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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180429, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1094545

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objectives: to identify self-efficacy and self-esteem levels in undergraduate nursing students and to verify the mutual relationship between these constructs and with sociodemographic variables. Method: a cross-sectional study, with a sample of 264 students from two universities. Self-esteem and self-efficacy were measured by the Brazilian versions of the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem and of the General and Perceived Self-Efficacy scales, respectively. Results: a predominance of moderate to high self-efficacy was identified, with a mean score of 35.29 and moderate self-esteem, with a mean of 23.48. Self-efficacy was associated with the male gender, priority option in the college entrance examination by nursing, satisfaction with the course and absence of overload, besides correlating positively with age and self-esteem. Conclusion: self-efficacy and self-esteem levels were moderate/high and moderate, respectively. These constructs have shown a mutual relationship and assume an indispensable role both in the individual's personal life and in the professionalization process. These findings point to the need to strengthen mental health in this population, especially in vulnerable students (female, activity overload, dissatisfaction with the course and low self-esteem and self-efficacy), in order to foster their sense of value and the belief in their abilities.


RESUMEN Objetivos: identificar los niveles de autoeficacia y autoestima en estudiantes universitarios de enfermería y verificar la relación de estos constructos entre sí y con las variables sociodemográficas. Método: estudio transversal con una muestra compuesta por 264 estudiantes de dos instituciones de enseñanza superior. La autoestima y la autoeficacia se midieron conforme a las versiones brasileñas de la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg y de la Escala de Autoeficacia General y Percibida, respectivamente. Resultados: se identificó un predominio de autoeficacia de moderada a alta, con un puntaje medio de 35,29 y de autoestima moderada, con una media de 23,48. La autoeficacia se asoció con el sexo masculino, con opción prioritaria de ingreso a la carrera de enfermería, satisfacción con la carrera y ausencia de sobrecarga, además de correlacionarse positivamente con la edad y la autoestima. Conclusión: los niveles de autoeficacia y autoestima fueron moderados/altos y moderados, respectivamente. Estos constructos evidenciaron una relación entre sí y asumen un rol imprescindible tanto en la vida personal del individuo como en el proceso de profesionalización. Estos hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de fortalecer la salud mental en esta población, especialmente en estudiantes vulnerables (sexo femenino, sobrecarga de actividades, insatisfacción con la carrera y bajos niveles de autoestima y autoeficacia), de modo de favorecer la sensación de valor que se atribuyen como personas y lo que creen con respecto a sus capacidades.


RESUMO Objetivos: identificar os níveis de autoeficácia e autoestima em estudantes de graduação em enfermagem e verificar a relação destes constructos entre si e com variáveis sociodemográficas. Método: estudo transversal, com amostra constituída por 264 estudantes de duas instituições de ensino superior. A autoestima e a autoeficácia foram mensuradas pelas versões brasileiras das Escalas de Autoestima de Rosenberg e de Autoeficácia Geral e Percebida, respectivamente. Resultados: identificou-se predomínio de autoeficácia moderada a alta, com pontuação média de 35,29 e de autoestima moderada, com uma média de 23,48. A autoeficácia foi associada ao sexo masculino, opção prioritária no vestibular pela enfermagem, satisfação com o curso e ausência de sobrecarga, além de correlacionar-se positivamente com a idade e autoestima. Conclusão: os níveis de autoeficácia e autoestima foram moderados/altos e moderados, respectivamente. Estes constructos mostraram relação entre si e assumem um papel imprescindível tanto na vida pessoal do indivíduo como no processo de profissionalização. Estes achados apontam para a necessidade do fortalecimento da saúde mental nesta população, sobretudo, em estudantes vulneráveis (sexo feminino, sobrecarga de atividades, insatisfação com o curso e baixa autoestima e autoeficácia), de modo a favorecer o sentimento de valor que atribuem a si próprios e a crença em suas capacidades.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Autoimagen , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Salud Mental , Enfermería , Autoeficacia
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180429, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1059128

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objectives: to identify self-efficacy and self-esteem levels in undergraduate nursing students and to verify the mutual relationship between these constructs and with sociodemographic variables. Method: a cross-sectional study, with a sample of 264 students from two universities. Self-esteem and self-efficacy were measured by the Brazilian versions of the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem and of the General and Perceived Self-Efficacy scales, respectively. Results: a predominance of moderate to high self-efficacy was identified, with a mean score of 35.29 and moderate self-esteem, with a mean of 23.48. Self-efficacy was associated with the male gender, priority option in the college entrance examination by nursing, satisfaction with the course and absence of overload, besides correlating positively with age and self-esteem. Conclusion: self-efficacy and self-esteem levels were moderate/high and moderate, respectively. These constructs have shown a mutual relationship and assume an indispensable role both in the individual's personal life and in the professionalization process. These findings point to the need to strengthen mental health in this population, especially in vulnerable students (female, activity overload, dissatisfaction with the course and low self-esteem and self-efficacy), in order to foster their sense of value and the belief in their abilities.


