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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0227750, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130221

RESUMEN

We utilize a contest-theoretic model to demonstrate a version of the alliance formation puzzle that aligns with reception-coverage contests in American football. Namely, secondary defenders can opt for single-coverage-1 v 1 contest. Alternatively, they can choose to ally-form double-coverage or 2 v 1 contest with exogenous intra-alliance prize division-when defending a given receiver. In our theoretical treatment, we find that defenses have a lower equilibrium success rate in preventing the receiver from "getting open" under double-coverage than under single-coverage in the absence of capacity constraints. We also find that this success rate paradox is a necessary condition for the alliance formation puzzle. We then test the theoretical treatment by analyzing 8,508 plays of NCAA and NFL game data within a set of fixed effects, logistic regression models that control for receiver, level-of-play, and season-of-play. We find that equilibrium level of defensive success rises significantly and substantially (p-value < 0.01 and marginal effect of between 13 and 17 percentage points) when moving from single-coverage to double-coverage, ceteris paribus. There is strong evidence that the necessary condition for the alliance formation puzzle does not hold in this setting. We conclude that sufficiently-binding physiological and training-based capacity constraints eliminate the alliance formation puzzle in this setting, as was shown theoretically by Konrad and Kovenock (2009). This empirical result suggests that other contest settings that regularly feature alliance, such as liquidity-constrained conflict, may not be puzzling.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Conducta Cooperativa , Fútbol Americano/psicología , Modelos Psicológicos , Conducta de Elección , Humanos , Estados Unidos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228790, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032369

RESUMEN

Despite empirical observations suggesting that practitioners value the use of substitutions during soccer match-play, limited research has sought to substantiate such claims. This study used online surveys to assess the perceptions of practitioners within professional soccer about the use and practices of substitutes. Thirty-three practitioners completed one of two surveys (each requiring both open and closed questions to be answered), depending upon whether their primary role related mostly to tactical ('tactical practitioners'; n = 7) or physical ('physical practitioners'; n = 26) aspects of player/team management. Thematic content analysis of responses identified four higher-order themes: 'impact of substitutions', 'planning and communication', 'player preparation and recovery' and 'regulations'. Eighty-five percent of practitioners believed that substitutes are important in determining success during soccer match-play, with the primary justification being the perceived ability of such players to provide a physical and/or tactical impact. However, contextual factors such as the match situation, timing of introduction, and players undergoing adequate pre-pitch-entry preparation, may be important for realising such aims. Although many practitioners believed that there was a need for substitutes to engage in bespoke non-match-day preparations and recovery strategies that differ from starting players, logistical considerations, such as scarcity of resources, often limit their scope. Notwithstanding, 96% of respondents indicated that substitutes frequently perform extra conditioning sessions to account for deficits in high-speed running loads compared with players exposed to a longer period of match-play. Substitutes' pre-match warm-ups are typically led by team staff, however practitioners reported providing varying levels of input with regards to the practices adopted between kick-off and pitch-entry. Uncertainty exists as to the efficacy of current pre-pitch-entry practices, and 100% of practitioners highlighted 'preparatory strategies' as at least a 'moderately important' direction for future research. This study presents novel insights and highlights areas that are considered future research priorities amongst those working in the field.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Ejercicio de Calentamiento , Traumatismos en Atletas/prevención & control , Rendimiento Atlético , Humanos , Fútbol , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228352, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059019

RESUMEN

Organized sport yields many cognitive, social and physical benefits and is one of the most popular types of physical activity for children and adolescents. Despite the benefits of sports participation, a substantial proportion of adolescents fail to meet Canadian guidelines regarding physical activity. In this regard, it is relevant to understand the mechanisms underlying the adoption of various active behaviours. This study aims to identify the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors that potentially influence 4 categories of active behaviours using the Youth Physical Activity Promotion model (YPAP). Data was drawn from 416 male adolescent hockey players (Mage = 15.4; SD = 2) who completed a pre-validated questionnaire. Structural equation modeling and interaction analyses were performed to explain the contribution of each determinant. Findings reveal that there are different behavioural patterns based on the type of activity. The interaction between attitudes and environmental factors was a key predictor for each type of behaviour. Perceived competence was associated with more recreational activities, whereas the support of parents and coaches determined involvement in ice hockey. This study refined our understanding of physical activity participation among adolescents already involved in organized sports and emphasized the importance of considering multiple factors surrounding their environment. Several practical recommendations are made to improve young athletes' predisposition to practice physical activity in an organized sports setting.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Atletas/psicología , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Hockey/psicología , Medio Social , Deportes/psicología , Adolescente , Actitud , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 669-675, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013766

