Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 33.093
Filtrar
1.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(10): 679-680, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006815
2.
BMJ ; 371: m3464, 2020 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998909

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether irregular or long menstrual cycles throughout the life course are associated with all cause and cause specific premature mortality (age <70 years). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study II (1993-2017). PARTICIPANTS: 79 505 premenopausal women without a history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes and who reported the usual length and regularity of their menstrual cycles at ages 14-17 years, 18-22 years, and 29-46 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all cause and cause specific premature mortality (death before age 70 years) were estimated from multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During 24 years of follow-up, 1975 premature deaths were documented, including 894 from cancer and 172 from cardiovascular disease. Women who reported always having irregular menstrual cycles experienced higher mortality rates during follow-up than women who reported very regular cycles in the same age ranges. The crude mortality rate per 1000 person years of follow-up for women reporting very regular cycles and women reporting always irregular cycles were 1.05 and 1.23 for cycle characteristics at ages 14-17 years, 1.00 and 1.37 for cycle characteristics at ages 18-22 years, and 1.00 and 1.68 for cycle characteristics at ages 29-46 years. The corresponding multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for premature death during follow-up were 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.37), 1.37 (1.09 to 1.73), and 1.39 (1.14 to 1.70), respectively. Similarly, women who reported that their usual cycle length was 40 days or more at ages 18-22 years and 29-46 years were more likely to die prematurely than women who reported a usual cycle length of 26-31 days in the same age ranges (1.34, 1.06 to 1.69; and 1.40, 1.17 to 1.68, respectively). These relations were strongest for deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The higher mortality associated with long and irregular menstrual cycles was slightly stronger among current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Irregular and long menstrual cycles in adolescence and adulthood are associated with a greater risk of premature mortality (age <70 years). This relation is slightly stronger among women who smoke.


Asunto(s)
Ciclo Menstrual , Trastornos de la Menstruación/epidemiología , Mortalidad Prematura , Salud Reproductiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Causas de Muerte , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Fumar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e21299, 2020 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A large number of web-based COVID-19 symptom checkers and chatbots have been developed; however, anecdotal evidence suggests that their conclusions are highly variable. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the accuracy of COVID-19 symptom checkers in a statistically rigorous manner. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracies of web-based COVID-19 symptom checkers. METHODS: We identified 10 web-based COVID-19 symptom checkers, all of which were included in the study. We evaluated the COVID-19 symptom checkers by assessing 50 COVID-19 case reports alongside 410 non-COVID-19 control cases. A bootstrapping method was used to counter the unbalanced sample sizes and obtain confidence intervals (CIs). Results are reported as sensitivity, specificity, F1 score, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC). RESULTS: The classification task between COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative for "high risk" cases among the 460 test cases yielded (sorted by F1 score): Symptoma (F1=0.92, MCC=0.85), Infermedica (F1=0.80, MCC=0.61), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (F1=0.71, MCC=0.30), Babylon (F1=0.70, MCC=0.29), Cleveland Clinic (F1=0.40, MCC=0.07), Providence (F1=0.40, MCC=0.05), Apple (F1=0.29, MCC=-0.10), Docyet (F1=0.27, MCC=0.29), Ada (F1=0.24, MCC=0.27) and Your.MD (F1=0.24, MCC=0.27). For "high risk" and "medium risk" combined the performance was: Symptoma (F1=0.91, MCC=0.83) Infermedica (F1=0.80, MCC=0.61), Cleveland Clinic (F1=0.76, MCC=0.47), Providence (F1=0.75, MCC=0.45), Your.MD (F1=0.72, MCC=0.33), CDC (F1=0.71, MCC=0.30), Babylon (F1=0.70, MCC=0.29), Apple (F1=0.70, MCC=0.25), Ada (F1=0.42, MCC=0.03), and Docyet (F1=0.27, MCC=0.29). CONCLUSIONS: We found that the number of correctly assessed COVID-19 and control cases varies considerably between symptom checkers, with different symptom checkers showing different strengths with respect to sensitivity and specificity. A good balance between sensitivity and specificity was only achieved by two symptom checkers.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Internet , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Evaluación de Síntomas/instrumentación , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Recolección de Datos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Informática en Salud Pública , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Autoinforme , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239254, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035219

