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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130755, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390910

RESUMEN

Sialic acids are a group of nine-carbon α-keto acids. Sialic acid exists in more than 50 forms, with the natural types discovered as N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), deaminoneuraminic acid (2-keto-3-deoxy-nonulononic acid or Kdn), and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Sialic acid level varies depending on the source, where edible bird's nest (EBN), predominantly Neu5Ac, is among the major sources of sialic acid. Due to its high nutritive value and complexity, sialic acid has been studied extensively through acid, aqueous, and enzymatic extraction. Although detection by chromatographic methods or mass spectrometry is common, the isolation and recovery work remained limited. Sialic acid is well-recognised for its bioactivities, including brain and cognition development, immune-enhancing, anti-hypertensive, anticancer, and skin whitening properties. Therefore, sialic acid can be used as a functional ingredient in the various industries. This paper reviews the current trend in the biochemistry, sources, extraction, and functions of sialic acids with special reference to EBN.


Asunto(s)
Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico , Ácidos Siálicos , Animales , Aves , Saliva
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3136-3144, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658198

RESUMEN

As a clean and green renewable energy source, wind power attracts more and more attention globally, and rapidly expands its use scale. There are conflicts between wind power development and bird protection. The impacts of wind farms on birds is a hot topic for ecologists and conservationists. To estimate the effects of wind turbines on avian species diversity and their functional and phylogenetic diversity, we conducted line transect surveys in January, March, April and May 2019. Thirty-two line transects were divided into four gradients according to the distance from the wind turbines, i.e., 100-300 m (6 transects), 300-500 m (13 transects), 500-700 m (8 transects), >700 m (5 transects). The results showed that a total of 76 resident breeding birds were recorded, belonging to 11 orders and 31 families. Passeriformes and Timaliidae had the highest species richness (53 and 12 species, respectively). Bird species richness, functional richness (FRic), and phylogenetic diversity (Faith's PD) were increased with increasing distance from the wind turbines. Specifically, bird richness, FRic and phylogenetic diversity increased little within 500 m of the wind turbines, whereas a significant increase occurred over 500 m from wind turbines. The community-weighted mean of dispersal ability showed an increasing trend with distance from the wind turbines. The standardized effect size of both mean pairwise functional/phylogenetic distance (SES.MFD and SES.MPD) were less than 0 in all transects, with about half of which being significantly lower than expected at random. This finding suggested that the impacts of wind farms on bird species, functional and phylogenetic diversity occurred within 500 meters from wind turbines, with a pattern of functional and phylogenetic clustering. The impacts of wind turbines on birds were multi-dimensional. It is therefore difficult to provide complete perspective on assessing the impacts of wind farms on birds when only considering species diversity.


Asunto(s)
Fuentes Generadoras de Energía , Viento , Animales , Aves , Cruzamiento , Humanos , Filogenia
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248842, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495166

RESUMEN

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas , Acetilcolinesterasa , Animales , Aves , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/toxicidad , Productos Agrícolas , Ecosistema , Pakistán , Plaguicidas/toxicidad
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247915, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550285

RESUMEN

Wildlife trade is a profitable economic activity. Birds are among the most heavily traded animals worldwide, with numerous species threatened by pet trade. The present case study was stretched for period of one year to find out the status of wild birds' trade in Bannu and Dera Ismael Khan Divisions. The study was aimed to find out the types of species, commercial prices of bird, trade routes, overall income generated from birds' trade and the status of dealers whether licensed or not. Bimonthly visits were conducted to interview 52 bird dealers/pet shops owners/venders (23 in Dera Ismael Khan and 29 in Bannu). A sum of 16 conceivable sites were visited during the study period. Out of these, 8 sites were located in Dera Ismael Khan and 8 sites in Bannu Division. The highest priced species was Demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) and the lowest priced species was house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Total number of species traded in both regions were 8 and 14 while the income generated by bird trade was amounting to PkR 1,322,200 and 7,128,950 in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. Majority of the birds were trapped locally with the exception of few from adjacent areas. Commercial activity led by illegal bird traders was found 75% and 100% species in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. There was no significant difference between prices of birds, number of species sold and income generated by bird trade in two divisions.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Aves , Animales , Pakistán
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248814, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550286