RESUMEN

Initial research suggests that parental perfectionism is central to the development of athlete perfectionism. However, it is unclear whether perceived or actual parental perfectionism is most important. The present study aimed to address this issue in two ways. First, we re-examined the predictive ability of actual versus perceived parental perfectionism on athlete perfectionism. Second, for the first time, we tested whether perceived parental perfectionism mediated the relationship between actual parental perfectionism and athlete perfectionism. A sample of 150 junior athletes and their parents completed measures of perfectionism (perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns). Junior athletes completed two measures, one of their own perfectionism and one of perceptions of their parents' perfectionism. Parents completed one measure of their own perfectionism. Regression analyses showed that perceived parental perfectionism predicted athlete perfectionism over and above actual parental perfectionism. Mediation analyses provided support for our proposed model. Overall, the findings suggest that both actual and perceived parental perfectionism are important in the development of perfectionism in junior athletes.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Perfeccionismo , Adolescente , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Estrés Psicológico
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906403

RESUMEN

The objectives of the present study were to assess general perceptions of safety in snow parks (SPs), general knowledge of rules existence, and both active and passive awareness of the International Ski Federation (FIS) rules contained in its Code of Conduct for SPs in order to define target groups for injury prevention-specific education interventions. Data were drawn from 436 freestylers randomly interviewed. The study was conducted during the 2018-2019 winter season in the SP of a major winter resort located in the Spanish Pyrenees. A questionnaire assessing personal data (gender, age, gear used, self-reported skill, and frequency of use), general perceptions on safety, general request for rules, and awareness of existing rules in SPs was developed. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests were used to compare characteristics between groups. It was revealed, for accident prevention purposes, a concerning general lack of knowledge of existing rules in SPs (63% of participants ignored them). Risk-inducing situations that could result in severe injuries, such as familiarity with the right progression in choosing features and/or stunts or with safety equipment, were largely assessed incorrectly (94% and 70% of participants, respectively). Appropriate intuitive behavior increases with experience: youths and beginners are less able to implement FIS rules than more experienced freestylers.


Asunto(s)
Prevención de Accidentes , Atletas , Parques Recreativos , Nieve , Prevención de Accidentes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas/psicología , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Concienciación , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Parques Recreativos/estadística & datos numéricos , Esquí , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227815, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978072

RESUMEN

Caribbean nations stand to benefit significantly from the potential insights that can be gained from the assessment of their athlete talent development environments; which in turn can lead to the formulation of evidence-based strategies and improvements to their sport development pathways. The principal aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the 25-item TDEQ-5 to determine its validity to assess the development environments of talented youth track and field athletes from six English-speaking Caribbean countries. As a secondary aim, we sought to examine athletes' perceptions of their talent development environment within this context. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed adequate model fit of a re-specified model and good overall internal reliability of the scale, therefore offering support for its use within this context. Furthermore, adequate construct validity and internal reliability was found within three subscales (i.e., communication, holistic quality preparation and support network) with subpar scores within two subscales (i.e., long-term development focus and alignment of expectations). Preliminary findings on athletes' perceptions of their environment revealed key strengths in coaches' long-term development focus and communication, however deficiencies were noted in the accessibility and availability of sport-related support and preparation of athletes. In conclusion, the re-specified TDEQ-5 with 25 items appears to be a reliable and valid measure within the Caribbean context. However, it is recommended that the scale be used with some caution with regard to the interpretation of results for the 'long-term development focus' and 'alignment of expectations' subscales.


Asunto(s)
Aptitud , Atletas/psicología , Psicometría/métodos , Atletismo/psicología , Adolescente , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Región del Caribe , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoría/estadística & datos numéricos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Atletismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227277, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895929

