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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 636921, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692984

RESUMEN

Introduction: Amidst the evolving COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the transmission dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is key to providing peace of mind for the community and informing policy-making decisions. While available data suggest that school-aged children are not significant spreaders of SARS-CoV-2, the possibility of transmission in schools remains an ongoing concern, especially among an aging teaching workforce. Even in low-prevalence settings, communities must balance the potential risk of transmission with the need for students' ongoing education. Through the roll out of high-throughput school-based SARS-CoV-2 testing, enhanced follow-up for individuals exposed to COVID-19 and wellbeing surveys, this study investigates the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and the current psychosocial wellbeing impacts of the pandemic in school communities. Methods: The DETECT Schools Study is a prospective observational cohort surveillance study in 79 schools across Western Australia (WA), Australia. To investigate the incidence, transmission and impact of SARS-CoV-2 in schools, the study comprises three "modules": Module 1) Spot-testing in schools to screen for asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2; Module 2) Enhanced surveillance of close contacts following the identification of any COVID-19 case to determine the secondary attack rate of SARS-CoV-2 in a school setting; and Module 3) Survey monitoring of school staff, students and their parents to assess psycho-social wellbeing following the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in WA. Clinical Trial Registration: Trial registration number: ACTRN12620000922976.


Asunto(s)
/estadística & datos numéricos , /psicología , Padres/psicología , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Australia , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535674

RESUMEN

Drought is thought to impact upon the mental health of agricultural communities, but studies of this relationship have reported inconsistent results. A source of inconsistency could be the aggregation of data by a single spatiotemporal unit of analysis, which induces the modifiable areal and temporal unit problems. To investigate this, mental health-related emergency department (MHED) presentations among residents of the Wheat Belt region of Western Australia, between 2002 and 2017, were examined. Average daily rainfall was used as a measure of drought. Associations between MHED presentations and rainfall were estimated based on various spatial aggregations of underlying data, at multiple temporal windows. Wide variation amongst results was observed. Despite this, two key features were found: Associations between MHED presentations and rainfall were generally positive when rainfall was measured in summer months (rate ratios up to 1.05 per 0.5 mm of daily rainfall) and generally negative when rainfall was measured in winter months (rate ratios as low as 0.96 per 0.5 mm of daily rainfall). These results demonstrate that the association between drought and mental health is quantifiable; however, the effect size is small and varies depending on the spatial and temporal arrangement of the underlying data. To improve understanding of this association, more studies should be undertaken with longer time spans and examining specific mental health outcomes, using a wide variety of spatiotemporal units.


Asunto(s)
Sequías , Salud Mental , Agricultura , Estaciones del Año , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 223: 108089, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639135

RESUMEN

The morphological, biological, and molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium piscine genotype 7 from red-eye tetras (Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae) are described, and the species name Cryptosporidium abrahamseni n. sp. is proposed. Histological analysis of intestinal tissue identified large numbers of Cryptosporidium organisms along the epithelial lining of the intestine. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis at 18S rRNA (18S) and actin loci conducted on intestinal scrapings revealed that C. abrahamseni n. sp. was genetically distinct from other Cryptosporidium species. At the 18S locus, it was most closely related to C. huwi (3.2% genetic distance) and exhibited genetic distances ranging from 5.9 to 6.5% (C. molnari) to 14.9% (C. scolpthalmi) from all other Cryptosporidium species. At the actin locus, the genetic distances were larger and C. abrahamseni n. sp. exhibited 10.3% genetic distance from C. huwi, and 17.6% (C. molnari) to 28% (C. canis) genetic distance from other Cryptosporidium spp. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 18S and actin sequences confirmed that C. abrahamseni n. sp. shares the closest genetic relationship with C. huwi (6.7% genetic distance), while the genetic distance between C. abrahamseni n. sp. and other Cryptosporidium spp. ranged from 12.1% (C. molnari) to 20.4% (C. canis). Based on genetic and histological data, C. abrahamseni n. sp. is validated as a separate species.


