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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(686): 522-524, 2020 Mar 18.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186796

RESUMEN

Sex needs recognition and synchronization. Many levels are found, from chemical cell recognition to mirror neurons which anticipate actions and emotions of a partner. Some animals recognize species, but not sex. Many more recognize sex, but not individuals. Individualized sex and/or social relations are only found in birds and mammals. Imprinting defines sex objects and goals, stereotyped or flexible, according to species. In humans, sex imprinting conditions sex orientation, practices and response to contradictory prescriptions of personal drives, social rules, fashion, medias and life history's contingencies.


Asunto(s)
Aves/fisiología , Mamíferos/fisiología , Preferencia en el Apareamiento Animal , Animales , Emociones , Humanos , Neuronas Espejo/fisiología , Caracteres Sexuales , Especificidad de la Especie
2.
Naturwissenschaften ; 107(2): 12, 2020 Feb 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108908

RESUMEN

Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms responsible for maintenance of host-specific gentes in the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Some of them expect that when adult cuckoos return to lay their eggs to their natal site (natal philopatry hypothesis) or habitat in which they were reared (habitat-imprinting hypothesis), there is a higher probability of finding nests of the host species by which they were reared. Since published evidence is ambiguous, we here evaluate the natal philopatry and habitat-imprinting hypotheses using information on habitat homogeneity and cross-continental long-term ringing data. We found no evidence for the natal philopatry hypothesis-instead of returning to their natal site, juvenile cuckoos exhibited longer dispersal movements than adults, and the difference was even larger in comparison with a wide array of cuckoo host species. On the contrary, we found support for the habitat-imprinting hypothesis-juvenile cuckoos followed similar levels of natal habitat homogeneity at 5- and 25-km scale when returning to breed in the next years. Our results suggest that preference for the particular habitat structures may help cuckoos to find appropriate hosts.


Asunto(s)
Aves/fisiología , Ecosistema , Especificidad del Huésped , Parásitos/fisiología , Animales
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134503, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726342

RESUMEN

As populations of White Stork Ciconia ciconia have decreased at different rates in Europe, the specific environmental drivers that influence breeding success are a matter of controversy. Here we use body size, blood, and environmental data of a total of 1226 stork nestlings of different ages from a total of 363 nests in three different habitats (meadows, forest-edges, open agricultural landscapes) in S-W Poland to ask whether: 1) natural grassland environments increase the reproductive output in comparison with agricultural landscapes, 2) nestlings from agricultural landscapes differ in health status from nestlings in more natural habitats, 3) differences in environmental stress translate into respective differences in reproductive output and health status of nestlings. There was no significant difference in age corrected body mass and in the temporal increase in nestling mass between the study sites. Clutch sizes were highest and age corrected total clutch mass lowest at the meadow sites while agricultural and woodland sites did not significantly differ. Hemoglobin and red blood cell content were lowest and white blood cell and blood antioxidant concentrations were highest in the meadows indicating higher degrees of environmental stressors. These blood parameters varied strongly among study years. Our study does not confirm that agricultural landscapes are less suited for stork breeding success. We even find some indication of a better health status of nestlings in agricultural environments that might compensate smaller clutch sizes. Our data indicate that reproductive output is multifaceted. As we found some indication of a trade-off between clutch size and health status we argue that only multiple metrics of reproductive success are able to assess the long-term effect of habitat choice on fitness.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Aves/fisiología , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Reproducción , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Polonia
4.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 31(1): 1-18, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724447