RESUMEN

The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) is a widely used instrument that assesses motivational processes within sport and exercise environments. The scale has demonstrated validity and reliability in multiple cultures, however, there is yet no empirical evidence regarding its psychometric properties in the Czech population. In this study we therefore set out to examine the reliability and construct validity of the SMS in a sample of Czech university-aged athletes. We first examined the SMS factor structure using a nonparametric item response theory model (Mokken monotone homogeneity model) and identified six items violating the unidimensionality of the particular subscales. Remaining items were then subjected to test of hypothesized seven-factor structure and several different forms of measurement invariance examined based on gender, competition level and type of sport (individual vs team sports). The hypothesized seven-factor fit well and there was sufficient evidence supporting full invariance across the examined groups. All SMS subscales had adequate internal consistencies ranging from 0.66 to 0.89. Results of correlational analysis among the SMS subscales and between the SMS and two outcomes of interest further supported validity of the scale. Observed differences in SMS subscales between males and females, recreational and competitive athletes, as well as between individual and team-based sport activities, comported with prior empirical studies using a self-determination theory framework. In conclusion, results reinforce the utility and performance of the SMS in a sample of Czech university athletes. The SMS may therefore be recommended for measurement of the multidimensional motivational processes taking place in the exercise and sport domain.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Motivación , Autonomía Personal , Psicometría/instrumentación , Deportes/psicología , República Checa , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores Sexuales , Universidades , Adulto Joven
11.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(1): 140-151, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640313

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sleep is an important recovery period for athletes. In general, women are not satisfied with their sleep quality, which is also true for female soccer players, although the reasons remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to confirm sex difference in sleep quality among athletes from various fields of sport, and to investigate factors related to poor subjective sleep quality in male and female athletes. METHODS: We collected data concerning subjective sleep quality, measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), from athletes who were 16 to 40 years of age and played various types of sports. Data concerning their sports, lifestyle, and sleep issues and sleep environments, and also menstrual issues for females, were collected. RESULTS: Data from 207 male athletes and 215 female athletes were assessed. Among them, 31.4% of men and 48.8% of women had poor subjective sleep quality (i.e., PSQI≥6). In male athletes, witnessed apnea, episodes of disorientation or confusion during the time of sleep, long time gap between dinner and bedtime, and turning on the heating in the winter, were identified as factors associated with poor sleep quality by multivariate analysis, whereas in female athletes, bathing close to bedtime, habitual drinking, and being annoyed by noises at bedtime were identified. CONCLUSIONS: In both populations, females had poorer subjective sleep quality than males. Sex differences exist in factors associated with poor subjective sleep quality. Thus, different approaches should be considered to improve their sleep quality.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/etiología , Sueño/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/psicología , Somnolencia , Adulto Joven
12.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(4): 216-220, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810972

RESUMEN

The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine convened a panel of experts to provide an evidence-based, best practices document to assist sports medicine physicians and other members of the athletic care network with the detection, treatment and prevention of mental health issues in competitive athletes. This statement discusses how members of the sports medicine team, including team physicians, athletic trainers and mental health providers, work together in providing comprehensive psychological care to athletes. It specifically addresses psychological factors in athletes including personality issues and the psychological response to injury and illness. The statement also examines the athletic culture and environmental factors that commonly impact mental health, including sexuality and gender issues, hazing, bullying, sexual misconduct and transition from sport. Specific mental health disorders in athletes, such as eating disorders/disordered eating, depression and suicide, anxiety and stress, overtraining, sleep disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, are reviewed with a focus on detection, management, the effect on performance and prevention. This document uses the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy to grade level of evidence.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Salud Mental , Traumatismos en Atletas/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Conducta Competitiva , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/prevención & control , Cultura Organizacional , Personalidad , Medio Social , Deportes , Estados Unidos
13.
Neuropsychology ; 34(1): 63-76, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343237

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine neuropsychological test differences following concussion between collegiate athletes screening positive and negative for depression. METHOD: Participants included 113 (91 male) college athletes, who were assessed at baseline and following diagnosis of sport-related concussion (SRC). The Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen was used as a screener for depression. Athletes were categorized as either depressed (≥4) or nondepressed (<4) following injury and compared on composites for memory and attention-processing speed. Groups were also compared on reliable change index scores from baseline, as well as on proportion of impaired scores. RESULTS: Depressed athletes performed significantly worse than did nondepressed athletes on the Memory Composite (p = .04, d = .51) but not on the Attention-Processing Speed Composite score (p = .15, d = .46). Chi-square tests indicated that, compared with nondepressed athletes, a significantly higher number of depressed athletes showed reliable decreases on the following test indices: Verbal Memory Composite of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (p = .03, φ = .21), Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised Total (p = .02, φ = .22), and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Total (p = .05, φ = .19). Chi-square test indicated that, compared with nondepressed athletes, a significantly higher proportion of depressed athletes met criteria for impairment (p = .02, φ = .23). CONCLUSION: Whether examining the data at the intraindividual or group level, there are memory deficits associated with the combination of an SRC and depression. The results highlight the importance of screening for depression to provide a more complete picture of an individual's functioning postconcussion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Traumatismos en Atletas/psicología , Conmoción Encefálica/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Adolescente , Traumatismos en Atletas/complicaciones , Atención , Conmoción Encefálica/complicaciones , Depresión/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Memoria , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Desempeño Psicomotor , Aprendizaje Verbal , Escalas de Wechsler , Adulto Joven
14.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 43-50, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730421

