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1.
Br J Nurs ; 29(5): 303-307, 2020 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167821

RESUMEN

Humour is a centuries-old phenomenon studied by many disciplines. Social and personal identity play a role in the creation, recognition, understanding, appreciation and use of humour. This study, which used interpretative phenomenological analysis to explore preregistration nursing students' experiences of the use of humour in the UK clinical setting, highlights what affects the students' use of humour. The influence of sex, age, and culture and ethnicity on the participants' use of humour with patients and healthcare staff is evidenced and explored; the influence of sex did not strictly follow traditional expectations.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interprofesionales , Autoimagen , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Ingenio y Humor como Asunto , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Competencia Clínica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
2.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 626-643, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019419

RESUMEN

The present study examined the psychometric properties of the coach-adapted version of the Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ) using Bayesian structural equation modelling (BSEM). The sample included 780 (Mage = 36.4; SD = 10.8; males n = 698; females n = 54; 28 participants did not report sex) youth sport coaches representing five European countries (i.e., England, France, Greece, Norway, and Spain). The results did not support a 34-item five-factor, hierarchical, a two-factor BSEM, or a bifactor BSEM model across the participating countries. However, the results supported a reduced 19-item first-order, two-factor BSEM model that largely showed approximate metric invariance, but not approximate scalar invariance across the five countries. The pool of items constituting empowering and disempowering motivational climates should be refined to further enhance the empirical operationalisation of the coach-adapted version of the EDMCQ. Advancing the quality of translation-back-translation procedures across cultures and conducting multi-national pilot testing seems warranted as well. These recommendations may help to identify the distinctive aspects of each underlying sub-dimension of the EDMCQ, where coaches are the respondents, and pave the way for further examination of the proposed hierarchical multidimensional factor structure and the cross-cultural equivalence of the EDMCQ for this population.


Asunto(s)
Tutoría , Motivación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Deportes Juveniles/psicología , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Comparación Transcultural , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Fútbol Americano/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometría , Autoimagen
3.
Nursing ; 50(2): 61-63, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977808

RESUMEN

Cultural competence is essential for establishing rapport with patients and for assessing patients' needs. This article discusses how self-awareness can help nurses provide culturally competent care to patients and their families.


Asunto(s)
Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente , Relaciones Enfermero-Paciente , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Autoimagen , Humanos
4.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e70-e76, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982114

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women face gender-based challenges in their medical education and career. Inequitable access to procedural training, a confidence gap, and professional identity deficit have been shown. We made a gender comparison of procedural case volume, confidence for independent practice, perceived gender and ethnic bias, and professional identity in Australasian anaesthesia trainees. METHODS: An online, voluntary, anonymous survey using SurveyMonkey® was delivered to Australasian anaesthesia trainees. Information collected included demographics, experience and confidence in 12 anaesthetic procedures, assessments relating to confidence and professional identity, and perceived gender and ethnic bias. Gender differences were evaluated. RESULTS: Three hundred and fifty-six trainees (22.2%) of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) responded. Male trainees reported a higher number (standard deviation) of procedures performed greater than 10 times (men 4.45 [2.55], women 3.78 [1.95]; P<0.001 adjusted for training level). Men were more likely to rate themselves at a training competency above their actual training level (men 18.6%, women 7.8%; P=0.004) and exaggerate procedural experience to supervisors (men 30.8%, women 11.8%; P<0.001). Final-year male trainees felt significantly more prepared for independent practice (P=0.021, trend across ordered responses). Women reported significantly higher levels of gender bias exhibited by patients (men 1.1%, women 84.5%; P<0.001) and in training overall (men 10.3%, women 55.3%; P<0.001), which was compounded in women with an ethnic minority background. CONCLUSIONS: A discrepancy exists between the number of procedures performed by male and female anaesthesia trainees in Australia and New Zealand. Relative male overconfidence may be a major contributing factor to the gender confidence gap.