Asunto(s)
Characidae/parasitología , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Parasitosis Intestinales/veterinaria , Actinas/genética , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/patología , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/ultraestructura , Enfermedades de los Peces/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Peces/patología , Genotipo , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Parasitosis Intestinales/patología , Intestinos/parasitología , Intestinos/patología , Filogenia , Prevalencia , ARN Ribosómico 18S/genética , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
4.
Maturitas ; 145: 6-11, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541564

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Fractures are common and disabling health events, particularly later in life. The presence of clinically significant depressive symptoms has been associated with increased risk of fractures, and we designed the present study to clarify if this association is likely to be causal or due to the confounding effect of measures associated with both fractures and depression. METHOD: Cohort study of a community-derived sample of 4224 men aged 70 to 88 years at the start of the follow-up period of up to 17 years. Clinically significant symptoms of depression were defined as a recorded diagnosis of depressive episode in the Western Australian Data Linkage System (WADLS) or by a total score of 7 or greater on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Health contacts associated with fractures were retrieved from WADLS. Other measures included age, past history of fractures, education, smoking, frailty, poor vision, falls, medications, and the concentration of vitamin D, homocysteine, hsCRP and testosterone. Death was considered a competing risk for fractures. RESULTS: 911 (21.6%) participants had a bone fracture during follow-up. After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, past and current depression were associated with an increase in the risk of novel fractures; respective odds ratios were 1.41 (95%CI = 1.03, 1.93) and 1.64 (95%CI = 1.20, 2.25). Parsimonious competing risk regression showed that both past and current depression were associated with an increase in the risk of novel fractures: sub-hazard ratio = 1.29 (95%CI = 1.03, 1.63) and 1.27 (95%CI = 1.05, 1.55) respectively. Estimation of confounding due to unmeasured factors showed that a small additional effect could potentially dilute the association between depression and fractures. DISCUSSION: History of clinically significant symptoms of depression is associated with an increased risk of future fractures. This association may be due to multiple other associated risk factors, both measured and unmeasured, but nevertheless the presence of depression should alert clinicians to the need to develop a management plan that includes the management not only of depression but also of fracture risk.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Fracturas Óseas/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Factores de Riesgo , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 142: 197-201, 2020 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331287

RESUMEN

Streptococcus iniae causes high mortality in cultured and wild fish stocks globally. Since the first report in captive Amazon river dolphins Inia geoffrensis in 1976, it has emerged in finfish across all continents except Antarctica. In March 2016, an estimated 17000 fish were observed dead and dying along a remote 70 km stretch of the Kimberley coastline north of Broome, Western Australia. Affected species included finfish (lionfish Pterois volitans, angelfish Pomacanthus sp., stripey snapper Lutjanus carponotatus, sand bass Psammoperca waigiensis, yellowtail grunter Amniataba caudavittata, damselfish Pomacentridae sp.), flatback sea turtles Natator depressus, and olive (Aipysurus laevis) and black-ringed (Hydrelaps darwiniensis) sea snakes. Moribund fish collected during the event exhibited exophthalmia and abnormal behaviour, such as spiralling on the surface or within the water column. Subsequent histopathological examination of 2 fish species revealed bacterial septicaemia with chains of Gram-positive cocci seen in multiple organs and within brain tissue. S. iniae was isolated and identified by bacterial culture, species-specific PCR, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) and biochemical testing. This is the first report of S. iniae associated with a major multi-species wild marine fish kill in Australia. Extreme weather events in the region including a marked decrease in water temperatures, followed by an extended period of above-average coastal water temperatures, were implicated as stressors potentially contributing to this outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Peces , Infecciones Estreptocócicas , Animales , Australia , Enfermedades de los Peces/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/veterinaria , Streptococcus iniae , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352982