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Student-athletes are subject to significant demands due to their concurrent sporting and academic commitments, which may affect their sleep. This study aimed to compare the self-reported sleep quality, quantity, and intraindividual variability (IIV) of students and student-athletes through an online survey. HYPOTHESIS: Student-athletes will have a poorer sleep quality and quantity and experience more IIV. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while sleep quantity and IIV were assessed using the Consensus Sleep Diary. Initially, the PSQI and additional questions regarding sport participation habits were completed by 138 participants (65 students, 73 student-athletes). From within this sample, 44 participants were recruited to complete the sleep diary for a period of 14 days. RESULTS: The mean PSQI score was 6.89 ± 3.03, with 65% of the sample identified as poor sleepers, but no difference was observed between students and student-athletes. Analysis of sleep patterns showed only possibly to likely small differences in sleep schedule, sleep onset latency, and subjective sleep quality between groups. IIV analysis showed likely moderate to possibly small differences between groups, suggesting more variable sleep patterns among student-athletes. CONCLUSION: This study highlights that sleep issues are prevalent within the university student population and that student-athletes may be at greater risk due to more variable sleep patterns. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: University coaches should consider these results to optimize sleep habits of their student-athletes.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Sueño , Estudiantes/psicología , Rendimiento Académico , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Masculino , Autoinforme , Latencia del Sueño , Estrés Psicológico , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Sports Biomech ; 19(1): 76-89, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902127

RESUMEN

A potential challenge associated with sports is that athletes must often perform the cognitive processing associated with decision-making (i.e., movement selection) when fatigued. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarise studies that have analysed the extent to which fatigue influences the effects of decision-making on lower extremity mechanics during execution of common sports manoeuvres. We specifically focused on mechanics associated with ACL injury risk. Reviewers searched the PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and Web of Science databases. The search identified 183 unique articles. Five of these articles met our eligibility criteria. Two of the studies incorporated fatigue protocols where athletes progressed to exhaustion and found that the effects of decision-making on mechanics were more pronounced with fatigue. The nature of the results appears to indicate that fatigue may compromise an athlete's cognitive processing in a manner that diminishes their ability to control movement when rapid decision-making is required. However, three subsequent studies utilised fatigue protocols designed to mimic sports participation and found that fatigue did not influence the effects of decision-making on mechanics. In general, these findings appear to indicate that fatigue may only affect the cognitive processing associated with decision-making when athletes approach a state of exhaustion.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Toma de Decisiones , Fatiga/psicología , Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatología , Anticipación Psicológica , Traumatismos en Atletas/fisiopatología , Humanos , Extremidad Inferior/fisiología , Movimiento/fisiología , Fatiga Muscular/fisiología , Factores de Riesgo
17.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225195, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790446

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Ultra-running's psychological and physiological dimensions have been widely studied. However, the social dimensions of ultra-racing have been largely overlooked. This study aims to identify the different types of social interactions that occur during a multi-day, ultra-race and to understand how these interactions influence ultra-runners' race experience. METHODS: Athletes competing in Britain's "Spine Race" were recruited for the current study. Twelve male runners aged between 32 and 66 years (M = 50; SD = 10.01) followed the qualitative protocol designed for the study. Specifically, each participant completed a modified version of the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) instrument and underwent a post-race, self-confrontation interview. Participants were asked to recall and reconstruct their memories about their (a) actions (e.g., What did you do when you encountered other people?); (b) thoughts (e.g., What were your thoughts when you encountered other people?) and (c) feelings (e.g., What were your feelings when you encountered other people?). RESULTS: The results show that social interactions and interpersonal relationships are common in ultra-races. Different groups of people play an important role in racers' motivation and goal achievement: fellow racers, volunteers, medics, friends and family, and even the general public. The resulting social interactions and relationships can occur before, during and after the race in both online and offline environments. These social influences have a powerful influence on the athlete's race experience. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of social interactions reported by runners had a positive effect on their race experience and often led to interpersonal relationships. Ultra-runners should be mindful of the impact that social interactions and relationships can have in shaping their race experience.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Carrera/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Emociones , Familia/psicología , Amigos/psicología , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Recuerdo Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pensamiento
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817445

