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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 234, 2021 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947359

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Eating Disorders Genetics Initiative (EDGI) is an international investigation exploring the role of genes and environment in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. METHODS: A total of 14,500 individuals with eating disorders and 1500 controls will be included from the United States (US), Australia (AU), New Zealand (NZ), and Denmark (DK). In the US, AU, and NZ, participants will complete comprehensive online phenotyping and will submit a saliva sample for genotyping. In DK, individuals with eating disorders will be identified by the National Patient Register, and genotyping will occur using bloodspots archived from birth. A genome-wide association study will be conducted within EDGI and via meta-analysis with other data from the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED). DISCUSSION: EDGI represents the largest genetic study of eating disorders ever to be conducted and is designed to rapidly advance the study of the genetics of the three major eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder). We will explicate the genetic architecture of eating disorders relative to each other and to other psychiatric and metabolic disorders and traits. Our goal is for EDGI to deliver "actionable" findings that can be transformed into clinically meaningful insights. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EDGI is a registered clinical trial: clinicaltrials.gov NCT04378101 .


Asunto(s)
Bulimia Nerviosa , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Australia , Bulimia Nerviosa/genética , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/genética , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Nueva Zelanda , Estados Unidos
2.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 141, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863380

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Although children from language backgrounds other than English (LBOTE) may be disadvantaged in English-reliant exams, they outperform children from an English language background (ELB) on many Australian National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) assessments. Maternal alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding have been associated with poorer cognitive and academic performance. Using data from the Growing Up in Australia Study, this paper aimed to identify demographic, lifestyle, and prenatal and perinatal risk differences related to maternal tobacco and alcohol use between LBOTE and ELB groups, as a first step in trying to understand the academic performance differences. RESULTS: Only data from breastfed babies was included in the current analyses. Although LBOTE children were disadvantaged in several demographic areas, their NAPLAN performance was the same or superior to ELB children across all Grade 3 and 5 NAPLAN assessments. The LBOTE group were, however, breastfed for longer, and their mothers smoked fewer cigarettes and drank less alcohol on fewer occasions throughout their pregnancy. The LBOTE mothers also had lower or less risky patterns of alcohol consumption while breastfeeding. The longer breastfeeding duration of LBOTE children combined with lower maternal use of alcohol and cigarettes during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding may partially contribute to their exceptional NAPLAN performance.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Académico , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Lactancia Materna , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Edad Materna , Embarazo , Fumar
3.
J Dent Child (Chic) ; 88(1): 23-28, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875048

RESUMEN

Purpose: To describe and evaluate the oral health status and dental treatment needs of children with intellectual disabilities attending Special Olympics in Australia from 2010 to 2018.
Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. Children aged 18 years and younger with intellectual disabilities attending Special Olympics with their caregivers were screened between 2010 and 2018. Trained volunteer dentists performed the screening using the standardized Special Olympics Special Smiles protocol. Reported findings included presence or absence of untreated decay, filled teeth, missing teeth, trauma, fluorosis, and gingivitis as well as treatment urgency.
Results: A total of 155 children with a mean age of 15 years participated in the dental screening in 2010, 2014, and 2018. Twelve percent reported oral pain, 15 percent needed urgent care, 21 percent had untreated caries, 39 percent had filled teeth, 39 percent had missing teeth, 59 percent had signs of gingival disease, 8.4 percent had fluorosis, and 13 percent had dental trauma. Mouthguards were recommended for 17 percent of child athletes. Missing teeth and filled teeth were significantly lower in 2014 compared to 2010 and 2018 (P <0.001).
Conclusion: The burden of the untreated caries was not high in athletes attending the Special Olympics in Australia.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Discapacidad Intelectual , Deportes , Adolescente , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/terapia , Humanos , Discapacidad Intelectual/epidemiología , Salud Bucal
5.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(5): 1273-1278, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900260

