective assessment of life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Active athletes showed significantly less psychological symptoms and better mental health, greater life satisfaction and higher self-esteem than students of the Faculty of Health Studies in Mostar.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Salud Mental , Adolescente , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoimagen , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
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