RESUMEN

Ecological risk assessment is challenged by the need to assess hazard to the diverse communities of organisms inhabiting aquatic and terrestrial systems. Computational approaches, such as Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) and Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) models, are useful tools that provide estimates of acute toxicity where data are lacking or limited for ecological risk assessments (ERA). This review describes the technical basis of ICE models for use in pesticide ERA that may be used in conjunction with QSAR model estimates or surrogate species toxicity data and demonstrates the potential for improving hazard assessment. Validation and uncertainty analysis of ICE model predictions are summarized and used as guidance for selecting ICE models and evaluating toxicity predictions. A user-friendly web-based ICE modelling platform (Web-ICE) is described and demonstrated through case studies. Case studies include the development of Species Sensitivity Distributions generated from QSAR and ICE estimates, comparative sensitivity for a pesticide and its degradate, and application of ICE-estimated toxicity values for listed species assessments.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas/efectos adversos , Relación Estructura-Actividad Cuantitativa , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/efectos adversos , Animales , Aves/fisiología , Crustáceos/efectos de los fármacos , Peces/fisiología , Mamíferos/fisiología , Microalgas/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Teóricos , Medición de Riesgo , Especificidad de la Especie , Incertidumbre
5.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 1-19, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759441

RESUMEN

The avian kidney contains both cortical or reptilian and medullary or mammalian nephrons. The kidney filters up to 11 times the total body water daily. Approximately 95% of this volume is reabsorbed by tubular reabsorption, which likely results from a change in the rate of filtration and/or the rate of reabsorption. These changes can result because of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasotocin. The urinary concentrating ability generally varies inversely with body mass; however, birds can concentrate their urine, often at 2 to 3 times the osmolality of plasma. Further concentration of urine may occur by retroperistalsis.


Asunto(s)
Aves/fisiología , Osmorregulación , Vasoconstrictores/metabolismo , Vasotocina/metabolismo , Animales , Aves/anatomía & histología , Riñón/anatomía & histología , Riñón/fisiología , Concentración Osmolar , Orina
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4590, 2019 10 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611554

RESUMEN

Intact forests provide diverse and irreplaceable ecosystem services that are critical to human well-being, such as carbon storage to mitigate climate change. However, the ecosystem functions that underpin these services are highly dependent on the woody vegetation-animal interactions occurring within forests. While vertebrate defaunation is of growing policy concern, the effects of vertebrate loss on natural forest regeneration have yet to be quantified globally. Here we conduct a meta-analysis to assess the direction and magnitude of defaunation impacts on forests. We demonstrate that real-world defaunation caused by hunting and habitat fragmentation leads to reduced forest regeneration, although manipulation experiments provide contrasting findings. The extirpation of primates and birds cause the greatest declines in forest regeneration, emphasising their key role in maintaining carbon stores, and the need for national and international climate change and conservation strategies to protect forests from defaunation fronts as well as deforestation fronts.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Ecosistema , Bosques , Árboles/fisiología , Animales , Biomasa , Aves/fisiología , Carbono/metabolismo , Cambio Climático , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Primates/fisiología , Árboles/clasificación , Vertebrados/fisiología
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 36-41, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590798

RESUMEN

The risk of marine organisms ingesting plastics has become a growing concern due to hazard chemicals in plastics. To identify compounds to which seabirds potentially have substantial exposure, 194 plastics fragments and pellets ingested by seabirds, i.e., northern fulmars from the Faroe Islands, and laysan albatross and black-footed albatross from Mukojima Island, were analyzed piece by piece. Four kinds of UV stabilizers, 2 brominated flame retardants, and styrene oligomers were detected at detection frequencies of 4.6%, 2.1%, and 2.1%, respectively. Concentrations ranging from not detected (n.d.) - 1700 µg/g were measured for UV stabilizers, n.d. - 1100 µg/g for flame retardants, and n.d. - 3200 µg/g for styrene oligomers. We found that these chemicals could be retained in plastics during drifting and fragmentation in the ocean and transported to seabirds. This type of transport via plastics can be direct pathway that introduces hazardous compounds to marine organisms.


