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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17504, 2021 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471196

RESUMEN

Chemosensory impairments have been established as a specific indicator of COVID-19. They affect most patients and may persist long past the resolution of respiratory symptoms, representing an unprecedented medical challenge. Since the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic started, we now know much more about smell, taste, and chemesthesis loss associated with COVID-19. However, the temporal dynamics and characteristics of recovery are still unknown. Here, capitalizing on data from the Global Consortium for Chemosensory Research (GCCR) crowdsourced survey, we assessed chemosensory abilities after the resolution of respiratory symptoms in participants diagnosed with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic in Italy. This analysis led to the identification of two patterns of chemosensory recovery, partial and substantial, which were found to be associated with differential age, degrees of chemosensory loss, and regional patterns. Uncovering the self-reported phenomenology of recovery from smell, taste, and chemesthetic disorders is the first, yet essential step, to provide healthcare professionals with the tools to take purposeful and targeted action to address chemosensory disorders and their severe discomfort.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , Trastornos del Gusto/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos del Olfato/etiología , Autoinforme , Trastornos del Gusto/etiología , Adulto Joven
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501807

RESUMEN

With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases peaking and health systems reaching their limits in winter 2020/21, schools remained closed in many countries. To better understand teachers' risk perception, we conducted a survey in Germany. Participants were recruited through various associations and invited to take part in a cross-sectional COVID-19-specific online survey. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Factors associated with teachers' fears of contracting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were evaluated with an adjusted multivariable regression analysis. The median age of the 6753 participating teachers was 43 years, and 77% were female. Most teachers worked in high schools (29%) and elementary schools (26%). The majority of participants (73%) feared contracting SARS-CoV-2 at school, while 77% intended to receive their COVID-19 vaccination. Ninety-eight percent considered students to pose the greatest risk. Female and younger teachers were significantly more anxious to get infected and teachers who opposed the re-opening of schools had significantly higher odds of being more anxious (p < 0.001). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to describe teachers' risk perception of COVID-19 and their attitudes towards vaccinations in a nationwide survey. The anxiety correlates with the COVID-19 protection measures demanded and appears to be a driving factor rather than rational logic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Miedo , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Percepción , SARS-CoV-2 , Maestros , Autoinforme
3.
Hist Psychol ; 24(3): 223-227, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516187

RESUMEN

Teo et al. (2021, p. 217) have asked me "to locate [myself] epistemologically and politically and identify [my] position in…institutional and departmental struggles…to allow a reader to contextualize [my] reconstructions." Therefore, I provide information on my political and scientific orientation, my position at the Free University of Berlin, and my relationship to Klaus Holzkamp. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Historiografía , Motivación , Humanos , Autoinforme
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 476, 2021 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493276

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With increasing availability of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) education in medical schools, it is unclear whether or not learning needs of junior medical residents have evolved over time. METHODS: We invited all postgraduate year (PGY)-1 residents at three Canadian internal medicine residency training programs in 2019 to complete a survey previously completed by 47 Canadian Internal Medicine PGY-1 s in 2016. Using a five-point Likert scale, participants rated perceived applicability of POCUS to the practice of internal medicine and self-reported skills in 15 diagnostic POCUS applications and 9 procedures. RESULTS: Of the 97 invited residents, 58 (60 %) completed the survey in 2019. Participants reported high applicability but low skills across all POCUS applications and procedures. The 2019 cohort reported higher skills in assessing pulmonary B lines than the 2016 cohort (2.3 ± SD 1.0 vs. 1.5 ± SD 0.7, adjusted p-value = 0.01). No other differences were noted. CONCLUSIONS: POCUS educational needs continue to be high in Canadian internal medicine learners. The results of this needs assessment study support ongoing inclusion of basic POCUS elements in the current internal medicine residency curriculum.