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Salagaras, BS, Mackenzie-Shalders, KL, Nelson, MJ, Fraysse, F, Wycherley, TP, Slater, GJ, McLellan, C, Kumar, K, and Coffey, VG. Comparisons of daily energy intake vs. expenditure using the GeneActiv accelerometer in elite Australian Football athletes. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1273-1278, 2021-To assess validity of the GeneActiv accelerometer for use within an athlete population and compare energy expenditure (EE) with energy and macronutrient intake of elite Australian Football athletes during a competition week. The GeneActiv was first assessed for utility during high-intensity exercise with indirect calorimetry. Thereafter, 14 professional Australian Football athletes (age, 24 ± 4 [SD] y; height, 1.87 ± 0.08 m; body mass, 86 ± 10 kg) wore the accelerometer and had dietary intake assessed via dietitian-led 24-hour recalls throughout a continuous 7 days of competition period (including match day). There was a significant relationship between metabolic equivalents and GeneActiv g·min-1 (SEE 1.77 METs; r2 = 0.64; p < 0.0001). Across the in-season week a significant difference only occurred on days 3 and 4 (day 3: energy intake [EI] EI 137 ± 31 kJ·kg-1·d-1; 11,763 ± 2,646 kJ·d-1 and EE: 186 ± 14 kJ·kg-1·d-1; 16,018 ± 1973 kJ·d-1; p < 0.05; d = -1.4; day 4: EI: 179 ± 44 kJ·kg-1·d-1, 15,413 ± 3,960 kJ·d-1 and EE: 225 ± 42 kJ·kg-1·d-1; 19,313 ± 3,072 kJ·d-1; d = -0.7). Carbohydrate intake (CI) was substantially below current sports nutrition recommendations on 6 of 7 days with deficits ranging from -1 to -7.2 g·kg-1·d-1 (p < 0.05), whereas daily protein and fat intake was adequate. In conclusion, the GeneActiv provides effective estimation of EE during weekly preparation for a professional team sport competition. Australian Footballers attempt to periodize dietary EI to varying daily training loads but fail to match expenditure on higher-training load days. Specific dietary strategies to increase CI may be beneficial to achieve appropriate energy balance and macronutrient distribution, particularly on days where athletes undertake multiple training sessions.


Asunto(s)
Fútbol Americano , Acelerometría , Adulto , Atletas , Australia , Ingestión de Energía , Metabolismo Energético , Gastos en Salud , Humanos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos en la Nutrición Deportiva , Adulto Joven
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810479

RESUMEN

This study assessed self-reported oral health status, knowledge, and behaviours of people living with diabetes along with barriers and facilitators in accessing dental care. A cross sectional survey of 260 patients from four public diabetes clinics in Sydney, Australia was undertaken using a 35-item questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS software with descriptive and logistic regression analyses. More than half (53.1%) of respondents reported having dental problems which negatively impacted their related quality of life. Less than half (45%) had adequate oral health knowledge. Only 10.8% reported receiving any oral health information in diabetes care settings, which had higher odds of demonstrating adequate oral health knowledge (AOR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.06-6.34). Similarly, 62.7% reported seeing a dentist in the last 12 months. Having private health insurance (AOR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.85-7.40) had higher odds of seeing a dentist in the past 12 months. Dental costs were a major contributor to avoiding or delaying dental visit. Patients living with diabetes have unmet oral health needs particularly around the awareness of its importance and access to affordable dental services. Diabetes care providers can play a crucial role in this area by promoting oral health to their patients.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Salud Bucal , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Atención Odontológica , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Humanos , Calidad de Vida
7.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 145, 2021 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832504

