Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 46.643
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303102, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718000

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Disability is an important multifaceted construct. A brief, generic self-reported disability questionnaire that promises a broader and more comparable measure of disability than disease-specific instruments does not currently exist. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire: the Universal Disability Index (UDI). METHODS: An online survey was used to collect general population data. Data were randomly divided into training and validation subsets. The dimensionality and structure of eight UDI questionnaire items were evaluated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA, training subset) followed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, validation subset). To assess concurrent validity, the UDI summed score from the full dataset was compared to the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (GARS) and the Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) disability scores. Internal consistency and discriminant validity were also assessed. Bootstrapping was used to evaluate model stability and generalisability. RESULTS: 403 participants enrolled; 364 completed at least one UDI item. Three single-factor versions of the UDI were assessed (8-item, 7-item, and 6-item). All versions performed well during EFA and CFA (182 cases assigned to each), but none met the RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation) criterion (≤ 0.08). All versions of the UDI had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α > 0.90), were strongly correlated (Pearson's r > 0.7) with both GARS and GCPS disability scores, indicating concurrent validity, and could accurately discriminate between upper and lower quartiles of these comparators. Confidence intervals of estimates were narrow, suggesting model stability and generalisability. CONCLUSIONS: A brief, generic self-reported disability questionnaire was found to be valid and to possess good psychometric properties. The UDI has a single factor structure and either a 6-item, 7-item or 8-item version can be used to measure disability. For brevity and parsimony, the 6-item UDI is recommended, but further testing of all versions is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Personas con Discapacidad , Autoinforme , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Análisis Factorial , Anciano , Psicometría/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 409, 2024 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720258

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aims to (1) determine the reliability and validity of the interRAI Chinese Self-reported Carer Needs (SCaN) assessment among informal Chinese caregivers of older adults, (2) identify predictors of caregiving distress in Asian regions with long-standing Confucian values of filial piety and family responsibility. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 531 informal Chinese caregivers of older adults in Hong Kong, Shanghai, Taiwan, and Singapore. The scale reliability was examined using Cronbach's alphas (α) and McDonald's omega coefficient (ω). The concurrent validity and discriminant validity were assessed using Spearman rank correlations (rho). To examine the predictors of caregiving distress among informal caregivers of older adults, we employed hierarchical linear regression analyses informed by the Model of Carer Stress and Burden and categorized the predictors into six domains. RESULTS: Results revealed good internal consistency reliability (α = 0.83-0.96) and concurrent validity (rho = 0.45-0.74) of the interRAI Chinese SCaN assessment. Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that entering the background factors, primary stressors, secondary stressors, appraisal, and exacerbating factors all significantly enhanced the model's predictability, indicating that the source of caregiving distress is multidimensional. In the full model, caregivers with longer informal care time, lack of support from family and friends, have unmet needs, experience role overload, have sleep problems, and low IADL functioning are at a higher risk of caregiving distress. CONCLUSIONS: The interRAI Chinese SCaN Assessment was found to be a reliable and valid tool among the Chinese informal caregivers of older adults. It would be useful for determining family caregivers' strengths, needs, and challenges, and tailoring interventions that address the potentially modifiable factors associated with caregiving distress and maximize support. Healthcare providers working in home and community settings should be aware of the early identification of caregiving distress and routine assessment of their needs and empower them to continue taking care of their needs and providing adequate care to the care recipient.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Evaluación de Necesidades , Autoinforme , Humanos , Cuidadores/psicología , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Persona de Mediana Edad , China/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Adulto , Taiwán/epidemiología , Pueblos del Este de Asia
3.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 256, 2024 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720387