RESUMEN

We investigated patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with chest pain to identify factors that influence the use of invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Using linked ED, hospitalisations, death and cardiac biomarker data, we identified people aged 20 years and over who presented with chest pain to tertiary public hospital EDs in Western Australia from 1 January 2016 to 31 March 2017 (ED chest pain cohort). We report patient characteristics, ED discharge diagnosis, pathways to ICA, ICA within 90 days, troponin test results, and gender differences. Associations were examined with the Pearson Chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression. There were 16,974 people in the ED chest pain cohort, with a mean age of 55.6 years and 50.7% males, accounting for 20,131 ED presentations. Acute coronary syndrome was the ED discharge diagnosis in 10.4% of presentations. ED pathways were: discharged home (57.5%); hospitalisation (41.7%); interhospital transfer (0.4%); and died in ED (0.03%)/inpatients (0.3%). There were 1546 (9.1%) ICAs performed within 90 days of the first ED chest pain visit, of which 59 visits (3.8%) had no troponin tests and 565 visits (36.6%) had normal troponin. ICAs were performed in more men than women (12.3% vs. 6.1%, p < 0.0001; adjusted OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.65, 2.18), and mostly within 7 days. Equal numbers of males and females present with chest pain to tertiary hospital EDs, but men are twice as likely to get ICA. Over one-third of ICAs occur in those with normal troponin levels, indicating that further investigation is required to determine risk profile, outcomes and cost effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Dolor en el Pecho/epidemiología , Angiografía Coronaria , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea , Adulto , Australia , Dolor en el Pecho/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infarto del Miocardio/diagnóstico por imagen , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Australia Occidental/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
Australas Psychiatry ; 28(6): 627-631, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961096

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus (COVID-19) has led to high levels of psychological distress in the community. This study aimed to examine whether emergency departments (EDs) also recorded a rise in mental health presentations. METHOD: Changes in the number, and type, of mental health presentations to Western Australia EDs were examined between January and May 2020, and compared to 2019. RESULTS: Data showed an unexpected decrease in the number of mental health presentations, compared to 2019, which was temporally coincident with the rise in local COVID-19 cases. Presentations for anxiety and panic symptoms, and social and behavioural issues, increased by 11.1% and 6.5%, respectively, but suicidal and self-harm behaviours decreased by 26%. CONCLUSION: A rise in local COVID-19 cases was associated with a decrease in mental health presentations to EDs. This has important implications for the planning and provision of healthcare services in the current pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Urgencia Psiquiátrica/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Distrés Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Correlación de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Salud Mental/tendencias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981492

RESUMEN

Cumulatively to 13 September there have been 26,753 case notifications and 674 deaths. The number of new cases reported nationally this fortnight was 764, a 61% decrease from the previous fortnight (1,948). On average this represented 55 cases diagnosed each day over the reporting period, a decrease from 125 cases per day over the previous reporting period. 84% of all cases (640/764) were reported in Victoria, with a smaller number of cases reported from New South Wales (95), Queensland (22), Western Australia (4) and South Australia (3). In Victoria, 97% of cases (621) were locally acquired and were mostly reported from residential aged care facilities; and 3% of cases (19) were reported as under investigation at the date of extract this reporting period. Excluding Victoria, 124 cases were reported nationally, 32% (40) were overseas acquired; 65% (81) were locally acquired, predominantly in New South Wales (62); and 2% (3) of cases were under investigation at this time, all reported in Queensland. The continued decrease in new cases observed this fortnight in Victoria is likely associated with the enhanced public health measures that are currently in place in Victoria. Locally-acquired cases which were predominantly associated with several interconnected clusters continued to be reported in New South Wales. In Queensland, 82% of cases (18/22) were reported as locally acquired from two clusters associated with immigration centres or correctional facilities. A total of 6 deaths were reported from cases diagnosed in this reporting period-all from Victoria, all aged 50 years or older, three male and three female. Although testing rates have declined gradually over the past month they remain high at 14.5 tests per 1,000 population per week. The overall positivity rate for the reporting period was 0.13%. Victoria reported a positivity rate of 0.39% for this reporting period while in all other jurisdictions the positivity rate was 0.05% or lower. For this report, "In focus" is paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-COV-2 (PIMS-TS). A review of Australia's public health response to COVID-19 (as at 13 September 2020) is at Appendix A.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infecciones Asintomáticas , Australia/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Preescolar , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Hogares para Ancianos , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Queensland/epidemiología , Australia del Sur/epidemiología , Victoria/epidemiología , Australia Occidental/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1679-1684, 2020 09 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807639