Asunto(s)
Aves/fisiología , Exposición Dietética/estadística & datos numéricos , Plásticos/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química , Animales , Exposición Dietética/análisis , Ingestión de Alimentos , Excipientes/análisis , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Océanos y Mares , Estirenos/análisis
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4757, 2019 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628336

RESUMEN

Recent progress in remote sensing provides much-needed, large-scale spatio-temporal information on habitat structures important for biodiversity conservation. Here we examine the potential of a newly launched satellite-borne radar system (Sentinel-1) to map the biodiversity of twelve taxa across five temperate forest regions in central Europe. We show that the sensitivity of radar to habitat structure is similar to that of airborne laser scanning (ALS), the current gold standard in the measurement of forest structure. Our models of different facets of biodiversity reveal that radar performs as well as ALS; median R² over twelve taxa by ALS and radar are 0.51 and 0.57 respectively for the first non-metric multidimensional scaling axes representing assemblage composition. We further demonstrate the promising predictive ability of radar-derived data with external validation based on the species composition of birds and saproxylic beetles. Establishing new area-wide biodiversity monitoring by remote sensing will require the coupling of radar data to stratified and standardized collected local species data.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Bosques , Radar , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos/métodos , Árboles/fisiología , Animales , Aves/clasificación , Aves/fisiología , Escarabajos/clasificación , Escarabajos/fisiología , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Árboles/clasificación
9.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000392, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613872

RESUMEN

2018: Arctic researchers have just witnessed another extreme summer-but in a new sense of the word. Although public interest has long been focused on general warming trends and trends towards a lower sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, this summer saw the realization of another predicted trend: that of increasing precipitation during the winter months and of increased year-to-year variability. In a well-studied ecosystem in Northeast Greenland, this resulted in the most complete reproductive failure encountered in the terrestrial ecosystem during more than two decades of monitoring: only a few animals and plants were able to reproduce because of abundant and late melting snow. These observations, we suggest, should open our eyes to potentially drastic consequences of predicted changes in both the mean and the variability of arctic climate.


Asunto(s)
Aves/fisiología , Cambio Climático , Aptitud Genética , Mamíferos/fisiología , Latencia en las Plantas , Animales , Regiones Árticas , Ecosistema , Plantas , Lluvia , Estaciones del Año
10.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000456, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613884

RESUMEN

Every year, billions of seasonal migrants connect continents by transporting nutrients, energy, and pathogens between distant communities and ecosystems. For animals that power their movements by endogenous energy stores, the daily energy intake rates strongly influence the speed of migration. If access to food resources varies cyclically over the season, migrants sensitive to changes in daily energy intake rates may adjust timing of migration accordingly. As an effect, individuals adjusting to a common temporal cycle are expected to approach synchrony in foraging and movement. A large-scale periodic pattern, such as the dark-light cycle of the moon, could thus synchronize migrations across animal populations. However, such cyclic effects on the temporal regulation of migration has not been considered. Here, we show the temporal influence of the lunar cycle on the movement activity and migration tactics in a visual hunting nocturnal insectivore and long-distance migrant, the European nightjar, Caprimulgus europeaus. We found that the daily foraging activity more than doubled during moonlit nights, likely driven by an increase in light-dependent fuelling opportunities. This resulted in a clear cyclicity also in the intensity of migratory movements, with occasionally up to 100% of the birds migrating simultaneously following periods of full moon. We conclude that cyclic influences on migrants can act as an important regulator of the progression of individuals and synchronize pulses of migratory populations, with possible downstream effects on associated communities and ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Migración Animal/fisiología , Aves/fisiología , Luna , Periodicidad , África , Animales , Ecosistema , Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Cadena Alimentaria , Insectos , Masculino , Fotoperiodo
11.
Zoo Biol ; 38(6): 498-507, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517405