Asunto(s)
Internado y Residencia , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Canadá , Competencia Clínica , Curriculum , Humanos , Autoinforme
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049782, 2021 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475174

RESUMEN

MAIN OBJECTIVE: To determine how and to what extent COVID-19 has affected real-world, self-reported glycaemic management in Americans with type 1 or type 2 diabetes taking insulin and/or secretagogues, with or without infection. DESIGN: A cross-sectional substudy using data from the Investigating Novel Predictions of Hypoglycemia Occurrence using Real-world Models panel survey. SETTING: USA. PARTICIPANTS: Americans 18-90 years old with type 1 or 2 diabetes taking insulin and/or secretagogues were conveniently sampled from a probability-based internet panel. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: A structured, COVID-19-specific questionnaire was administered to assess the impact of the pandemic (irrespective of infection) on socioeconomic, behavioural/clinical and psychosocial aspects of glycaemic management. RESULTS: Data from 667 respondents (type 1 diabetes: 18%; type 2 diabetes: 82%) were analysed. Almost 25% reported A1c values ≥8.1%. Rates of severe and non-severe hypoglycaemia were 0.68 (95% CI 0.5 to 0.96) and 2.75 (95% CI 2.4 to 3.1) events per person-month, respectively. Ten respondents reported a confirmed or probable COVID-19 diagnosis. Because of the pandemic, 24% of respondents experienced difficulties affording housing; 28% struggled to maintain sufficient food to avoid hypoglycaemia; and 19% and 17% reported challenges accessing diabetes therapies and testing strips, respectively. Over one-quarter reported issues retrieving antihyperglycaemics from the pharmacy and over one-third reported challenges consulting with diabetes providers. The pandemic contributed to therapeutic non-adherence (14%), drug rationing (17%) and reduced monitoring (16%). Many struggled to keep track, and in control, of hypoglycaemia (12%-15%) and lacked social support to help manage their risk (19%). Nearly half reported decreased physical activity. Few statistically significant differences were observed by diabetes type. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 was found to cause substantial self-reported deficiencies in glycaemic management. Study results signal the need for decisive action to restabilise routine diabetes care in the USA. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04219514.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Prueba de COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoinforme , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 202-209, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-202544

RESUMEN

The main goal of this research is to study the involvement profile in cyberbullying situations according to the mediating effect of variables such as perceived emotional intelligence, gen-der and age in the adult population. To this end, measures are taken through self-reports exploring the profiles of cyberbullying and the dimensions of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI), among a sample of 848 subjects enrolled in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), ages between 21 and 62 years (M = 40.52; SD = 11.65). Measures are taken through self-reports that explore cyberbullying profiles (Victim 18.9%, Aggressor 12.3%, Victim / Aggressor 16.3% and Without profile 52.6%), and the dimensions of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (Attention, Clarity and Repair). Multivariate and binomial regression analyses are carried out, showing that the majority of participants who have difficulties in under-standing and regulating their emotional states are involved in situations of cyberbullying, and pointing to emotional intelligence skills as a clear protective factor against cyberbullying. These results show the need to pay greater attention to the phenomenon of cyberbullying in the adult population, as well as the relevance of emotional intelligence skills in the prevention of cyberbullying


Las competencias emocionales son fundamentales en la prevención de la implicación en situaciones de ciberacoso. En el presente trabajo, se plantea como principal objetivo, estudiar el perfil de implicación en situaciones de ciberacoso en función del efecto mediador de las variables inteligencia emocional percibida, género y edad en población adulta. Para ello, en una muestra de 848 sujetos matriculados en "Cursos Abiertos Masivos en Línea" MOOC, se toman medidas a través de autoinformes que exploran los perfiles de ciberacoso y las dimensiones de Inteligencia Emocional Percibida (IEP). Se llevan a cabo análisis multivariado y de regresión binomial, que muestran que la mayoría de los participantes que presentan dificultades para comprender y regular sus estados emocionales están implicados en situaciones de ciberacoso y señalan a las habilidades de inteligencia emocional como un claro factor de protección del ciberacoso. Estos resultados demuestran la necesidad de prestar mayor atención al fenómeno del ciberacoso en población adulta y la relevancia de las habilidades de inteligencia emocional en la prevención del ciberacoso


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ciberacoso/psicología , Inteligencia Emocional , Estudios Transversales , Pruebas de Inteligencia , Autoinforme , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Agresión/psicología , Conducta Social
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27074, 2021 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449507