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Because of limitations of transportation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, current recommendation calls for cryopreservation of allogeneic stem cell transplants before patient conditioning. A single cell therapy laboratory was selected to function as the central cryopreservation hub for all European registry donor transplants intended for the Australian-Pacific region. We examined properties of these transplants to ascertain how quality is maintained. METHODS: We analyzed 100 pandemic-related allogeneic mobilized blood-derived stem cell apheresis products generated at 30 collection sites throughout Europe, shipped to and cryopreserved at our center between April and November of 2020. Products were shipped in the cool, subsequently frozen with DMSO as cryoprotectant. Irrespective of origin, all products were frozen within the prescribed shelf-life of 72 h. RESULTS: Prior to cryopreservation, viable stem cell and leukocyte count according to the collection site and our reference laboratory were highly concordant (r2 = 0.96 and 0.93, respectively) and viability was > 90% in all instances. Median nominal post-thaw recovery of viable CD34+ cells was 42%. Weakly associated with poorer CD34+ cell recovery was higher leukocyte concentration, but not time lag between apheresis or addition of cryopreservant, respectively, and start of freezing. The correlation between pre- and post-thaw CD34+ cell dose was high (r2 = 0.85), hence predictable. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment were prompt with no evidence of dose dependency within the range of administered cell doses (1.31-15.56 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg). CONCLUSIONS: General cryopreservation of allogeneic stem cell transplants is feasible. While more than half of the CD34+ cell content is lost, the remaining stem cells ensure timely engraftment.


Asunto(s)
Aloinjertos/provisión & distribución , Criopreservación , Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Obtención de Tejidos y Órganos/tendencias , Antígenos CD34 , Australia , Supervivencia Celular , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 255, 2021 04 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863274

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Unintended weight loss and the reduction in appetite are common phenomenon among older people. Reduced appetite has been linked to medication related reductions in saliva production, reduced taste ability and poor oral health. Poor appetite can result in reduced nutrient intake ensuing weight loss. It is possible that poor appetite is a mediating step on the causal pathway between oral health and weight loss. This study investigates whether poor oral health and loss of appetite are related to weight loss. METHODS: This is an observational study where data were obtained from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP). Information on socio-demographics, appetite and health related behavior was collected by self-completed questionnaire. Intraoral assessment was conducted by calibrated oral health therapists. Height and weight were measured by trained staff. Regression analysis investigated associations between oral health and appetite as risk factors for weight loss. RESULTS: Participants included 542 community dwelling older males. 99 older men (18.3%) experienced 5% or more weight loss over 3 years. Men who lost weight from baseline had lower BMI and lower body weight, had higher prevalence of frailty and depression, reported poorer appetite, and had fewer teeth (13.8 ± 9.5) than those who did not lose weight (16.3 ± 9.3). Before adjustment, the prevalence ratio (PR) for weight loss was 1.76 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.19-2.59) for participants with 0-19 natural teeth present compared to those with 20 or more teeth. When adding appetite and other variables to the model, the PR for number of teeth and weight loss was unchanged: 1.78 (95% CI, 1.06-3.00). The mediation analysis showed that the indirect effect of appetite on the association between number of natural teeth on weight loss was not found to be significant. CONCLUSION: This study found that number of natural teeth present and appetite are independently related to weight change among elderly men in Australia. Tooth loss can increase the risk of swallowing difficulty leading to change in food preference, avoidance of foods and a decrease in energy intake. Our study showed the importance of oral health interventions to encourage maintenance of 20 or more natural teeth in older people.


Asunto(s)
Vida Independiente , Salud Bucal , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento , Apetito , Australia , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , Pérdida de Peso
9.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112414, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831642

RESUMEN

Savanna fires occurring in sub-Saharan Africa account for over 60% of global fire extent, of which more than half occurs in the Southern Hemisphere contributing ~29% of global fire emissions. Building on experience in reducing savanna fire emissions in fire-prone north Australian savannas through implementation of an internationally accredited 'savanna burning' emissions abatement methodology, we explore opportunities and challenges associated with the application of a similar approach to incentivise emissions reduction in fire-prone southern African savannas. We first show that for a focal region covering seven contiguous countries, at least 80% of annual savanna large fire (>250 ha) extent and emissions occur under relatively severe late dry season (LDS) fire-weather conditions, predominantly in sparsely inhabited areas. We then assess the feasibility of adapting the Australian emissions abatement methodology through exploratory field studies at the Tsodilo Hills World Heritage site in north-west Botswana, and the Niassa Special Reserve in northern Mozambique. Our assessment demonstrates that application of a savanna burning emissions abatement method focused on the undertaking of strategically located early dry season (EDS) burning to reduce LDS wildfire extent and resultant emissions meets key technical criteria, including: LDS fine fuels tend to be markedly greater than EDS fuels given seasonal leaf litter inputs; LDS fires tend to be significantly more severe and combust more fuels; methane and nitrous oxide emission factors are essentially equivalent in EDS and LDS periods under cured fuel conditions. In discussion we consider associated key implementation challenges and caveats that need to be addressed for progressing development of savanna burning methods that incentivise sustainable fire management, reduce emissions, and support community livelihoods in wildfire-dominated southern African savannas.