RESUMEN

In Bangladesh, an array of measures have been adopted to control the rapid spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. Such general population control measures could significantly influence perception, knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) towards COVID-19. Here, we assessed KAP towards COVID-19 immediately after the lock-down measures were implemented and during the rapid rise period of the outbreak. Online-based cross-sectional study conducted from March 29 to April 19, 2020, involving Bangladeshi residents aged 12-64 years, recruited via social media. After consenting, participants completed an online survey assessing socio-demographic variables, perception, and KAP towards COVID-19. Of the 2017 survey participants, 59.8% were male, the majority were students (71.2%), aged 21-30 years (57.9%), having a bachelor's degree (61.0%), having family income >30,000 BDT (50.0%), and living in urban areas (69.8). The survey revealed that 48.3% of participants had more accurate knowledge, 62.3% had more positive attitudes, and 55.1% had more frequent practices regarding COVID-19 prevention. Majority (96.7%) of the participants agreed 'COVID-19 is a dangerous disease', almost all (98.7%) participants wore a face mask in crowded places, 98.8% agreed to report a suspected case to health authorities, and 93.8% implemented washing hands with soap and water. In multiple logistic regression analyses, COVID-19 more accurate knowledge was associated with age and residence. Sociodemographic factors such as being older, higher education, employment, monthly family income >30,000 BDT, and having more frequent prevention practices were the more positive attitude factors. More frequent prevention practice factors were associated with female sex, older age, higher education, family income > 30,000 BDT, urban area residence, and having more positive attitudes. To improve KAP of general populations is crucial during the rapid rise period of a pandemic outbreak such as COVID-19. Therefore, development of effective health education programs that incorporate considerations of KAP-modifying factors is needed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Neumonía Viral/patología , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239024, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044978

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: During the course of the Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, Italy has reported one of the highest number of infections. Nearly ten percent of reported coronavirus infections in Italy occurred in healthcare workers. This study aimed to understand physicians' access to personal protective equipment (PPE) and to information about their use, risk perception and strategies adopted to prevent contracting the infection. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional, online self-reported survey implemented between March 31 and April 5 2020 of Italian physicians. RESULTS: Responses were received from 516 physicians, only 13% of which reported to have access to PPE every time they need them. Approximately half of the physicians reported that the information received about the use of PPE was either clear (47%) or complete (54%). Risk perception about contracting the infection was influenced by receiving adequate information on the use of PPE. Access to adequate information on the use of PPE was associated with better ability to perform donning and doffing procedures [OR = 2.2 95% C.I. 1.7-2.8] and reduced perception of risk [OR = 0.5, 95% C.I. 0.4-0.6]. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this rapid survey indicate that while ramping up supplies on PPE for healthcare workers is certainly of mandatory importance, adequate training and clear instructions are just as important.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Médicos/psicología , Neumonía Viral/patología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Riesgo , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 176-181, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087609

RESUMEN

Falls are a well-known danger for older adults. With the worldwide population aging, there has been an increasing interest in assessing the risk of falling. This work presents a novel algorithm for continuous fall risk assessment, relying on a linear regression model whose inputs consist of both measured and self-reported risk factors. Two models were conceived and compared, following two distinct approaches, a theoretical and an empirical one. The system is pervasive and was tested in free-living unsupervised conditions. The results of our fall risk scoring system unveiled a strong correlation with the output of the clinical functional tests POMA and TUG (90% and 89%, respectively), which was deemed a promising outcome concerning the feasibility of pervasive monitoring for fall risk assessment in daily living.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme
7.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e170, 2020 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021194

RESUMEN

AIMS: Early puberty is associated with an increased risk of self-harm in adolescent females but results for males are inconsistent. This may be due to the use of subjective measures of pubertal timing, which may be biased. There is also limited evidence for the persistence of pubertal timing effects beyond adolescence, particularly in males. The primary aim of the current study was therefore to examine the association between pubertal timing and self-harm in both sexes during adolescence and young adulthood, using an objective measure of pubertal timing (age at peak height velocity; aPHV). A secondary aim was to examine whether this association differs for self-harm with v. without suicidal intent. METHODS: The sample (n = 5369, 47% male) was drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective birth cohort study. Mixed-effects growth curve models were used to calculate aPHV. Lifetime history of self-harm was self-reported at age 16 and 21 years, and associated suicidal intent was examined at age 16 years. Associations were estimated using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for a range of confounders. Missing data were imputed using Multiple Imputation by Chained Equations. RESULTS: Later aPHV was associated with a reduced risk of self-harm at 16 years in both sexes (females: adjusted per-year increase in aPHV OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.75-0.96; males: OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59-0.88). Associations were similar for self-harm with and without suicidal intent. There was some evidence of an association by age 21 years in females (adjusted per-year increase in aPHV OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.80-1.04), although the findings did not reach conventional levels of significance. There was no evidence of an association by age 21 years in males (adjusted per-year increase in aPHV OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.74-1.31). CONCLUSIONS: Earlier developing adolescents represent a group at increased risk of self-harm. This increased risk attenuates as adolescents transition into adulthood, particularly in males. Future research is needed to identify the modifiable mechanisms underlying the association between pubertal timing and self-harm risk in order to develop interventions to reduce self-harm in adolescence.