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The prevalence of hypertension has increased with the rise in the elderly population, and high blood pressure is a major cause of cardiovascular disease. Physical activity is an important strategy for preventing cardiovascular disease. The study aimed to explore the association between physical activity and cardiovascular risk indicators in community-dwelling older adults with hypertension.This study is a secondary data analysis of a prospective longitudinal study using data from the Elderly Cohort Database of the National Health Insurance Service in South Korea between 2002 and 2013. Participants included 10,588 older adults (≥60 years) with hypertension. Data assessing self-reported physical activity and directly measured blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, body mass index, and total cholesterol levels throughout the 12-year study were extracted from the original database and analyzed. Participants were categorized into 4 groups based on the reported changes in physical activity over time: Group I (Maintaining No Physical Activity Group), II (Changing from No Physical Activity to Physical Activity Group), III (Changing from Physical Activity to No Physical Activity Group), and IV (Maintaining Physical Activity Group). Cox proportional hazard model was used to confirm the risk of cardiovascular indicators over time in each group.Participants' mean age was 64.2 years in the initial year of 2002. The number of participants in Groups I, II, III, and IV was 4032, 2697, 1919, and 1940, respectively. Group IV showed a significant decline in risk for uncontrolled hypertension compared to Group I (hazard ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [0.800-0.948]). Group II showed a significant decrease in risk for uncontrolled diabetes compared to Group I (hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [0.888-0.999]).The findings indicated that physical activity is a significant factor associated with indicators of cardiovascular risk in older people with high blood pressure. Healthcare providers should be aware of the importance of older adults' physical activity and encourage them to perform and maintain it steadily for better long-term cardio-metabolic outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiaca , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Glucemia , Presión Sanguínea , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Lípidos/sangre , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Autoinforme , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
Behav Ther ; 52(5): 1105-1113, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452665

RESUMEN

Previous research has demonstrated that both suicidal ideation (SI) and eating disorders (EDs) are associated with poor interoceptive awareness (IA). Suicidality research has demonstrated that the IA dimension of lower body trust is associated with SI, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. Similarly, in ED samples, recent research supports that low body trust has been the most robust dimension of IA associated with eating pathology. However, to date, research is lacking in how dimensions of IA may be associated with SI in an ED sample, above and beyond the impact of eating pathology on SI. Thus, in a clinical ED sample, the present study sought to determine which IA dimensions predict the presence and severity of SI, above and beyond ED symptoms. Participants (N = 102) completed a clinical interview assessing SI and self-report assessments including the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA). Results demonstrated that patients with current SI reported greater ED psychopathology, lower MAIA Attention Regulation, MAIA Self-Regulation, and MAIA Trusting scores compared to patients without SI. Higher ED psychopathology and lower MAIA Attention Regulation, Self-Regulation, and Trusting subscale scores were all significantly associated with the presence of SI. However, only low MAIA Trusting scores predicted the presence of SI, above and beyond covariates (age, depression, and eating pathology). No MAIA subscales were correlated with the severity of SI. Consistent with previous research, results suggest low MAIA Trusting scores may be associated with SI in ED samples and highlight the need for future research on mechanisms of these associations.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Ideación Suicida , Humanos , Autoinforme , Intento de Suicidio , Confianza
9.
Behav Ther ; 52(5): 1137-1144, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452668