Asunto(s)
Fuego , Pradera , África Austral , Australia , Ecosistema , Mozambique
10.
Parasite ; 28: 35, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835021

RESUMEN

Debates about emerging infectious diseases often oppose natural conceptions of zoonotic reservoirs with cultural practices bringing humans into contact with animals. This article compares the representations of cross-species pathogens at ontological levels below the opposition between nature and culture. It describes the perceptions of distinctions between interiority and physicality, between wild and domestic, and between sick and dead in three different contexts where human societies manage animal diseases: Australia, Laos and Mongolia. Our article also argues that zoonotic pathogens are one of the entities mobilized by local knowledge to attenuate troubles in ordinary relations with animals, and shows that the conservation of cultural heritage is a tool of mitigation for infectious diseases emerging in animal reservoirs.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Animales , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Australia , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Humanos , Zoonosis
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 271, 2021 04 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892643

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal conditions are the primary reason older adults seek general medical care, resulting in older adults as the highest consumers of health care services. While there is high use of chiropractic care by older adults, there is no recent, specific data on why older adults seek chiropractic care and how chiropractors manage conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics of older adults seeking chiropractic care, and to report problems diagnosed by chiropractors and the treatment provided to older adults who seek chiropractic care. METHODS: A secondary data analysis from two, large cross-sectional observational studies conducted in Australia (COAST) and Canada (O-COAST). Patient encounter and diagnoses were classified using the International Classification of Primary Care, 2nd edition (ICPC-2), using the Australian ICPC-2 PLUS general practice terminology and the ICPC-2 PLUS Chiro terminology. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize chiropractor, patient and encounter characteristics. Encounter and patient characteristics were compared between younger (< 65 years old) and older (≥65 years old) adults using χ2 tests or t-tests, accounting for the clustering of patients and encounters within chiropractors. RESULTS: A total of 6781 chiropractor-adult patient encounters were recorded. Of these, 1067 encounters were for persons aged > 65 years (16%), from 897 unique older patients. The most common diagnosis within older adult encounters was a back problem (56%), followed by neck problems (10%). Soft tissue techniques were most frequently used for older patients (85 in every 100 encounters) and in 29 of every 100 encounters, chiropractors recommended exercise to older patients as a part of their treatment. CONCLUSIONS: From 6781 chiropractor-adult patient encounters across two countries, one in seven adult chiropractic patients were > 65 years. Of these, nearly 60% presented with a back problem, with neck pain and lower limb problems the next most common presentation to chiropractors. Musculoskeletal conditions have a significant burden in terms of disability in older adults and are the most commonly treated conditions in chiropractic practice. Future research should explore the clinical course of back pain in older patients seeking chiropractic care and compare the provision of care to older adults across healthcare professions.


Asunto(s)
Quiropráctica , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Canadá , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805164

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressive symptoms reported during adolescence are associated with subsequent educational and employment outcomes, including whether experiences of depressive symptoms in adolescence are associated with higher exposures to adverse psychosocial job stressors among those who were employed in emerging adulthood. We used data from the Victorian arm of the International Youth Development Study (IYDS). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to model the association of depressive symptoms reported in 2002 (wave one) and/or 2003 (wave two) and self-reported completion of compulsory secondary schooling, employment status, and exposure to a number of psychosocial job stressors roughly a decade later (i.e., at wave three in 2014). In fully adjusted models, reporting high depressive symptoms at waves one or two (odds ratio (OR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55 to 0.92), as well as at both waves (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.75) were associated with a reduced likelihood of completing secondary schooling by wave three. High depressive symptoms reported at multiple waves were also associated with a reduced likelihood of employment (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.66). Amongst those employed at wave three (n = 2091; 72.5%), adolescent depressive symptoms were associated only with workplace incivility. Psychosocial job stressor exposures should be considered in the design and selection of jobs for young workers with a history of depressive symptoms in order to increase employment participation and sustainability for young people experiencing symptoms of depression.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Empleo , Adolescente , Adulto , Australia , Depresión/epidemiología , Escolaridad , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 217, 2021 03 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789566