RESUMEN

The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is common in animal-monitoring applications in the wild and in zoological and agricultural settings. RFID is used to track animals and to collect information about movements and other behaviors, as well as to automate or improve husbandry. Disney's Animal Kingdom® uses passive RFID technology to monitor nest usage by a breeding colony of northern carmine bee-eaters. We implemented RFID technologies in various equipment configurations, initially deploying low-frequency (LF) 125 kHz RFID and later changing to high-frequency (HF) 13.56 MHz RFID technology, to monitor breeding behavior in the flock. We installed antennas connected to RFID readers at the entrances of nest tunnels to detect RFID transponders attached to leg bands as birds entered and exited tunnels. Both LF-RFID and HF-RFID systems allowed the characterization of nest visitation, including the timing of nest activity, breeding pair formation, identification of egg-laying females, participation by nonresidents, and detection of nest disruptions. However, we collected a substantially larger volume of data using the increased bandwidth and polling speed inherent with HF-RFID, which permitted tag capture of multiple birds simultaneously and resulted in fewer missed nest visits in comparison to LF-RFID. Herein, we describe the evolution of the RFID setups used to monitor nest usage for more than 7 years, the types of data that can be gained using RFID at nests, and how we used these data to gain insights into carmine bee-eater breeding behavior and improve husbandry.


Asunto(s)
Aves/fisiología , Monitoreo Fisiológico/veterinaria , Comportamiento de Nidificación/fisiología , Dispositivo de Identificación por Radiofrecuencia , Telemetría , Animales , Animales de Zoológico , Monitoreo Fisiológico/instrumentación , Monitoreo Fisiológico/métodos
12.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(6): 101272, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481344

RESUMEN

The continuous flow of billions of birds between Africa and Europe creates an "ecological bridge" between physically remote areas. Migratory birds fly south from their breeding grounds during late summer/fall and fly back in spring. These movements regulate the spread of internal and external parasites, as well as pathogens of potential public health concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible introduction of exotic tick species and tick-borne pathogens into Europe via migratory birds. At the bird observatory of Ventotene island (Italy), 443 feeding ticks were collected from 249 birds captured and ringed during their northbound migration in spring 2013. Each tick was identified by morphological and molecular methods and then tested for bacterial and viral pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia ruminantium and Coxiella burnetii, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Flavivirus. Morphological and molecular identification confirmed Hyalomma rufipes as the most abundant species among the collected arthropods (366/443; 82.6%) followed by Hyalomma marginatum (10/433; 2.3%). Rickettsia aeschlimannii was identified in 158 ticks, while one engorged Amblyomma variegatum nymph was infected with Rickettsia africae. The other bacteria were not detected in any specimen. Among viruses, RNA belonging to West Nile virus and other Flavivirus were detected whereas all ticks were negative for CCHFV RNA. These results confirm how migratory birds play a role in carrying Rickettsia-infected ticks, as well as viruses of zoonotic importance, from Africa into Europe. To what extent tick species are capable of establishing a permanent population once introduced in naïve areas, is far from defined and deserve further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Migración Animal , Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Aves , Ixodidae/fisiología , Virosis/veterinaria , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Aves/microbiología , Aves/fisiología , Aves/virología , Especies Introducidas , Italia , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/virología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de los Virus
13.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 92(5): 481-495, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393209

RESUMEN

Hummingbirds are an emerging model for studies of the visual guidance of flight. However, basic properties of their visual systems, such as spatial and temporal visual resolution, have not been characterized. We measured both the spatial and temporal visual resolution of Anna's hummingbirds using behavioral experiments and anatomical estimates. Spatial visual resolution was determined behaviorally using the optocollic reflex and anatomically using peak retinal ganglion cell densities from retinal whole mounts and eye size. Anna's hummingbirds have a spatial visual resolution of 5-6 cycles per degree when measured behaviorally, which matches anatomical estimates (fovea: 6.26 ± 0.12 cycles per degree; area temporalis: 5.59 ± 0.15 cycles per degree; and whole eye average: 4.64 ± 0.08 ). To determine temporal visual resolution, we used an operant conditioning paradigm wherein hummingbirds were trained to use a flickering light to find a food reward. The limits of temporal visual resolution were estimated as 70-80 Hz. To compare Anna's hummingbirds with other bird species, we used a phylogenetically controlled analysis of previously published data on avian visual resolutions and body size. Our measurements for Anna's hummingbird vision fall close to and below predictions based on body size for spatial visual resolution and temporal visual resolution, respectively. These results indicate that the enhanced flight performance and foraging behaviors of hummingbirds do not require enhanced spatial or temporal visual resolution. This finding is important for interpreting flight control studies and contributes to a growing understanding of avian vision.


