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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e53845, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224571

RESUMEN

Objetivo: avaliar o impacto de um programa psicoeducacional nos níveis de autoeficácia, autoestima e sintomas ansiosos e depressivos em estudantes no início da graduação em enfermagem. Método: pesquisa multicêntrica, quase experimental, do tipo tempo-série, desenvolvida em duas instituições de ensino superior públicas, com 82 estudantes, no período de setembro de 2018 a maio de 2019. O programa psicoeducacional foi elaborado com base no construto da autoeficácia, baseando-se nas atividades de enfermagem da intervenção "Fortalecimento da autoestima", proposta pela Nursing Interventions Classification. Os desfechos avaliados foram: autoeficácia, mensurada pela Escala de Autoeficácia Geral e Percebida; autoestima, mensurada pela Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg; sintomas ansiosos e depressivos, avaliados pela Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão. Resultados: a intervenção psicoeducacional teve efeito positivo na percepção de autoeficácia geral dos estudantes. A autoestima e os sintomas ansiosos e depressivos não foram influenciados. Conclusão: os níveis de autoeficácia foram positivamente impactados pelo programa implementado.


Objective: to evaluate the impact of a psychoeducational program on the levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and anxious and depressive symptoms in students starting their undergraduate nursing program. Method: this quasi-experimental, multicenter, time-series type study was conducted with 82 students at two public institutions of higher education, from September 2018 to May 2019. Based on the self-efficacy construct, the psychoeducational program contemplated nursing activities of the "Strengthening self-esteem" intervention proposed by the Nursing Interventions Classification. The outcomes evaluated were self-efficacy, on the General and Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale; self-esteem, on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and anxious and depressive symptoms, on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: the psychoeducational intervention had a positive effect on the students' perception of general self-efficacy. Self-esteem and anxious and depressive symptoms were not influenced. Conclusion: the program impacted levels of self-efficacy positively.


Objetivo: evaluar el impacto de un programa psicoeducativo en los niveles de autoeficacia, autoestima y síntomas ansiosos y depresivos en estudiantes al inicio de sus estudios universitarios en enfermería. Método: investigación multicéntrica, cuasi-experimental, tipo serie temporal, desarrollada en dos instituciones públicas de educación superior, con 82 estudiantes, de septiembre de 2018 a mayo de 2019. El programa psicoeducativo se desarrolló con base en el constructo de autoeficacia y las actividades de enfermería de la intervención "Fortalecimiento de la autoestima", propuesta por la Nursing Interventions Classification. Los resultados evaluados fueron: autoeficacia, medida por la Escala de Autoeficacia General y Percibida; autoestima, medida por la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg; síntomas de ansiedad y depresión, evaluados por la Escala Hospitalaria de Ansiedad y Depresión. Resultados: la intervención psicoeducativa tuvo un efecto positivo sobre la percepción de autoeficacia general de los estudiantes. La autoestima y los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión no se vieron afectados. Conclusión: los niveles de autoeficacia fueron impactados positivamente por el programa implementado.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Percepción , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Autoeficacia , Educación en Enfermería/métodos , Ansiedad , Autoimagen , Salud Mental , Depresión , Promoción de la Salud
2.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 177, 2021 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758875

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Dialysis causes many psychological and social problems, such as stress and inefficiency in patients, which should be considered in health promotion interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the impact of stress management training on stress coping strategies and the self-efficacy of these patients in southeastern Iran. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was a randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on hemodialysis patients from December 2019 to January 2020. Patients who met inclusion criteria were selected with the convenience sampling method and divided into the two groups of intervention (n = 30) and control (n = 30) by using the block randomization method. Participants in the intervention group were trained in a stress management training program in 8 one-and-a-half-hour sessions, held twice a week. Data were measured with stress coping strategies and general self-efficacy questionnaires before, immediately, and 1 month after the intervention. SPSS18 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The study results showed that the scores of stress coping strategies and the self-efficacy score in all their dimensions were significantly different between the intervention and control groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The present study results showed that stress management training programs promoted stress coping strategies and self-efficacy in hemodialysis patients. Health planners and nurses are recommended to use these easy, feasible, and inexpensive interventions to reduce stress and increase self-efficacy. Trial registration Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT): IRCT20160914029817N10. Date of registration: October 7, 2021. URL: https://en.irct.ir/trial/58540 . Registration timing: a retrospective.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Autoeficacia , Humanos , Irán , Diálisis Renal , Estudios Retrospectivos
3.
Sch Psychol ; 36(6): 494-503, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766813