RESUMEN

Past research has demonstrated a strong relationship between eating disorders (EDs) and suicidality (i.e., suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts), and preliminary work within the framework of the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (Joiner, 2007) suggests that potentially painful ED behaviors (binge eating, purging, fasting, excessive exercise) may contribute to increased risk of suicide through heightened pain tolerance and increased capability of suicide. However, additional explanations are needed for why only some individuals with EDs actually engage in suicidal behaviors (i.e., attempt suicide), whereas others do not. A growing body of literature suggests that interoceptive deficits (a disconnection from one's own bodily sensations and emotions; IDs) might be a factor linking eating disorders and suicide. To better understand this relationship, the current study tests the moderating effects of self-reported IDs on the relations between ED behaviors and suicidality and past suicide attempts in a transdiagnostic ED sample (N = 181). We hypothesized that ED behaviors would directly relate to suicidality, but that IDs would moderate the relationship between ED behaviors and past suicide attempts, such that those high in IDs would demonstrate a stronger relationship between ED behaviors and suicide attempts. Contrary to our hypothesis, IDs did not moderate the relationship; instead, fasting and purging had significant and strong main effects on suicidality and past suicide attempts without moderation effects. Results suggest that fasting and purging may be important ED behaviors to consider in the relationship between EDs and suicidality. Future directions include further examining the relationship between IDs, suicidality, and EDs using measures of IDs that better encompass physical (as opposed to emotional) aspects of IDs.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Atracón , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio
10.
Behav Ther ; 52(5): 1251-1264, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452677

RESUMEN

Research demonstrates consistent associations between symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and reductions in interpersonal functioning. Moderators of this association, however, remain relatively unexplored. The current study aimed to examine the extent to which aspects of empathic responding may influence the relation between PTSD symptom dimensions and interpersonal functioning in students exposed to significant trauma. Participants (N = 94, 85.1% female, 86.2% White/Non-Hispanic) completed an initial screening to assess for trauma exposure and associated symptoms of PTSD. Interpersonal functioning and dimensions of empathic responding were measured using a series of self-report and lab-based tasks. Hierarchical regression models provided evidence for a consistent association between post-trauma arousal-reactivity and reductions in interpersonal functioning. Results also indicated a moderating effect of affective empathy (ß = -.37, p = .010, f2 = .086). Simple slopes and Johnson-Neyman plots identified an association between arousal-reactivity and functioning at low (ß = 1.57, p < .001, f2 = .301) versus high (ß = .31, p = .417, f2 = .008) levels of empathic response to a positively valenced film. Results offer preliminary support for a potential buffering effect of affective empathy on interpersonal functioning in individuals reporting chronic, trauma-related symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Empatía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoinforme , Estudiantes
11.
Appetite ; 167: 105660, 2021 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425147

RESUMEN

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads globally, people are at risk of developing disinhibited eating behaviors. This study aimed to examine whether perceived mortality threat and negative affect mediate the relationship between trait self-control and disinhibited eating during the pandemic. A longitudinal survey was administered to a sample of college students (N = 634) before the outbreak (September 2019, T1), during the mid-term (February 2020, T2), and in the later stage of the pandemic (April 2020, T3). Self-report measures of trait self-control (T1), perceived mortality threat (T2, T3), negative affect (T2, T3), and disinhibited eating (T2, T3) were successively completed. Trait self-control was found to be negatively associated with negative affect, perceived mortality threat, and disinhibited eating during the mid-term and later stage of the pandemic. Disinhibited eating was positively associated with negative affect and perceived mortality threat. The longitudinal mediation results demonstrated that trait self-control (T1) could negatively predict disinhibited eating (T3) through negative affect (T2) rather than through perceived mortality threat. These findings suggest that trait self-control is of great importance in regulating psychological discomfort and disinhibited eating during stressful periods and that negative affect might be the main psychological mechanism underlying the relationship between self-control ability and disinhibited eating.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Autocontrol , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoinforme
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 286: 114335, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450390

RESUMEN

RATIONALE/OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought far-reaching consequences on individual and societal levels. Social distancing and physical hygiene constitute effective public health measures to limit the spread of the virus. This study investigated age and gender demographics, in tandem with national levels of human development, as crucial factors influencing self-reported compliance with COVID-19-related public health measures. METHODS: The present study leveraged a large multi-national sample that ranged across the adult lifespan (18-100 years) and comprised 45,772 women and men from 66 countries/territories. Data were collected in Spring (2020) during the earlier phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Self-reports of compliance with two public health measures (spatial distancing and physical hygiene) were assessed via online survey. Human Development Index (HDI), developed by the United Nations Development Program, was used as a proxy of a country's achievement in key dimensions of human development. RESULTS: Older age, female gender, and lower HDI were independently associated with greater self-reported compliance. A significant three-way interaction further revealed that self-reported compliance was lowest in young males from well-developed countries, while highest among females across all ages from less-developed countries. CONCLUSION: The study offers an integration of individual-level and country-level demographic predictors of self-reported compliance and allows for robust testing in a large multi-national adult lifespan sample for enhanced generalizability. The results highlight the potential of data-driven, tailored (i.e., towards specific demographics, countries) health campaigns and public policies in the fight against a global pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Anciano , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoinforme
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444150