Asunto(s)
Anestesiología/educación , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Médicos Mujeres/psicología , Sexismo , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Australia , Competencia Clínica/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nueva Zelanda , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Autoimagen , Factores Sexuales , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología
5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(3): 319-331, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958318

RESUMEN

Objective: Acromegaly has a negative influence on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Previous studies provide limited information on the course of HRQoL during treatment. This study aims to assess the effect of treatment on the course of HRQoL at six predefined time points. Design: This prospective study examines HRQoL in treatment-naive patients before and during the first 2.5 years of acromegaly treatment. Methods: Therapy-naive acromegaly patients completed three validated questionnaires (RAND-36, AcroQoL, and the Appearance Self-Esteem (ASE)) at six predetermined time points before, during, and after treatment. Outcomes were correlated to IGF1 levels and disease control status. Results: Twenty-seven acromegaly patients completed the questionnaires at all time points. After treatment, all patients had controlled acromegaly. Scores of RAND-36 domains General health, Vitality and Health change, and all AcroQoL dimensions (except for Relations) improved during treatment (P ≤ 0.003); the largest changes were detected during the first year. Gender influenced HRQoL scores, since AcroQoL scores significantly improved in males but not in females. Over time, IGF1 levels were negatively correlated with HRQoL. After 2.5 years of follow-up, HRQoL of controlled patients was still lower than in the general population. Conclusion: HRQoL of acromegaly patients was considerably reduced at diagnosis. Disease control was associated with an improvement of HRQoL scores. Males showed a more pronounced improvement than females. The largest changes were detected in the first year of treatment. However, HRQoL during and after treatment remained impaired in acromegaly patients, emphasizing the need of additional support.


Asunto(s)
Acromegalia/psicología , Acromegalia/terapia , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Hormonas/deficiencia , Hormona de Crecimiento Humana/sangre , Humanos , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/análisis , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/psicología , Estudios Prospectivos , Autoimagen , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
6.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(1): 60-81, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918648

RESUMEN

Alliance Ruptures in the Psychotherapy of Adolescents with Borderline Personality Pathology: Risk or Benefit? Adolescents with subthreshold or full-blown borderline personality disorders (borderline personality pathology (BPP)) are characterized by a pronounced instability in their self-image and their interpersonal relationships. The building of a stable therapeutic relationship is considerably challenged in patients with BPP. The concept of alliance ruptures and resolutions assumes that the resolution of ongoing relationship difficulties contributes to therapeutic change. Resolutions are strategies of the therapist to address ruptures, to explore their meaning with the patient and to enhance the therapeutic collaboration between the patient and the therapist. This article illustrates the use and benefits of alliance ruptures and resolutions among adolescents with BPP treated with the manualized treatment concept Adolescent Identity Treatment (AIT). Ten patients were treated with AIT. Three out of ten patients dropped out of treatment prematurely. A total of 187 therapy sessions were analyzed using the Rupture and Resolution Rating System (3RS; Eubanks, Lubitz, Muran, Safran, 2018). Alliance ruptures and resolutions are illustrated in session transcripts of a qualitative case vignette. Quantitative analyses show that alliance ruptures occur frequently over the complete treatment course in good outcome patients. However, frequent alliance ruptures at the beginning of treatment represent a risk for premature treatment termination. The concept of alliance ruptures and resolutions may help to improve the ongoing therapeutic alliance in the treatment of adolescents with BPP.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe , Psicoterapia , Adolescente , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/psicología , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/cirugía , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Autoimagen , Conducta Social
7.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e102, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939495