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There are concerns that energy drinks (EDs) are contributing to upward trends in overweight, obesity, and cardiometabolic conditions in young people. We investigated cross-sectional and prospective associations between frequency of ED-intake in young-adults and (i) body mass index (BMI) and (ii) Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and its components. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants from the Raine Study at 20-years (n = 1236) and 22 years (n = 1117) self-reported ED-intake, dietary intake, and physical activity, and had blood and anthropometric measures taken. Regression modelling examined associations between ED-intake and BMI, MetS and its components. There was a positive, but not significant, cross-sectional association with BMI and likelihood of MetS with frequent ED use at 20-years (BMI: ß = 0.19; MetS: OR = 1.11) and 22-years (BMI: ß = 0.51; MetS: OR = 1.28). There were no associations in the prospective analysis. After adjustment, significant associations existed between occasional ED-intake and lower HDL-cholesterol (ß = -0.07) and higher fasting triglycerides (ß = 0.16) at 20-years, and lower fasting triglycerides at 22-years (ß = -0.10), but no significant associations in the prospective analyses. CONCLUSION: No significant associations existed between frequency of ED-intake, and BMI, MetS or its individual components over two years (ages 20-22 years). Future studies should include volume of EDs consumed and longer follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Bebidas Energéticas/efectos adversos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Biomarcadores/sangre , Glucemia/metabolismo , Presión Sanguínea , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/sangre , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólico/fisiopatología , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Australia Occidental/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237251, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764798

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children's exposure to family and domestic violence (FDV) is a global public health concern and is considered one of the most common and severe stressors children can experience. While it is acknowledged that children who are exposed to FDV have poorer general health, there is a lack of data on the outcomes of children exposed to FDV. The use of longitudinal data has been suggested as a way to gain an understanding of the impact on children's long-term outcomes. METHODS: Our cohort study used deidentified individual-level linked administrative data of children born 1987-2010, in Western Australia, who were exposed to FDV in the prenatal period (12 months prior to birth) to five years of age (early years). RESULTS: Children exposed to FDV are more likely to be hospitalised than non-exposed children. Children exposed to FDV in both the prenatal and early childhood period had a threefold increased odds of mental health hospitalisation. We found a significant increase in odds of pregnancy-related hospitalisation in FDV exposed children. When stratified by Aboriginal status, Aboriginal children had a higher proportion of hospitalisations than non-Aboriginal children. CONCLUSION: Exposed children have an increased likelihood for hospitalisation than non-exposed children. Within the exposed cohort differences were apparent between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Aboriginal children had greater odds for hospitalisation in most of the diagnostic groups compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Our findings represent an important advance in the literature with respect to the burden of disease of children exposed to FDV.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Niño , Violencia Doméstica , Preescolar , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Salud Mental , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/epidemiología , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica , Embarazo , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751527

RESUMEN

In Australia, disease registers for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) were previously established to facilitate disease surveillance and control, yet little is known about the extent of case-ascertainment. We compared ARF/RHD case ascertainment based on Australian ARF/RHD register records with administrative hospital data from the Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA), Queensland (QLD) and Western Australia (WA) for cases 3-59 years of age. Agreement across data sources was compared for persons with an ARF episode or first-ever RHD diagnosis. ARF/RHD registers from the different jurisdictions were missing 26% of Indigenous hospitalised ARF/RHD cases overall (ranging 17-40% by jurisdiction) and 10% of non-Indigenous hospitalised ARF/RHD cases (3-28%). The proportion of hospitalised RHD cases (36%) was half the proportion of hospitalised ARF cases (70%) notified to the ARF/RHD registers. The registers were found to capture few RHD cases in metropolitan areas (SA Metro: 13%, QLD Metro: 35%, WA Metro: 14%). Indigenous status, older age, comorbidities, drug/alcohol abuse and disease severity were predictors of cases appearing in the hospital data only (p < 0.05); sex was not a determinant. This analysis confirms that there are biases associated with the epidemiological analysis of single sources of case ascertainment for ARF/RHD using Australian data.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Reumática , Cardiopatía Reumática , Enfermedad Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Northern Territory , Queensland/epidemiología , Fiebre Reumática/epidemiología , Cardiopatía Reumática/epidemiología , Australia del Sur , Australia Occidental/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003136, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760144