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that living close to "blue spaces" (water features), particularly coastlines, has salutary effects on human health. METHODS: We analyzed five years of annual, self-reported general health and unhealthy days data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 165 urban areas across the contiguous U.S. We compared health self-reports for people living in coastal vs. non-coastal urban areas and for residents of the disaster-prone Gulf of Mexico region vs. other locations. Coastal urban areas were defined as those having ≥50% of their population living within 20 km of a coast. RESULTS: We found no overall health advantage of residing in a coastal urban location when all urban areas were considered. However, residents from non-Gulf of Mexico coastal urban areas reported modestly better health than residents from non-coastal areas. In contrast, self-reported health of Gulf coastal urban residents was significantly poorer than that of residents from other urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of disasters and history of health and socioeconomic disparities in the Gulf region may be responsible, at least in part, for the apparent lack of health promoting effects of coastal location there.


Asunto(s)
Desastres , Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Golfo de México , Humanos , Autoinforme
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444282

RESUMEN

Although creating a high-quality urban green space (UGS) is of considerable importance in public health, few studies have used individuals' emotions to evaluate the UGS quality. This study aims to conduct a multidimensional emotional assessment method of UGS from the perspective of spatial quality. Panoramic videos of 15 scenes in the West Lake Scenic Area were displayed to 34 participants. For each scene, 12 attributes regarding spatial quality were quantified, including perceived plant attributes, spatial structure attributes, and experiences of UGS. Then, the Self-Assessment-Manikin (SAM) scale and face recognition model were used to measure people's valence-arousal emotion values. Among all the predictors, the percentages of water and plants were the most predictive indicators of emotional responses measured by SAM scale, while the interpretation rate of the model measured by face recognition was insufficiently high. Concerning gender differences, women experienced a significantly higher valence than men. Higher percentages of water and plants, larger sizes, approximate shape index, and lower canopy densities were often related to positive emotions. Hence, designers must consider all structural attributes of green spaces, as well as enrich visual perception and provide various activities while creating a UGS. In addition, we suggest combining both physiological and psychological methods to assess emotional responses in future studies. Because the face recognition model can provide objective measurement of emotional responses, and the self-report questionnaire is much easier to administer and can be used as a supplement.


Asunto(s)
Reconocimiento Facial , Parques Recreativos , Nivel de Alerta , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoinforme
15.
Fam Pract ; 38(Suppl 1): i37-i44, 2021 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448483

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The early identification of COVID-19 patients is of outmost importance in the current pandemic. As with other pathogens, presenting symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 may vary, depending on sociodemographic factors. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients by age/gender and to assess whether the diagnostic performance of these symptoms varied according to these variables. METHODS: We analysed data from a cross-sectional study involving primary care patients undergoing RT-PCR testing in Lyon, France. Among patients who tested positive, we examined whether there was an association between age/gender and various symptoms. In addition, we calculated the diagnostic performance of the most specific symptoms (smell/taste disorder). RESULTS: Among 1543 consecutive patients, 253 tested positive (16%). There were significant age/gender-related differences in symptoms. In middle-aged women, the diagnostic performance of smell/taste disorders were AUC = 0.65 [95%CI 0.59-0.71] and PPV = 72% [95%CI 53-87%], that is higher than in the entire sample (smell/taste disorders: AUC = 0.59 [95%CI 0.57-0.62] and PPV = 57% [95%CI 47-67%]. In contrast, the negative predictive values of smell/taste disorders were similar in both groups (85% [95%CI 81-89%] for middle-age women and 86% [95%CI 85-88%] for the entire sample). CONCLUSION: We found significant age/gender-related differences in the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients. Screening strategies based on smell/taste disorders performed better in middle-aged women, but could not ensure a diagnosis of COVID-19 in any subgroup of patients. Future diagnostic strategies should use age/gender differentiated approaches.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud , Autoinforme , Trastornos del Gusto/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Factores Sexuales
16.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 310, 2021 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454466