Asunto(s)
Pubertad/psicología , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239886, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006990

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance through web or phone-based polling has been used to track the course of infectious diseases worldwide. Our study objective was to describe the characteristics, symptoms, and self-reported testing rates of respondents in three different COVID-19 symptom surveys in Canada. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using three distinct Canada-wide web-based surveys, and phone polling in Ontario. All three sources contained self-reported information on COVID-19 symptoms and testing. In addition to describing respondent characteristics, we examined symptom frequency and the testing rate among the symptomatic, as well as rates of symptoms and testing across respondent groups. RESULTS: We found that over March- April 2020, 1.6% of respondents experienced a symptom on the day of their survey, 15% of Ontario households had a symptom in the previous week, and 44% of Canada-wide respondents had a symptom in the previous month. Across the three surveys, SARS-CoV-2-testing was reported in 2-9% of symptomatic responses. Women, younger and middle-aged adults (versus older adults) and Indigenous/First nations/Inuit/Métis were more likely to report at least one symptom, and visible minorities were more likely to report the combination of fever with cough or shortness of breath. INTERPRETATION: The low rate of testing among those reporting symptoms suggests significant opportunity to expand testing among community-dwelling residents of Canada. Syndromic surveillance data can supplement public health reports and provide much-needed context to gauge the adequacy of SARS-CoV-2 testing rates.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Autoinforme/estadística & datos numéricos , Vigilancia de Guardia , Adulto , Anciano , Canadá/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalencia , Teléfono
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5152, 2020 10 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056983

RESUMEN

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many governments have taken drastic measures to avoid an overflow of intensive care units. Accurate metrics of disease spread are critical for the reopening strategies. Here, we show that self-reports of smell/taste changes are more closely associated with hospital overload and are earlier markers of the spread of infection of SARS-CoV-2 than current governmental indicators. We also report a decrease in self-reports of new onset smell/taste changes as early as 5 days after lockdown enforcement. Cross-country comparisons demonstrate that countries that adopted the most stringent lockdown measures had faster declines in new reports of smell/taste changes following lockdown than a country that adopted less stringent lockdown measures. We propose that an increase in the incidence of sudden smell and taste change in the general population may be used as an indicator of COVID-19 spread in the population.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Trastornos del Gusto/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Francia/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Autoinforme , Reino Unido/epidemiología
10.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 810-813, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065821

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We aimed to estimate the population prevalence of people with changes in their usual patterns of alcohol use during the early stages of the novel coronavirus pandemic of 2020 (COVID-19) pandemic in Australia; assess the association between mental health status and changes in alcohol use during the pandemic; and examine if the associations were modified by gender and age. METHODS: This study was an anonymously-completed online self-report survey. Changes in alcohol use were assessed using a single fixed-choice study-specific question. Mental health was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale. RESULTS: A total of 13,829 people contributed complete data and were included in the analysis. Overall, about one in five adults reported that they had been drinking more alcohol since the COVID-19 pandemic began than they used to. People were more likely to be drinking alcohol more than they used to if they had more severe symptoms of depression or anxiety. The associations between depressive and anxiety symptoms and increased alcohol use since the COVID-19 pandemic began were consistent between females and males. LIMITATIONS: Online surveys are less accessible to some groups of people. The data are self-report and not diagnostic. Cross-sectional data can identify associations, not causal relationships. The study was limited to participants from Australia. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that there is a need for public policies focused on alcohol use during the COVID-19 pandemic and the strategies should include specific consideration of the needs of people with mental health problems.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Depresión/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Australia/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Prevalencia , Autoinforme , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22538, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019462