RESUMEN Objetivos: identificar los niveles de autoeficacia y autoestima en estudiantes universitarios de enfermería y verificar la relación de estos constructos entre sí y con las variables sociodemográficas. Método: estudio transversal con una muestra compuesta por 264 estudiantes de dos instituciones de enseñanza superior. La autoestima y la autoeficacia se midieron conforme a las versiones brasileñas de la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg y de la Escala de Autoeficacia General y Percibida, respectivamente. Resultados: se identificó un predominio de autoeficacia de moderada a alta, con un puntaje medio de 35,29 y de autoestima moderada, con una media de 23,48. La autoeficacia se asoció con el sexo masculino, con opción prioritaria de ingreso a la carrera de enfermería, satisfacción con la carrera y ausencia de sobrecarga, además de correlacionarse positivamente con la edad y la autoestima. Conclusión: los niveles de autoeficacia y autoestima fueron moderados/altos y moderados, respectivamente. Estos constructos evidenciaron una relación entre sí y asumen un rol imprescindible tanto en la vida personal del individuo como en el proceso de profesionalización. Estos hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de fortalecer la salud mental en esta población, especialmente en estudiantes vulnerables (sexo femenino, sobrecarga de actividades, insatisfacción con la carrera y bajos niveles de autoestima y autoeficacia), de modo de favorecer la sensación de valor que se atribuyen como personas y lo que creen con respecto a sus capacidades.


RESUMO Objetivos: identificar os níveis de autoeficácia e autoestima em estudantes de graduação em enfermagem e verificar a relação destes constructos entre si e com variáveis sociodemográficas. Método: estudo transversal, com amostra constituída por 264 estudantes de duas instituições de ensino superior. A autoestima e a autoeficácia foram mensuradas pelas versões brasileiras das Escalas de Autoestima de Rosenberg e de Autoeficácia Geral e Percebida, respectivamente. Resultados: identificou-se predomínio de autoeficácia moderada a alta, com pontuação média de 35,29 e de autoestima moderada, com uma média de 23,48. A autoeficácia foi associada ao sexo masculino, opção prioritária no vestibular pela enfermagem, satisfação com o curso e ausência de sobrecarga, além de correlacionar-se positivamente com a idade e autoestima. Conclusão: os níveis de autoeficácia e autoestima foram moderados/altos e moderados, respectivamente. Estes constructos mostraram relação entre si e assumem um papel imprescindível tanto na vida pessoal do indivíduo como no processo de profissionalização. Estes achados apontam para a necessidade do fortalecimento da saúde mental nesta população, sobretudo, em estudantes vulneráveis (sexo feminino, sobrecarga de atividades, insatisfação com o curso e baixa autoestima e autoeficácia), de modo a favorecer o sentimento de valor que atribuem a si próprios e a crença em suas capacidades.


Asunto(s)
Autoimagen , Salud Mental , Enfermería , Estudiantes , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Estudios Transversales , Autoeficacia , Instituciones de Enseñanza Superior
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22776, 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126316

RESUMEN

Based on the Theory of Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model, this study aimed to investigate factors associated with condom use intention in Chinese adolescents.In 2017, we conducted a cross-sectional study using stratified cluster, convenience sampling method to assess condom use intention among senior high school students in Tianjin, China. One thousand eighty two senior high school students were anonymously surveyed through self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the pre-intentional phase of HAPA model.Among the participants, 41.5% (449/1082) were male, 54.1% (585/1082) were female, 4.4% (48/1082) were gender-deficient. The average age was 16.7 years. The final pre-intentional phase of HAPA model was acceptable (CFI = 0.95; GFI = 0.94; RMSEA = 0.06). Action self-efficacy (r = 0.60) had a strong direct effect on condom use intention.The pre-intentional phase of HAPA model is valid to assess condom use intention among Chinese senior high school students. The pre-intention phase of the HAPA model could be applied to guide AIDS health educations of students, and further research is needed to evaluate the effect.