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between social inequality indicators and oral health conditions in an adult population. This prospective cohort study assessed a probabilistic sampling of adults (aged 20-64 years) living in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Oral examinations were performed in 2011 and 2015, conducted at home, and used the decay-missing-filled (DMFT) index of permanent teeth, the Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and the visible biofilm criterion. A questionnaire was administered to determine demographic and socioeconomic aspects and dental services used, and collect oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) data. Social inequality indicators were evaluated according to social class (high, middle or low) and type of dental service used (public, health insurance or private), and compared with oral health conditions (visible biofilm, DMFT and incidence of tooth loss, periodontal pockets and bleeding, and OHRQoL), evaluated between 2011 and 2015. Analysis using chi-squared or Fisher tests (p < 0.05) and Cochran's Q test was conducted separately for each category analyzed between 2011 and 2015 (p < 0.05). A total of 143 adults who participated in an earlier study were examined after four years of follow-up. Although the occurrence of oral disease did not decrease over the study period (4 years), there was a reduction in inequality among lower social classes in regard to presence of tooth decay and oral health impact on self-perceived quality of life between 2011 and 2015 (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the Brazilian National Oral Health Policy has achieved its principles, especially that of greater equity.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Bucal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Índice CPO , Femenino , Humanos , Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Índice Periodontal , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de Vida , Autoimagen , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Spec Care Dentist ; 40(1): 49-54, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912539

RESUMEN

PURPOSE/AIM: To assess self-perception of oral health among institutionalized older adults in Taubate, Brazil. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Demographics, oral, and systemic health data were collected from a sample of 89 institutionalized older adults. The Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) was applied to assess their self-perception of oral health. A linear regression model using GOHAI scores and considering age, BMI, gender, race, dry mouth, denture status, number of teeth, number of comorbid conditions, and number of medications as independent variables was generated. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent were male, with an average age of 75.9 years (±9.1), 43.8% identified as mixed race, and 42.7% as white. The average BMI was 23.9 (±3.8), the average number of comorbid condition was 1.8 (±1.4), and the average number of daily medications was 6.2 (±3.6). The average number of teeth was 3.9 (±7.4), and 57.3% of the participants reported dry mouth sensation; 8.9% presented oral lesions, with denture stomatitis as the most common oral lesion (5.6%). The average GOHAI score was 31.1 (±3.7). Regression analysis showed a negative correlation between BMI and GOHAI scores (P = .032, R2  = 7.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Self-perception of oral health was good and negatively correlated with BMI.


Asunto(s)
Salud Bucal , Xerostomía , Anciano , Brasil , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagen
9.
J Lesbian Stud ; 24(1): 41-55, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218934

RESUMEN

Until 2004, Dutch women seeking donor insemination through medical facilities could opt for open-identity or anonymous donors. Since then, Dutch law only permits open-identity donation. The present study compared the well-being of adolescents conceived before 2004 through known, open-identity, and anonymous donors, and born into planned lesbian parent families (i.e., the mothers identified as lesbian before the children were conceived). The sixty-seven participating adolescents (Mage = 16.04 years) completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Youth Self-Report, and answered questions about their donor. Thirty-three were conceived through known, twenty-two through open-identity, and twelve through anonymous donors. No significant associations were found between donor type and self-esteem or problem behavior. Likewise, no significant differences were found on these two variables for adolescents with known donors who did or did not play important roles in their lives. For adolescents conceived with sperm from as-yet unknown donors (open-identity or anonymous), feeling uncomfortable about not knowing the donor was associated with lower self-esteem and more externalizing problem behavior. That donor type was found to have no bearing on adolescent self-esteem or problem behavior may be useful to prospective lesbian parents.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/fisiología , Padres , Problema de Conducta/psicología , Psicología del Adolescente , Autoimagen , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Donantes de Tejidos , Adolescente , Bienestar del Niño , Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Femenino , Homosexualidad Femenina , Humanos , Masculino , Madres , Países Bajos , Revelación de la Verdad
10.
J Sports Sci ; 38(4): 357-365, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810403