RESUMEN

The karyotype and constitutive heterochromatin pattern of the white stork Ciconia ciconia samples obtained from Manzala lake, Dimiaat, Egypt was described. Somatic cells of Ciconia ciconia samples have diploid number 2n= 68 chromosomes. Out of 68 chromosomes, 11 pairs including sex chromosomes were macrochromosomes and the remaining pairs were microchromosomes. Of the 11 macrochromosome pairs, no.1, 2, 4 and 5 were submetacentric and pairs no. 6, 7 and 8 were described as metacentric. In addition, the autosome pair no.3 was subtelocentric, while autosome pair no.9 was acrocentric. Also, the sex chromosome Z represents the fourth one in size and it was classified as submetacentric while, W chromosome appeared as medium size and was acrocentric. Furthermore, C-banding pattern (constitutive heterochromatin) revealed variation in their sizes and occurrence between macrochromosomes. Pairs no. 7 and 8 of autosomes exhibited unusual distribution of heterochromatin, where they appeared as entirely heterochromatic. This may be related to the origin of sex chromosomes Z and W. However, there is no sufficient evidence illustrate the appearance of entirely heterochromatic autosomes. Therefore, there is no available cytogenetic literature that describes the C-banding and karyotype of Ciconia Ciconia, so the results herein are important and may assist in cytogenetic study and evolutionary pattern of Ciconiiformes.


Asunto(s)
Heterocromatina , Cromosomas Sexuales , Animales , Aves , Heterocromatina/genética , Cariotipo , Cariotipificación , Cromosomas Sexuales/genética
7.
Mar Environ Res ; 171: 105457, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482114

RESUMEN

The southern North Sea holds the world's highest concentration of offshore wind farms (OWFs). Northern gannets (Morus bassanus), a species considered at high risk from OWF impacts, show a strong seasonal peak there in November, but it is unclear which populations and age classes are most at risk of collision with wind turbines. We tagged adult and juvenile gannets at the world's largest colony (Bass Rock) and reviewed two sources of survey data for different age classes to study their movements through southern North Sea waters. Tracked birds showed peak numbers in the southern North Sea in mid-October, with much smaller numbers there during November. Adults were distributed throughout the area, including waters close to OWFs, whereas juveniles were confined to the coast. Survey data indicated high proportions of immature gannets in southern North Sea waters, suggesting higher collision risk than for adults. Gannets present in November may be predominantly from colonies further north than Bass Rock.


Asunto(s)
Fuentes Generadoras de Energía , Viento , Animales , Aves , Mar del Norte
8.
Biol Lett ; 17(9): 20210283, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493064

RESUMEN

Colourful traits in females are suggested to have evolved and be maintained by sexual selection. Although several studies have evaluated this idea, support is still equivocal. Evidence has been compiled in reviews, and a handful of quantitative syntheses has explored cumulative support for the link between condition and specific colour traits in males and females. However, understanding the potential function of females' colourful traits in sexual communication has not been the primary focus of any of those previous studies. Here, using a meta-analytic approach, we find that evidence from empirical studies in birds supports the idea that colourful female ornaments are positively associated with residual mass and immune response, clutch size and male-mate preferences. Hence, colourful traits in female birds likely evolved and are maintained by sexual selection as condition-dependent signals.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Reproducción , Animales , Tamaño de la Nidada , Femenino , Masculino , Fenotipo
9.
Biol Lett ; 17(9): 20210352, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520684

RESUMEN

Fleshy fruits can be divided between climacteric (CL, showing a typical rise in respiration and ethylene production with ripening after harvest) and non-climacteric (NC, showing no rise). However, despite the importance of the CL/NC traits in horticulture and the fruit industry, the evolutionary significance of the distinction remains untested. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NC fruits, which ripen only on the plant, are adapted to tree dispersers (feeding in the tree), and CL fruits, which ripen after falling from the plant, are adapted to ground dispersers. A literature review of 276 reports of 80 edible fruits found a strong correlation between CL/NC traits and the type of seed disperser: fruits dispersed by tree dispersers are more likely to be NC, and those dispersed by ground dispersers are more likely to be CL. NC fruits are more likely to have red-black skin and smaller seeds (preferred by birds), and CL fruits to have green-brownish skin and larger seeds (preferred by large mammals). These results suggest that the CL/NC traits have an important but overlooked seed dispersal function, and CL fruits may have an adaptive advantage in reducing ineffective frugivory by tree dispersers by falling before ripening.