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to develop a Thai version of the Dry Eye-Related Quality-of-Life Score (DEQS-Th) questionnaire and evaluate its validity, reliability, and feasibility among Thai participants. METHODS: The DEQS-Th, a 15-item self-report measuring dry eye and its impact on quality of life (QOL) was developed based on the DEQS. The questionnaire was divided into two subscales: Bothersome Ocular Symptoms (six questions), and Impact on Daily Life (nine questions). It employed a 5-point Likert scale, addressing on both the frequency and the degree of symptoms. Backward and forward and cultural adaptation process translation methods were employed. Thirty healthy participants were enrolled to evaluate the feasibility of the DEQS-Th in terms of difficulty and convenience. Reliability was assessed using internal consistency determined by Cronbach's alpha, with values > 0.7 considered acceptable. Convergent validity was determined by the correlation between DEQS-Th and overall health status. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for its factor structure. RESULTS: The participants' mean age was 38.6 ± 12.9 years, and 23 (76.7%) were females. The mean time to complete the questionnaire was 9.3 ± 2.7 min. The Cronbach's alpha of the ocular symptoms subscale, impact on QOL subscale, and summary score on frequency and degree were 0.80 and 0.70, 0.89 and 0.89, and 0.90 and 0.89, respectively. The overall health status significantly correlated with the summary score (r = 0.564, p = .001), subscale ocular symptoms (r = 0.594, p = .001), and impact on QOL scores (r = 0.626, p < .001) of the DEQS-Th, respectively. A one-factor model fitted the data the best for both the ocular symptoms subscale (CFI = 1.000, TLI = 1.000, RMSEA = 0.000) and the impact on QOL subscale (CFI = 0.998, TLI = 0.997, RMSEA = 0.053). CONCLUSION: When tested among normal participants, the DEQS-Th is a valid and reliable measurement for dry eye symptoms and impact on QOL.


Asunto(s)
Síndromes de Ojo Seco , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Síndromes de Ojo Seco/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Autoinforme , Tailandia
17.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(3): 338-347, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419231

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study examines the associations between state-level and provider sources of racism and healthcare access and quality for non-Hispanic Black and White individuals. METHODS: Data from 2 sources were integrated: (1) data from the Association of American Medical Colleges' Consumer Survey of Health Care Access (2014-2019), which included measures of self-reported healthcare access, healthcare quality, and provider racial discrimination and (2) administrative data compiled to index state-level racism. State-level racism composite scores were calculated from federal sources (U.S. Census, Department of Labor, Department of Justice). The data set comprised 21,030 adults (n=2,110 Black, n=18,920 White) who needed care within the past year. Participants were recruited from a national panel, and the survey employed age-insurance quotas. Logistic and linear regressions were conducted in 2020, adjusting for demographic, geographic, and health-related covariates. RESULTS: Among White individuals, more state-level racism was associated with 5% higher odds of being able to get care and 6% higher odds of sufficient time with provider. Among Black individuals, more state-level racism was associated with 8% lower odds of being able to get care. Provider racial discrimination was also associated with 80% lower odds of provider explaining care, 77% lower odds of provider answering questions, and 68% lower odds of sufficient time with provider. CONCLUSIONS: State-level racism may engender benefits to healthcare access and quality for White individuals and may decrease access for Black individuals. Disparities may be driven by both White advantage and Black disadvantage. State-level policies may be the actionable levers of healthcare inequities with implications for preventive medicine.


