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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10668, 2024 05 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724593

RESUMEN

Currently food fraud and authenticity of products composition are topics of great concern; ingredients quantification could allow to identify small amounts of contaminats or voluntary addition of improper components. Many molecular methods are available for species identification in foodstuffs but, for a better application, they should not be affected by the interference of other ingredients. The main purpose of this work was to verify the Real Time PCR and the Digital PCR (dPCR) quantification performances on baby food samples, specifically selected for their high miscibility to limit variability; chicken was selected as target to verify the performance of quantification of methods after having spiked the same quantity in different baby foods. The other aims were: (1) to verify a constant genome copies ratio existence between mammalian and avian species (2) to verify the dPCR performance, set up on housekeeping, to quantify mammalian and avian species in commercial products. Digital PCR showed fewer differences respect to Real Time PCR, at the same 15% w/w chicken spiking level. Despite the constant difference between mammalian and avian genome copies, in samples with the same spiking weight, the confidence intervals increasing towards the extreme values, made impossible to use genome copies ratio as a sort of correction factor between species. Finally, the dPCR system using the myostatin housekeeping gene to determine the chicken content seemed reliable to verify the labelling compliance in meat-based commercial products.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Animales , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Pollos/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Aves/genética , Carne/análisis , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303207, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728355

RESUMEN

This paper introduces a novel and improved double-resistor damped double-tuned passive power filter (DR-DDTF), designed using multi-objective optimization algorithms to mitigate harmonics and increase the hosting capacity of distribution systems with distributed energy resources. Although four different topologies of single-resistor damped double-tuned filters (DDTFs) have been studied before in the literature, the effectiveness of two different DR-DDTF configurations has not been examined. This work redresses this gap by demonstrating that via comprehensive simulations on two power systems, DR-DDTF provides better harmonic suppression and resonance mitigation than single-resistor alternatives. When it comes to optimizing the DR-DDTF for maximum hosting capacity and minimum system active power losses, the multi-objective artificial hummingbird outperformed six other algorithms in the benchmark. To allow for higher penetration of distributed generation without requiring grid upgrades, this newly developed harmonic mitigation filter provides a good alternative.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Animales , Aves/fisiología , Suministros de Energía Eléctrica , Simulación por Computador , Modelos Teóricos
3.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(5): e285-e296, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729669

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An increasing body of research has examined the link between biodiversity of birds and human mental health, but most studies only use cross-sectional data. Few studies have used longitudinal or repeated cross-sectional data to investigate the mental health benefits of bird diversity. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between bird diversity and mental health at the national level using a unique repeated cross-sectional dataset. METHODS: I used repeated cross-sectional health data from the German National Cohort health study, collected between March, 2014, and September, 2019, and annual bird citizen science data to investigate the effects of bird-diversity exposure on mental health. Mental health was measured using the summary score of the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module 9 (SumPHQ) and the Short Form Health Survey-12 Mental Health Component Scale. As a proxy for bird diversity, I created a unique indicator called reporting-rate richness and combined it with the health data. Reporting-rate richness measures the number of bird species within postcode areas across Germany in probabilities while accounting for variation in survey efforts. Alternative indicators of bird diversity, such as bird-species richness or abundance, were also calculated. Associations between bird diversity and mental health were estimated using linear regression with region and time fixed effects, adjusted for a range of sociodemographic and environmental confounders and spatial autocorrelation. Interaction terms between income levels and reporting-rate richness were also analysed to examine the moderating effect of socioeconomic status. FINDINGS: I did the analyses for an unbalanced (n=176 362) and balanced (n=125 423) dataset, with the balanced dataset comprising only regions (postcode areas) in which health data were available for each year. The linear fixed-effects regression analysis indicated a significant negative association between reporting-rate richness and SumPHQ, as observed in both the unbalanced dataset (ß -0·02, p=0·017) and the balanced dataset (ß -0·03, p=0·0037). Similarly, regression results with both datasets showed a positive relationship between reporting-rate richness and Mental Health Component Scale (MCS; unbalanced ß 0·02, p=0·0086; balanced ß 0·03, p=0·0018). The moderator analyses revealed a significant influence of socioeconomic status on the relationship between reporting-rate richness and mental health. The robustness of these findings was confirmed through sensitivity analyses. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest that a greater likelihood of having many different bird species in a person's area of residence might positively contribute to mental health, especially for people with lower socioeconomic status. These findings could have implications for biodiversity conservation and health policy decisions, as governments are facing challenges such as global biodiversity loss and growing public mental health problems. FUNDING: None.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Aves , Salud Mental , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales , Alemania , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Anciano , Adulto Joven
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1385599, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741893

RESUMEN

Avian haemosporidian parasites are useful model organisms to study the ecology and evolution of parasite-host interactions due to their global distribution and extensive biodiversity. Detection of these parasites has evolved from microscopic examination to PCR-based methods, with the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene serving as barcoding region. However, standard PCR protocols used for screening and identification purposes have limitations in detecting mixed infections and generating phylogenetically informative data due to short amplicon lengths. To address these issues, we developed a novel genus-specific nested PCR protocol targeting avian haemosporidian parasites. The protocol underwent rigorous testing utilizing a large dataset comprising blood samples from Malagasy birds of three distinct Passeriformes families. Furthermore, validation was done by examining smaller datasets in two other laboratories employing divergent master mixes and different bird species. Comparative analyses were conducted between the outcomes of the novel PCR protocol and those obtained through the widely used standard nested PCR method. The novel protocol enables specific identification of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus), and Leucocytozoon parasites. The analyses demonstrated comparable sensitivity to the standard nested PCR with notable improvements in detecting mixed infections. In addition, phylogenetic resolution is improved by amplification of longer fragments, leading to a better understanding of the haemosporidian biodiversity and evolution. Overall, the novel protocol represents a valuable addition to avian haemosporidian detection methodologies, facilitating comprehensive studies on parasite ecology, epidemiology, and evolution.


Asunto(s)
Haemosporida , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales , Animales , Haemosporida/genética , Haemosporida/aislamiento & purificación , Haemosporida/clasificación , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/diagnóstico , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/parasitología , Enfermedades de las Aves/parasitología , Enfermedades de las Aves/diagnóstico , Aves/parasitología , Filogenia , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Passeriformes/parasitología , ADN Protozoario/genética
5.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 20(1): 51, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745225

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Due to early synanthropization and ecological and behavioural features, the White Stork Ciconia ciconia became the most cherished of European birds. Rooted in human culture, the species has been well studied; nevertheless, knowledge of people's attitudes and stork-related folk beliefs remain descriptive. Here, we attempt to quantify these issues in the world's largest stronghold of the species, Poland, in the 1950s. METHODS: The study is based on recently discovered, original nationwide survey data from the 1958 International White Stork Census. These materials were gathered to assess the population size, but they also included issues belonging to the humanities. We have worked them up in a quantitative manner, which has resulted in an original approach rarely found in ethnological studies. We aim to propose an original typology of stork-related beliefs, their spread and regional diversity in Poland and the relationship with stork abundance. RESULTS: A sample of 2343 questionnaires revealed that affection towards storks was widespread (91.4% positive responses), more so in eastern Poland. The most frequent beliefs relate to respect for the stork (65%) and prophesies (24%), thereafter parental beliefs (7%) and stork biology (3%). Positive attitudes and the dissemination of beliefs increased with stork densities but were unrelated to the respondents' sex. Utilitarian beliefs outweighed those prioritized in ethnographic studies (e.g. the stork's human origins) or popular today (baby-bringing), and expressed the real concerns of country folk. CONCLUSIONS: The discovery of long-lost data bordering on ethnology and nature conservation and their novel work-up highlights a realistic dimension of the human-nature relationship and provides a benchmark for further interdisciplinary research.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Polonia , Humanos , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Población Rural , Cultura , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conocimiento
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10379, 2024 05 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710783

RESUMEN

Citizen science (CS) is the most effective tool for overcoming the limitations of government and/or professional data collection. To compensate for quantitative limitations of the 'Winter Waterbird Census of Korea', we conducted a total of four bird monitoring via CS from 2021 to 2022. To use CS data alongside national data, we studied CS data quality and improvement utilizing (1) digit-based analysis using Benford's law and (2) comparative analysis with national data. In addition, we performed bird community analysis using CS-specific data, demonstrating the necessity of CS. Neither CS nor the national data adhered to Benford's law. Alpha diversity (number of species and Shannon index) was lower, and total beta diversity was higher for the CS data than national data. Regarding the observed bird community, the number of species per family was similar; however, the number of individuals per family/species differed. We also identified the necessity of CS by confirming the possibility of predicting bird communities using CS-specific data. CS was influenced by various factors, including the perceptions of the survey participants and their level of experience. Therefore, conducting CS after systematic training can facilitate the collection of higher-quality data.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Censos , Ciencia Ciudadana , Animales , Aves/fisiología , República de Corea , Biodiversidad
7.
Sci Prog ; 107(2): 368504241245222, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745552

RESUMEN

A significant body of evidence indicates that climate change is influencing many aspects of avian ecology. Yet, how climate change is affecting, and is expected to influence some aspects of the breeding ecology of cavity-nesting birds remains uncertain. To explore the potential linkage between timing of first clutch, and the influence of ambient temperature on hatching success, we used Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) nest records over a nine-year period from Alabama, USA. We investigated changes to annual clutch initiation dates, as well as variability in hatching success associated with ambient air temperatures during the incubation period. Using a simple linear model, we observed earlier annual egg laying dates over the nine years of this study with a difference of 24 days between earliest egg-laying date of the season. Daily temperature minima increased 2 °C across the nine-year time frame of this study. These data also indicate that Eastern Bluebird hatching success was the highest when mean ambient air temperature during incubation was between 19 °C and 24 °C (78%, as opposed to 69% and 68% above and below this temperature range, respectively). Our findings of increasing maxima, earlier maxima each year, and the lower minima of temperatures within our study area could expand the breadth of temperatures experienced by nesting Eastern Bluebirds possibly exposing them to temperatures outside of what promotes nesting success. These findings with a cavity-nesting bird highlight an optimal range of ambient temperatures associated with highest hatching success, conditions likely to be affected by climate change.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Comportamiento de Nidificación , Temperatura , Animales , Comportamiento de Nidificación/fisiología , Reproducción/fisiología , Pájaros Cantores/fisiología , Alabama , Estaciones del Año , Aves/fisiología
8.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1368017, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746003

RESUMEN

Background: Biodiversity has been recognized as a positive contributor to human health and wellbeing. Cardiovascular disease and cancer are the two most significant global health burdens, and understanding their relationship with biodiversity forms an essential step toward promoting biodiversity conservation and human health. Methods: The species richness of birds is a common indicator of biodiversity, given their vast numbers, distinctive distribution, and acute sensitivity to environmental disturbances. This ecological study utilized avian observation data derived from the eBird database, human health data from the International Health Metrics and Evaluation, and county-level statistics, including population characteristics, socio-economics, healthcare service, residential environment, and geographic and climatic characteristics in 2014. We aimed to extensively explore the individual associations between biodiversity (i.e., avian species richness) and age-standardized cause-specific mortalities for different types of cancers (29 conditions) and cardiovascular diseases (10 conditions) across the United States (US). Results: Our multiple regression analyses that adjusted for a variety of socio-demographic and geographical factors showed that increased rarefied species richness of birds was associated with reduced mortality rates for three of the five most common cancers, namely, tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer, breast cancer (in women only), and colon and rectal cancer. For cardiovascular conditions, a similar relationship was observed for ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease-the two most frequent causes of mortality. This study provided extended details regarding the beneficial effects of biodiversity on human health.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Aves , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidad , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Femenino , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Animales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Adulto
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(2): e20230901, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747839

RESUMEN

Fishermen-hunter-gatherers of sambaquis (Brazilian shell mounds) had an intimate affinity with marine-coastal environments, where they exploited a great variety of fish and mollusks that comprise the best documented fauna from sambaquis. However, other groups of animals as mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians are also present in these sites, but are relatively less studied. This paper is the first one focused exclusively on the Tetrapoda biodiversity of sambaquis and aimed to identify tetrapods of ten sites from southern Brazil. We present a faunal inventory and data regarding animal capture and environmental exploitation. We identified the specimens anatomically and taxonomically, analyzed them concerning fragmentation, and quantified the data for the number of identified specimens (NISP) and minimum number of individuals (MNI). Despite the high degree of fragmentation of remains, we identified 46 taxa. As expected, most were from marine animals: cetaceans (total NISP = 2,568 and MNI = 27), otariids (total NISP = 248 and MNI = 32), and seabirds (total NISP = 65 and MNI = 23), indicating great relevance of marine tetrapod fauna as a resource for sambaqui builders (79.39% of NISP). We thus document the close bond between fishermen-hunter-gatherers of sambaquis and the marine tetrapods in southern Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Animales , Brasil , Aves/clasificación , Reptiles/clasificación , Cetáceos/clasificación
10.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(6): 164, 2024 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710854

RESUMEN

Edible bird's nest (EBN), a most highly priced and valuable foodstuff, contains high percentage of proteins and carbohydrates. However, proteins adhering to these carbohydrates make the EBN hard and tough, which need to be boiled as the bird's nest soup to make the Chinese cuisine. To overcome the hard and tough texture of EBN and improve the digestion degrees, the present study screened and identified a probiotic strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens YZW02 from 5-year stored EBN sample completely solubilizing EBN for the first time. The 24-h B. amyloliquefaciens fermented EBN contained 20.30-21.48 mg/mL of the soluble protein contents with a recovery rate of 98-100%, DPPH radical scavenging rate of 84.76% and ABTS radical scavenging capacity of 41.05%. The mixed fermentation of B. amyloliquefaciens YZW02 and Bacillus natto BN1 were further applied to improve the low-MW peptide percentages and antioxidant activities. The mixed-fermentation of B. natto BN1 with 4-h cultured B. amyloliquefaciens YZW02 had the lowest percentage (82.23%) of >12-kDa proteins/peptides and highest percentages of 3-12 kDa, 1-3 kDa and 0.1-1 kDa peptides of 8.6% ± 0.08, 7.57% ± 0.09, 1.77% ± 0.05 and 0.73% ± 0.05, with the highest DPPH, ABTS and •OH scavenging capacity of 90.23%, 46.45% and 49.12%, respectively. These findings would provide an efficient strategy for improving the solubility and antioxidant activities of EBNs.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , Aves , Fermentación , Probióticos , Solubilidad , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/química , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Animales , Probióticos/química , Probióticos/metabolismo , Aves/microbiología
12.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300862, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739614

RESUMEN

Influenza A viruses of the H2 subtype represent a zoonotic and pandemic threat to humans due to a lack of widespread specific immunity. Although A(H2) viruses that circulate in wild bird reservoirs are distinct from the 1957 pandemic A(H2N2) viruses, there is concern that they could impact animal and public health. There is limited information on AIVs in Latin America, and next to nothing about H2 subtypes in Brazil. In the present study, we report the occurrence and genomic sequences of two influenza A viruses isolated from wild-caught white-rumped sandpipers (Calidris fuscicollis). One virus, identified as A(H2N1), was isolated from a bird captured in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (PNRJ, Rio de Janeiro), while the other, identified as A(H2N2), was isolated from a bird captured in Lagoa do Peixe National Park (PNLP, Rio Grande do Sul). DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences revealed that each virus belonged to distinct subtypes. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genomic sequence of the A(H2N1) virus isolated from PNRJ was most closely related to other A(H2N1) viruses isolated from North American birds. On the other hand, the A(H2N2) virus genome recovered from the PNLP-captured bird exhibited a more diverse origin, with some sequences closely related to viruses from Iceland and North America, and others showing similarity to virus sequences recovered from birds in South America. Viral genes of diverse origins were identified in one of the viruses, indicating local reassortment. This suggests that the extreme South of Brazil may serve as an environment conducive to reassortment between avian influenza virus lineages from North and South America, potentially contributing to an increase in overall viral diversity.


Asunto(s)
Charadriiformes , Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Aviar , Filogenia , Virus Reordenados , Animales , Brasil , Gripe Aviar/virología , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Virus de la Influenza A/aislamiento & purificación , Virus Reordenados/genética , Virus Reordenados/aislamiento & purificación , Charadriiformes/virología , Genoma Viral , Aves/virología
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10435, 2024 05 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714737

RESUMEN

During takeoff and landing, birds bounce and grab with their legs and feet. In this paper,the lower limb structure of the bionic bird is designed with reference to the function of jumping and grasping, and the PID algorithm based on the development module of stm32 development board is used to speed control the lower limb driving element, so that the motor and the bishaft steering gear move with the rate change of sine wave. According to the speed of grasping response time and the size of grasping force, the structure of the bionic bird paw is designed. Based on the photosensitive sensor fixed in the geometric center of the foot, the grasping action of the lower limb mechanism is intelligently controlled. Finally, the kinematic verification of the lower limb structure is carried out by ADAMS. Experiments show that the foot structure with four toes and three toes is more conducive to maintaining the stability of the body while realizing the fast grasping function. In addition, it can effectively improve the push-lift ratio of the bionic ornithopter by adjusting the sinusoidal waveform rate of the motor speed.


Asunto(s)
Biónica , Aves , Animales , Aves/fisiología , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Algoritmos , Diseño de Equipo , Vuelo Animal/fisiología
14.
J Morphol ; 285(5): e21703, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720627

RESUMEN

Complex morphological structures, such as skulls or limbs, are often composed of multiple morphological components (e.g., bones, sets of bones) that may evolve in a covaried manner with one another. Previous research has reached differing conclusions on the number of semi-independent units, or modules, that exist in the evolution of structures and on the strength of the covariation, or integration, between these hypothesized modules. We focus on the avian skull as an example of a complex morphological structure for which highly variable conclusions have been reached in the numerous studies analyzing support for a range of simple to complex modularity hypotheses. We hypothesized that past discrepancies may stem from both the differing densities of data used to analyze support for modularity hypotheses and the differing taxonomic levels of study. To test these hypotheses, we applied a comparative method to 3D geometric morphometric data collected from the skulls of a diverse order of birds (the Charadriiformes) to test support for 11 distinct hypotheses of modular skull evolution. Across all Charadriiformes, our analyses suggested that charadriiform skull evolution has been characterized by the semi-independent, but still correlated, evolution of the beak from the rest of the skull. When we adjusted the density of our morphometric data, this result held, but the strength of the signal varied substantially. Additionally, when we analyzed subgroups within the order in isolation, we found support for distinct hypotheses between subgroups. Taken together, these results suggest that differences in the methodology of past work (i.e., statistical method and data density) as well as clade-specific dynamics may be the reasons past studies have reached varying conclusions.


Asunto(s)
Pico , Evolución Biológica , Cráneo , Animales , Pico/anatomía & histología , Cráneo/anatomía & histología , Aves/anatomía & histología , Charadriiformes/anatomía & histología , Filogenia
15.
PeerJ ; 12: e17235, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708337

RESUMEN

The low survival rate of leverets may significantly contribute to steep population declines and slow recovery of European hares (Lepus europaeus). However, the leveret survival rate in farmlands with different landscape structures is poorly understood, and the existing evidence comes mainly from Western Europe. In this study, we explored the survival of leveret hare dummies along linear semi-natural habitats in homogeneous Central European arable farmland during the main part of the European hare reproduction period (March-April) in 2019 and 2020. The survival rate of hare leverets during the 14-day period was only 22.2%, and all predation events were recorded during the first six days of the experiment. Mammalian predators were responsible for 53.1% of predation events, avian predators for 40.8%, and agricultural operations for 6.1%. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was the dominant predator in our study area and was the primary cause of leveret dummy mortality (32.7%), but it also had the highest use-intensity and visit frequency of all of the study plots. Predation by avian predators was associated with patches of lower vegetation height and cover (such as plowed fields) and during daylight hours, whereas the opposite was true for mammalian predators. We propose that improving the habitat quality of arable landscapes by increasing the proportion and quality of extensively used non-farmed habitats (e.g., set-asides, wildflower areas, extensive meadows, fallow land, and semi-natural habitats on arable land) providing cover and shelter for leverets could be an effective management measure for reducing predation risk on leverets.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Liebres , Conducta Predatoria , Animales , Granjas , Dinámica Poblacional , Aves , Zorros , Europa (Continente) , Agricultura
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 520, 2024 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713379

RESUMEN

Salt marshes pose challenges for the birds that inhabit them, including high rates of nest flooding, tipping, and predation. The impacts of rising sea levels and invasive species further exacerbate these challenges. To assess the urgency of conservation and adequacy of new actions, researchers and wildlife managers may use population viability analyses (PVAs) to identify population trends and major threats. We conducted PVA for Formicivora acutirostris, which is a threatened neotropical bird species endemic to salt marshes. We studied the species' demography in different sectors of an estuary in southern Brazil from 2006 to 2023 and estimated the sex ratio, longevity, productivity, first-year survival, and mortality rates. For a 133-year period, starting in 1990, we modeled four scenarios: (1) pessimistic and (2) optimistic scenarios, including the worst and best values for the parameters; (3) a baseline scenario, with intermediate values; and (4) scenarios under conservation management, with increased recruitment and/or habitat preservation. Projections indicated population decline for all assessment scenarios, with a 100% probability of extinction by 2054 in the pessimistic scenario and no extinction in the optimistic scenario. The conservation scenarios indicated population stability with 16% improvement in productivity, 10% improvement in first-year survival, and stable carrying capacity. The disjunct distribution of the species, with remnants concentrated in a broad interface with arboreal habitats, may seal the population decline by increasing nest predation. The species should be considered conservation dependent, and we recommend assisted colonization, predator control, habitat recovery, and ex situ conservation.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Dinámica Poblacional , Humedales , Animales , Brasil , Extinción Biológica , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Aves , Ecosistema
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10285, 2024 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704404

RESUMEN

High pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) poses a significant threat to both domestic and wild birds globally. The avian influenza virus, known for environmental contamination and subsequent oral infection in birds, necessitates careful consideration of alternative introduction routes during HPAI outbreaks. This study focuses on blowflies (genus Calliphora), in particular Calliphora nigribarbis, attracted to decaying animals and feces, which migrate to lowland areas of Japan from northern or mountainous regions in early winter, coinciding with HPAI season. Our investigation aims to delineate the role of blowflies as HPAI vectors by conducting a virus prevalence survey in a wild bird HPAI-enzootic area. In December 2022, 648 Calliphora nigribarbis were collected. Influenza virus RT-PCR testing identified 14 virus-positive samples (2.2% prevalence), with the highest occurrence observed near the crane colony (14.9%). Subtyping revealed the presence of H5N1 and HxN1 in some samples. Subsequent collections in December 2023 identified one HPAI virus-positive specimen from 608 collected flies in total, underscoring the potential involvement of blowflies in HPAI transmission. Our observations suggest C. nigribarbis may acquire the HPAI virus from deceased wild birds directly or from fecal materials from infected birds, highlighting the need to add blowflies as a target of HPAI vector control.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Gripe Aviar , Animales , Japón/epidemiología , Gripe Aviar/virología , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , Gripe Aviar/transmisión , Aves/virología , Insectos Vectores/virología , Calliphoridae , Subtipo H5N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/patogenicidad , Subtipo H5N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Heces/virología
19.
Ecol Lett ; 27(5): e14430, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714364

RESUMEN

Wintering birds serve as vital climate sentinels, yet they are often overlooked in studies of avian diversity change. Here, we provide a continental-scale characterization of change in multifaceted wintering avifauna and examine the effects of climate change on these dynamics. We reveal a strong functional reorganization of wintering bird communities marked by a north-south gradient in functional diversity change, along with a superimposed mild east-west gradient in trait composition change. Assemblages in the northern United States saw contractions of the functional space and increases in functional evenness and originality, while the southern United States saw smaller contractions of the functional space and stasis in evenness and originality. Shifts in functional diversity were underlined by significant reshuffling in trait composition, particularly pronounced in the western and northern United States. Finally, we find strong contributions of climate change to this functional reorganization, underscoring the importance of wintering birds in tracking climate change impacts on biodiversity.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Aves , Cambio Climático , Estaciones del Año , Animales , Aves/fisiología , Estados Unidos
20.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1352022, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698856

RESUMEN

The complement system is an innate immune mechanism against microbial infections. It involves a cascade of effector molecules that is activated via classical, lectin and alternative pathways. Consequently, many pathogens bind to or incorporate in their structures host negative regulators of the complement pathways as an evasion mechanism. Factor H (FH) is a negative regulator of the complement alternative pathway that protects "self" cells of the host from non-specific complement attack. FH has been shown to bind viruses including human influenza A viruses (IAVs). In addition to its involvement in the regulation of complement activation, FH has also been shown to perform a range of functions on its own including its direct interaction with pathogens. Here, we show that human FH can bind directly to IAVs of both human and avian origin, and the interaction is mediated via the IAV surface glycoprotein haemagglutinin (HA). HA bound to common pathogen binding footprints on the FH structure, complement control protein modules, CCP 5-7 and CCP 15-20. The FH binding to H1 and H3 showed that the interaction overlapped with the receptor binding site of both HAs, but the footprint was more extensive for the H3 HA than the H1 HA. The HA - FH interaction impeded the initial entry of H1N1 and H3N2 IAV strains but its impact on viral multicycle replication in human lung cells was strain-specific. The H3N2 virus binding to cells was significantly inhibited by preincubation with FH, whereas there was no alteration in replicative rate and progeny virus release for human H1N1, or avian H9N2 and H5N3 IAV strains. We have mapped the interaction between FH and IAV, the in vivo significance of which for the virus or host is yet to be elucidated.


Asunto(s)
Factor H de Complemento , Glicoproteínas Hemaglutininas del Virus de la Influenza , Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana , Unión Proteica , Humanos , Factor H de Complemento/metabolismo , Factor H de Complemento/inmunología , Animales , Gripe Humana/inmunología , Gripe Humana/virología , Gripe Humana/metabolismo , Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Virus de la Influenza A/fisiología , Glicoproteínas Hemaglutininas del Virus de la Influenza/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas Hemaglutininas del Virus de la Influenza/inmunología , Sitios de Unión , Gripe Aviar/virología , Gripe Aviar/inmunología , Gripe Aviar/metabolismo , Aves/virología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Subtipo H3N2 del Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología , Subtipo H9N2 del Virus de la Influenza A/inmunología
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