Asunto(s)
Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Anticonceptiva/psicología , Intención , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , China , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Masculino , Autoeficacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237821, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052922

RESUMEN

Emotional flexibility advancement has been found to be highly effective in clinical settings to treat, for example, depression, anxiety, and chronic pain. Developing these skills in the working context has also shown very encouraging results in public sector settings. Also, a few studies have revealed effectiveness in a private sector setting, but no studies have yet looked at the effectiveness of developing these skills amongst high-paced, high-demanding, and highly-educated knowledge workers. In this pilot training intervention study, we report evidence that emotional flexibility can be developed in this context. We conducted an experiment with treatment and control groups, with only the treatment group receiving an emotional flexibility training. Emotional flexibility improved significantly for the treatment group, whereas the improvements were minimal or negative for the control group. Furthermore, we reveal that General self-efficacy improved amongst treatment group participants (and not for control group participants), and that this is associated with emotional flexibility. Finally, we show that the improvements were higher for participants starting from a lower baseline.


Asunto(s)
Ajuste Emocional , Autoeficacia , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Educación , Inteligencia Emocional , Femenino , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Masculino , Salud Mental , Países Bajos , Salud Laboral , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Proyectos Piloto , Psicometría , Adulto Joven
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22765, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080744

RESUMEN

Nursing services is a high stress job. To improve the life quality of nursing staffs, we explored the relationships among psychological capital, job immersion, and life quality in nursing staffs, and verified that the psychological capital plays an intermediary role between the job immersion and life quality in nursing staffs.General data questionnaire, job immersion scale, psychological capital scale, and life quality scale were performed in nursing staffs who were from 6 third-class hospitals including 2 hospitals in Jinzhou city, 2 hospitals in Chaoyang city, and 2 hospitals in Huludao city. The relationships among psychological capital, job immersion, and life quality, and psychological capital as an intermediary role between the job immersion and life quality were analyzed using SPSS20.0 and AMOS19.0 softwares.In these nursing staffs, the total scores of the job immersion, psychological capital, and life quality were 47.45 ±â€Š9.41, 65.63 ±â€Š10.35, and 72.35 ±â€Š11.24, respectively. The psychological capital was positively correlated with the job immersion (r = 0.452, P < 0.001), the job immersion was positively correlated with the life quality (r = 0.344, P < 0.001) and the psychological capital was positively correlated with the life quality (r = 0.314, P < 0.001). Structural equation models showed that the job immersion could indirectly influence the life quality through the psychological capital. The mediating effect of psychological capital was 0.156 which accounted for 33.19% of the total effects.The psychological capital should be improved, and the psychological capital combined with the job immersion together improves the life quality of nursing staffs.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Autoeficacia , Adulto , China , Femenino , Esperanza , Humanos , Masculino , Optimismo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241101, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119644

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine risk perception and precautionary health behavior toward coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among health professionals working in selected public university hospitals of Ethiopia. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey was used with health professionals working in selected public university hospitals of Ethiopia. A structured survey questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, risk perception, and behavioral response items were used. The survey questions were designed on Google form. All academic and clinical staff invited to participate in the online survey, which was carried out from May 1-14, 2020. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 24. Descriptive statistics computed and the result is presented by tables and figures. RESULTS: A total of 273 health professionals participated in this study. The mean (± SD) age of participants was 31.03 ± 5.11. Study participants' overall mean score of perceived risk was 23.59 ± 4.75. The study participants' mean score of perceived vulnerability (4.01 ± 1.17) was higher than the human immunodeficiency virus, common cold, malaria, and tuberculosis. Regarding precautionary health behavior, the lowest mean score is for wearing gloves 1.82 ± 1.15. CONCLUSION: Participants mean score of perceived vulnerability of coronavirus disease was higher than some of the prevalent infectious disease in the area. Almost all participants applied recommended protective measures to the acceptable level, except for wearing mask and gloves. Therefore, there is a need to further intensification of more effective ways to support health professionals' adherence to major precautionary measure is important.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía , Femenino , Hospitales Públicos , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Autoeficacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22888, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120834