RESUMEN

The study aimed to identify the limitations observed in Polish Paralympic sport depending on the environment in which athletes train on a daily basis. The study included 581 persons divided into two basic groups. The first group consists of athletes (n = 324) and coaches (n = 88) appointed to the national team by associations and unions providing sports training exclusively for athletes with disabilities. The second group consisted of athletes with disabilities (n = 146) and their coaches (n = 23), who work in national sports associations working for both able-bodied and disabled people. The study used the diagnostic survey method with a questionnaire developed by Sobiecka. The difficulties indicated by the respondents referred to various aspects related to the activity in professional sport. Particularly emphasised difficulties were related to organizational and financial limitations as well as the management and coaching staff. At the same time, it was demonstrated that the environment was a differentiating factor between the studied groups of athletes and coaches.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Actitud , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Deportes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Polonia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 34(4): 222-229, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800674

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of this paper was to systematically review existing empirical literature addressing the use of psychological skills training (PST) interventions commonly employed in sport applied to a music domain. Included PST studies must have an experimental or quasi-experimental design and no clinical or pharmacological interventions and/or assessments. METHODS: The databases MEDLINE (EBSCO), PsychInfo, Psych Articles, CINAHL Plus with full text, Google Scholar, SportDiscus, and Music Index were searched using a combination of the terms. music*, performance psychology, performance enhancement, music performance, intervention, psychological skills training, and music performance psychology. Due to the novelty of the existing literature, there were no limitation restrictions to publication year, the standard of musician (e.g., expert, novice, professional, amateur), participant age, or type of intervention setting. RESULTS: The initial search revealed 323 published articles. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 articles were deemed sufficient for review. Four additional articles were found via pen-and-paper method by evaluating the reference sections of the included articles. All reviewed studies demonstrated that aspects of PST interventions commonly employed in sport (except Alexander technique) are effective at subjectively enhancing performance in a music domain. The PST interventions varied vastly in duration, as well as the types of (and a theoretical and empirical rationale for) psychological skills employed. CONCLUSIONS: Music performers may benefit from PST interventions typically used in sport; however, unique considerations of the music performance environment must be addressed in the design of such PST interventions.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Música , Atletas/psicología , Humanos , Música/psicología
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810337

RESUMEN

Doping is recognized as one of the most important problems in sports, but a limited number of studies have investigated doping problems in youth athletes. This study aimed to evaluate doping tendency (potential doping behavior (PDB)) and correlates of PDB in youth age swimmers. The participants were 241 competitive swimmers (131 females; 15.3 ± 1.1 years of age, all under 18 years old). Variables included predictors and PDB (criterion). Predictors consisted of sociodemographic factors (gender and age), sport-related variables (i.e., experience in swimming and sport achievement), variables explaining coaching strategy and training methodology, consumption of dietary supplements (DS), knowledge about doping, and knowledge about sports nutrition and DS (KSN). In addition to the descriptive statistics and differences between genders, a multinomial regression using PDB as the criterion (negative-, neutral-, or positive-PDB, with a negative-PDB as the reference value) was calculated to define associations between predictors and criterion. With only 71% of swimmers who declared negative-PDB results indicated an alarming figure. Boys with better KSN were more negatively oriented toward positive-PDB (OR: 0.77, 95%CI: 0.60-0.95). In girls, lower competitive achievement was evidenced as a risk factor for neutral-PDB (OR: 0.39, 95%CI: 0.24-0.63). Also, higher neutral-PDB (OR: 0.88, 95%CI: 0.81-0.96) and positive-PDB (OR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.83-0.99) were identified in girls who began with intensive training in younger age. Because of the alarming figures of PDB, there is an evident need for the development of systematic antidoping educational programs in youth swimming. In doing so, focus should be placed on girls who began intensive training at an earlier age and those who did not achieve high competitive results.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Atletas/psicología , Atletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Doping en los Deportes/prevención & control , Doping en los Deportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Natación/estadística & datos numéricos , Deportes Juveniles/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Eslovenia
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