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows that sport settings can act as a powerful draw to engage men in weight loss. The primary objective of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of delivering and to evaluate preliminary efficacy of Aussie-FIT, a weight-loss program for men with overweight/obesity delivered in Australian Football League (AFL) settings, in preparation for a future definitive trial. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This 6-month pilot trial took place in Perth, Australia. Participants were overweight/obese (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥ 28 kg/m2), middle-aged (35-65 years old) men. Participants were recruited in May 2018, and the intervention took place between June and December 2018. The intervention involved 12 weekly 90-min face-to-face sessions, incorporating physical activity, nutrition, and behaviour change information and practical activities delivered by coaches at 2 clubs. Data were collected at baseline and immediately postintervention. For trial feasibility purposes, 6-month follow-ups were completed. Outcomes were differences in weight loss (primary outcome) and recruitment and retention rates, self-reported measures (for example, psychological well-being), device-measured physical activity, waist size, and blood pressure at 3 months. Within 3 days of advertising at each club, 426 men registered interest; 306 (72%) were eligible. Men were selected on a first-come first-served basis (n = 130; M age = 45.8, SD = 8; M BMI = 34.48 kg/m2, SD = 4.87) and randomised by a blinded researcher. Trial retention was 86% and 63% at 3- and 6-month follow-ups (respectively). No adverse events were reported. At 3 months, mean difference in weight between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and group, was 3.3 kg (95% CI 1.9, 4.8) in favour of the intervention group (p < 0.001). The intervention group's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was higher than the control group by 8.54 min/day (95% CI 1.37, 15.71, p = 0.02). MVPA among men attracted to Aussie-FIT was high at baseline (intervention arm 35.61 min/day, control arm 38.38 min/day), which may have limited the scope for improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Aussie-FIT was feasible to deliver; participants increased physical activity, decreased weight, and reported improvements in other outcomes. Issues with retention were a limitation of this trial. In a future, fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT), retention could be improved by conducting assessments outside of holiday seasons. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12617000515392.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida Saludable/fisiología , Sobrepeso/terapia , Fútbol/fisiología , Pérdida de Peso/fisiología , Programas de Reducción de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Obesidad/terapia , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Proyectos Piloto , Factores Sexuales , Método Simple Ciego , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(19)2020 09 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737126

RESUMEN

Salmonella enterica serovar Hvittingfoss is an important foodborne serotype of Salmonella, being detected in many countries where surveillance is conducted. Outbreaks can occur, and there was a recent multistate foodborne outbreak in Australia. S Hvittingfoss can be found in animal populations, though a definitive animal host has not been established. Six species of birds were sampled at Roebuck Bay, a designated Ramsar site in northwestern Australia, resulting in 326 cloacal swabs for bacterial culture. Among a single flock of 63 bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica menzbieri) caught at Wader Spit, Roebuck Bay, in 2018, 17 (27%) were culture positive for Salmonella All other birds were negative for Salmonella The isolates were identified as Salmonella enterica serovar Hvittingfoss. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between isolates collected from godwits and the S Hvittingfoss strain responsible for a 2016 multistate foodborne outbreak originating from tainted cantaloupes (rock melons) in Australia. While it is not possible to determine how this strain of S Hvittingfoss was introduced into the bar-tailed godwits, these findings show that wild Australian birds are capable of carrying Salmonella strains of public health importance.IMPORTANCE Salmonella is a zoonotic pathogen that causes gastroenteritis and other disease presentations in both humans and animals. Serovars of S. enterica commonly cause foodborne disease in Australia and globally. In 2016-2017, S Hvittingfoss was responsible for an outbreak that resulted in 110 clinically confirmed human cases throughout Australia. The origin of the contamination that led to the outbreak was never definitively established. Here, we identify a migratory shorebird, the bar-tailed godwit, as an animal reservoir of S Hvittingfoss. These birds were sampled in northwestern Australia during their nonbreeding period. The presence of a genetically similar S Hvittingfoss strain circulating in a wild bird population, 2 years after the 2016-2017 outbreak and ∼1,500 km from the suspected source of the outbreak, demonstrates a potentially unidentified environmental reservoir of S Hvittingfoss. While the birds cannot be implicated in the outbreak that occurred 2 years prior, this study does demonstrate the potential role for wild birds in the transmission of this important foodborne pathogen.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/epidemiología , Charadriiformes , Salmonelosis Animal/epidemiología , Salmonella enterica/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/microbiología , Femenino , Incidencia , Masculino , Prevalencia , Salmonelosis Animal/microbiología , Serogrupo , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
14.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107956, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659234