RESUMEN

Basic values, defined as trans-situational goals that vary in importance and act as guiding principles in life, have been linked with unethical cognitions, emotions and actions. Their roles in doping, a form of cheating in sport, have yet to established. College athletes reported doping likelihood in hypothetical scenario-based situations and completed measures of basic values, moral disengagement, and anticipated guilt. Correlation analysis showed that doping likelihood was positively associated with self-enhancement values but negatively associated with self-transcendence values and conservation values. Moral disengagement correlated positively with self-enhancement values and negatively with self-transcendence values, whereas guilt correlated positively conservation values and negatively with self-enhancement values and openness to change values. Regression analyses showed that self-enhancement values positively predicted doping likelihood directly, self-transcendence values negatively predicted doping likelihood indirectly via moral disengagement and guilt, and conservation values negatively predicted doping likelihood indirectly via guilt. In line with theory and evidence concerning the relationship between basic value systems and moral thought and action, we found that the values of athletes are directly (self-enhancement) and indirectly (self-transcendence, conservation) linked with likely use of banned performance enhancing substances, an expression of cheating in sport.


Asunto(s)
Doping en los Deportes/psicología , Valores Sociales , Doping en los Deportes/ética , Femenino , Teoría Fundamentada , Culpa , Humanos , Masculino , Principios Morales , Motivación , Autoimagen
11.
Gerodontology ; 37(1): 78-86, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815316

RESUMEN

AIM: To investigate factors that influence the oral health-related quality of life of older people (65 years and over) in Brazil. BACKGROUND: Population-based studies should be conducted to support health-planning interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the São Paulo State Survey on Oral Health (SBSP-2015), which consisted of 5951 individuals, were used. A theoretical-conceptual model was built based on the impact of family socio-economic characteristics, individual social-demographic features and self-perceived and clinical oral health status on the oral impact on daily performance (OIDP). Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was conducted at 5% significance level. Statistically significant variables included within the adjusted logistic regression model entered the multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). RESULTS: Oral health impact on daily activities was observed in 34.6% of older people. Characteristics significantly related to impact on OIDP score were as follows: family income up to R$ 500 (OR = 2.73), self-perceived treatment need (OR = 1.33), self-perceived toothache (OR = 1.52), self-perception of denture replacement need (OR = 1.27), dissatisfaction (OR = 1.50) or very dissatisfied (OR = 2.57) with own oral health, partial lower denture use (OR = 1.34) and needing partial lower dentures (OR = 1.28). Increased number of people living in the same house (B = 0.05, OR = 1.06), number of bedrooms in the house (B = -0.10, OR = 0.90), age (B = -0.03, OR = 0.97) and number of teeth needing treatment (B = 0.08, OR = 1.08) contributed significantly to OIDP. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of OIDP of older people in the state of São Paulo was related to factors other than their clinical and self-perceived oral health status.


Asunto(s)
Salud Bucal , Calidad de Vida , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Autoimagen
12.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(1): 44-55, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009285

RESUMEN

This study evaluated whether one supervised simulated ovariohysterectomy (OVH) using a locally developed canine OVH model, decreased surgical time for final-year veterinary students' first live-animal OVH. We also investigated student perceptions of the model as a teaching aid. Final-year veterinary students were exposed to an OVH model (Group M, n = 48) and compared to students without the exposure (Group C, n = 58). Both groups were instructed similarly on performing an OVH using a lecture, student notes, a video, and a demonstration OVH performed by a veterinary surgeon. Students in Group M then performed an OVH on the model before performing a live-animal OVH. Students in Group C had no exposure to the OVH model before performing a live-animal OVH. Surgical time data were analyzed using linear regression. Students in Group M completed a questionnaire on the OVH model after performing their first live-animal OVH. The OVH model exposure reduced students' first canine live-animal OVH surgery time (p = .009) for students without prior OVH experience. All students (n = 48) enjoyed performing the procedure on the mode; students practicing an OVH on the model felt more confident (92%) and less stressed (73%) when performing their first live-animal OVH. Results suggest that the canine OVH model may be helpful as a clinical training tool and we concluded that the OVH model was effective at decreasing students' first OVH surgical time.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Veterinaria , Histerectomía , Tempo Operativo , Ovariectomía , Cirugía Veterinaria , Animales , Competencia Clínica/normas , Perros , Educación en Veterinaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Histerectomía/veterinaria , Modelos Animales , Ovariectomía/veterinaria , Autoimagen , Cirugía Veterinaria/educación , Cirugía Veterinaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105334, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689573