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between social support, self-efficacy, coping style, and psychological stress in children with malignant tumors during the treatment, and to clarify the mediating effects.From May 2019 to August 2019, selected by convenience sampling method, 141 children with malignant tumors in the treatment period were evaluated using the Social Support Questionnaire, General Self-efficacy Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale.The results of correlation analysis showed that depression was negatively correlated with coping style, self-efficacy, affirmation and support, satisfaction, company, and intimacy, but positively correlated with conflict and punishment; both anxiety and stress were significantly negatively correlated with coping style, self-efficacy, affirmation and support, company, and intimacy. The results of the model indicated that gender, social support, self-efficacy, and coping style could directly predict the psychological stress of children with malignant tumors in the treatment period, social support and self-efficacy could indirectly predict the psychological stress of children with malignant tumors, and the total effect of self-efficacy on the psychological stress of children was the largest. Through 2000 bootstrap tests of mediating effect, it not only confirmed the mediating effect of self-efficacy and coping style but also had a chain-mediating effect.Appropriate social support can improve the self-efficacy of children with malignant tumors in the treatment period and encourage them to take a positive response to the disease, thereby effectively preventing or reducing the occurrence of psychological stress.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica/fisiología , Neoplasias/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Adolescente , Ansiedad/psicología , Niño , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Reconocimiento en Psicología/fisiología , Autoeficacia , Apoyo Social , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD008312, 2020 10 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089492

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to antiepileptic medication is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and healthcare costs. In this review, we focus on interventions designed and tested in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs to assist people with adherence to antiepileptic medication. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011, and last updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving adherence to antiepileptic medication in adults and children with epilepsy. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update, we searched the following databases on 18 February 2020: Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS Web), MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus and PsycINFO. CRS Web includes RCTs or quasi-RCTs from PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), CENTRAL, and the Specialized Registers of Cochrane Review Groups including Epilepsy. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs and quasi-RCTs of adherence-enhancing interventions aimed at people with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy (as defined in individual studies), of any age and treated with antiepileptic drugs in a primary care, outpatient or other community setting. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: All review authors independently assessed lists of potentially relevant citations and abstracts. At least two review authors independently extracted data and performed a quality assessment of each study according to the Cochrane tool for assessing risk of bias. We graded the level of evidence for each outcome according to GRADE. The studies differed widely according to the type of intervention and measures of adherence; therefore combining data was not appropriate. MAIN RESULTS: We included 20 studies reporting data on 2832 participants. Thirteen studies targeted adults with epilepsy, one study included participants of all ages, one study included participants older than two years, one recruited pediatric patients aged between 1 month to 15 years, one study targeted caregivers of children with epilepsy, one targeted adolescents and caregivers, and two studies targeted families of children with epilepsy. We identified three ongoing studies. Follow-up time was generally short in most studies, ranging from 1 to 12 months. The studies examined three main types of interventions: educational interventions, behavioural interventions and mixed interventions. All but three studies compared treatment with usual care or 'no intervention'. Due to heterogeneity between studies in terms of interventions, methods used to measure adherence and the way the studies were reported, we did not pool the results and these findings were inappropriate to be included in a meta-analysis. Education and counselling of participants with epilepsy had mixed success (moderate-certainty evidence). Behavioural interventions such as the use of intensive reminders provided more favourable effects on adherence (moderate-certainty evidence). The effect on adherence to antiepileptic drugs described by studies of mixed interventions showed improved adherence in the intervention groups compared to the control groups (high-certainty evidence). Eleven studies described seizure frequency or seizure severity or both, with four of them, reporting improved adherence and decreased seizure frequency in the intervention groups (moderate-certainty evidence). Findings related to self-efficacy and quality of life were mixed, with no clear pattern across types of intervention. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Behavioural interventions such as intensive reminders and the use of mixed interventions demonstrate some positive results, however, we need more reliable evidence on their efficacy, derived from carefully-designed RCTs before we can draw a firm conclusion. None of the newly included studies have provided additional information that would lead to significant changes in our conclusions.


Asunto(s)
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Adulto , Sesgo , Niño , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Epilepsia/psicología , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Autoeficacia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239288, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052906

RESUMEN

Participants often vary in their response to behavioral interventions, but methods to identify groups of participants that are more likely to respond are lacking. In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, we used baseline characteristics to group participants into distinct behavioral phenotypes and evaluated differential responses to a physical activity intervention. Latent class analysis was used to segment participants based on baseline participant data including demographics, validated measures of psychosocial variables, and physical activity behavior. The trial included 602 adults from 40 U.S. states with body mass index ≥25 who were randomized to control or one of three gamification interventions (supportive, collaborative, or competitive) to increase physical activity. Daily step counts were monitored using a wearable device for a 24-week intervention with 12 weeks of follow-up. The model segmented participants into three classes named for key defining traits: Class 1, extroverted and motivated; Class 2, less active and less social; Class 3, less motivated and at-risk. Adjusted regression models were used to test for differences in intervention response relative to control within each behavioral phenotype. In Class 1, only participants in the competitive arm increased their mean daily steps during the intervention (adjusted difference, 945; 95% CI, 352-1537; P = .002), but it was not sustained during follow-up. In Class 2, participants in all three gamification arms significantly increased their mean daily steps compared to control during the intervention (supportive arm adjusted difference 1172; 95% CI, 363-1980; P = .005; collaborative arm adjusted difference 1119; 95% CI, 319-1919; P = .006; competitive arm adjusted difference 1179; 95% CI, 400-1957; P = .003) and all three had sustained impact during follow-up. In Class 3, none of the interventions had a significant effect on physical activity. Three behavioral phenotypes were identified, each with a different response to the interventions. This approach could be used to better target behavioral interventions to participants that are more likely to respond to them.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista/métodos , Ejercicio Físico , Juegos Experimentales , Acelerometría , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Fenotipo , Autoeficacia , Sueño/fisiología , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Adulto Joven
12.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 108, 2020 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076995

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy is an important determinant of adjustment following spinal cord injury. Self-efficacy is defined as the belief that one can successfully execute behavior required to produce the desired outcomes. In its original conceptualization, self-efficacy refers to the confidence that people have in their ability to accomplish specific tasks and behaviors within a specific context. Over the years these situation specific aspects have been unconfined and multiple constructs of self-efficacy have been proposed. The most common is a division in trait and state self-efficacy. Another used division that is utilized is between general, domain-specific and task-specific self-efficacy. The scientific support for these constructs is to date still unclear. The objective of this study was to enhance the understanding of the self-efficacy construct by comparing four self-efficacy scales designed to measure three aspects of self-efficacy (general versus domain-specific versus task-specific) in people with spinal cord injury. METHODS: Dutch and Australian adults with spinal cord injury (N = 140) completed four frequently used self-efficacy scales; the Moorong Self-efficacy Scale, General Self-efficacy Scale, University of Washington Self-efficacy Scale and a Self-care Self-efficacy Scale approximately 6 months after their inpatient rehabilitation. Pearson correlations examined inter-relationships between the scales. RESULTS: Hypothesized strong correlations between scales measuring similar aspects of self-efficacy were found (correlations 0.50-0.65). However, the hypothesized weak to moderate correlations between scales measuring diverging aspects of self-efficacy were only partly found (correlations 0.31-0.74), with 7 out of 12 correlations being strong instead of moderate. CONCLUSIONS: The expected distinctions between the three aspects of self-efficacy was not demonstrated. All four scales measure a common latent construct, most likely general self-efficacy aspects. Further research is necessary to find ways to improve the measurement of domain-specific and task-specific aspects of SE, so that they are sensitive enough to capture change over time, and thus enhance clinical outcomes of people with SCI as they adjust to their disability.


Asunto(s)
Autoeficacia , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/psicología , Australia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
13.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3364, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027402

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship between maternal self-efficacy to breastfeed and sociodemographic, obstetric, and neonatal variables; between the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and sociodemographic variables; and between the breastfeeding self-efficacy and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding at the intervals of 30, 60, and 180 days postpartum. METHOD: a longitudinal and prospective study conducted with 224 women. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale - Short Form, and a questionnaire on breastfeeding and child feeding were used for collecting the data. Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were used for analysis. RESULTS: there was no association between breastfeeding self-efficacy and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding identified at 30, 60, and 180 days. Self-efficacy was associated with the type of delivery and complications in the postpartum period. There was also an association between religion and exclusive breastfeeding 30 and 60 days postpartum, and assistance with baby care and exclusive breastfeeding at 60 days. CONCLUSION: It was identified that the type of delivery, complications in the postpartum period, religion, and assistance with baby care corroborate to increase maternal confidence in the ability to breastfeed.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Autoeficacia , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Madres , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos
14.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(10): 1470-1476, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047708

RESUMEN

Background: In midwifery practice, the education model used for skill acquisition is extremely important for the management of students' stress, anxiety and self-efficacy. Innovative practices aim to improve the students' cognitive, emotional and psychomotor skills, and new research needs to be performed to evaluate the results of such practices. Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the education model and clinical practice features, such as practice time, laboratory practice and exam evaluation, on the students' state and continuous anxiety and self-efficacy status. Methods: This was a semi-experimental non-randomised study, including three steps. Research was conducted in two institutions. Sample selection was not made in the research. The sample consisted of two groups. Group 1 included students (n = 39), who get educated in 1st institution. Group 2 included students (n = 40), who get educated in 2nd institution. In the collection of research data; Introductory Information Form, Self- Efficacy Scale, Spielberger's State/Continuous Anxiety Inventory was used. Data were analysed by Shapiro Wilk Tests, numbers, percentages, Chi-square test, analysis of single factor variance in repeated measurements, repeated measures analysis of variance, t test in indepentdent samples. Results: A significant difference was found between the three data collection steps, regarding self-efficacy as well as state and continuous anxiety scores (P < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the mean self-efficacy scores of each group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results indicate that students have a high level of self-efficacy using the daily life activities model, engaging in 8 hours of clinical practice, performing clinical practice under the supervision of a midwife or a nurse.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Partería/educación , Preceptoría , Autoeficacia , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto , Prácticas Clínicas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Educacionales , Adulto Joven
15.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111271, 2020 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007712

RESUMEN

Achieving conservation outcomes requires concerted engagement from many people across diverse societies. However, many conservation practitioners struggle to engage new audiences. Research suggests one effective strategy to reach nonengaged individuals is to encourage interested conservation actors to share information, provide resources and assistance, and organize local events to recruit others; we call these "diffusion behaviors." Previous studies suggest few conservation actors who engage in personal-sphere PEB also engage in diffusion PEB, potentially because these behaviors have unique barriers which have yet to be identified. We investigated if there are different psychosocial drivers of diffusion and personal-sphere PEB by surveying residents in Colorado, USA about their personal-sphere wildscape behaviors (e.g. planting native plants) and diffusion wildscape behaviors (e.g. helping a friend plant native plants). Including diffusion-specific psychosocial variables led to better predictions of both personal-sphere and diffusion PEB. Diffusion-specific self-efficacy, social and environmental response efficacy, and reputational concerns about perceived competence were significant predictors of diffusion behavior. Diffusion-specific environmental response efficacy and injunctive norms enforced through sanctioning significantly predicted personal-sphere behavior. Personal-sphere self-efficacy and dynamic norm beliefs predicted both behavior types. Our findings suggest that research should consider personal-sphere and diffusion PEB as distinct domains and should investigate the power of diffusion-specific perceptions. Conservation outreach programs seeking to encourage diffusion of PEB may benefit from designing programming to try to change these perceptions.


Asunto(s)
Jardinería , Conducta Social , Colorado , Humanos , Autoeficacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 262-270, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-192063

RESUMEN

Many previous studies have discussed the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. living environment) on academic achievement of children from western China. The present study focused on four non-cognitive factors, self-educational aspiration, self-efficacy, instrumental motivation, and anxiety, which could affect mathematics achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms how these four non-cognitive factors affected mathematics achievement. 5774 primary school students from 4th and 5th grade in western China participated in this study. A moderated chained mediation model was constructed. The results showed that self-educational aspiration could positively predict mathematics achievement. However, instrumental motivation and anxiety formed chained mediation between self-educational aspiration and mathematics achievement, and negatively predicted mathematics achievement. Besides, self-efficacy played a moderated role in the relationship between self-educational aspiration and anxiety


Muchos estudios previos han discutido la influencia de factores extrínsecos (por ejemplo, entorno vital) en el logro académico de los niños de China occidental. El presente estudio se centró en cuatro factores no cognitivos, la aspiración autoeducativa, la autoeficacia, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad, los cuales podrían afectar el logro matemático. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar los mecanismos por los cuales estos cuatro factores no cognitivos afectaron el logro matemático. Un total de 5774 estudiantes de primaria de 4º y 5º grado en el oeste de China participaron en este estudio. Se construyó un modelo de mediación encadenado moderado. Los resultados mostraron que la aspiración autoeducativa podría predecir positivamente el logro matemático. Sin embargo, la motivación instrumental y la ansiedad formaron una mediación encadenada entre la aspiración autoeducativa y el logro matemático, y predijeron negativamente el logro matemático. Además, la autoeficacia desempeñó un papel moderado en la relación entre la aspiración autoeducativa y la ansiedad


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Autoeficacia , Modelos Psicológicos , Matemática/educación , Estudiantes/psicología , Aspiraciones Psicológicas , Ansiedad/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Motivación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Éxito Académico
17.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 361-369, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192073

RESUMEN

Las organizaciones están implementando acciones para la mejora de la salud y calidad de vida de sus empleados. Este hecho repercute por tanto en las empresas y en sus empleados, caracterizándose éstos últimos por disponer de cinco fortalezas como son el engagement, la resiliencia, la autoeficacia, el optimismo y la esperanza. El cuestionario del empleado saludable mide ocho dimensiones, por lo que el objetivo del trabajo es validar el instrumento reduciendo el constructo del empleado saludable de ocho dimensiones a cinco dimensiones y constatar la fiabilidad del mismo como medio de evaluación del empleado saludable. 287 empleados (208 hombres y 79 mujeres) de edades comprendidas entre 20-59 años participaron en es-te estudio. Se analizó el ajuste de los modelos de cinco y ocho dimensiones mediante un Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio (AFC), utilizando el método de estimación de Máxima Verosimilitud Robusto. Los índices incrementa-les (CFI y NNFI) y el absoluto SRMR mostraron un buen ajuste en ambos modelos al ser superiores a ,90 e inferior a ,08 respectivamente. En cuanto a la comparación de modelos se observa un aumento significativo del estadístico de contraste Chi Cuadrado de Satorra-Bentler en el modelo de cinco frente al de ocho dimensiones, aunque la reducción del CFI en el modelo de cinco dimensiones no superó el criterio de ,01, lo que permitió considerar ambos modelos como similares en cuanto a ajuste. Ambos modelos mostraron resultados satisfactorios en cuanto al ajuste, este hecho confirma el uso del cuestionario del empleado saludable de ocho dimensiones a cinco dimensiones


Organisations are implementing actions to improve the health and quality of life of their employees. This fact therefore has an impact on companies and their employees, the latter being characterised by five strengths: engagement, resilience, self-efficacy, optimism and hope. The Healthy Employee Questionnaire measures eight dimensions, so the aim of the work is to validate the instrument by reducing the construct of the healthy employee from eight dimensions to five dimensions and to ascer-tain the reliability of the instrument as a means of evaluating the healthy employee. 287 employees (208 men and 79 women) aged 20-59 participat-ed in this study. The fit of the five- and eight-dimensional models was ana-lysed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), using the Robust Maximum Likelihood estimation method. The incremental indices (CFI and NNFI) and the absolute SRMR showed a good fit in both models being higher than .90 and lower than .08, respectively. In terms of model comparison, a significant increase in the Satorra-Bentler Chi Square contrast statistic was observed in the five versus eight-dimensional model, although the reduc-tion of the CFI in the five-dimensional model did not exceed the criterion of .01, which allowed both models to be considered as similar in terms of fit. The two models showed satisfactory results in terms of fit, this fact confirming the reduction of the healthy employee questionnaire from eight dimensions to five dimensions


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , 16054/psicología , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoeficacia , Resiliencia Psicológica , Análisis Factorial , Servicios de Salud del Trabajador/estadística & datos numéricos
18.
Public Health ; 187: 8-14, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866818

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the impact of psychological and sociodemographic variables on perceived personal and comparative susceptibility to diseases caused by a novel, unknown virus. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 438 adults (200 male and 238 female) were interviewed in the waiting rooms of three primary care medicine outpatient clinics. The participants completed three validated questionnaires: the Italian Adjustment of Risk Perception of Infectious Diseases questionnaire, the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) scale, and the Italian Version of Personality Inventory (ITAPI). RESULTS: Only 5% of the respondents believed it likely that they would contract a disease caused by a novel virus in the following months, even though 5.9% considered this probability higher than that of other people of the same age and gender. Gender (P < .04), age (P = .002), and marital status (P = .002) significantly affected the perceived risk of getting a disease caused by a novel virus. Self-efficacy (P < .001), imagination (P < .001), and empathy (P < .001) were significant predictors of perceived personal susceptibility. Self-efficacy (P = .04) and imagination (P = .04) were predictive of perceived comparative susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate psycho-educational interventions are necessary to empower the population in adopting the necessary prevention and containment measures aimed at limiting the spread of novel diseases such as COVID-19 and avoiding disastrous consequences both at the health and economic level.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adulto , Anciano , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Autoeficacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
Public Health ; 187: 67-73, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927291

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Data relating to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Middle East remains sparse. This study examines the public's perceptions of the pandemic, assesses the extent to which participants have adhered to a range of recommended health-protective behaviours to prevent infection and evaluates whether anxiety about COVID-19 or perceptions related to the pandemic are associated with greater adherence to these behaviours. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional, survey-based design was used. Data were collected using an electronic survey distributed to students, staff and faculty at universities in the three major cities of the United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi, Al Ain and Dubai, between the 23rd and 31st of April 2020. A total of 634 participants were included in the analysis. METHODS: Participants reported whether they had adhered to health-protective behaviours such as spatial distancing, increased hygiene and disinfection and diminished time spent outside their homes. They also reported the perceived efficacy of a range of behaviours aimed at reducing risk for contracting COVID-19. Data relating to perception of risk, negative consequences of contracting the disease, perceived longevity of the illness and perceptions of the accuracy of the information read about COVID-19 were collected. Anxiety related to COVID-19 was also assessed, as well as a range of demographic variables. Binary logistic regressions were used to examine whether the demographic variables, perceived efficacy ratings and the perception variables were associated with overall adherence. RESULTS: A total of 44.8% of the sample reported adherence to all the examined behaviours. Participants who were employed, those with some or completed postsecondary education and those with a chronic illness diagnosis were more likely to adhere to the precautionary behaviours. The perception of personal risk of infection (odds ratio [OR]: 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-0.98), perception of substantial life consequences of becoming infected (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75-0.10) and the perception that the public health information was clear (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57-0.83) were all positively related with behavioural adherence. The health-protective behaviours were all perceived as being highly efficacious in combating infection, and these efficacy ratings were also positively associated with greater behavioural adherence (OR: 0.41-0.77). Having read the official government public health information was related to greater behavioural adherence (OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.23-0.61). CONCLUSIONS: Dissemination of reliable public health information during a public health crisis is essential. This study's results highlight the importance of providing the public with information that is clear and consistent and, moreover, emphasises the efficacy of the recommended behaviours as this is likely to improve adherence. When individuals perceive themselves to be at personal risk and are aware of the severity of the consequences posed by the illness, they are more likely to adopt caution. However, in this sample, the trustworthiness of the information portrayed in the media and the perceived duration of the pandemic - whether this would resolve soon or persist well into the future - did not impact adherence.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Autoeficacia , Emiratos Árabes Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867132

RESUMEN

The present study forms part of the project "Cross-disciplinary education for sexual, body, and gender diversity" (Code 419). The aim of this study was to analyze the role played by the psychoeducational variables involved in burnout (resilience, self-efficacy, self-esteem, emotional intelligence, empathy, and everyday stress) on attitudes toward sexual and gender diversity rights. Participants comprised 170 university students undertaking a degree in primary education. Instruments were administered to assess the constructs analyzed, ensuring informed consent, voluntary participation, anonymity, and data confidentiality. An ex post facto design was employed to determine whether attitudes toward sexual and gender diversity rights are influenced by the possible relationships and role of these variables. We found statistically significant associations between students' attitudes toward sexual and gender diversity at all three levels (sociocultural, relational, and personal) and the variable of burnout. Attitudes towards gender sexual orientation and gender identity rights influence burnout, and vice versa. As we ponder deeply about how these factors influence one another, we can shift our perspectives in a way that builds social harmony. It is important to learn how exactly these influences work, and this knowledge translates into making teaching strategies more effective to help raise awareness about guaranteeing rights for all. At the personal level of students' attitudes toward sexual and gender diversity/equality, we found positive correlations between this level and the total score for the variable of resilience and with its factor of personal competence. The data obtained will be of use for future psychoeducational assessment and intervention programs related to an education in sexual orientation and gender identity rights that are aimed at developing socio-emotional competencies and attention to diversity with the ultimate goal of improving social harmony by dismantling stereotypes and raising awareness of the importance of the variables of resilience, self-efficacy, self-esteem, emotional intelligence, empathy, and everyday stress which highlights how "education is an instrument of social transformation".


Asunto(s)
Empatía , Identidad de Género , Resiliencia Psicológica , Autoeficacia , Estrés Psicológico , Actitud , Diversidad Cultural , Inteligencia Emocional , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades
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