RESUMEN

The species name Cryptosporidium bollandi n. sp. is proposed for Cryptosporidium piscine genotype 2 based on morphological, biological and molecular characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA (18S) sequences revealed that C. bollandi n. sp. was most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (5.1% genetic distance) and exhibited genetic distances of 10.0%, 12.2% and 25.2% from Cryptosporidium molnari, Cryptosporidium huwi and Cryptosporidium scophthtalmi, respectively. At the actin locus, C. bollandi n. sp. was again most closely related to piscine genotype 4 (6.8% genetic distance) and exhibited 15.5% (C. molnari), 18.4% (C. huwi), 22.9% (C. scophthalmi) and up to 27.5% genetic distance from other Cryptosporidium spp. (Cryptosporidium felis). Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 18S and actin sequences showed that C. bollandi n. sp. exhibited 12.9% (C. molnari) to 21.1% (C. canis) genetic distance from all other Cryptosporidium spp. Genetic data as well as previous histological analysis clearly supports the validity of C. bollandi n. sp. as a separate species.


Asunto(s)
Cíclidos/parasitología , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Cryptosporidium/fisiología , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Actinas/química , Actinas/genética , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Evolución Biológica , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/ultraestructura , ADN Protozoario/química , ADN Protozoario/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Peces/epidemiología , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Genotipo , Funciones de Verosimilitud , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión/veterinaria , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Prevalencia , ARN Ribosómico 18S/química , Washingtón/epidemiología , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 332: 108775, 2020 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645510

RESUMEN

Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) is a methodology used to organize and analyze scientific information to both estimate the probability and severity of an adverse event as well as prioritize efforts to reduce the risk of foodborne pathogens. No QMRA efforts have been applied to Campylobacter in the Australian chicken meat sector. Hence, we present a QMRA model of human campylobacteriosis related to the occurrence of cross-contamination while handling raw chicken meat in Western Australia (WA). This work fills a gap in Campylobacter risk characterization in Australia and enables benchmarking against risk assessments undertaken in other countries. The model predicted the average probability of the occurrence of illness per serving of salad that became cross-contaminated from being handled following the handling of fresh chicken meat as 7.0 × 10-4 (90% Confidence Interval [CI] ± 4.7 × 10-5). The risk assessment model was utilized to estimate the likely impact of intervention scenarios on the predicted probability of illness (campylobacteriosis) per serving. Predicted relative risk reductions following changes in the retail prevalence of Campylobacter were proportional to the percentage desired in the reduction scenario; a target that is aiming to reduce the current baseline prevalence of Campylobacter in retail chicken by 30% is predicted to yield approximately 30% relative risk reduction. A simulated one-log reduction in the mean concentration of Campylobacter is anticipated to generate approximately 20% relative risk reductions. Relative risk reduction induced by a one-log decrease in the mean was equally achieved when the tail of the input distribution was affected-that is, by a change (one-log reduction) in the standard deviation of the baseline Campylobacter concentration. A scenario assuming a 5% point decrease in baseline probability of cross-contamination at the consumer phase would yield relative risk reductions of 14%, which is as effective as the impact of a strategic target of 10% reduction in the retail prevalence of Campylobacter. In conclusion, the present model simulates the probability of illness predicted for an average individual who consumes salad that has been cross-contaminated with Campylobacter from retail chicken meat in WA. Despite some uncertainties, this is the first attempt to utilize the QMRA approach as a scientific basis to guide risk managers toward implementing strategies to reduce the risk of human campylobacteriosis in an Australian context.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Campylobacter/epidemiología , Manipulación de Alimentos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Aves de Corral/microbiología , Animales , Campylobacter/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Campylobacter/microbiología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/prevención & control , Pollos , Humanos , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Verduras/microbiología , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1037, 2020 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605552