RESUMEN

The current studies revealed inconsistent relationship between reproductive factors and osteoarthritis. Community-based research has not been conducted in China. The study was to examine the association of reproductive factors with the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA).Through a multistage stratified random sampling method, 10 streets or villages from 5 cities in Hunan province were randomly selected, a total 2746 eligible women aged 50 to 83 were recruited in this cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire including demographic factors, socio-economic status, reproductive factors, and knee OA was used. According to the criteria of American College of Rheumatology, clinical knee OA was assessed by doctors in community or village health clinics for knee pain, age, morning stiffness, crepitus on active motion or for knee pain, morning stiffness, crepitus on active motion, and tenderness of the bony navigation of the joint. Self-reported age of menarche, parity, abortion history, and menopausal status were collected.The prevalence of knee OA was 13.44%. Abortion is associated with knee OA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.271, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.007, 1.606), but age at menarche, parity, and menopausal status were not the factors. Furthermore, age (OR = 1.040, 95% CI = 1.020, 1.060), weight (OR = 1.019, 95% CI = 1.004, 1.035), higher education level (OR = 1.530, 95% CI = 1.121, 2.088), higher monthly household income (OR = .583, 95% CI = 0.441, 0.770 for 3000-4999 ¥ and OR = 0.599, 95% CI = 0.431, 0.833 for 5000 ¥ or more), and chronic gastritis (OR = 3.364, 95% CI = 2.548, 4.442) were associated with knee OA.Abortion may increase the risk of knee OA. Special attention should be paid to women with a history of abortion, and women who are planning to abort should be informed of the risk of knee OA later in life. The relationship between abortion and knee OA should be interpreted with caution and further confirmed.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Espontáneo/epidemiología , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/epidemiología , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/etiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/patología , Dolor/diagnóstico , Dolor/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Radiografía/métodos , Medición de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Clase Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22227, 2020 09 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886066

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has recently spread dramatically worldwide, raising considerable concerns and resulting in detrimental effects on the psychological health of people who are vulnerable to the disease. Therefore, assessment of depression in members of the general public and their psychological and behavioral responses is essential for the maintenance of health. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and the associated factors among the general public during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression.aA cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10) among the general public during the COVID-19 pandemic was 182/1342 (13.6%). Regression analysis indicated that feeling stressed, feeling helpless, persistently being worried even with support, never feeling clean after disinfecting, scrubbing hands and items repeatedly, hoarding food, medicine, or daily supplies, and being distracted from work or study were positively associated with depression, while social support and being calm were negatively associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: The general public suffered from high levels of depression during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, COVID-19-related mood management and social support should be provided to attenuate depression in the general public.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Prevalencia , Autoinforme , Teléfono Inteligente
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21622, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898997

RESUMEN

The objective of the study was to characterize self-reported oral hygiene practices among Mexican older adults aged ≥60 years, and to measure the association between frequency of tooth brushing and a set of sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and dental variables.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 139 older adults aged ≥60 years in Pachuca, Mexico. A questionnaire and a clinical dental examination were administered to identify specific variables. We determined frequency of tooth brushing (or cleaning of dentures or prostheses) and use of toothpaste, mouthwash, and dental floss among respondents. Non-parametric testing was performed for statistical analysis and a multivariate logistic regression model was generated with Stata 11 software to determine frequency of tooth brushing.In our study sample, 53.2% of participants reported brushing their teeth at least once a day, 50.4% always using toothpaste, 16.5% using mouthwash and 3.6% using floss for their oral hygiene. In general, younger and female respondents used oral hygiene aids more than the others. Our multivariate model yielded an association (P < .05) between tooth brushing at least once daily and the following variables: having functional dentition (OR = 12.60), lacking health insurance (OR = 3.72), being retired/pensioned (OR = 4.50), and suffering from a chronic disease (OR = 0.43).The older adults in our sample exhibited deficient oral hygiene behaviors. The results suggest certain socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. The findings of this study should be considered when designing dental care instructions for older adults.


Asunto(s)
Cepillado Dental/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Dispositivos para el Autocuidado Bucal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Antisépticos Bucales/administración & dosificación , Autoinforme , Factores Socioeconómicos , Pastas de Dientes/administración & dosificación
14.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 92, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901756