Asunto(s)
Aves/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Procesamiento Espacial , Animales , Aves/genética , Masculino , Especificidad de la Especie , Factores de Tiempo , Grabación en Video
14.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 419-439, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395323

RESUMEN

Even when performed by skilled operators, locating the nerves can be challenging in small exotic pets; in such cases, the use of an electrical nerve stimulator may be useful to confirm the correct identification of the target nerve. Exotic animal anesthesia and analgesia have dramatically progressed over the past decade and continue to do so as more research and technologies develop. Technological advancements such as airway devices, endoscopic intubation techniques, positive intermittent pressure ventilators, and invasive and noninvasive blood pressure monitors have played a significant role in improving patient safety and the anesthetic outcomes of exotic animals.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/veterinaria , Anestesia/veterinaria , Animales Exóticos/fisiología , Manejo de la Vía Aérea/instrumentación , Manejo de la Vía Aérea/métodos , Manejo de la Vía Aérea/normas , Manejo de la Vía Aérea/veterinaria , Analgesia/tendencias , Anestesia/tendencias , Anestésicos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Aves/fisiología , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/normas , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/veterinaria , Endoscopía/instrumentación , Endoscopía/métodos , Endoscopía/tendencias , Endoscopía/veterinaria , Humanos , Mamíferos/fisiología , Bloqueo Nervioso/instrumentación , Bloqueo Nervioso/métodos , Bloqueo Nervioso/tendencias , Bloqueo Nervioso/veterinaria , Manejo del Dolor , Respiración Artificial/instrumentación , Respiración Artificial/métodos , Respiración Artificial/tendencias , Respiración Artificial/veterinaria
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3818, 2019 08 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444351

RESUMEN

The ecological contexts that promote larger brains have received considerable attention, but those that result in smaller-than-expected brains have been largely overlooked. Here, we use a global sample of 2062 species to provide evidence that metabolic and life history tradeoffs govern the evolution of brain size in birds and play an important role in defining the ecological strategies capable of persisting in Earth's most thermally variable and unpredictable habitats. While some birds cope with extreme winter conditions by investing in large brains (e.g., greater capacity for planning, innovation, and behavioral flexibility), others have small brains and invest instead in traits that allow them to withstand or recover from potentially deadly events. Specifically, these species are restricted to large body sizes, diets consisting of difficult-to-digest but readily available foods, and high reproductive output. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of considering strategic tradeoffs when investigating potential drivers of brain size evolution.


Asunto(s)
Aclimatación/fisiología , Evolución Biológica , Aves/fisiología , Encéfalo/anatomía & histología , Tamaño de los Órganos/fisiología , Distribución Animal/fisiología , Animales , Clima , Ecosistema , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Estaciones del Año , Conducta Sexual Animal/fisiología
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(8): e1007814, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437258

RESUMEN

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, a life-threatening diarrheal disease. Cholera causes epidemics and pandemics, but the ways this disease spreads worldwide is still unclear. This review highlights a relatively new hypothesis regarding the way V. cholerae can be globally dispersed. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of V. cholerae and are part of different fish species' diet. Furthermore, V. cholerae inhabits marine and freshwater fish species. Waterbird species feed on fish or on small invertebrates such as copepods and chironomids. Waterbirds have also been found to carry living copepods and/or chironomids internally or externally from one waterbody to another. All of the above points to the fact that some waterbird species might be vectors of V. cholerae. Indeed, we and others have found evidence for the presence of V. cholerae non-O1 as well as O1 in waterbird cloacal swabs, feces, and intestine samples. Moreover, hand-reared cormorants that were fed on tilapia, a fish that naturally carries V. cholerae, became infected with this bacterial species, demonstrating that V. cholerae can be transferred to cormorants from their fish prey. Great cormorants as well as other waterbird species can cover distances of up to 1,000 km/day and thus may potentially transfer V. cholerae in a short time across and between continents. We hope this review will inspire further studies regarding the understanding of the waterbirds' role in the global dissemination of V. cholerae.


Asunto(s)
Aves/microbiología , Cólera/transmisión , Vectores de Enfermedades , Vibrio cholerae/patogenicidad , Animales , Aves/fisiología , Cólera/epidemiología , Agua Dulce , Humanos , Vibrio cholerae/aislamiento & purificación
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110516, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425845

RESUMEN

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are accumulated through time and can exert different effect on ecosystems. POPs and Chlorpyrifos, a current use pesticide, were assessed in body feathers of males and females of Black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris, BBA) and Cape petrels (Daption capense, CAP) during their non-breeding seasons at the Patagonian Shelf, Argentina. Chlorpyrifos showed the highest values among all pollutants in both species (49.56-84.88 ng g-1), resulting from current agricultural practices. The pattern OCPs > PCBs > PBDEs was observed in both species, and CAP showed higher concentrations than BBA probably as a consequence of higher lipid mobilization and pollutants availability during dispersion. Non-significant differences between sexes about POPs levels were found; however a slight tendency was observed, females>males in CAP, and males>females in BBA. More attention and further studies are needed to understand seabirds' physiology and its relationship with the pollutants distribution in their tissues and considering breeding season.


Asunto(s)
Plumas/química , Especies Centinela , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Argentina , Océano Atlántico , Aves/fisiología , Cloropirifos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Femenino , Éteres Difenilos Halogenados/análisis , Masculino , Plaguicidas/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Estaciones del Año
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 993-1001, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426247

RESUMEN

Plastic pollution is a major ecological catastrophe that endangers vulnerable species. Small plastic fragments and filaments enter the food web in the ocean threatening marine species health. Here microplastics between 0.5 and 5 mm were quantified from eight beaches of southwest Bay of Biscay (Spain) within Natura-2000 Special Protection Areas for birds. Sand samples were taken using a randomized quadrat-based protocol. Between 145 and 382 particles per kg of dry sand were found, which is relatively high in comparison with other European beaches. Microfibers were more abundant than microplastics. PERMANOVA revealed a significant effect of the beach location (inside versus outside the estuary). Open beaches contained a higher microplastic density than sheltered ones suggesting that many beached microplastics come from the ocean. Birds are at risk in the studied protected spaces as revealed from high concentrations of fibres in depositions of European shag and gulls.


Asunto(s)
Bahías/química , Aves/fisiología , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plásticos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Estuarios , Heces/química , Tamaño de la Partícula , Plásticos/química , Plásticos/metabolismo , España , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(8): 655-662, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040731