RESUMEN

In the context of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, teachers faced unprecedented challenges and threats while implementing distance learning. Consequently, teachers may have experienced emotional exhaustion. The aim of our study was threefold: To explore teachers' threat appraisals, to investigate the relation between teachers' threat appraisals and their emotional exhaustion, and to examine processes protecting teachers from emotional exhaustion. Self-efficacy belief, especially, may have driven teachers' perceptions of distance learning as an opportunity (i.e., distance learning strengths), rather than an impediment (i.e., distance learning weakness) to teaching. During the first wave of COVID-19, Italian teachers (N = 1,036) filled in an online survey. A mixed-method design was used to address our three research aims. Findings indicated that, above and beyond other COVID-19 threats, one third of teachers reported worries, fears, and concerns related to their job (i.e., job-related threats). Furthermore, those who mentioned job-related threats experienced greater emotional exhaustion. Finally, teachers' self-efficacy was related to lower emotional exhaustion both directly and indirectly via teachers' perceptions of distance learning. Indeed, distance learning weaknesses (but not distance learning strengths) mediated the negative relationship between self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion. Altogether, our findings encourage reflection on possible interventions to reduce teachers' job-related threats and help them navigate distance learning effectively. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Educación a Distancia , Emociones , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoeficacia
4.
Sch Psychol ; 36(6): 504-515, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766814

RESUMEN

Guided by the job demands-resources model and social-cognitive theory, we examined how educator perceived school connectedness and their attempts to connect with school members (i.e., administrators, staff, students, and families) concurrently and interactively influenced educators' compassion fatigue and online teaching self-efficacy during distance learning in the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Participants were 321 educators in a large, urban school district in northern California. Results of linear regression modeling suggested that educators with longer years of working in education and White educators reported higher levels of compassion fatigue than their counterparts. White educators also reported a lower level of online teaching self-efficacy than their counterparts. With the control of educators' gender, race/ethnicity, and years of teaching in education, educators' self-reported school connectedness is negatively associated with compassion fatigue. Educators' attempts to connect with students not only positively associated with compassion fatigue but also intensified the negative association between school connectedness and compassion fatigue. Moreover, educators' school connectedness and attempts to connect with administrators and staff both positively associated with online teaching self-efficacy. Also, educators' attempts to connect with families mitigated the positive association between school connectedness and online teaching self-efficacy. The findings highlight the importance of promoting educators' school connectedness in improving educators' occupational wellbeing. It also highlights that educators' school connectedness and their attempts to connect with certain group of school members mutually and interactively influence educators' compassion fatigue and online teaching self-efficacy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Desgaste por Empatía , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoeficacia
5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 10789-10796, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763440

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hip fracture (HF) is a major health problem for older patients. Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a common complication in HF patients. It extends the length of the hospital stay and affects the recovery of mobility. This study aims to explore the relationship between self-efficacy, resilience, and quality of life in older patients with HF after HF combined with POUR and to improve the rehabilitation plan for HF patients. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to assess 221 older patients with HF who underwent surgery for the first time at the Department of Orthopedics, Xishan People's Hospital from June 2018 to June 2021. Of these, 111 patients were in the POUR group (Group A), and the remaining 110 patients were in the non-POUR group (Group B). Three months after the operation, a questionnaire was administered to assess the relationship between POUR and self-efficacy, resilience, and quality of life. RESULTS: Self-efficacy scores of Group A (23.52±3.18) were lower than those of Group B (27.23±2.40), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Except for self-improvement, subscores and total scores of all resilience measures in Group A were lower than those of Group B, and these differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The scores of all quality of life measures of Group A were lower than those of Group B, and the differences were statistically significant except for role-emotional (RE) (P<0.05). The correlation analysis between self-efficacy and resilience in older patients with HF after the operation showed that self-efficacy was positively correlated with the total resilience score and the toughness optimism dimensions (P<0.01). Correlation analysis between self-efficacy and quality of life showed that self-efficacy was positively correlated with role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), vitality (VT), and social functioning (SF) (P<0.01). Correlation analysis between resilience and quality of life showed that total resilience scores, toughness, and optimism were positively correlated with physical functioning (PF), RP, BP, GH, VT, and SF (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of POUR after HF significantly reduces self-efficacy, resilience, and quality of life in older adults.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Retención Urinaria , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Autoeficacia , Retención Urinaria/etiología
6.
Med Pr ; 72(5): 479-487, 2021 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785816