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The reliability and validity of the current scale for measuring childhood abuse in China are worrying. The development of the Short Version of the Childhood Abuse Self Report Scale (CASRS-12) helps to change this situation, but the effectiveness of the tool has not yet been tested in Chinese participants. This study aims to test the reliability and validity of the CASRS­12 in Chinese college students. METHODS: A total of 932 college students were investigated, of whom 418 were investigated for the first time, and only the CASRS­12 was filled out. In the second survey, 514 participants filled out the CASRS­12, Depression Scale, Self-esteem Scale and Subjective Well-being Scale in turn. After 4 weeks, 109 participants were selected for retest. RESULTS: Each item of the CASRS­12 had good discrimination. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (χ2/df = 4. 18, RMSEA = 0. 079, CFI = 0. 95, TLI = 0. 94, IFI = 0. 95, NFI = 0. 94) all supported the four-factor structure of the scale, and the cumulative contribution rate of variance was 76.05%. Cronbach's α coefficient and retest reliability were 0.86 and 0.65, respectively. Childhood abuse was positively correlated with depression (r = 0. 42, p < 0.01), and negatively correlated with self-esteem (r=-0. 33, p < 0.01) and subjective well-being (r=-0. 32, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The Chinese version of CASRS­12 meets the measurement standard and could be used to measure the level of childhood abuse of Chinese college students.


Asunto(s)
Psicometría , Autoinforme , Estudiantes , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , China , Adulto Joven , Psicometría/instrumentación , Universidades , Adulto , Autoimagen , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Depresión/psicología , Depresión/diagnóstico , Niño , Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica/normas , Análisis Factorial
4.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 231, 2024 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725022

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Disability marginalises a large portion of Bangladesh's population. Global pre- and post-pandemic research evidently states that, this group is more prone to develop mental health problems, which increases the risk of self-harm and suicide among them. It is crucial to comprehend and mitigate the mental health challenges among the people with disabilities which in turn can promote their greater participation in community, and in national socioeconomic development. However, currently there is limited information available, regarding the suicidal behaviour of this group in Bangladesh. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence and contributing factors of suicidal behaviour among people with disabilities. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during September and October 2022, among the participants who had selected disabilities, by using probability proportional to size sampling technique across all eight divisions of Bangladesh. A semi-structured questionnaire comprising information about sociodemographic, lifestyle, health; and Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire-Revision (SBQ-R) was used. The association between the determinants and mental health outcome was investigated using the Chi-square test, and the contributing factors were investigated using the multiple binary logistic regression. RESULT: About 10.45% of the participants reported to have suicidal behaviour (e.g., suicidal ideation, attempts, completed suicide), considering the cut-off score as 7 for the SBQ-R in the study period. Approximately, 40% respondents mentioned suicidal ideation in their lifetime, whereas, 9.01% had suicidal ideation over the past 12 months. Additionally, 8.87% of the person with disabilities, mentioned about their suicidal intent to the family members, and 5.94% reported the likelihood of suicide in the future. Being female, having multiple disabilities, and not being connected with family and friends were found to be significantly associated with suicidal behaviour. CONCLUSION: This research demonstrates the significance of treating mental health issues and expanding accessibility to pre-existing services to lessen the impact of the limitations generated by disabilities. Policymakers can utilize this baseline findings to design large scale research and develop measures for suicide prevention, and management for at-risk groups.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Autoinforme , Ideación Suicida , Humanos , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Adulto , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Personas con Discapacidad/psicología , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Intento de Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Intento de Suicidio/psicología , Factores de Riesgo
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47064, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728069