RESUMEN

It has been widely agreed that it is risky for patients with diabetes to drive during hypoglycemia. However, driving during non-hypoglycemia may also bring certain safety hazards for some patients with diabetes. Based on previous studies on diabetes-related to early aging effect, as well as gender differences in health belief and driving behavior, we have hypothesized that middle-aged male drivers with type 2 diabetes, compared with the control healthy ones, may experience a decline in driving performance without awareness. And the decline is caused by impaired perceptual and cognitive driving-related functions. To verify these hypotheses, we recruited 56 non-professional male drivers aged between 40 and 60 (27 patients with type 2 diabetes and 29 healthy controls) to perform a simulated car-following task and finish behavioral tests of proprioception, visual search, and working memory abilities during non-hypoglycemia. They also reported their hypoglycemia experience and perceived driving skills. We found that the patients had equal confidence in their driving skills but worse driving performance as shown in larger centerline deviation (t = 2.83, p = .006), longer brake reaction time (t = 3.77, p = .001) and shorter minimum time-to-collision (t = -3.27, p = .002). Such between-group differences in driving performance could be fully mediated by proprioception, visual search ability, and working memory capacity but not by hypoglycemia experience. Regarding the effect sizes of the mediation, the visual search ability played the most important role, and then followed the working memory and the proprioception. This initial study provides original and first-hand evidence demonstrating that the middle-aged male drivers with type 2 diabetes have deteriorated driving performance, but they are unaware of it. We will also discuss the possible measures to identify people of the highest risk and improve their safety awareness by using the findings of the current study.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Cognición/fisiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Autoimagen , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Masculino , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología
14.
Codas ; 32(1): e20180233, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851210

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To characterize and to compare the perception of vocal fatigue in professors at the beginning and at the end of the school year. METHODS: Observational, analytical, prospective cohort study was carried out. A total of 115 professors participated with a mean age of 40 years old, 71 women and 44 men, employees of 28 higher education institutions in the south and southeast regions of Brazil. All answered to the Vocal Fatigue Index (VFI) at the beginning (February or March) and at the end (October or November) of the Brazilian school year. The VFI results for both assessed moments were statistically compared (p<0.05). RESULTS: The professors' mean scores obtained in the factors of tiredness of voice and avoidance of voice use (p<0.001) and improvement of symptoms with rest (p=0.001) increased at the end of the school year. CONCLUSION: Professors reported higher perception of vocal fatigue at the end of the school year, which influenced the avoidance of voice use and improvement of symptoms with the rest.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Profesionales/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Voz/diagnóstico , Calidad de la Voz , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Laboral , Estudios Prospectivos , Maestros , Instituciones Académicas , Autoimagen , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 329-339, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049669

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Unintentional weight loss (UWL) is a prevalent problem in people with cancer and is associated with poorer psychosocial outcomes. A gap exists in understanding whether and how perceived and/or weight status impacts experiences of UWL. Thus, we sought to examine subjective experiences of UWL in people with cancer, and whether perceived and/or actual weight status impacts these experiences. METHODS: Participants were recruited through Cancer Support Community's Cancer Experience Registry® and related networks. Participants completed an online survey that included the FAACT Anorexia-Cachexia subscale, and 19 items that captured six themes related to "beliefs and concerns" (positive beliefs, psychosocial impact, physical impact, cancer outcomes, self-esteem, relationships with others). Perceived weight status (PWS) was assessed using a single item. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reported weight and height measurements. RESULTS: Of 326 respondents, 114 reported experiencing UWL. Over one-third misperceived their weight, with 29% perceiving weight status as below their BMI status. UWL in those with perceived weight status of overweight/obese was associated with positive beliefs. However, being underweight by BMI or perceiving oneself as underweight were both associated with greater concerns about weight loss. Perceived weight status of underweight compared to normal or overweight/obese weight status was associated with poorer psychosocial well-being, personal control, self-esteem, and relationships with others. CONCLUSION: In people with cancer, perceived weight status, rather than BMI, had greater impact on negative "beliefs and concerns" about UWL. Findings suggest assessment of both perceived and actual BMI to address the impact of UWL on psychosocial wellbeing.