Asunto(s)
Climaterio , Dispersión de Semillas , Animales , Aves , Frutas , Semillas
10.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 81(3): 347-366, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480207

RESUMEN

There is little information on how POPs in eggs of different terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic birds share a large urban and rural landscape relate. We collected and analysed 64 eggs belonging to ten species of six feeding guilds, and compared organic chlorinated pesticide (OCP), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and brominated flame retardants (BFR) residue concentrations and compositions. The eggs were collected in the Gauteng and the northern part of the Free Sate provinces of South Africa, one of the largest economic hubs in Africa. White-breasted Cormorant and African Darter eggs (at the highest trophic level as large aquatic predators) had the highest ΣOCP and ΣPCB concentrations, and Cape Sparrow and Southern Masked Weaver (granivores) eggs had the lowest concentrations, corresponding to the lowest trophic level in our collection. The highest percentage p,p'-DDT were in eggs of the terrestrial insectivore Crowned Lapwing (24%) and the scavenging African Sacred Ibis (17%), and the lowest in African Darter (1.0%) and White-breasted Cormorant (0.9%) eggs, suggesting that recency of DDT releases in a region cannot be gauged by this metric. African Sacred Ibis and Southern Masked Weaver eggs had the highest ΣBFR concentrations, with Crowned Lapwing, Cattle Egret, and White-breasted Cormorant eggs the least. Based on feeding guilds, the mean ΣPOP concentrations increased from granivore, aquatic omnivore, scavenger, terrestrial insectivore, small aquatic predator, to large aquatic predator. Mean ΣPOP concentrations in eggs increased from terrestrial, to wetland, to aquatic habitat birds. Interesting patterns were observed with multivariate analyses. There were no significant regressions between egg size and any summed POP classes. ΣBFR concentrations were not correlated with ΣOCPs or ΣPCBs. Eggshell thinning of African Darter eggs was associated with p,p'-DDE and ΣPCB suggesting risk. Other metrics also suggest risk. Therefore, different species of terrestrial and aquatic birds from the same area acquire and deposit POPs in different proportions and quantities in their eggs. Trophic levels and habitat explain the overall patterns, but detailed differences were found, some of which we are unable to explain. Based on POPs residues in terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic bird eggs, different POPs classes behave differently in a shared large inland industrial area, complicating deductions about POPs and associated risks based on one or few species.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Hidrocarburos Clorados , Bifenilos Policlorados , África Austral , Animales , Aves , Bovinos , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Hidrocarburos Clorados/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Sudáfrica
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577393

RESUMEN

Multirotor unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAVs) are becoming more prominent for diverse real-world applications due to their inherent hovering ability, swift manoeuvring and vertical take-off landing capabilities. Nonetheless, to be entirely applicable for various obstacle prone environments, the conventional MUAVs may not be able to change their configuration depending on the available space and perform designated missions. It necessitates the morphing phenomenon of MUAVS, wherein it can alter their geometric structure autonomously. This article presents the development of a morphed MUAV based on a simple rotary actuation mechanism capable of driving each arm's smoothly and satisfying the necessary reduction in workspace volume to navigate in the obstacle prone regions. The mathematical modelling for the folding mechanism was formulated, and corresponding kinematic analysis was performed to understand the synchronous motion characteristics of the arms during the folding of arms. Experiments were conducted by precisely actuating the servo motors based on the proximity ultrasonic sensor data to avoid the obstacle for achieving effective morphing of MUAV. The flight tests were conducted to estimate the endurance and attain a change in morphology of MUAV from "X-Configuration" to "H-Configuration" with the four arms actuated synchronously without time delay.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Modelos Teóricos , Animales , Fenómenos Biomecánicos
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(18): 12272-12280, 2021 09 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473489