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Australia, like other nations, has experienced a shift in dietary patterns away from home cooking of nutritious foods, towards a reliance on pre-prepared convenience meals. These are typically energy-dense, nutrient-poor and contribute to the rising prevalence of obesity and chronic disease burden. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a community-based cooking program instigated a change to participants' skills, attitudes, knowledge, enjoyment and satisfaction of cooking and cooking confidence (self-efficacy). METHODS: The pseudo-random, pre-post study design consisted of an intervention and a control group. Participant recruitment and group allocation was based on their program start dates. Intervention participants were surveyed three times (baseline, 7 weeks and 6 months) and the control group were surveyed at baseline and 5 weeks. All participants were registered via an online website and were 18 years or over. Upon consent, participants were offered four levels of commitment, defined by different assessments. The minimum participation level included an online survey and levels 2, 3 and 4 involved attendance at a clinic with increasing functional, anthropometric and biomarker measurements. Primary endpoints were participants' cooking confidence as a proxy for self-efficacy. Secondary endpoints were dietary intake, physical activity levels, body composition, anthropometry, blood, urine and faecal biomarkers of systemic, physical and mental health. DISCUSSION: The community cooking program provided participants with information and advice on food sourcing, preparation and nutrition to improve home cooking skills. The study was designed to explore whether food literacy programs are efficacious in improving participant physical health and well-being in order to combat the rise in obesity and diet-related disease. It will support future use of public health cooking program initiatives aimed at improving food literacy, self-efficacy and physical and mental health. The extensive data collected will inform future research into the relationship between diet, the gut-microbiota and human health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on 16.08.2019 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR). ACTRN12619001144101 . Protocol version 4.


Asunto(s)
Culinaria , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Autoeficacia , Adulto , Australia , Biomarcadores , Enfermedad Crónica , Dieta/efectos adversos , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/prevención & control , Satisfacción Personal , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Proyectos de Investigación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 733, 2020 May 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429870

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Along with physical benefits, community-based sport provides opportunities to enhance connectedness, an important protective factor of social and emotional health. However, young Australians participating in sport have been found to drink alcohol at higher levels than their non-sporting peers, and many clubs serve unhealthy food and beverages. This study explored the association between the dependent variable, level of alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C) and connectedness to club and other health behaviours among young people aged 18-30 years who play club sport in Western Australia. METHODS: An online cross sectional survey measured levels of alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C), alcohol-related harm, connectedness (including volunteering and team cohesion), mental wellbeing, healthy food options and club sponsorship among young adults aged 18-30 years involved in sports clubs in Western Australia (n = 242). Relationships and association between the dependent variable (AUDIT-C) and independent variables were assessed. RESULTS: Male sportspeople were more likely to drink alcohol at high-risk levels than females (p < .001), and respondents belonging to a club that received alcohol-related sponsorship were more likely to drink at high-risk levels (p = .019). Females were significantly more likely to want healthy food and beverage options provided at their clubs (p = 0.011). When all factors were considered team cohesion (p = 0.02), alcohol expectations (p = < .001), occurrences of experienced alcohol-related harm (p = <.001) and length of club membership (p = 0.18) were significant predictors of high-risk AUDIT-C (R2 = .34, adjusted R2 = .33, F (4, 156) = 20.43, p = <.001). High-risk AUDIT-C and club connectedness predicted strong team cohesion (R2 = .39, adjusted R2 = .39, F (2, 166) = 53.74, p = <.001). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study may inform policy and practice to enhance healthy behaviours among young adults participating in community sports clubs in Australia and other countries.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Dieta Saludable/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Deportes/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Dieta Saludable/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Organizaciones , Deportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Australia Occidental/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418513

RESUMEN

Background: Notification rates of gonorrhoea in Australia for heterosexual young adults rose by 63% between 2012 and 2016. In Western Australian major cities, there was a 612% increase among non-Aboriginal females and a 358% increase in non-Aboriginal males in the ten-year period 2007-2016. A qualitative public health investigation was initiated to inform appropriate action. Methods: Eighteen semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with non-Aboriginal heterosexual young adults aged 18-34 years living in Perth, Western Australia, who had recently been notified to the Department of Health with gonorrhoea, to explore the context of their sexual interactions and lifestyles which could have predisposed them to contracting gonorrhoea. Data were thematically analysed. Results: Common themes were having several casual sexual partners, limited communication between sexual partners about condom use or sexual history prior to engaging in sexual activity, inconsistent condom use, normalisation of some sexually transmissible infections amongst young people, and poor understandings and assessment of sexually transmissible infection risk. Conclusion: The findings support public health interventions that focus on communication between sexual partners and shifting of risk perceptions in sexual health education programs, ensuring accessibility of quality sexual health information, increasing condom accessibility and acceptability, and on strategies for addressing misperceptions of young people in relation to sexually transmitted infections.


Asunto(s)
Gonorrea/epidemiología , Conducta Sexual , Adulto , Femenino , Heterosexualidad , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Salud Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Australia Occidental/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(8): 564-567, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467312

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increased mammographic density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Night shiftwork and its related factors, which include light at night, phase shift and sleep disruption, are believed to increase breast cancer risk however, their effects on mammographic density have barely been studied. METHODS: This study included 1821 women enrolled in the Breast Cancer Environment and Employment Study between 2009 and 2011. Mammographic density was measured using the Cumulus software program. The association of night shiftwork factors with square root transformed absolute dense area (DA) and percentage dense area (PDA) were modelled using linear regression adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Ever doing graveyard shiftwork (between 24:00 and 05:00 hours) was not associated with PDA (ß=-0.10; 95% CI -0.27 to 0.08)) and DA (ß=-0.12; 95% CI -0.33 to 0.09)). No association was found between night shiftwork related factors (light at night, phase shift and sleep disturbance) with PDA or DA. CONCLUSIONS: Shiftwork and its related factors are not associated with mammographic density. Using high-quality, comprehensive shiftwork data from a large population-based breast cancer case-control study, this study suggests that mammographic density does not play a role in the relationship between shiftwork and breast cancer risk.


Asunto(s)
Densidad de la Mama , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Horario de Trabajo por Turnos/estadística & datos numéricos , Mama/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Mamografía , Factores de Riesgo , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
20.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e153, 2020 04 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321605

RESUMEN

This study presents enhanced surveillance data from 2004 to 2018 for all community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) specimens collected in Western Australia (WA), and describes the changing epidemiology over this period. A total of 57 557 cases were reviewed. Annual incidence rates increased from 86.2 cases per 100 000 population to 245.6 per 100 000 population (IRR = 2.9, CI95 2.7-3.0). The proportion of isolates carrying Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-associated genes increased from 3.4% to 59.8% (χ2 test for trend 7021.9, P < 0.001). The emergence of PVL-positive, 'Queensland CA-MRSA' (ST93-IV) and 'WA 121' (ST5-IV) accounted for the majority of increases in CA-MRSA across the study period. It is unclear why some clones are more prolific in certain regions. In WA, CA-MRSA rates increase as indices of temperature and humidity increase after controlling for socioeconomic disadvantage. We suggest climatic conditions may contribute to transmission, along with other socio-behavioural factors. A better understanding of the ability for certain clones to form ecological niches and cause outbreaks is required.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/microbiología , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/epidemiología , Exotoxinas/genética , Exotoxinas/metabolismo , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Leucocidinas/genética , Leucocidinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/clasificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Australia Occidental/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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