Asunto(s)
Costo de Enfermedad , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Percepción , Pérdida de Peso , Anciano , Anorexia/complicaciones , Anorexia/epidemiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Caquexia/epidemiología , Caquexia/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/patología , Neoplasias/psicología , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Percepción/fisiología , Prevalencia , Autoimagen , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 405-411, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418073

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cancer is usually associated with decreased self-esteem. Relaxation is one of the most effective methods to promote self-esteem of patients with chronic diseases. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of relaxation on self-esteem of patients with cancer. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 80 patients with cancer. The samples were selected by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, the patients implemented relaxation techniques once a day for 30 min during 60 consecutive days in addition to receiving routine care, while patients in the control group received only routine care. Before and after the intervention, the Persian version of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) was completed. RESULTS: After the interventions, significant differences were observed between groups in favor of the relaxation group in total score of CSEI and all its subscales (P = 0.0001). In the experimental group, a significant increase in total score and all subscales of CSEI was observed after the intervention (P = 0.001), whereas in the control group, a significant decrease was found in all dimensions (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The relaxation seems to be potentially effective in promoting self-esteem of patients with cancer. Further studies, particularly randomized clinical trials with higher sample size and more power, are needed to confirm the obtained findings.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias/psicología , Neoplasias/terapia , Terapia por Relajación , Autoimagen , Adulto , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Inventario de Personalidad , Terapia por Relajación/métodos , Terapia por Relajación/psicología , Autoeficacia
17.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(4): 652-657, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800196

RESUMEN

This study examines older adults' perceptions about their participation in vigorous physical activity (VPA) and the association between VPA and self-related health. A total of 686 older adults responded to self-reported questionnaires, and Pearson's ꭓ2 test and binary logistic regression were used to present findings. About 74% of older adults reported experiencing dislocations, fractures, or/and other forms of injury in intense physical activities lasting 30 minutes or more a day. After controlling for relevant socio-demographic factors, older adults who participated in VPA for 30 or more minutes a day were less likely (OR=0,129; p=0,000) to report good health compared with those who participated in VPA for less than 30 minutes. It is concluded that VPA in older populations can result in casualties that may compel older adults to underrate their health, which can discourage active living habits in older populations and discredit PA/health promotion programs.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Geriatría , Promoción de la Salud , Heridas y Traumatismos , Anciano , Ejercicio/psicología , Geriatría/tendencias , Promoción de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Promoción de la Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Luxaciones Articulares/psicología , Autoimagen , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Heridas y Traumatismos/psicología
18.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 34(4): 171-178, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800668

RESUMEN

AIMS: Anecdotal evidence suggests that actors and other performing artists are under great pressure to conform to idealized appearances and body types. The pursuit of such appearances may trigger eating disorder symptoms, such as unhealthy attitudes towards body weight and shape. Thus far, there has been no dedicated empirical study of the prevalence of such problems in Australian actors and performing artists specifically. Therefore, this study sought to examine eating disorder symptomatology in Australian actors and performing artists. METHODS: An online survey was distributed to the Equity Foundation membership representing Australian actors and performing artists, of whom 573 individuals completed the survey. This survey gauged demographic information and eating disorder symptoms using the psychometrically validated Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS). RESULTS: A large proportion of actors reported unhealthy attitudes such as 'feeling fat' even though they are of normal weight or underweight; reported an extreme fear of gaining weight; and evaluated their self-worth based on their body weight and shape, particularly women. Results also showed that 2.5% of women in the study met the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa and 13% met diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa based on their scores on the EDDS. DISCUSSION: Performers may be a particularly at-risk population for the development and/or maintenance for a range of eating disorders.