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The article addresses the issue of attitudes towards safety at work in the context of subjective variables such as psychological stress and the subjective self-efficacy of workers in the aviation sector. The research was exploratory in nature. It focused on capturing the individual experiences of ground handling staff at Polish and Slovak airports. Among the 326 people surveyed were engineers, firefighters, mechanics and electricians - a crew that works in difficult and threatening working conditions on a daily basis, often experiencing unexpected accidents and breakdowns. The psychosocial factors in industry 4.0 and this branch of industry itself are - according to the authors - verified empirically quite poorly. Taking care of safety at work and strengthening a positive attitude towards safety seems to be a key aspect of management in such units. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Polish Questionnaire of Attitude towards Safety by M. Znajmiecka-Sikora, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale and the Plopa and Makarowski Stress Feeling Questionnaire were used in the research. RESULTS: The statistical analyses carried out, including regression analyses and a model of analysis of mediation between variables, have indicated that this sense of effectiveness is a key positive predictor of every aspect related to strengthening attitudes towards safety (a cognitive aspect [ß = 0.21, p < 0.001], an affective aspect [ß = 0.15, p = 0.001] and a behavioral aspect [ß = 0.15, p = 0.002]), as well as the overall level of attitude towards safety (ß = 0.19, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The sense of effectiveness is an important mediator between the level of perceived stress and attitudes towards safety, which means that as the subjectively perceived sense of self-efficacy increases, the level of experienced stress decreases and thus the positive attitude towards safe actions and behaviors in the workplace is strengthened. Med Pr. 2021;72(5):479-87.


Asunto(s)
Aviación , Autoeficacia , Humanos , Estrés Psicológico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Lugar de Trabajo
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769983

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Academic procrastination (AP) has been a common problematic behavior in college students. While physical activity (PA) has been reported to increase self-efficacy and reduce AP, less is known about the potential relationships among them. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between PA and AP. METHODS: 687 Chinese college students (51% males, 49% females) aged 17-23 years (M = 19.59, SD = 0.89) participated in the study. PA, self-efficacy, and AP were assessed using the Physical Activity Rating Scale-3 (PARS-3), the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students (PASS), respectively. Pearson correlation analysis, linear regression analysis, and mediation analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: (1) PA has a significant and negative impact on college students' AP, (2) PA has a significant and positive impact on college students' self-efficacy; (3) self-efficacy has a significant and negative impact on AP in college students; and (4) self-efficacy significantly mediates the relationship between PA and AP. CONCLUSIONS: PA is an effective intervention for directly and indirectly decreasing college students' AP. Therefore, more intervention efforts should focus on the promotion of PA in higher education to improve students' self-efficacy and thus, to reduce AP among college students.


Asunto(s)
Procrastinación , China , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoeficacia , Estudiantes
8.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3485, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Español, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755773

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to identify the levels of anxiety and breastfeeding self-efficacy in puerperal women at the intervals of 60, 120, and 180 days postpartum; and to verify the influence of anxiety on breastfeeding self-efficacy among these puerperal women. METHOD: an analytical, longitudinal and prospective study, conducted with 186 puerperal women, and which used a sociodemographic and obstetric characterization questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale - Short Form. The analyses were performed by means of descriptive statistics, and Fisher's Exact Test was used. RESULTS: most of the puerperal women presented low levels of trait anxiety (55.4%) and of state anxiety (66.2% at 60 days, 72.8% at 120 days, and 75.5% at 180 days), and a high level of self-efficacy (77.3% at 60 days, 75.3% at 120 days, and 72.1% at 180 days of puerperium). Low levels of trait anxiety and state anxiety were associated with high self-efficacy at 60 days (p=0.0142 and p=0.0159, respectively). CONCLUSION: it is necessary to pay greater attention to the mental health of puerperal women, considering that those who presented low levels of anxiety had higher levels of self-efficacy, a situation that can result in longer exclusive breastfeeding.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Autoeficacia , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Madres , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770230