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Smell disorders are commonly reported with COVID-19 infection. The smell-related issues associated with COVID-19 may be prolonged, even after the respiratory symptoms are resolved. These smell dysfunctions can range from anosmia (complete loss of smell) or hyposmia (reduced sense of smell) to parosmia (smells perceived differently) or phantosmia (smells perceived without an odor source being present). Similar to the difficulty that people experience when talking about their smell experiences, patients find it difficult to express or label the symptoms they experience, thereby complicating diagnosis. The complexity of these symptoms can be an additional burden for patients and health care providers and thus needs further investigation. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the smell disorder concerns of patients and to provide an overview for each specific smell disorder by using the longitudinal survey conducted in 2020 by the Global Consortium for Chemosensory Research, an international research group that has been created ad hoc for studying chemosensory dysfunctions. We aimed to extend the existing knowledge on smell disorders related to COVID-19 by analyzing a large data set of self-reported descriptive comments by using methods from natural language processing. METHODS: We included self-reported data on the description of changes in smell provided by 1560 participants at 2 timepoints (second survey completed between 23 and 291 days). Text data from participants who still had smell disorders at the second timepoint (long-haulers) were compared with the text data of those who did not (non-long-haulers). Specifically, 3 aims were pursued in this study. The first aim was to classify smell disorders based on the participants' self-reports. The second aim was to classify the sentiment of each self-report by using a machine learning approach, and the third aim was to find particular food and nonfood keywords that were more salient among long-haulers than those among non-long-haulers. RESULTS: We found that parosmia (odds ratio [OR] 1.78, 95% CI 1.35-2.37; P<.001) as well as hyposmia (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.34-2.26; P<.001) were more frequently reported in long-haulers than in non-long-haulers. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between long-hauler status and sentiment of self-report (P<.001). Finally, we found specific keywords that were more typical for long-haulers than those for non-long-haulers, for example, fire, gas, wine, and vinegar. CONCLUSIONS: Our work shows consistent findings with those of previous studies, which indicate that self-reports, which can easily be extracted online, may offer valuable information to health care and understanding of smell disorders. At the same time, our study on self-reports provides new insights for future studies investigating smell disorders.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Trastornos del Olfato , Autoinforme , Humanos , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , Trastornos del Olfato/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Anciano , Adulto Joven
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301115, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728334

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) affects movement coordination, but little is known about how the condition impacts the behaviours of car drivers and pedestrians. AIMS: This study examined the self-reported driving and pedestrian behaviours of adults with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: One hundred and twenty-eight participants (62 adults with DCD vs. 66 TD adults) responded to an online survey asking them about their perceptions of confidence and self-reported driving and pedestrian behaviours in the real-world. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Results suggested that adults with DCD felt less confident and reported more lapses in attention (e.g., forgetting where their car was parked) and errors (e.g., failing to check their mirrors prior to a manoeuvre) when driving compared to typically developed (TD) adults. Adults with DCD also reported feeling less confident and reported less adherence to road traffic laws (e.g., not waiting for a green crossing signal before crossing the road) when walking as pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results offer some much-needed insight into the behaviours of those with DCD outside of the laboratory environment and underline the need for research investigating the driving and pedestrian behaviours of individuals with DCD in 'real-world' contexts.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Trastornos de la Destreza Motora , Peatones , Autoinforme , Humanos , Adulto , Femenino , Masculino , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Peatones/psicología , Trastornos de la Destreza Motora/psicología , Trastornos de la Destreza Motora/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Caminata , Atención/fisiología , Adolescente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(19): e38068, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728517

RESUMEN

This study investigated the relationship between self-determination, physical health status, and Health related Quality of Life (=HRQoL) among living kidney donors. A descriptive survey was conducted between 2019 and 2020 and included 111 kidney donors. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire on general and donation-related characteristics, self-determination, and HRQoL. The data also included medical records reflecting the physical health status at the time of the survey. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression model. Factors associated with HRQoL were perceived health recovery after donation (ß = 0.42, P < .001), up to 1 year since donation (ß = 0.33, P = .008), more than 1 up to 5 years since donation (ß = 0.52, P < .001), more than 5 up to 10 years since donation (ß = 0.53, P < .001), and competence of self-determination (ß = 0.23, P = .033). The explanatory power of these variables was 43.3%. HRQoL of living kidney donors can be affected by subjective and psychological factors. Therefore, health care providers should help living kidney donors have high self-determination during pre and post donation and concentrate on the subjective and psychological factors as well as objective health status.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Trasplante de Riñón , Donadores Vivos , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Donadores Vivos/psicología , Donadores Vivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , República de Corea , Adulto , Trasplante de Riñón/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autonomía Personal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Autoinforme
8.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(5): 320, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691143