Asunto(s)
Anorexia Nerviosa , Arte , Bulimia Nerviosa , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Australia , Peso Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagen
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(49): e18059, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804312

RESUMEN

Chronic urticaria has a high economic burden and reduces patient's quality of life. Nurses experience insomnia because of their shifting work, especially if they work night shifts and 3-shift rotational schedules. This study aimed to examine whether insomnia is a risk factor of chronic urticaria in nurses.Data were obtained from the Registry for Medical Personnel, which contains all registered medical staff between 2007 and 2008. All study subjects were divided into those with insomnia and without insomnia. The primary exposure of interest was chronic urticaria. In addition, potential comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, anxiety, and depression were estimated.A total of 103,242 registered nurses between 2007 and 2008 were enrolled. Around 97,899 (94.8%) nurses did not have insomnia, and 5343 (5.2%) had insomnia. The proportion of chronic urticaria in nurses with insomnia was significantly higher than those without (0.92% vs 0.50%, P < .0001). The odds ratio of chronic urticaria in nurses with insomnia was 1.67 (95% confidence interval: 1.22-2.29, P = 0.0014) compared to those without insomnia after adjusting for age, sex, hospital level, and comorbidities.The risk of chronic urticaria was higher in nurses with insomnia than in those without insomnia. The relationship between insomnia and chronic urticaria might not be a direct causal association. Other contributing factors of insomnia include different perceptions of stress from night shift work, stress coping and adaptation, positive self-image, and emotional equilibrium related to person's capacity to adapt to change. The same situation may have different effects on different individuals.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Adaptación Psicológica , Factores de Edad , Comorbilidad , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida , Factores de Riesgo , Autoimagen , Factores Sexuales , Horario de Trabajo por Turnos , Tolerancia al Trabajo Programado
20.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(6): 1122-1128, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808399

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the influence of previous experience as bedside assistants on patient selection, perioperative and pathological results in robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The first 50 cases of two robotic surgeons were reviewed retrospectively. Group 1 consisted of the first 50 cases of the surgeon with previous experience as a robotic bedside assistant between September 2016-July 2018, while group 2 included the first 50 cases of the surgeon with no bedside assistant experience between February 2009-December 2009. Groups were examined in terms of demographics, prostate volume, presence of median lobe, prostate specific antigen (PSA), preoperative Gleason score, positive core number, clinical stage, console surgery time, estimated blood loss, postoperative Gleason score, pathological stage, positive surgical margin rate, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and biochemical recurrence rate. RESULTS: Previous abdominal surgery and the presence of median lobe hypertrophy rates were higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (20% vs. 4%, p=0.014; 24% vs. 6%, p=0.012; respectively). In addition, patients in Group 1 were in a higher clinical stage than those in Group 2 (cT2: 70% vs. 28%, p=0.001). Median console surgery time and median length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in Group 1 than in Group 2 (170 min vs. 240 min, p=0.001; 3 vs. 4, p=0.022; respectively). Clavien grade 3 complication rate was higher in Group 2 but was statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: Our findings might reflect that previous bedside assistant experience led to an increase in self-confidence and the ability to manage troubleshooting and made it more likely for surgeons to start with more difficult cases with more challenging patients. It is recommended that novice surgeons serve as bedside assistants before moving on to consoles.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Prostatectomía/educación , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados/educación , Anciano , Humanos , Curva de Aprendizaje , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Tempo Operativo , Prostatectomía/métodos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados/métodos , Autoimagen , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
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