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nutritional status has been considered as a key factor in preventing the development of the frailty syndrome. However, sex-specific dietary consumption transition over time and how it impacts of frailty status are unclear. METHOD: We assessed 113,039 adults (aged 50 years and over) from the 45 and Up Study who had completed both baseline (2006-2009) and follow-up (2012-2015) surveys. Dietary consumption was assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire. Frailty was identified by the FRAIL scale. Multinomial regression models were used to examine the association between a long-term dietary consumption and frailty, stratified by sex. RESULTS: Of a total of 113,039 participants, females had a higher percentage of pre-frailty and frailty than males (pre-frailty: 35.5% for female and 30.1% for male; frailty: 4.86% for female and 3.56% for male). As age increased, males had significant decreases in overall dietary risk scores, while females had significant increases in overall dietary risk scores. Males and females with a long-term consumption of adequate fruits, high grains or had a variety of foods were related to a low risk of frailty. Females with a long-term consumption of adequate vegetables or high lean meats and poultry were related to a low risk of frailty. Females with an unhealthy diet at both surveys [Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.18; 1.49], and those with unhealthy diet at either surveys (RRR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.12; 1.47, RRR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.04; 1.37) had a higher risk of frailty compared to those had a long-term healthy diet. No association were found between overall dietary risk and frailty for males. CONCLUSION: Males and females changed their dietary consumption as they age. These changes affect its association with frailty, particularly for females. Sex-specific dietary advice in prevention of frailty needs to be further developed.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Dieta , Femenino , Anciano Frágil , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Caracteres Sexuales
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802749

RESUMEN

Recent research suggests people typically "give up" pursuing their New Year resolutions within the first month. The present study investigated goal features proposed to be implicated in promoting both mental wellbeing and sustained New Year resolution pursuit. Australian and UK participants (n = 182) took part in an online longitudinal study, including four timepoints over a two-month period. At baseline, participants listed the New Year resolution to which they were most committed, and completed self-report measures to assess mental wellbeing, goal flexibility and tenacity. At the follow-up surveys, participants completed the wellbeing measure and their New Year resolution commitment, effort and stickability. As predicted, flexibility predicted wellbeing across time, however, tenacity did not. Counter to prediction, neither flexibility nor tenacity reported at baseline predicted "sticking" with one's New Year resolution. The predicted interaction between flexibility and tenacity was not significant. New Year resolutions focused predominantly on "diet" and "exercise" were predominantly the same resolutions previously pursued and tended to be relatively abstract. Although goal flexibility predicted greater wellbeing, the findings overall tend to support the view that people are not particularly good at sticking with their New Year resolutions. Implications of the findings are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Motivación , Australia , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799497

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has been a global healthcare concern impacting multiple aspects of individual and community wellness. As one moves forward with different methods to reduce the infection and mortality rates, it is critical to continue to study the impact that national and local "social distancing" policies have on the daily lives of individuals. The aim of this study was to examine loneliness in relation to risk assessment, measures taken against risks, concerns, and social media use, while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. The cross-sectional study collected data from 3474 individuals from the USA, the UK, Norway, and Australia. Loneliness was measured with the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Multiple linear regression was used in the analysis of associations between variables. The results showed that concerns about finances were more strongly associated with social loneliness, while concerns about the future was more strongly associated with emotional loneliness. Longer daily time spent on social media was associated with higher emotional loneliness. In conclusion, pandemic-related concerns seem to affect perceptions of loneliness. While social media can be used productively to maintain relationships, and thereby prevent loneliness, excessive use may be counterproductive.