Asunto(s)
Racismo , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Humanos , Autoinforme , Estados Unidos
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444033

RESUMEN

Previous studies have shown both positive and non-positive associations between social capital and health. However, longitudinal evidence examining its comprehensive effects on well-being is still limited. This study examined whether structural social capital in the local community was related to the later well-being of Japanese people aged 40 or above. A 4-year longitudinal study was conducted in a rural Japanese town. "Well-being" was measured using three indicators (happiness, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms), and those who were high in well-being in the baseline 2015 survey and responded to the follow-up 2019 survey were analyzed (n = 1032 for happiness, 938 for self-rated health, and 471 for depressive symptoms). Multilevel Poisson regression analysis adjusted for covariates showed that having contact with fewer neighbors was associated with a decline in happiness at both the community level (adjusted relative risk = 1.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-1.63) and the individual level (adjusted relative risk = 1.51, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-2.17), but participation in local community activities was not. The results suggest that dense personal networks might be more important in areas with thriving local community activities, not only for individuals but also for all community members.


Asunto(s)
Capital Social , Adulto , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Japón , Estudios Longitudinales , Autoinforme
19.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12258, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346132

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the corresponding government state of emergency have dramatically changed our workstyle, particularly through implementing teleworking and social distancing. We investigated the degree to which people's work performance is affected and the association between sedentary behavior under the state of emergency and worsened work performance during the COVID-19 pandemic, as previous studies have suggested that sedentary behavior decreases work performance. METHODS: We used data from the Japan "COVID-19 and Society" Internet Survey (JACSIS) study, a cross-sectional, web-based, self-reported questionnaire survey. The main outcome was change in work performance after the COVID-19 pandemic compared with that before the pandemic. We analyzed the association between the change in work performance and sitting duration under the state of emergency, adjusted for work-related stress, participants' demographics, socio-economic status, health-related characteristics, and personality. RESULTS: The change of work environment from the pandemic decreased work performance in 15% of workers, which was 3.6 times greater than the number of workers reporting increased performance in 14 648 workers (6134 women and 8514 men). Although telework both improved and worsened performance (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0, 1.6-2.5 and 1.7, 1.5-1.9, respectively), sitting for long periods after the state of emergency was significantly associated only with worsened performance (OR, 95% CI = 1.8, 1.5-2.2) in a dose-response manner. CONCLUSION: Sitting duration is likely a risk barometer of worsened work performance under uncertain working situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Conducta Sedentaria , Sedestación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoinforme , Adulto Joven
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 421, 2021 08 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425767

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Loneliness is a frequent and distressing experience among people with mental health problems. However, few longitudinal studies have so far investigated the trajectories of loneliness and objective social isolation, and the extent to which both issues may impact mental health outcomes among mental health service users. Therefore, this study aims to describe the trajectories of loneliness and objective social isolation and their associations with self-rated personal recovery among people leaving crisis resolution teams (CRTs). METHODS: A total of 224 participants receiving care from CRTs (recruited for a large multi-site randomised controlled trial) were included in this longitudinal cohort study. They completed the eight-item University of California at Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (ULS-8), Lubben-Social Network Scale (LNSN-6), and the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR) (primary outcome) at baseline, 4- and 18-month follow-up, as well as baseline sociodemographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: We compared groups who were persistently lonely (at all time points), intermittently lonely (at one or two time points) and never lonely. After adjusting for all potential confounders and baseline predictive variables, persistent severe loneliness was associated with worse personal recovery at 18-month follow-up compared with the never lonely (reference group) (coef. = - 12.8, 95% CI -11.8, - 3.8, p < .001), as was being intermittently lonely (coef. = - 7.8, 95% CI -18.8, - 6.8, p < .001). The persistently objectively social isolated group (coef. = - 9.8, 95% CI -15.7, - 3.8, p = .001) also had poorer self-rated recovery at 18-month follow-up than those who were not socially isolated at any timepoint (i.e., reference category). CONCLUSION: Results suggest that both persistent loneliness and objective social isolation are associated with poorer self-rated recovery following a crisis, compatible with a causal relationship. These findings suggest a potential role for interventions aimed at alleviating loneliness and objective social isolation in improving recovery outcomes for people with mental health symptoms. Increased awareness of both issues among health practitioners is also warranted.


Asunto(s)
Soledad , Servicios de Salud Mental , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Autoinforme , Aislamiento Social , Reino Unido
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