RESUMEN

Although long-term separation has made discrepancies between parents' educational aspirations and children's own educational expectations among families with left-behind children (LBC), limited researches on the influence of these discrepancies on children's mental health are carried out at present. Based on China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) conducted in 2018, we selected 875 LBC aged 9~15 as the sample, explored the influence of the direction and degree of these discrepancies on LBC's depressive symptoms by hierarchical regression, and examined the mediating role of children's academic self-efficacy and mediation effect pathway with Baron and Kenny method and Bootstrap mediation analysis methods. Results showed that LBC's mental health was worse when parents' educational aspirations were higher than their children's educational expectations, compared to that without discrepancies. The degree of such discrepancies was negatively associated with LBC's mental health. In the relationship between the direction of discrepancies and LBC's depressive symptoms, academic self-efficacy played a mediating role partially. In addition, the study indicated that mothers played a significant role in the development of LBC's mental health. These findings also provided critical evidence for the intervention practice of LBC's mental health.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Autoeficacia , Niño , China , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Motivación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770242

RESUMEN

Healthcare professionals' exposure to work-family conflict negatively affects the health and well-being of the whole family and organizational outcomes. Specified workplace interventions are lacking. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of a two-day group-treatment specifically designed for the needs of healthcare professionals with family responsibilities concerning participation, satisfaction with the intervention and family- and individual-related outcome variables. 24 mostly female (85.7%) participants of a community hospital in southern Germany attended the treatment. Data were collected at baseline (T0), directly after the treatment (T1) and two months later (T2). A two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures showed a statistically significant time x group effect for self-efficacy (F = 5.29, p = 0.011). Contrasts displayed substantial pre-post (T1-T0, T2-T0) increases of self-efficacy in the intervention group as compared with the control group. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney-U tests are in line with these findings. The results indicate that the group-treatment adapted to the needs of healthcare professionals has the potential to boost self-efficacy among healthcare professionals and that participants were predominantly satisfied. Perspectives for future research and practical implications are discussed in the light of the manifest lack of healthcare professionals.


Asunto(s)
Conflicto Familiar , Personal de Salud , Atención a la Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoeficacia , Lugar de Trabajo
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769690

RESUMEN

Despite the success of tobacco control efforts in reducing smoking rates during the past 50 years, data on the factors contributing to quitting success are still lacking. Smoking-related mortality among women has also not declined. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize sociodemographic features, smoking-related behaviors, mental illness, and smoking cessation in woman smokers in Korea who were registered in the Quitline program. Furthermore, factors associated with 30-day and 1-year successful smoking cessation after enrollment in the Quitline program were investigated. A total of 3360 adult woman Quitline users from 2007 to 2018 were included in the final analysis, with information on their age, education level, marital status, body mass index, frequency of alcohol consumption per month, nicotine dependency, self-efficacy for smoking cessation, presence of a smoking cessation supporter, and mental health history collected upon registration with the Quitline program in Korea. Their cessation outcome was investigated with a 1-year follow-up until the end of 2019. A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with smoking cessation at the 30-day and 1-year follow-ups. The results of the multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that lower nicotine dependency, higher self-efficacy, and the presence of a smoking cessation supporter improved the odds of smoking cessation at the 30-day and 1-year follow-ups. In contrast, users with a mental health condition were less likely to achieve smoking cessation. Incorporating methods to increase self-efficacy in women who decide to quit smoking will contribute to facilitating more attempts to quit and achieving greater success in smoking cessation among woman smokers.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Nicotina , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Autoeficacia , Fumar
12.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780632

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Informal caregivers often receive limited training and support, especially in providing assistance with toileting, a physically and emotionally demanding activity of daily living. This increases caregivers' risk for physical injury and burnout and jeopardizes older adults' ability to age in place. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a toileting intervention using an automated bidet to reduce the amount of physical assistance required from caregivers. DESIGN: Randomized wait-list control feasibility study. SETTING: Caregiver's home. PARTICIPANTS: Ten informal caregivers. INTERVENTION: An occupational therapy intervention to educate and train caregiving dyads to use an automated bidet system. Outcomes and Measures: Feasibility was measured in terms of recruitment and retention, bidet installation, ability to operate the bidet, acceptability (a process evaluation), preliminary efficacy (physical barriers and impact on caregiver outcomes of performance, satisfaction, and self-efficacy), and adverse events. RESULTS: All bidets were installed successfully. All caregivers reported that the intervention made toileting easier and increased their confidence. Physical barriers decreased for the treatment group. The bidet had a large effect on self-efficacy for the treatment group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The results suggest that the automated bidet intervention is feasible and acceptable and can have a positive impact on caregiver outcomes when assisting with toileting. What This Article Adds: A toileting intervention using an automated bidet is feasible and acceptable for caregivers of older adults and can reduce the amount of physical assistance required from caregivers.


Asunto(s)
Carga del Cuidador , Cuidadores , Anciano , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Autocuidado , Autoeficacia
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e29862, 2021 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726606

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Illegal drug usage among adolescents is a critical health problem. The Taiwanese government provides an accompanying volunteer program to prevent students who experiment with drugs from reusing them. An appropriate training program can improve volunteers' abilities to assist students using drugs. Problem-solving, self-efficacy, and teamwork are critical abilities for inexperienced volunteers who help with drug use prevention. By interacting with the animation or 3D virtual reality (VR) in the virtual scene, learners can immerse themselves in the virtual environment to learn, and 3D VR can increase learning opportunities and reduce the cost of human and material resources. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of spherical video-based virtual reality (SVVR) training in improving problem-solving, self-efficacy, and teamwork among volunteers who helped prevent adolescents from using illegal drugs. METHODS: This study used a randomized controlled design with a total of 68 participants in the experimental (n=35) and control (n=33) groups. The participants in the experimental group received the SVVR training program and their counterparts in the control group did not receive any training. RESULTS: Generalized estimating equation analyses indicated that the experimental group showed significant posttraining improvements in problem-solving and self-efficacy but not teamwork when compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study revealed that SVVR could improve participants' problem-solving skills and self-efficacy for assisting students in not using illegal drugs. However, future studies are suggested to develop effective SVVR to assist inexperienced volunteers in enhancing their teamwork abilities. We believed that introducing the training program to more sites can enhance volunteer training so that volunteers can have a better companionship effect when helping students quit drugs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05072431; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05072431.


Asunto(s)
Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Realidad Virtual , Adolescente , Humanos , Solución de Problemas , Autoeficacia , Voluntarios
14.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604055, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744595

RESUMEN

Objective: Cancer screening rates are suboptimal for disadvantaged populations in France, yet little evidence exists on their cancer-related knowledge and screening barriers. The main objective of this study was to examine cancer-related knowledge, awareness, self-efficacy, and perceptions of screening barriers among low-income, illiterate immigrant women in France following an 8-weeks cancer educational intervention. Methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 164 female participants in the Ain department of France between January 2019 and March 2020. Adopting the Health Belief Model as an intervention and analytic framework, salient themes were identified using qualitative thematic analysis. Results: Increased levels of perceived susceptibility to and perceived severity of cancer contributed to higher motivation to get screened. Barriers to screening included low French proficiency, shame surrounding illiteracy, and constant worries due to precarious living conditions. Perceived benefits (e.g., valuing one's health and health-promoting behaviors), cues to action from a trusted source, and greater self-efficacy (e.g., more autonomous in healthcare-seeking) outweighed perceived barriers, including cultural barriers. Conclusions: Implications include developing audience-responsive targeted cancer screening communication strategies and educational materials to increase screening rates and reduce cancer and cancer screening inequities.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Promoción de la Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Francia , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Alfabetización , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pobreza , Autoeficacia
15.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780643

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Occupational therapy practitioners can play a pivotal role in supporting breastfeeding mothers as they transition to and form new routines for this occupation. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether occupational therapy programming can assist breastfeeding mothers in reaching their personal occupation-based wellness goals. DESIGN: Mixed-methods design that involved development of an occupational profile and a goal attainment scale (GAS). After the intervention, participants rescored their GAS goals and completed a semistructured exit interview. SETTING: Nonprofit lactation center located in the suburbs of a large mid-Atlantic U.S. city. PARTICIPANTS: Women recruited through convenience sampling who had been breastfeeding an infant for <6 mo, who were not currently weaning, and who had met with a lactation consultant at least once since giving birth were eligible (N = 17). INTERVENTION: Group occupational therapy that consisted of 10 weekly 1-hr sessions. Topics were based on occupational profiles, GAS scores, and lactation consultant input. Outcomes and Measures: Each participant created and scored three goals using the GAS before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Data from 14 of the 17 participants were analyzed. The average postintervention GAS score was 56.50 (M = 50), indicating that most personal wellness goals were reached. Thematic analysis revealed that occupational therapy programming helped mothers persevere with breastfeeding, feel more confident as new parents, and value both themselves and their baby. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: There is an increasing role for occupational therapy practitioners in helping new mothers reach their personal wellness goals in ways that support their ability to continue breastfeeding. What This Article Adds: Maternal wellness and breastfeeding represent an emerging area of practice in which occupational therapy practitioners can provide new mothers with physical, social, and psychological supports that help them maintain self-efficacy related to breastfeeding and other meaningful occupations. This study provides foundational evidence in support of this collaboration.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Terapia Ocupacional , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Madres , Padres , Embarazo , Autoeficacia
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770045

RESUMEN

The most recent version of the job demands-resources (JD-R) theory proposes that demanding working conditions and employee strain form a self-perpetuating loss cycle. By acknowledging that such cycles are detrimental for both employees and organizations, the present study aimed to contribute to enhancing the current scarce understanding regarding their explanatory mechanisms. For this purpose, it applied social cognitive theory to propose that occupational self-efficacy mediates the effects of two role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) on employee mental health complaints and vice versa. The hypothesized reciprocal mediation effects were tested using a three-wave full panel research design and a dataset of 917 (NT1 = 513, NT1+T2 = 122, NT1+T3 = 70, NT1+T2+T3 = 212) Croatian employees working in heterogeneous private sector industries. The results demonstrated that role conflict, but not role ambiguity, undermined employees' beliefs in their capabilities to successfully master their jobs which, in turn, led them to experience more mental health complaints over time. Contrary to expectations, poor mental health did not lead to diminished efficacy beliefs nor, in turn, more job demands over time. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated an additional mechanism in the job demands-strain relationship and, at the same time, shed new light on the role of personal resources within the JD-R theory. Accounting for the malleable nature of employee efficacy beliefs, the study proposes several ways in which organizations can enhance occupational self-efficacy and thereby curb the causal chain linking job demands and employee strain reactions.


Asunto(s)
Salud Laboral , Autoeficacia , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Salud Mental , Organizaciones
17.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 51(5): 617-629, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737253

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the self-efficacy for managing chronic disease 6-item scale (SECD-6-K). METHODS: The English version of the Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease 6-item Scale first underwent forward and backward translation procedures. The SECD-6-K was then used to collect data from 350 adults diagnosed with chronic diseases. Content, construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity were all evaluated. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α. SPSS 25.0 and the data were analyzed using AMOS 26.0 software. RESULTS: The SECD-6-K consists of six items in two domains: disease management and health behavior. The results for construct, convergent, and discriminant validity were good. Exploratory factor analysis produced eigen values between 2.27 and 3.28, with factors total explained cumulative variance of 91.1%. Confirmatory factor analysis supported goodness of fit and reliability for the modified SECD-6-K model. The criterion validity also showed significant correlation with both the Patient Health Questionnaire and 12-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2. Finally, reliability was found to be excellent. CONCLUSION: This study identified the high reliability and validity of SECD-6-K. The SECD-6-K is an appropriate tool for determining Korean patients' self-efficacy in managing their chronic conditions. Therefore, this scale may be used in clinical settings as well as in educational and research settings.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/terapia , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Autoeficacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adulto , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , República de Corea , Traducción
18.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 172, 2021 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732263

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy, individuals' beliefs regarding their capacities to perform actions or control (potentially stressful or novel) events, is thought to be important for various life domains. Little however is known about its early precursors. This study examined the predictive effects of childhood personality and parental behaviors (i.e., overreactive discipline and warmth) for general self-efficacy in young adulthood. Furthermore, it was examined whether personality and parenting behaviors interacted and whether these interactions supported the diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility model. These aims were examined in an 11-year prospective study of 336 participants (Mage at T1 = 10.83 years, range = 9-12 years, 53.9% girls). Personality and parental behaviors were reported at T1 by both mothers and fathers, whereas self-efficacy was self-reported at T2 11 years later. Hypotheses were tested in Mplus using multilevel structural equation modeling. RESULTS: Results revealed that (only) emotional stability, and not parenting, predicted higher self-efficacy 11 years later. Benevolence functioned as a susceptibility marker in the association between overreactivity and self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that childhood emotional stability is an important long-term predictor of self-efficacy, even into emerging adulthood. Moreover, the integration of individual differences in models of parenting effects may further improve our understanding of early adults' adjustment.


Asunto(s)
Responsabilidad Parental , Autoeficacia , Adulto , Niño , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Personalidad , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto Joven
19.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 9398-9405, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628865

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) effectively reduces frequent vein punctures in cancer patients. With increasing clinical applications, PICC-associated infections are attracting increasing attention. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed PICC-associated infections in chemotherapy patients treated at our hospital in recent years to identify risk factors for PICC-associated infections and the preventive effect of a self-efficacy intervention program. METHODS: Using a convenience sampling method, we selected 159 cancer patients who received chemotherapy through a PICC at our hospital between July 2017 and December 2018, and the patients were randomly divided to an observation group (n=79) and a control group (n=80) using a random number table. The control group received conventional intervention, and the observation group received a self-efficacy intervention. We analyzed self-efficacy scores before and after the intervention, the complication rate, the infection rate, pathogens identified, and risk factors for PICC-associated infections. RESULTS: Among the 159 chemotherapy patients, 26 (16.35%) experienced PICC-associated infections in this finished trial. Univariate analysis showed that sex, puncture site, and steroid use were unrelated to PICC-associated infections (P>0.05), whereas PICC indwelling time, white blood cell (WBC) count, a history of diabetes, and immunity were significantly related to PICC-associated infections (P<0.05). The self-efficacy score improved after the intervention in both groups, especially in the observation group (P<0.05). The incidence of complications such as catheter infection, catheter blockage, and catheter displacement was significantly lower in the observation group than in the control group (16. 67% vs. 88.10%; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The self-efficacy intervention improves self-management and reduces complications in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy through a PICC. PICC indwelling time, WBC count, a history of diabetes, and immunity are independent risk factors for PICC-associated infections; thus, measures should be implemented to prevent infections. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100050651.


Asunto(s)
Cateterismo Venoso Central , Autoeficacia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efectos adversos , Catéteres , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
20.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 166, 2021 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670541

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Caregiver Inventory (CGI), a measure of self-efficacy for caregiving that takes into account aspects of caregiving that are neglected by current measures of caregiving, was translated into Italian and validated. METHODS: Ninety-one caregivers from a variety of locations in Italy completed the CGI-Italian (CGI-I) as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Family Strain Questionnaire - Short Form (FSQ-SF). RESULTS: A confirmatory factor analysis based on the original CGI factor structure resulted in an adequate fit of the CGI-I using standard fit indices. Thus, the original factor structure was validated in the CGI-I: Managing Medical Information (α = 0.87), Caring for Care Recipient (α = 0.68), Caring for Oneself (α = 0.78), and Managing Difficult Interactions/Emotions (α = 0.55). The CGI-I total score was inversely related to anxiety (HADS, r = - 0.35, p = <.05), and depression (HADS, r = - 0.45, p = <.05). In addition, the CGI-I was inversely related to caregiver stress (FSQ-SF, r = - 0.39, p = <.05). Care of Oneself and Managing Difficult Interactions/Emotions emerged as the strongest and most robust negative relationships with anxiety, depression, and caregiver stress, which replicated, with similar constructs, findings from the original CGI. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study established the CGI-I as a reliable and valid measure of self-efficacy for caregiving. This study also confirms the importance of self-care and managing difficult communication in the process of successfully navigating the demands of caregiving and in constructing interventions for caregivers who need support.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Autoeficacia , Humanos , Italia , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
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