Asunto(s)
Soledad , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Factor IX , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiología
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803166

RESUMEN

We hypothesized that visits to green and blue spaces may have enabled respite, connection and exercise during the COVID-19 pandemic, but such benefits might have been inequitably distributed due to differences in financial difficulties, opportunities to work from home, and localized restrictions in spatial mobility generated by 'lockdowns'. A nationally representative online and telephone survey conducted in 12-26 October on the Social Research Centre's Life in AustraliaTM panel (aged ≥ 18 y, 78.8% response, N = 3043) asked about access, visitation, and felt benefits from green and/or blue spaces. Increasing financial difficulty was associated with less time in and fewer visits to green and/or blue spaces, as well as fewer different types visited. Financial difficulty was also associated with feelings that visits to green and/or blue space had less benefit for maintaining social connection. Working from home was associated with more frequent and longer visitation to green and/or blue spaces, as well as discovery of ones previously unvisited. Working from home was also associated with increased levels of exercise and respite resulting from visits to green and/or blue spaces. Residents of Melbourne, a city of 4.9 million who were in 'lockdown' at the time of the survey, appeared more likely to benefit from visits to green and/or blue spaces than residents of Sydney, Australia's largest city at 5.2 million, who were not in lockdown. Residents of Melbourne compared with Sydney reported consistently increased visitation of, discovery of, and greater levels of various felt benefits derived from green and/or blue spaces, including more respite, connection, and exercise. Comparatively shorter distances to preferred green and/or blue spaces and closure of alternative settings at the time of the survey completion in Melbourne compared with Sydney may provide partial explanation, though more acute responses to experiencing green and/or blue spaces within highly cognitively demanding antecedent conditions posed by lockdown are also plausible and warrant further investigation with other health indicators. These results were robust to adjustment for a range of covariates including preferences for natural settings, which were consistently associated with greater levels of green and/or blue space visitation and felt benefits. Collectively, these results indicate that parallel efforts to generate (or renew) felt connection to natural settings, to increase working from home opportunities, and to mitigate financial difficulties may be important to help maximize the population health benefits of urban planning strategies intended to improve the availability of, and to reduce inequities in access to, green and blue spaces. Benefits felt more commonly by people living through lockdown underlines the role previous investments in green and blue space have played in enabling coping during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Anciano , Australia , Ciudades , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Emociones , Humanos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807520

RESUMEN

Physical activity is essential for children's healthy development, yet COVID-19 physical distancing restrictions such as school closures and staying at home, playground closures, and the cancelling of organised community sport have dramatically altered children's opportunities to be physically active. This study describes changes in levels of physical activity and screen time from February 2020 (i.e., before COVID-19 restrictions were introduced in Western Australia) to May 2020 (i.e., when COVID-19 restrictions were in place). Parents of children aged 5 to 9 years from Western Australia were eligible to participate and recruited through convenience sampling. An online survey instrument that included validated measures of their children's physical activity (unstructured, organized, home-based, indoor/outdoor active play, dog play/walking), sociodemographic, and other potential confounders was administered to parents. Paired t-tests and mixed ANOVA models assessed changes in physical activity outcomes. The analytic sample comprised parents of 157 children who were 6.9 years of age (SD = 1.7) on average. Overall, weekly minutes of total physical activity (PA) did not change from before to during COVID-19. However, frequency and duration (total and home-based) of unstructured physical activity significantly increased. Outdoor play in the yard or street around the house, outdoor play in the park or playground or outdoor recreation area, and active indoor play at home all significantly increased. Frequency and total duration of organised physical activity significantly declined during COVID-19 distancing. During Western Australian COVID-19 restrictions, there was an increase in young children's unstructured physical activity and outdoor play and a decrease in organised physical activity. It remains to be seen whether children's increased physical activity has been sustained with the easing of physical distancing restrictions.


Asunto(s)
Tiempo de Pantalla , Animales , Australia , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Perros , Humanos , Australia Occidental
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 662, 2021 04 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823843

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A multitude of information sources are available to publics when novel infectious diseases first emerge. In this paper, we adopt a qualitative approach to investigate how Australians learnt about the novel coronavirus and COVID-19 and what sources of information they had found most useful and valuable during the early months of the pandemic. METHODS: In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a diverse group of 40 Australian adults in mid-2020 about their experiences of the COVID-19 crisis. Participants were recruited through Facebook advertising. Detailed case studies were created for each participant, providing the basis of a thematic analysis which focused on the participants' responses to the questions about COVID-19-related information sources. RESULTS: Diverse sources of COVID-19-related information, including traditional media, online media and in-person interactions, were actively accessed, appraised and engaged with by participants. There was a high level of interest in COVID-19 information as people grappled with uncertainty, anxiety and feeling overwhelmed. Certain key events or experiences made people become aware that the outbreak was threatening Australia and potentially themselves. Most people demonstrated keen awareness that misinformation was rife in news outlets and social media sites and that they were taking steps to determine the accuracy of information. High trust was placed in health experts, scientists and government sources to provide reliable information. Also important to participants were informal discussions with friends and family members who were experts or working in relevant fields, as well as engaging in-person in interactions and hearing from friends and family who lived overseas about what COVID-19 conditions were like there. CONCLUSION: A constantly changing news environment raises challenges for effective communication of risk and containment advice. People can become confused, distressed and overwhelmed by the plethora of information sources and fast-changing news environment. On the other hand, seeking out information can provide reassurance and comfort in response to anxiety and uncertainty. Clarity and consistency in risk messaging is important, as is responding quickly to changes in information and misinformation. Further research should seek to identify any changes in use of and trust in information sources as time goes by.


Asunto(s)
Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Aprendizaje , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , /psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Adulto Joven
19.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803970

RESUMEN

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak rapidly became a worldwide pandemic in early 2020. In Australia, government-mandated restrictions on non-essential face-to-face contact in the healthcare setting have been crucial for limiting opportunities for COVID-19 transmission, but they have severely limited, and even halted, many research activities. Our institute's research practices in the vulnerable populations of pregnant women and young infants needed to adapt in order to continue without exposing participants, or staff, to an increased risk of exposure to COVID-19. Here, we discuss our pre-and-post COVID-19 methods for conducting research regarding nutrition during pregnancy, infancy, and early childhood. We discuss modifications to study methods implemented to avoid face-to-face contact when identifying and recruiting potential participants, gaining informed consent, conducting appointments, and collecting outcome data, and the implications of these changes. The COVID-19 pandemic has required numerous changes to the conduct of research activities, but many of those modifications will be useful in post-COVID-19 research settings.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Ciencias de la Nutrición del Niño/métodos , Ciencias de la Nutrición/métodos , Australia , Niño , Preescolar , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Embarazo
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805343

RESUMEN

In early 2020 from April to early June, the metropolitan area of Sydney as well as the rest of New South Wales (NSW, Australia) experienced a period of lockdown to prevent the spread of COVID-19 virus in the community. The effect of reducing anthropogenic activities including transportation had an impact on the urban environment in terms of air quality which is shown to have improved for a number of pollutants, such as Nitrogen Dioxides (NO2) and Carbon Monoxide (CO), based on monitoring data on the ground and from a satellite. In addition to primary pollutants CO and NOx emitted from mobile sources, PM2.5 (primary and secondary) and secondary Ozone (O3) during the lockdown period will also be analyzed using both statistical methods on air quality data and the modelling method with emission and meteorological data input to an air quality model. By estimating the decrease in traffic volume in the Sydney region, the corresponding decrease in emission input to the Weather Research and Forecasting-Community Multiscale Air Quality Modelling System (WRF-CMAQ) air quality model is then used to estimate the effect of lockdown on the air quality especially CO, NO2, O3, and PM2.5 in the Greater Metropolitan Region (GMR) of Sydney. The results from both statistical and modelling methods show that NO2, CO, and PM2.5 levels decreased during the lockdown, but O3 instead increased. However, the change in the concentration levels are small considering the large reduction of ~30% in traffic volume.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Australia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Nueva Gales del Sur , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análisis
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