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Sensory alterations and oral manifestations are prevalent among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. While taste and smell alterations have been thoroughly investigated, studies on their oral somatosensory perception remain limited. Building upon our previous publication that primarily focused on objective somatosensory measurements, the present work examined self-reported sensory perception, including somatosensation and oral symptoms, in HNC patients and evaluated their link with eating behaviour. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-reported questionnaires on sensory perception, oral symptoms, sensory-related food preference, and eating behaviour among HNC patients (n = 30). Hierarchical clustering analysis was performed to categorise patients based on their sensory perception. Correlations between oral symptoms score, sensory perception, sensory-related food preference, and eating behaviour were explored. RESULTS: Two distinct sensory profiles of patients were identified: no alteration (n = 14) and alteration (n = 16) group. The alteration group showed decreased preference towards several sensory modalities, especially the somatosensory. Concerning eating behaviour, more patients in the alteration group agreed to negatively connotated statements (e.g. having food aversion and eating smaller portions), demonstrating greater eating difficulties. In addition, several oral symptoms related to salivary dysfunction were reported. These oral symptoms were correlated with sensory perception, sensory-related food preference, and eating behaviour. CONCLUSION: This study presented evidence demonstrating that sensory alterations in HNC patients are not limited to taste and smell but cover somatosensory perception and are linked to various aspects of eating. Moreover, patients reported experiencing several oral symptoms. Those with sensory alterations and oral symptoms experienced more eating difficulties.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/complicaciones , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/psicología , Anciano , Adulto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Preferencias Alimentarias , Análisis por Conglomerados , Autoinforme
9.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1371675, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694993

RESUMEN

Background: In China, little is known about the hope level of older people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study was to examine the hope level of older PLWHA in China and identify related factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Sichuan province in China among older PLWHA. A standardized self-report questionnaire, the Herth Hope Index, was adopted. Multiple linear regression was used to identify factors influencing hope level. p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: There were 314 participants with an average age of 64.5 (SD ± 8.7). Most of the participants were males (72.6%), primary school and below (65.9%), rural household registration (58.6%) and married (64.3%). More than half of the older adults had pension insurance, had a monthly income of more than RMB 1,000 and considered themselves to be in good health. About 80% confirmed being diagnosed for more than a year and disclosed their HIV status to family and friends. The majority of the population had low medium social support (79%). More than 80% had moderate and severe HIV stigma. Many older PLWHA had medium and high levels of hope, with an average score of 34.31 (SD ± 4.85). Multiple linear regression showed that having pension insurance (ß = 1.337, p = 0.015), longer diagnosis (ß = 0.497, p = 0.031), better self-reported health (ß = 1.416, p<0.001) and higher levels of social support (ß = 2.222, p < 0.001) were positively associated with higher levels of hope. HIV stigma (ß = -1.265, p < 0.001) was negatively correlated with hope level. Conclusion: The hope level of older PLWHA is good, but there is still room for improvement, and its hope is related to multiple factors. Therefore, the AIDS-related healthcare sector should pay special attention to the hope of older PLWHA, help them to improve their health, provide financial assistance and social aid to those with financial difficulties, and take measures to reduce HIV stigma, improve family support for the older adults, and guide the older adults to adopt a positive approach to life.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Esperanza , Apoyo Social , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , China , Anciano , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estigma Social , Autoinforme
10.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1303907, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741912

RESUMEN

Objective: This observational study investigates workability and its associations with cognitive functioning, sleep quality and technostress among an older working population, also shedding light on potential differences between two occupational categories with different work schedules. Methods: Workers aged over 50, employed in different working sectors (banking/finance, chemical and metal-mechanic industry) were administered a self- report questionnaire including Work Ability Index (WAI), cognitive tests (Stroop Color Task, Corsi Blocks, Digit Span), sleep quality questionnaires (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI; Insomnia Severity Index-ISI; Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test-FIRST) and technostress scale. Linear regression models evaluated associations among variables, interaction effects investigated potential moderators. Results: A total of 468 aged workers categorized as white (WCWs; N = 289, 62%) or blue collars (BCWs; N = 179, 38%) were enrolled; most BCWs (N = 104; 58%) were night shift workers. WCWs reported higher workability, cognitive functioning, sleep quality and lower technostress (except for invasion and privacy subscales) than BCWs. Associations between cognitive functioning and workability were statistically significant only for BCWs [slopes equal to 0.2 (0.33), 0.8 (0.34), -0.02 (0.001) for Memory Span Corsi, Block Span Digit and Interference Speed respectively]; additionally, sleep quality significantly moderated this association (p = 0.007). Higher levels of technostress were associated with lower workability, and this relationship was stronger for BCWs. Conclusion: The aging of the workforce has important implications for occupational health and safety. Our findings suggest potential interventions and protective measures to promote older workers' wellbeing; blue-collar workers particularly should benefit from tailored intervention to sustain workability and prevent technostress, considering the role of healthy sleep habits promotion.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Calidad del Sueño , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cognición/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Anciano , Autoinforme
11.
Psychol Assess ; 36(5): 311-322, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695788