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of self-reported exposure to chemical substances at work and its associated factors in a sample of Brazilian adults that participated in the National Health Survey, conducted between 2013 and 2014. METHODS: Our sample consisted of adults aged 18 years or older that answered question E1 of module E: "In the week of July 21-27, 2013 (reference week), did you work as regular employee or intern for at least an hour in any activity paid with cash?" Sociodemographic data, situation and health behaviors were analyzed with single and multivariate binary logistic regression. The model was adjusted by the variables of all groups, adopting a 5% significance level. The values of odds ratio (OR) and respective confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS: Women (OR = 0.74; 95%CI 0.66-0.82) had a lower chance of exposure to chemicals. The highest chances were observed in groups with no instruction or that attended up to middle-school (OR = 1.77; 95%CI 1.50-2.08), high school (OR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.37-1.91), age between 25 and 54 years (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.07-1.48), current smokers (OR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.07-1.37), who reported tiredness (OR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.21-1.50), hearing difficulties (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.04-1.48) and who reported having suffered an accident at work (OR = 2.00; 95%CI 1.57-2.54). CONCLUSIONS: The unprecedented results cover the entire workforce. Positive associations with hearing loss, smoking and history of work accidents are consistent, as well as the inverse association with education level and gender differences. The absence of association with asthma was surprising. To fill gaps in investigations on chronic non-communicable diseases, we suggested improving the PNS collection instrument in the occupational dimension.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Lugar de Trabajo , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Autoinforme
15.
Euro Surveill ; 25(37)2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945254

RESUMEN

To limit SARS-CoV-2 spread, quarantine and isolation are obligatory in several situations in Norway. We found low self-reported adherence to requested measures among 1,704 individuals (42%; 95% confidence interval: 37-48). Adherence was lower in May-June-July (33-38%) compared with April (66%), and higher among those experiencing COVID-19-compatible symptoms (71%) compared with those without (28%). These findings suggest that consideration is required of strategies to improve people's adherence to quarantine and isolation.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Noruega , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Salud Pública , Autoinforme
16.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 18(2): 340-341, 2020 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969409

RESUMEN

Management of COVID-19 in Nepal will certainly benefit from the experiences of other countries. However, they are less likely to be suitable for Nepal both in terms of context and resource availability. Social contact pattern studies have shown that understanding the nature of human-to-human contacts can help describe the dynamics of infectious disease transmission. The findings of such studies will help the country prepare itself for future outbreaks, inform mathematically modelling and public health interventions that match domestic capabilities. Methods such as self-reported contact diary can be used to conduct such studies following a feasibility study. Keywords: Contact diary;COVID-19; disease transmission; social contact pattern.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Autoinforme , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
17.
BMJ ; 370: m2984, 2020 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878868

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relation between exposure to workplace sexual harassment and suicide, as well as suicide attempts. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 86 451 men and women of working age in paid work across different occupations responded to a self-report questionnaire including exposure to work related sexual harassment between 1995 and 2013. The analytical sample included 85 205 people with valid data on sexual harassment, follow-up time, and age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide and suicide attempts ascertained from administrative registers (mean follow-up time 13 years). RESULTS: Among the people included in the respective analyses of suicide and suicide attempts, 125 (0.1%) died from suicide and 816 (1%) had a suicide attempt during follow-up (rate 0.1 and 0.8 cases per 1000 person years). Overall, 11 of 4095 participants exposed to workplace sexual harassment and 114 of 81 110 unexposed participants committed suicide, and 61/4043 exposed and 755/80 513 unexposed participants had a record of suicide attempt. In Cox regression analyses adjusted for a range of sociodemographic characteristics, workplace sexual harassment was associated with an excess risk of both suicide (hazard ratio 2.82, 95% confidence interval 1.49 to 5.34) and suicide attempts (1.59, 1.21 to 2.08), and risk estimates remained significantly increased after adjustment for baseline health and certain work characteristics. No obvious differences between men and women were found. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the hypothesis that workplace sexual harassment is prospectively associated with suicidal behaviour. This suggests that suicide prevention considering the social work environment may be useful. More research is, however, needed to determine causality, risk factors for workplace sexual harassment, and explanations for an association between work related sexual harassment and suicidal behaviour.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Sexual/psicología , Intento de Suicidio/prevención & control , Intento de Suicidio/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Acoso Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Suecia/epidemiología
18.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 88-92, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890370