RESUMEN

Lead (Pb) exposure is a widespread wildlife conservation threat. Although commonly associated with Pb-based ammunition from big-game hunting, small mammals (e.g., ground squirrels) shot for recreational or pest-management purposes represent a potentially important Pb vector in agricultural regions. We measured the responses of avian scavengers to pest-shooting events and examined their Pb exposure through consumption of shot mammals. There were 3.4-fold more avian scavengers at shooting fields relative to those at fields with no recent shooting, and avian scavengers spent 1.8-fold more time feeding after recent shooting events. We isotopically labeled shot ground squirrels in the field with an enriched 15N isotope tracer; 6% of avian scavengers sampled within a 39 km radius reflected this tracer in their blood. However, 33% of the avian scavengers within the average foraging dispersal distance of nests (0.6-3.7 km) were labeled, demonstrating the importance of these shooting fields as a source of food for birds nesting in close proximity. Additionally, Pb concentrations in 48% of avian scavengers exceeded subclinical poisoning benchmarks for sensitive species (0.03-0.20 µg/g w/w), and those birds exhibited reduced δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, indicating a biochemical effect of Pb. The use of shooting to manage small mammal pests is a common practice globally. Efforts that can reduce the use of Pb-based ammunition may lessen the negative physiological effects of Pb exposure on avian scavengers.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación por Plomo , Plomo , Animales , Aves , Peces , Mamíferos
15.
Oecologia ; 197(2): 501-509, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482439

RESUMEN

Migration can modify interaction dynamics between parasites and their hosts with migrant hosts able to disperse parasites and impact local community transmission. Thus, studying the relationships among migratory hosts and their parasites is fundamental to elucidate how migration shapes host-parasite interactions. Avian haemosporidians are some of the most prevalent and diverse group of wildlife parasites and are also widely studied as models in ecological and evolutionary research. Here, we contrast partner fidelity, network centrality and parasite taxonomic composition among resident and non-resident avian hosts using presence/absence data on haemosporidians parasitic in South American birds as study model. We ran multilevel Bayesian models to assess the role of migration in determining partner fidelity (i.e., normalized degree) and centrality (i.e., weighted closeness) in host-parasite networks of avian hosts and their respective haemosporidian parasites. In addition, to evaluate parasite taxonomic composition, we performed permutational multivariate analyses of variance to quantify dissimilarity in haemosporidian lineages infecting different host migratory categories. We observed similar partner fidelity and parasite taxonomic composition among resident and migratory hosts. Conversely, we demonstrate that migratory hosts play a more central role in host-parasite networks than residents. However, when evaluating partially and fully migratory hosts separately, we observed that only partially migratory species presented higher network centrality when compared to resident birds. Therefore, migration does not lead to differences in both partner fidelity and parasite taxonomic composition. However, migratory behavior is positively associated with network centrality, indicating migratory hosts play more important roles in shaping host-parasite interactions and influence local transmission.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves , Haemosporida , Parásitos , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Aves , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Filogenia
16.
Oecologia ; 197(2): 387-394, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498168

RESUMEN

Adaptive hypotheses for the evolution of group foraging in animals typically invoke enhanced foraging efficiency and reduced predation risk. Net benefits of group foraging in different species should translate into a survival advantage for group members. Despite numerous interspecific studies in birds and mammals, few have documented a survival advantage for group foraging species. Using a large dataset in birds (> 1100 species worldwide), I investigated whether annual adult apparent survival was higher in species that forage in flocks than in solitary species. Using a phylogenetic framework to account for relatedness among species and controlling for known correlates of adult survival in birds such as body size, clutch size, latitude, and diet, I documented a positive effect of flocking on annual adult apparent survival. The increase in survival was less pronounced in occasionally flocking species suggesting that the benefits of group foraging can depend on the frequency of its use. The results highlight how group foraging can increase fitness in animals.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Conducta Social , Animales , Tamaño de la Nidada , Filogenia , Conducta Predatoria
17.
Oecologia ; 197(2): 437-446, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550444

RESUMEN

Stochasticity in food availability influences vital rates such as survival and fertility. Life-history theory predicts that in long-lived organisms, survival should be buffered against environmental stochasticity showing little temporal variability. Furthermore, to optimize survival prospects, many animal species perform migrations to wintering areas where food availability is larger. Species with large latitudinal distribution ranges may show populations that migrate and others that are resident, and they may co-occur in winter. One example of these species is the predatory raptor buzzard Buteo buteo. Here, we test whether temporal variability in the density of five small mammal species of prey inhabiting different habitats (shrubland and forests) influences local annual survival of buzzards in a wintering area depending on their age and residency status (residents versus wintering individuals). We found that prey density explained a considerable amount of annual changes in local survival, which was higher for older and resident birds. This difference in local survival likely corresponded to philopatry to the wintering area, which was larger for residents and increased when prey density was larger. The total density of prey inhabiting open shrublands was the variable explaining more variance in temporal variability of local survival, even though the study area is mostly occupied by woodlands. Temporal population dynamics of the different small mammals inhabiting shrublands were not synchronous, which suggests that buzzards preyed opportunistically on the most abundant prey each winter. Generalist predation may buffer the impact of resource unpredictability for pulsed and asynchronous prey dynamics, typical of small mammals in winter.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Predatoria , Rapaces , Animales , Aves , Cadena Alimentaria , Dinámica Poblacional , Estaciones del Año
18.
Oecologia ; 197(2): 395-409, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550445

RESUMEN

Animals explore and prospect space searching for resources and individuals may disperse, targeting suitable patches to increase fitness. Nevertheless, dispersal is costly because it implies leaving the patch where the individual has gathered information and reduced uncertainty. In social species, information gathered during the prospection process for deciding whether and where to disperse is not only personal but also public, i.e. conspecific density and breeding performance. In empty patches, public information is not available and dispersal for colonisation would be more challenging. Here we study the prospecting in a metapopulation of colonial Audouin's gulls using PTT platform terminal transmitters tagging for up to 4 years and GPS tagging during the incubation period. A large percentage of birds (65%) prospected occupied patches; strikingly, 62% of prospectors also visited empty patches that were colonised in later years. Frequency and intensity of prospecting were higher for failed breeders, who dispersed more than successful breeders. Prospecting and dispersal also occurred mostly to neighbouring patches where population density was higher. GPSs revealed that many breeders (59%) prospected while actively incubating, which suggests that they gathered information before knowing the fate of their reproduction. Prospecting may be enhanced in species adapted to breed in ephemeral habitats, such as Audouin's gulls. Interestingly, none of the tracked individuals colonised an empty patch despite having prospected over a period of up to three consecutive years. Lack of public information in empty patches may drive extended prospecting, long time delays in colonisation and non-linear transient phenomena in metapopulation dynamics and species range expansion.


Asunto(s)
Charadriiformes , Distribución Animal , Animales , Aves , Cruzamiento , Ecosistema , Densidad de Población , Dinámica Poblacional , Reproducción
19.
Behav Processes ; 192: 104496, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492324

RESUMEN

A tail of conspicuous coloration is hypothesized to be an advantageous trait for many species of lizards. Predator attacks would be directed to a non-vital, and autotomizable, body part, increasing the chance of survival. However, as body size increases it also increases the signaling area that could attract predators from greater distances, increasing the overall chance of predation. Here, we test the hypothesis that there is a trade-off between tail color and size, affecting predation probabilities. We used plasticine replicas of lizards to study the predation patterns of small and large lizards with red and blue tails. In a natural environment, we exposed six hundred replicas to the attacks of free-ranging predators. Large red-tailed replicas were more attacked by birds. Mammals and unidentified predators showed no preference for any size or colors. The attacks were not primarily directed to conspicuous tails when compared to the bodies/heads of our replicas. Our study suggests that red color signals in large lizards could enhance their detection by visually oriented predators (i.e., birds). The efficacy of conspicuous tails as a decoy may rely on associated behavioral displays, which are hard to test with static replicas.


Asunto(s)
Lagartos , Animales , Aves , Pigmentación , Conducta Predatoria
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5335, 2021 09 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521829

RESUMEN

Mass extinctions have repeatedly shaped global biodiversity. The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction caused the demise of numerous vertebrate groups, and its aftermath saw the rapid diversification of surviving mammals, birds, frogs, and teleost fishes. However, the effects of the K-Pg extinction on the evolution of snakes-a major clade of predators comprising over 3,700 living species-remains poorly understood. Here, we combine an extensive molecular dataset with phylogenetically and stratigraphically constrained fossil calibrations to infer an evolutionary timescale for Serpentes. We reveal a potential diversification among crown snakes associated with the K-Pg mass extinction, led by the successful colonisation of Asia by the major extant clade Afrophidia. Vertebral morphometrics suggest increasing morphological specialisation among marine snakes through the Paleogene. The dispersal patterns of snakes following the K-Pg underscore the importance of this mass extinction event in shaping Earth's extant vertebrate faunas.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal/fisiología , Extinción Biológica , Especiación Genética , Filogenia , Serpientes/clasificación , Anfibios , Animales , Biodiversidad , Aves , ADN Antiguo/análisis , Peces , Fósiles/historia , Historia Antigua , Mamíferos , Filogeografía , Serpientes/anatomía & histología , Serpientes/genética
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