RESUMEN

The International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition (ICD-11) includes a new personality disorder (PD) severity diagnosis that may be further characterized using up to five trait domain specifiers. Most of the previous studies have investigated the ICD-11 trait domains using self-report measures. The present study aimed to validate ICD-11 PD trait domains using a multimethod design in a community mental health sample (n = 336). We conducted two confirmatory factor analyses to examine the factor structure of the ICD-11 PD trait model, utilizing clinician-rating, self-report, and informant-report measures. Finally, we examined associations between clinician-rated, self-reported, and informant-reported ICD-11 trait domains with external criteria, specifically traditional PD symptoms and the five-factor model of normal personality. All clinician-rated, self-reported, and informant-reported domain scores loaded meaningfully on their expected factors when controlling for nontrivial method factors. Generally, the trait domains exhibited meaningful associations with conceptually relevant external criteria, although the anankastia domain exhibited more variability in its pattern of correlations across methods. Overall, the ICD-11 trait domain model shows promising reliability and validity, indicating good progress within the field of PD assessment toward a more useful PD operationalization. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Análisis Factorial , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos de la Personalidad/diagnóstico , Adulto Joven , Psicometría , Autoinforme , Adolescente
12.
Trends Hear ; 28: 23312165241242235, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738302

RESUMEN

The objective of this project was to establish cutoff scores on the tinnitus subscale of the Tinnitus and Hearing Survey (THS) using a large sample of United States service members (SM) with the end goal of guiding clinical referrals for tinnitus evaluation. A total of 4,589 SM undergoing annual audiometric surveillance were prospectively recruited to complete the THS tinnitus subscale (THS-T). A subset of 1,304 participants also completed the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). The original 5-point response scale of the THS (THS-T16) was modified to an 11-point scale (THS-T40) for some participants, to align with the response scale of the TFI. Age, sex, hearing loss, and self-reported tinnitus bother were also recorded. The THS-T was relatively insensitive to hearing, but self-reported bothersome tinnitus was significantly associated with the THS-T40 score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine cutoff scores on the THS-T that aligned with recommended cutoff values for clinical intervention on the TFI. A cutoff of 9 on the THS-T40 aligns with a TFI cutoff of 25, indicating a patient may need intervention for tinnitus. A cutoff of 15 aligns with a TFI cutoff of 50, indicating that more aggressive intervention for tinnitus is warranted. The THS-T is a viable tool to identify patients with tinnitus complaints warranting clinical evaluation for use by hearing conservation programs and primary care clinics. The THS-T40 cutoff scores of 9 and 15 provide clinical reference points to guide referrals to audiology.


Asunto(s)
Acúfeno , Humanos , Acúfeno/diagnóstico , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Adulto , Estudios Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Audición , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Curva ROC , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Autoinforme , Audiometría/métodos
13.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 38: 168-174, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763558

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, determining readiness to return to participation is challenging. The understanding of which neuromuscular performance parameters are associated with limb symmetry and self-reported symptoms may be useful to improve monitoring the rehabilitation towards adequate decision-making to return. OBJECTIVES: To compare the ACL-operated and injury-free lower limbs regarding functional performance; and to investigate whether lower limb strength and functional performance are associated with self-reported symptoms and functional lower limb symmetry. METHOD: Thirty-four participants were included. Functional performance was assessed by using the Y-Balance test, Single-leg Hop, and Functional Movement Screen. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to evaluate the strength levels in open and closed kinetic chains. The functional lower limb symmetry was calculated considering the single-leg hop test results for each lower limb. RESULTS: There were no differences in dynamic balance (Y-Balance) between the operated and injury-free limbs. The operated limb presented a worst performance in the single-leg hop. Self-reported symptoms prevalence and lower limb symmetry were associated with knee extension strength and functional performance (Y-Balance). CONCLUSION: Individuals submitted to ACL-reconstruction presented worse functional performance in the operated limb compared to the injury-free limb. Both knee strength and dynamic balance were associated with limb symmetry and self-reported symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Reconstrucción del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Extremidad Inferior , Fuerza Muscular , Autoinforme , Humanos , Reconstrucción del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/rehabilitación , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Adulto , Brasil , Fuerza Muscular/fisiología , Adulto Joven , Extremidad Inferior/fisiopatología , Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatología , Lesiones del Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirugía , Equilibrio Postural/fisiología
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2412109, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767915

RESUMEN

Importance: Many health care systems are investing resources in identifying social determinants of health (SDoH) needs and facilitating interventions among the populations they serve. Because self-reported SDoH information is lacking, area-level measures are often used to estimate needs and direct resources. Objective: To describe the large-scale deployment of SDoH assessments by a health system and determine the extent to which self-reported SDoH needs identified therein are associated with census tract-level social vulnerability measured using the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study assessed SDoH needs between January 1, 2020, and April 30, 2023, in both payer and clinical care settings. Modalities included telephonic outreach, face-to-face clinical interactions, self-entry into a tablet or kiosk, and web-based survey tools. Participants included individuals who responded to the assessment and had sufficient information for census tract identification. Respondents included both Highmark Health Plan members and nonmembers. Health plan members responded to the assessment through health plan programs or platforms, and both members and nonmembers responded to assessments during inpatient or outpatient encounters with the affiliated health system. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall and domain-specific SDoH needs self-reported through assessments, and severity and complexity of needs identified. Residential social vulnerability measures included overall SVI and the 4 conceptual themes comprising overall SVI. Results: In total, 841 874 assessments were recorded for 401 697 individuals (55.1% women; median [IQR] age, 55 [41-70] years). Social determinants of health needs were identified in 120 769 assessments (14.3%). Across all SDoH domains, increasing SVI was associated with a higher positivity rate (eg, 11.2% of those residing in the lowest-risk SVI quintile reported a need compared with 22.7% among those residing in the highest-risk quintile). Associations varied by SDoH domain and SVI theme. After adjusting for demographic and screening characteristics, odds of positive screening among those residing in the highest-risk SVI quintile were 1.74 (95% CI, 1.62-1.86) to 3.73 (95% CI, 3.48-4.00) times the odds among those residing in lowest risk quintile. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, the overall level of SDoH needs generally corresponded to area-level vulnerability. Some SDoH domains appeared far more sensitive to community characteristics than others. Notably, even among individuals from the highest-risk areas, the positive screening rate was roughly 1 in 4. These findings underscore the importance of individual-level SDoH data for service provision planning and health services research.


Asunto(s)
Autoinforme , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Vulnerabilidad Social , Humanos , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Anciano , Evaluación de Necesidades
15.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732628

RESUMEN

Community screening for sarcopenia is complex, with barriers including access to specialized equipment and trained staff to conduct body composition, strength and function assessment. In the current study, self-reported dietary protein intake and physical activity (PA) in adults ≥65 years was assessed relative to sarcopenia risk, as determined by body composition, strength and physical function assessments, consistent with the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) definition. Of those screened (n = 632), 92 participants (77% female) were assessed as being at high risk of developing sarcopenia on the basis of dietary protein intake ≤1 g∙kg-1∙day-1 [0.9 (0.7-0.9) g∙kg-1∙day-1] and moderate intensity physical activity <150 min.week-1. A further 31 participants (65% female) were defined as being at low risk, with both protein intake [1.2 (1.1-1.5) g∙kg-1∙day-1] and PA greater than the cut-off values. High-risk participants had reduced % lean mass [53.5 (7.8)% versus 54.8 (6.1)%, p < 0.001] and impaired strength and physical function. Notably, high-risk females exhibited greater deficits in lean mass and strength, with minimal differences between groups for males. In community-dwelling older adults, self-reported low protein intake and low weekly PA is associated with heightened risk for sarcopenia, particularly in older women. Future research should determine whether early intervention in older adults with low protein intake and PA attenuates functional decline.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas en la Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Vida Independiente , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Sarcopenia/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Anciano , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Composición Corporal , Factores de Riesgo , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fuerza Muscular , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Autoinforme
16.
Appetite ; 198: 107385, 2024 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692512

RESUMEN

Evidence suggests higher hedonic hunger (preoccupation with/desire to consume food for pleasure) is associated with greater ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption in non-pregnant individuals with higher, but not lower, self-report impulsivity or delay discounting. The current study tested the association between hedonic hunger and UPF consumption, and the moderating effects of self-report impulsivity and delay discounting, during pregnancy. Individuals (N = 220) with body mass index (BMI)≥25 completed the Power of Food Scale, 24-h dietary recalls, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Version 11 in early-mid pregnancy. A subset enrolled in an ancillary study (n = 143) completed a Delay Discounting Task. Linear regression and moderation models covaried for age, gestational age, pre-pregnancy BMI, and socioeconomic status. The association between hedonic hunger and UPF consumption was nonsignificant (p = 0.47). Self-report impulsivity was not a significant moderator (p = 0.11), but delay discounting was (p = 0.01). Simple slopes analysis revealed a one-unit increase in hedonic hunger was associated with 7% lower UPF intake among participants with lower (M+1SD) delay discounting (p = 0.01) and 1% higher UPF intake among those with higher (M-1SD) delay discounting (p = 0.57). Findings contrast those from research with non-pregnant samples and indicate lower delay discounting may serve as a protective factor, associated with reduced UPF consumption at higher levels of hedonic hunger, during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Descuento por Demora , Hambre , Conducta Impulsiva , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Adulto , Comida Rápida , Adulto Joven , Autoinforme , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Dieta/psicología , Alimentos Procesados
17.
Dev Neurorehabil ; 27(1-2): 34-43, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695209

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Many youth and adults with Cerebral Palsy (CP) experience high levels of fatigue. This study aimed to compare three fatigue self-report questionnaires to guide clinicians. METHOD: Thirty youth and adults (age range 17-64) with CP were assessed with Danish versions of the Fatigue Impact and Severity Self-Assessment questionnaire, the Modified Mental Fatigue Scale, and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Psychometric properties were investigated. Rank order and classification models were compared across questionnaires. RESULTS: The Reduced Motivation and Physical Fatigue subscales of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory showed inadequate internal consistency. Participants were frequently ranked differently with the questionnaires. There were issues related to the conceptualization of physical fatigue. CONCLUSION: The choice of assessment tool should be based on assessment purpose as the questionnaires assess different aspects of fatigue severity, impact, and management. Also, test selection can have important implications on the conclusions that are made about fatigue type and severity.


Asunto(s)
Parálisis Cerebral , Fatiga , Psicometría , Autoinforme , Humanos , Parálisis Cerebral/fisiopatología , Parálisis Cerebral/complicaciones , Masculino , Adulto , Femenino , Fatiga/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Dinamarca , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
18.
Accid Anal Prev ; 202: 107608, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703591