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The present study reports preliminary results from the multicentre project on the approbation of the Russian language version of the "The Communication Checklist-Self Report" (RL-CC-SR) and its first use in schizophrenia (SZ), aiming to evaluate the contribution of language disturbances in the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disorder. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study evaluated patients' clinical state with the Diagnostic Interview for Psychoses (DIP), and assessed language and communication disturbances (LCD) with the RL-CC-SR in all participants (213 healthy controls (HC), 83 SZ patients, 31 SZ first-degree relatives). Data from the current sample of SZ (n=50), and HC (n=213) was analysed to calculate the relationships between LCD, social and clinical variables using descriptive statistics methods, T-test and Pearson's correlations (SPSS-26, 2019). RESULTS: The quotient scores (<6) and raw scores on all three CC-SR subscales demonstrated prominent LCD in SZ: (i) language structure (LS) (SZ:11.92±8.01, HC:7.54±5.91; p<0.001), (ii) pragmatic skills (PS) (SZ:11.30±10.07, HC:8.71±7.39; p=0.040), (iii) social engagement (SE) (SZ:31.94±11.76, HC:19.42±10.35; p<0.001). In SZ, Pearson correlations of LS scores were significant for the DIP-items Odd Speech (p=0.033), and Social Engagement - Blunted Affect (p=0.042). PS was related to early disease onset (p=0.027), poor premorbid work adjustment (p=0.003), along with LS (p=0.005), and was also linked to poor premorbid social adjustment (p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: SZ patients are aware of their LCD at all levels of language structure, pragmatics, and nonverbal communication, but are unable to compensate. Disturbances of LS and PS in SZ patients relate to their poor social adjustment and functioning, and may prove to be associated with the primary negative symptoms domain of the disorder and its generally poor outcome.


Asunto(s)
Lista de Verificación , Trastornos del Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Esquizofrenia , Autoinforme , Humanos , Trastornos del Desarrollo del Lenguaje/etiología , Esquizofrenia/complicaciones , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Ajuste Social
19.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e114, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901729

RESUMEN

The aim of the present infodemiological study was to evaluate whether the COVID-19 outbreak has influenced the volume of content related to the dental treatment needs of Brazilian Twitter users to summarize the trends, and to identify the perceptions of the treatment needed. We collected tweets related to dental care needs of individuals exposed to the COVID-19 outbreak scenario between March 23 to May 4, 2020 and of those not exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic (unexposed group) on the same reported days of 2019 using the terms "dentista (dentist), dente (tooth), siso (third molar), and aparelho (orthodontic appliance)." Descriptive analysis was performed to provide summary statistics of the frequencies of tweets related to different dental treatment needs and also the differences in volume content between the years 2019 and 2020. Moreover, the data were analyzed by qualitative analysis using an inductive approach. A total of 1,763 tweets from 2020 and 1,339 tweets from 2019 were screened. Those tweets posted by non-Brazilian users, duplicates, and those unrelated to dental treatment needs were removed and, therefore 1,197 tweets from 2020 and 719 tweets from 2019 were selected. Content volume related to dental treatment needs greatly increased during the COVID-19 outbreak. Findings from the word cloud and content analysis suggest that dental pain, related or not to the third molar, and problems with orthodontic appliances were the topics most commonly related to dental treatment needs discussed during the COVID-19 outbreak, mainly conveying anxiety and distress. The volume of tweets related to dental treatment needs posted by Brazilian users increased during the COVID-19 outbreak and self-reported pain and urgencies were the most popular topics.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Odontología/estadística & datos numéricos , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Humanos , Pandemias , Autoinforme , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238341, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886671

RESUMEN

As COVID-19 is rapidly unfolding in the United States, it is important to understand how individuals perceive the health and economic risks of the pandemic. In the absence of a readily available medical treatment, any strategy to contain the virus in the US will depend on the behavioral response of US residents. In this paper, we study individual's perceptions on COVID-19 and social distancing during the week of March 10-16, 2020, a week when COVID-19 was officially declared to be a pandemic by WHO and when new infections in the US were more than doubling every three days. Using a nationally representative sample of 5,414 respondents 18+ years of age from the Understanding America Study (UAS), we find that perceptions about COVID-19 health risks and economic consequences in the US population were largely pessimistic and highly variable by age and education. US residents who are young and do not have a college degree perceived a lower risk of getting infected but a higher probability of running out of money than others. Most individuals reported taking some steps to distance themselves from others but important differences emerge by gender and by source of information on COVID-19. Using state and day fixed-effect regressions, we show that perceptions of the health risks closely followed the number of COVID-19 cases in the country, and perceptions of the economic consequences and the prevalence of social distancing were driven upwards by both national and state-level cases. Unless addressed by effective health communication that reaches individuals across all social strata, variations in perceptions about COVID-19 epidemic raise concerns about the ability of the US to implement and sustain the widespread and restrictive policies that are required to curtail the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pesimismo , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Autoinforme , Aislamiento Social , Estados Unidos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA