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1.
Ind Health ; 61(1): 68-77, 2023 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35370225

RESUMEN

Sickness absences are a significant public health and economic problem worldwide. However, sickness absence diagnoses and trends have not been reported in much detail in Japan. This study was a retrospective cohort study. We examined data on certified diagnoses and the durations of sickness absence lasting over 90 days (long-term sickness absence) from 2009-2018 among city public servants in Japan. We found that 1) "Mental and behavioral disorders" (495.0-780.6 per 100,000 employees) was the most prevalent reason for long-term sickness absence, and "Mood disorders" (318.6-584.3 per 100,000 employees) was the most prevalent mental disorders diagnosis in each study year; 2) the prevalence of long-term sickness absence for mental disorders showed decreasing trends (781/100,000 in 2009 to 622/100,000 in 2018; [p=0.005, for the trend test]); 3) the trends differed by gender (p<0.05) and age (p<0.001); and 4) the duration of long-term sickness absence related to mental disorders (13.2 ± 9.0 months) was longer than long-term sickness absence resulting from all physical disorders except for diseases of the circulatory system (15.1 ± 11.6 months). Increased focus on significant depressive and neurotic disorders is needed when promoting mental health in the workplace.


Asunto(s)
Absentismo , Empleados de Gobierno , Ausencia por Enfermedad , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Japón/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo , Empleados de Gobierno/psicología , Empleados de Gobierno/estadística & datos numéricos , Gobierno Local , Masculino , Femenino
2.
Health Serv Res ; 56(6): 1215-1221, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409600

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between optional and must-use prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) and markers of disability. DATA SOURCES: Nationwide data from the National Health Interview Survey for 2006-2015. STUDY DESIGN: Generalized difference-in-difference models with state-specific time trends were used to assess the relationship between PDMPs and two outcomes: missed days of work and bedridden days. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: All respondents above the age of 18 years with complete data on key measures were included. A subpopulation of respondents who had a recent surgery or injury was identified. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found an increase of 3.3 and 5.9 bedridden days associated with optional and must-use PDMPs, respectively, for respondents reporting a recent injury or surgery (p-values <0.05; unadjusted population average 12.2 bedridden days). Increases in days of missed work were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of PDMPs was associated with negative unintended consequences in the injury/surgery subpopulation. The association between bedridden days and PDMPs suggests a gap between clinical trials showing equivalence of opioids and nonopioids for pain treatment and real-world results. As increasingly tighter opioid restrictions proliferate, evidence-based strategies to address pain without opioids in the acute pain population likely need to be more widely disseminated.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas de Monitoreo de Medicamentos Recetados , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Analgésicos no Narcóticos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Programas de Monitoreo de Medicamentos Recetados/legislación & jurisprudencia , Programas de Monitoreo de Medicamentos Recetados/estadística & datos numéricos , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Operativos , Estados Unidos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238981, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931519

RESUMEN

The identification of sick leave determinants could positively influence decision making to improve worker quality of life and to reduce consequently costs for society. Sick leave is a research topic of interest in economics, psychology, health and social behaviour. The question of choosing an appropriate statistical tool to analyse sick leave data can be challenging. In fact, sick leave data have a complex structure, characterized by two dimensions: frequency and duration, and involve numerous features related to individual and environmental factors. We conducted a scoping review to characterize statistical approaches to analyse individual sick leave data in order to synthesise key insights from the extensive literature, as well as to identify gaps in research. We followed the PRISMA methodology for scoping reviews and searched Medline, World of Science, Science Direct, Psycinfo and EconLit for publications using statistical modeling for explaining or predicting sick leave at the individual level. We selected 469 articles from the 5983 retrieved, dated from 1981 to 2019. In total, three types of model were identified: univariate outcome modeling using for the most part count models (438 articles), bivariate outcome modeling (14 articles), such as multistate models and structural equation modeling (22 articles). The review shows that there was a lack of evaluation of the models as predictive accuracy was only evaluated in 18 articles and the explanatory accuracy in 43 articles. Further research based on joint models could bring more insights on sick leave spells, considering both their frequency and duration.


Asunto(s)
Recolección de Datos/métodos , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Absentismo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estadísticos , Calidad de Vida , Lugar de Trabajo
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1306, 2020 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854670

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have focused on the relationship between employment pathways and health-related outcomes based on cross-sectional or longitudinal approaches. However, little is known about the cumulative effects of employment status mobility on sickness absence (SA) over time. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between prior labour market participation (LMP) patterns and SA trajectories from a life-course perspective. METHODS: This cohort study was based on a sample of 11,968 salaried workers living in Catalonia and affiliated with the Spanish Social Security system, who accumulated more than 15 days on SA in at least one quarter during 2012-2014. Individuals were grouped into three different working life stages: early (18-25 years), middle (26-35 years), and late (36-45 years). To identify LMP patterns, we applied sequence analysis and cluster analysis (2002-2011), and we used latent class growth modelling to identify SA trajectories (2012-2014). Finally, we applied multinomial logistic regression models to assess the relationship between LMP patterns and SA trajectories. RESULTS: The analyses yielded six LMP patterns: stable employment (value range: 63-81%), increasing employment (5-22%), without long-term coverage (7-8%), decreasing employment (4-10%), fluctuant employment (13-14%), and steeply decreasing employment (7-9%). We also identified four SA trajectories: low stable (83-88%), decreasing (5-9%), increasing (5-11%), and high stable (7-16%). However, the only significant association we identified for LMP patterns and SA trajectories was among young men, for whom an increasing employment pattern was significantly associated with a lower risk for increased days on SA (adjusted odds ratio: 0.21; 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: SA trajectories are generally not related to prior 10-year LMP patterns at any stage of working life. To disentangle this relationship, future research might benefit from considering working life transitions with a quality-of-work approach framed with contextual factors closer to the SA course.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/tendencias , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Desempleo/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Empleo/clasificación , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Seguridad Social , España/epidemiología , Desempleo/clasificación , Recursos Humanos , Adulto Joven
5.
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep ; 40(3): 239-245, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627417

RESUMEN

AIM: The present study aimed to examine whether heart rate variability (HRV) indices in depressed patients measured at return to work after sick leave are related to the outcome of reinstatement. METHODS: This study included 30 workers who took a leave of absence due to major depressive disorder. HRV was measured twice, once when participants left work and another when they returned to work. One month after returning to work, 19 participants continued their original work (successful return group), while 11 failed to perform their original work (unsuccessful return group). HRV indices including high- and low-frequency components (HF and LF) were calculated in three conditions within a session lasting for about 5 minutes, initial rest (Rest), mental task (Task), and rest after task (After), and were compared between the two participant groups. Psychological states were evaluated using Self-rating Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the HRV indices on leaving work between groups. On returning to work, the "unsuccessful return group" exhibited lower HF Rest score, higher HF Task/Rest ratio, and higher LF/HF Rest score than the "successful return group." Psychological scores improved in both groups. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that autonomic dysregulations revealed by HRV measurement at return to work after a leave of absence in MDD patients were related to the outcome of reinstatement and can serve as useful information for the assessment of the risk of unsuccessful return.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/fisiopatología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Reinserción al Trabajo/psicología , Reinserción al Trabajo/tendencias , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Adulto , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/diagnóstico , Electrocardiografía/métodos , Electrocardiografía/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Descanso/fisiología , Descanso/psicología , Factores de Riesgo
7.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(4): e142-e148, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032184

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in labor market participation among those with long-term part-time or long-term full-time sickness absence. METHODS: Finnish population-based cohort study including 3406 individuals with greater than 30-day part-time sickness absence in 2011 and 42,944 individuals with greater than 30-day full-time sickness absence in 2011. RESULTS: Compared to previous years, the rates of sickness absence and vocational rehabilitation increased after 2011 in both groups. Sickness absence rate was higher in 2012 in the full-time sickness absence group than in the part-time sickness absence group. An increasing trend in unemployment after 2011 was observed in both groups, but the absolute level of unemployment was higher in the full-time sickness absence group. CONCLUSION: Long-term part-time sickness absence seems to mark a decline in labor market participation, but the decline is smaller than that in employees with full-time sickness absence.


Asunto(s)
Absentismo , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Finlandia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ocupaciones , Desempleo
8.
J Occup Environ Med ; 61(12): 1065-1071, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651601

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model for the prognosis of sick leave due to low back pain (LBP). METHODS: This is a cohort study with 103 employees sick-listed due to non-specific LBP and spinal disc herniation. A prediction model was developed based on questionnaire data and registered sick leave data with follow up of 180 days. RESULTS: At follow up 31 (30.1%) employees were still sick-listed due to LBP. Forward selection procedure resulted in a model with: catastrophizing, musculoskeletal work load, and disability. The explained variance was 27.3%, calibration was adequate and discrimination was fair with area under the ROC-curve (AUC) = 0.761 (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.755-0.770). CONCLUSION: The prediction model of this study can adequately predict LBP sick leave after 180 days and could be used for employees sick listed due LBP.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de la Región Lumbar , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pronóstico , Reinserción al Trabajo , Lugar de Trabajo
9.
Work ; 64(2): 271-281, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524194

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Scandinavia, women of childbearing age represent nearly 50% of the overall workforce. Two-thirds of these women spend a considerable time on sick leave during their pregnancies. Low back pain accounts for a significant portion of all pregnancy-related sick leave. However, pregnant women's experiences with pain-induced sick leave remains unexplored. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate women's experiences with sick leave in relation to pregnancy-induced low back pain. METHODS: An inductive, qualitative study based on semi-structured, in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 19 purposefully selected Danish women. Interviews were analysed by means of thematic content analysis. RESULTS: The analysis revealed 4 categories: (1) Stuck in a diagnosis, (2) Inflexibility of the labour market, (3) Adapting to reduced capacity for work, and (4) Being socially excluded. The women's experiences revolved around disruption of their physical functioning and expected capacity for work, a loss of professional identity, and a sense of inflexibility and exclusion from important relationships at work. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illuminate the possibilities for workplace adjustments with the intention of reducing time spent on sick leave, maintaining pregnant women's affiliation with their workplace, and a need to explore the role of healthcare professionals in addressing women's supportive needs in relation to sick leave.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de la Región Lumbar/complicaciones , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Adulto , Dinamarca , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto/métodos , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/psicología , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa , Equilibrio entre Vida Personal y Laboral
10.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e031593, 2019 09 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501131

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Childbirth is suggested to be associated with elevated levels of sickness absence (SA) and disability pension (DP). However, detailed knowledge about SA/DP patterns around childbirth is lacking. We aimed to compare SA/DP across different time periods among women according to their childbirth status. DESIGN: Register-based longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Three population-based cohorts of nulliparous women aged 18-39 years, living in Sweden 31 December 1994, 1999 or 2004 (nearly 500 000/cohort). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Sum of SA >14 and DP net days/year. METHODS: We compared crude and standardised mean SA and DP days/year during the 3 years preceding and the 3 years after first childbirth date (Y-3 to Y+3), among women having (1) their first and only birth during the subsequent 3 years (B1), (2) their first birth and at least another delivery (B1+), and (3) no childbirths during follow-up (B0). RESULTS: Despite an increase in SA in the year preceding the first childbirth, women in the B1 group, and especially in B1+, tended to have fewer SA/DP days throughout the years than women in the B0 group. For cohort 2005, the mean SA/DP days/year (95% CIs) in the B0, B1 and B1+ groups were for Y-3: 25.3 (24.9-25.7), 14.5 (13.6-15.5) and 8.5 (7.9-9.2); Y-2: 27.5 (27.1-27.9), 16.6 (15.5-17.6) and 9.6 (8.9-10.4); Y-1: 29.2 (28.8-29.6), 31.4 (30.2-32.6) and 22.0 (21.2-22.9); Y+1: 30.2 (29.8-30.7), 11.2 (10.4-12.1) and 5.5 (5.0-6.1); Y+2: 31.7 (31.3-32.1), 15.3 (14.2-16.3) and 10.9 (10.3-11.6); Y+3: 32.3 (31.9-32.7), 18.1 (17.0-19.3) and 12.4 (11.7-13.0), respectively. These patterns were the same in all three cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Women with more than one childbirth had fewer SA/DP days/year compared with women with one childbirth or with no births. Women who did not give birth had markedly more DP days than those giving birth, suggesting a health selection into childbirth.


Asunto(s)
Náuseas Matinales , Parto , Pensiones/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Prenatal , Ausencia por Enfermedad , Adulto , Orden de Nacimiento , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Náuseas Matinales/economía , Náuseas Matinales/epidemiología , Náuseas Matinales/terapia , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal/métodos , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Ausencia por Enfermedad/economía , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Suecia/epidemiología
11.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(7): 441-450, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403826

RESUMEN

Purpose: To investigate whether women and men diagnosed with depressive disorder were managed equally in terms of being sick-leave certified and being prescribed psychoactive drugs. Materials and methods: Data from all patients diagnosed with depression during 2010-2015 in Uppsala county, Sweden (n = 19 448) were used to investigate associations between gender and issued sick-leave certificate, prescriptions of anti-depressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives, and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy referrals, at different time points up till 180 days after diagnosis. Results: At diagnosis date, 50.1% were prescribed antidepressants; 14.2% anxiolytics; 13.3% hypnotics or sedatives. Corresponding proportion regarding issue of sick-leave certificate among working aged (18-64 years) was 16.6%. Men had higher odds than women of being prescribed antidepressants (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.09-1.24); anxiolytics (1.10; 95% CI 1.02-1.21), hypnotics and sedatives (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.00-1.19) and lower odds (among those aged 18-64 years) of being sick-leave certified (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.82-0.98) in adjusted regression models. There were subtle changes in ORs for outcomes at 3- and 6-month follow-up periods. Conclusions: Men had somewhat higher odds of being prescribed psychoactive drugs and slightly lower odds of being sick-leave certified as compared to women at date when diagnosed with depression. The absolute differences were, however, small and the overall conclusion is that women and men with current diagnosed depressive episode/recurrent depressive disorder are generally managed likewise regarding sick leave and psychoactive treatment.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Psicotrópicos/uso terapéutico , Sexismo , Ausencia por Enfermedad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Derivación y Consulta , Factores Sexuales , Sexismo/psicología , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Suecia/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
12.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e029092, 2019 07 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272980

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Sickness absence (SA) is a widely studied integrated measure of health status. To better understand how SA behaves over time (SA trajectory) a longitudinal and individual-centred approach will allow identifying groups of individuals who share common characteristics. The aim of this study was to identify and describe SA trajectories and to assess employment conditions and diagnosis groups as determinants. SETTING: Working-life and sickness absence administrative records from a representative sample of affiliated with the Spanish Social Security system. PARTICIPANTS: 38 420 workers affiliated with the Spanish Social Security system, born 1949 to 1969 or 1970 to 1990, resident in Catalonia who had SA between 2012 and 2014 (75 212 episodes). RESULTS: We identified three different SA trajectories in both birth cohorts for men and women: low-stable (86.2% to 90.8% of individuals), decreasing (4.4% to 5.9% of individuals) and increasing (4.1% to 8.7% of individuals) accumulated days of SA. The main characteristic of SA trajectories was the medical diagnosis group. The increasing SA trajectory had a higher proportion of workers with SA due to mental disorders compared with the other trajectories. The association analysis showed diagnosis group strongly related with all SA trajectories, particularly SA due to mental disorders showed the strongest association with the increasing trajectory among young men (adjusted OR (aOR): 42.40, 95% CI 17.03 to 105.57). Low salary levels exhibited a strong relationship with decreased accumulation of SA days over time for old women (aOR: 2.08, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.18) and men (aOR: 2.75, 95% CI 1.77 to 4.27). Unskilled manual occupations were associated with increasing trajectories among young women (aOR: 1.36, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.84). No significant differences were observed for other employment conditions across trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Workers with mental disorders are more likely to have increased days of SA, whereas low salary levels at later ages are related to a decrease in SA days over time. Special attention to preventing the course of mental disorders at young and middle age is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Empleo , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , España , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
13.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 118(3): 83-89, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287413

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in treatments and outcomes in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), focusing on employment, hospitalisation and medical treatment in the past two decades. METHODS: From 1996 to 2016, approximately 300 patients with pSS were annually documented in the National Database of the German Collaborative Arthritis Centres. Data on treatment, physicians' assessments of disease activity, patient-reported outcomes, hospitalisation and employment were collected and compared to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), matched 1:1 for age, sex and disease duration for each calendar year. RESULTS: Patients with pSS (>90% female, age 44 years at disease onset, disease duration 10 years) were more frequently assessed to be in low disease activity in 2016 (93%) than in 1996 (62%), p<0.01. Treatment with antimalarials increased from 1996 to 2016 (31 to 50%, p<0.01) and less patients were on glucocorticosteroids (50 to 34%, p<0.01) but <5% were treated with biologics. Employment (<65 years) increased by 21 percentage points (43 to 64%, p<0.001), exceeding the increase observed for RA patients (+15 percentage points). Early retirement (22 to 10%, p=0.01), hospitalisation/year (13 to 7%, p=0.08) and sick leave (39% in 1997 to 27%, p=0.09) decreased comparably to RA patients. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, similar trends were observed for RA and pSS cohorts despite minor changes in pSS therapy. Work participation has improved significantly over two decades in pSS. A greater perception of pSS without systemic manifestations may have caused a shift towards less severely affected patient cohorts today.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Síndrome de Sjögren , Empleo/tendencias , Femenino , Hospitalización/tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias
14.
Can J Public Health ; 110(5): 584-594, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089982

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The occupational gender segregation of the labour market is very strong, both in Sweden and in North America. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge on how this is associated with employees' future employment or morbidity. The objectives of this study were to explore age, period, and cohort effects on future employment and morbidity in terms of sickness absence (SA) or disability pension (DP) among women and men employed in numerically gender-segregated or gender-integrated occupations. METHODS: Based on Swedish nationwide register data, three population-based cohorts of all people living in Sweden, with a registered occupation, and aged 20-56 years at inclusion in 1985 (N = 3,183,549), 1990 (N = 3,372,152), or 2003 (N = 3,565,579), respectively, were followed prospectively for 8 years each. First, descriptive statistics of employment and SA/DP at follow-up were calculated, related to level of gender segregation/integration of occupation at inclusion. Second, differences between birth cohorts (those born in 1929-1983, respectively) were estimated within each of the periods 1985-1993, 1990-1998, and 2003-2011, using mean polish analyses. RESULTS: Women and men in gender-segregated occupations differed in relation to future employment rates and SA/DP. However, these differences decreased over time. Furthermore, the results show a birth cohort effect; those born in 1943-1956 remained in employment to a higher extent and also had lower rates of SA/DP than all other birth cohorts. CONCLUSION: Differences between people in the five categories of gender-segregated occupations decreased over time. Although age and period are important when explaining the outcome, also birth cohort effects have to be considered, both from a public and an occupational health perspective.


Asunto(s)
Absentismo , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Empleo/tendencias , Ocupaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Pensiones/estadística & datos numéricos , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Efecto de Cohortes , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sistema de Registros , Distribución por Sexo , Suecia , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
15.
Eur J Public Health ; 29(6): 1055-1062, 2019 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929006

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aims were to elucidate if trajectories of labour market marginalization (LMM), measured as sickness absence (SA)/disability pension (DP) or unemployment, differed between young immigrants and natives before and after an incident diagnosis of a common mental disorder (CMD), and to investigate if educational level, psychiatric comorbidity and duration of residence in Sweden (in immigrants) had different associations with subsequent LMM in natives compared with immigrants. METHODS: A total of 28 971 young adults (19-30 years), with an incident CMD (inpatient or specialized outpatient healthcare due to CMDs or dispensed prescribed antidepressants during 2007) were included. Group-based trajectory models were utilized to identify trajectories of annual months of LMM 3 years before and 6 years after the diagnosis. The associations of risk factors with different trajectories were investigated by multinomial logistic regression, χ2-test and Nagelkerke R2 to measure the associations' strength. Immigrants were categorized into Western and non-Western immigrants. RESULTS: Young natives and immigrants showed similar trajectories of SA/DP. A higher proportion of non-Western immigrants (20.5%) followed trajectories of high levels of unemployment (>2 annual months) compared with Western immigrants (15%) and natives (16.5%). Educational level and duration of residence in Sweden (in immigrants) discriminated trajectories of both SA/DP and unemployment, whereas psychiatric comorbidity only discriminated trajectories of SA/DP. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in trajectories of unemployment between young natives and immigrants with an incident CMD were found. Educational level and psychiatric comorbidity provided information on differences between natives and immigrants and duration of residence gave information for subgroups of immigrants.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Trastornos Mentales , Pensiones , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Desempleo/tendencias , Adulto , Bases de Datos Factuales , Personas con Discapacidad , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Pensiones/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
16.
J Rehabil Med ; 51(3): 175-182, 2019 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768673

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess: (i) whether changes in the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) were greater for multicomponent inpatient rehabilitation vs outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy, and (ii) whether baseline scores and changes (pre- to post-intervention) in FABQ were associated with future work-participation. METHODS: Individuals sick-listed for 2-12 months were randomized to inpatient multicomponent rehabilitation (3.5 weeks or 4+4 days) or outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy (6 sessions/6 weeks). RESULTS: A total of 334 subjects were included. There were no significant differences on FABQ between the in- and out-patient programmes during follow-up. Participants with consistently low scores on the work subscale had more work-participation days, followed by those who reduced their scores. Participants who increased, or had consistently high scores had the least workdays. For the physical activity subscale, the associations were weaker. FABQ-work scores at baseline were associated with number of work-participation days for both musculoskeletal and psychological diagnoses, and more strongly for the latter group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that FABQ could be a useful prognostic tool for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal or psychological disorders. There was no evidence that inpatient occupational rehabilitation reduces FABQ scores more than outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy.


Asunto(s)
Miedo/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Reinserción al Trabajo/psicología , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/psicología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Orv Hetil ; 160(Suppl 1): 37-42, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724605

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The role of sick-pay is to compensate for loss of wage in case of incapacity for work, to ensure that there will be no break in the existential state of the incapacitated person. AIM: The purpose of our research was to examine data on sickness benefit and payroll data for the period 1997-2017. DATA AND METHODS: Our research was based on the data of the National Health Insurance Fund of Hungary, the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, the State Audit Office of Hungary and the Hungarian State Treasury as well as on the background reports of the European Commission's Social Protection Committee and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and it is based on the legal environment of sick-pay. RESULTS: In 1997, there were 119 000 of 3.558 million, in 1998 114 000 of 3.530 million, in 1999 115 000 of 3.433 million, in 2000 112 000 of 3.465 million, in 2006 100 000 of 3.523 million, in 2012 55 000 of 3.769 million entitled people on sick leave on average per day. In 2017, the number of entitled persons increased to 4.018 million, while the average number of sick days per day was 70 000. According to data from gender and age-based analysis, in most cases, women with childbearing were on sick-leave, the proportion of males was higher in relation to industrial accident. Between 2014 and 2016, the proportion of women on sick leave per day was 59-60%, while the major reason for sick-pay among men was the industrial accident. The distribution by age did not change significantly. In 2014-2015, the age-group 30-34, while in 2016 the age-group 35-39 had the highest utilization of sick-pay. CONCLUSION: We can conclude that the use of sick-pay is affected by the employment rate, legal changes affecting the amount of sick-pay and social trends like substitution difficulties due to labor shortages and fear of losing jobs. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(Suppl 1): 37-42.


Asunto(s)
Administración Financiera , Cobertura del Seguro/economía , Programas Nacionales de Salud/economía , Ausencia por Enfermedad/economía , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Hungría , Masculino , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias
18.
J Headache Pain ; 20(1): 13, 2019 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755160

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The highest prevalence of migraine is detected among people who are of working age. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of migraine in an occupational health care setting using real world data collected as a part of routine clinical practice. METHODS: This retrospective register study included migraineurs using occupational health care at the private health care provider Terveystalo. An age and gender matched control population was established for comparison. Electronic medical records were assessed for overall and migraine related health care visits, sick-leaves and comorbidities. Stratification to acute and prophylactic treatment groups along with prophylactic treatment lines was based on prescriptions. RESULTS: Among the 369,383 individuals in the study cohort, 7.4% women and 2.1% men were identified having a diagnosis of migraine. Prophylactic medication was prescribed to 13% of migraine patients and exclusively acute medication to 37%. Although migraine related visits and sick-leave days were significantly lower than overall visits or sick-leave days, both increased by prophylactic treatment line. The number of visits rose from 13.8 to 26.2 and sick-leave days from 16.8 to 30.4 per patient-year, in those without prophylaxis vs. ≥3 prophylactic treatments. Moreover, migraine patients had 1.7-fold increase in visits and 1.8-fold increase in sick leave days on average per patient-year, when compared to the control population. Depression and anxiety were 1.8-fold more common among patients with migraine, and the frequency also increase by treatment line. CONCLUSIONS: Migraine burden increased by each failed treatment line and was associated with increased comorbidity. In addition, migraine patients had significantly higher extent of visits and sick-leave days as well as extent of comorbidities when compared to their age- and gender-matched counterparts.


Asunto(s)
Costo de Enfermedad , Trastornos Migrañosos/epidemiología , Trastornos Migrañosos/terapia , Salud Laboral/tendencias , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Estudios de Cohortes , Comorbilidad , Trastorno Depresivo/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Femenino , Finlandia/epidemiología , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Migrañosos/diagnóstico , Prevalencia , Sistema de Registros , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
19.
Am J Prev Med ; 56(2): 251-261, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573337

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Children are a population of interest for influenza. They are at increased risk for severe influenza, comprise a substantial portion of influenza morbidity, and significantly contribute to its transmission in the household and subsequent parental work loss. The association between influenza vaccination and work loss prevention, however, has rarely been studied, and the sparse existing literature has very limited generalizability to U.S. adults, thus requiring better characterization. METHODS: Using pooled National Health Interview Survey data (2013-2015, analyses conducted in 2018) nationally representative of working U.S. adults with household children (n=23,014), zero-inflated negative binomial regression examined the association of child influenza vaccination (exposure) with sick days (outcome) stratified by paid sick leave (no: n=10,741, yes: n=12,273). RESULTS: Child influenza vaccination was associated with significantly lower sick day usage, but only among adults with paid sick leave (prevalence rate ratio=0.79, 95% CI=0.67, 0.93), equating to average annual sick days of 4.07 vs 3.29 in adults with unvaccinated versus vaccinated household children (difference=0.78 fewer days annually). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination of children is associated with reduced sick leave in household adults, helping to keep the workforce healthy and reduce influenza's costly annual economic burden. This only occurred among adults with paid sick leave, however, which is distributed inequitably by income, education, gender, occupation, and race/ethnicity. Health in All Policies considers downstream health effects of social and economic policy; the failure of federal policy to ensure paid sick leave likely contributes to propagating influenza and health inequities.


Asunto(s)
Absentismo Familiar/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Vacunación Masiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Composición Familiar , Absentismo Familiar/economía , Absentismo Familiar/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Gripe Humana/economía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales/estadística & datos numéricos , Padres , Ausencia por Enfermedad/economía , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
20.
Univ. med ; 60(1)2019.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-995094

RESUMEN

Con el avance de la Seguridad Social en Salud en Colombia y la protección del derecho fundamental a la salud, se ha consolidado la autonomía médica con la expedición de la Ley Estatutaria de Salud, expedida en 2015. En el artículo se presentan conceptos inherentes a dicho ejercicio en Colombia y la actualización de un artículo publicado con anterioridad.


With the advancement of Social Security in Health in Colombia and the protection of the fundamental right to Health, medical autonomy is Consolidated with the Statutory Health Law issued in 2015. The arricie presents inherent concepts to this exercise in Colombia and the update of an arricie published previously.


Asunto(s)
Práctica Profesional , Ausencia por Enfermedad/tendencias
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