RESUMEN

Despite the implementation of legal countermeasures, distracted driving remains a prevalent concern for road safety. This systematic review (following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines) summarised the literature on the impact of interventions targeting attitudes/intentions towards, and self-reported engagement in, distracted driving. Studies were eligible for this review if they examined self-reported behaviour/attitudes/intentions pertaining to distracted driving at baseline and post-intervention. Databases searched included PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, and TRID. The review identified 19 articles/interventions, which were categorised into three intervention types. First, all program-based interventions (n = 6) reduced engagement in distracted driving. However, there were notable limitations to these studies, including a lack of control groups and difficulties implementing this intervention in a real-world setting. Second, active interventions (n = 9) were commonly utilised, yet a number of studies did not find any improvements in outcomes. Finally, four studies used a message-based intervention, with three studies reporting reduced intention and/or engagement in distracted driving. There is opportunity for message-based interventions to be communicated effortlessly online and target high-risk driving populations. However, further research is necessary to address limitations highlighted in the review, including follow-up testing and control groups. Implications are discussed with particular emphasis on areas where further research is needed.


Asunto(s)
Conducción Distraída , Autoinforme , Humanos , Conducción Distraída/prevención & control , Intención , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Actitud , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología
19.
JMIR Aging ; 7: e50759, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717339

RESUMEN

Background: Informal caregivers are called upon to provide substantial care, but more needs to be known about technology use among older adult and caregiver dyads. Objective: This study described technology use among older adults and their caregivers, explored potential correlates of technology use, and highlighted implications for practice. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among unpaid caregivers of older adults (n=486). Primary outcomes were self-reported technology (devices and functions) use among caregivers and their oldest care recipient. The concordance of technology use among caregivers and care recipients was also examined. Multivariable regression models were conducted separately for caregivers and care recipients. Results: Greater proportions of caregivers used all examined technologies, except for the medication alerts or tracking function, than care recipients. Caregivers used an average of 3.4 devices and 4.2 functions, compared to 1.8 devices and 1.6 functions used by their care recipients. Among caregivers, younger age, higher income, and higher education were associated with more technology use (P<.05). Among care recipients, younger age, not having cognitive dysfunction, and caregiver's technology use were associated with more technology use (P<.05). Conclusions: Understanding technology use patterns and device adoption across diverse caregiver and care recipient populations is increasingly important for enhancing geriatric care. Findings can guide recommendations about appropriate technology interventions and help providers communicate and share information more effectively with patients and their caregivers.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Humanos , Cuidadores/psicología , Cuidadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Autoinforme , Tecnología
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e080479, 2024 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719300

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to use a large dataset to compare self-reported and primary care measures of insomnia symptom prevalence in England and establish whether they identify participants with similar characteristics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with linked electronic health records (EHRs). SETTING: Primary care in England. PARTICIPANTS: 163 748 UK Biobank participants in England (aged 38-71 at baseline) with linked primary care EHRs. OUTCOME MEASURES: We compared the percentage of those self-reporting 'usually' having insomnia symptoms at UK Biobank baseline assessment (2006-2010) to those with a Read code for insomnia symptoms in their primary care records prior to baseline. We stratified prevalence in both groups by sociodemographic, lifestyle, sleep and health characteristics. RESULTS: We found that 29% of the sample self-reported having insomnia symptoms, while only 6% had a Read code for insomnia symptoms in their primary care records. Only 10% of self-reported cases had an insomnia symptom Read code, while 49% of primary care cases self-reported having insomnia symptoms. In both primary care and self-reported data, prevalence of insomnia symptom cases was highest in females, older participants and those with the lowest household incomes. However, while snorers and risk takers were more likely to be a primary care case, they were less likely to self-report insomnia symptoms than non-snorers and non-risk takers. CONCLUSIONS: Only a small proportion of individuals experiencing insomnia symptoms have an insomnia symptom Read code in their primary care record. However, primary care data do provide a clinically meaningful measure of insomnia prevalence. In addition, the sociodemographic characteristics of people attending primary care with insomnia were consistent with those with self-reported insomnia, thus primary care records are a valuable data source for studying risk factors for insomnia. Further studies should replicate our findings in other populations and examine ways to increase discussions about sleep health in primary care.


Asunto(s)
Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Atención Primaria de Salud , Autoinforme , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño , Humanos , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Anciano , Adulto , Prevalencia , Registros Electrónicos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Biobanco del Reino Unido
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...