RESUMEN

This study aimed to determine and evaluate whether there are differences in values of MAC in wildlife captured guan (Penelope obscura) under different conditions of social stress. This study used 27 bird species guan (P. obscura), divided into two groups: animals kept in the same enclosure (Collective Group) and animals kept in individual cages (Individual Group). The research was conducted at the Advanced Research Base of IBAMA, Painel/SC, and at the Clinical Veterinary Hospital of the "Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina", Lages/SC. The birds were captured using network trap with manual disarmament and transported to the Veterinary Hospital in cages. The animals were fasted for 2 to 6 hours before the procedure; anesthetic induction was performed with isoflurane for instrumentation. The isoflurane CAM was placed in the target value 1.3v% in the first animal of each group, and waited 15 minutes for the nociceptive (electric) stimulus, in the value of 50 hertz and 50mA, held in faradic form (3 consecutive simple stimuli, followed by 2 continuous stimuli). The stimulus was performed on the lateral side of the left pelvic limb in the tibiotarsal region, and the electrodes were fixed with a 22G needle at a distance of 5cm between them. The bird's responses to the stimulus were considered positive (wing movements, head or vocalization) or negative (not presented movements of wings, head or vocalization) and the MAC value of the animal was recorded. Negative responses reduced next birds' MAC value by about 10%, and MAC positive responses increased by about 10%. Statistical analysis was done by methods up and down and analyze quantal for MAC and paired t-test for equivalent or t-test for variances not equal variances for the physiological variables. At the end of the experiment, the birds were reintroduced in the same capture area. The MAC value of isoflurane in the Collective Group was 1.4v% and the Individual Group 1.9v% to 0.903atm. It is observed that guan (P. obscura) in the Collective Group showed lesser anesthetic resistance to isoflurane than the birds in the Individual Group, showing that some levels of social stress can influence the MAC values of the isoflurane.(AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar e avaliar se há diferença nos valores de CAM em jacus (Penelope obscura) capturados em vida livre e submetidos a diferentes condições de estresse social. Foram utilizadas 27 aves da espécie jacu (P. obscura) de vida livre, que depois de capturados foram alocados em dois grupos: 10 animais que permaneceram em grupo no mesmo recinto (Grupo Coletivo) e 17 animais que permaneceram em gaiolas individuais (Grupo Individual). A pesquisa foi realizada na Base de Pesquisa Avançada do IBAMA, Painel/SC, e no Hospital de Clínica Veterinária da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Lages/SC. A captura foi realizada utilizando armadilha de rede com desarmamento manual e as aves foram transportadas para o Hospital Veterinário em gaiolas. Os animais foram submetidos a um jejum alimentar de 2 a 6 horas antes do procedimento, a indução anestésica foi realizada com isoflurano para instrumentação. A CAM de isoflurano foi colocada no valor alvo 1,3v% no primeiro animal de cada grupo, e esperado 15 minutos para realização do estímulo nociceptivo (elétrico), no valor de 50 hertz e 50mA, realizado de forma farádica (3 estímulos simples consecutivos, seguidos de 2 estímulos contínuos). O estímulo foi realizado na face lateral do membro pélvico esquerdo na região tibiotársica, e os eletrodos fixados com agulha 22G a uma distância de 5cm entre elas. A resposta da ave ao estímulo foi considerada positiva (movimentos de asas, cabeça ou vocalização) ou negativa (não apresentou movimentos de asas, cabeça ou vocalização) e o valor de CAM do animal foi registrado. Para resultados negativos, a CAM da próxima ave foi reduzida em torno de 10%, para positivos a CAM foi aumentada em torno de 10%. A análise estatística foi feita pelos métodos up and down e análise quantal para a CAM e teste t de pareado para variâncias equivalentes ou teste t para variâncias não equivalentes para as variáveis fisiológicas. Ao final do experimento as aves utilizadas foram reintroduzidas na mesma área de captura. O valor da CAM de isoflurano no Grupo Coletivo foi de 1,4v% e no Grupo Individual a CAM de 1,9v% a 0,903atm, sendo o valor do Grupo Coletivo significativamente menor que o Grupo Individual. Observa-se assim que os jacus (P. obscura) que permaneceram em recinto coletivo apresentaram uma menor resistência anestésica ao isoflurano que as aves que permaneceram em recintos individuais, mostrando que alguns níveis de estresse social como os observados aqui podem influenciar sobre os valores da CAM do isoflurano.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Estrés Psicológico , Aves/fisiología , Galliformes/fisiología , Isoflurano/administración & dosificación , Animales Salvajes
20.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 273-281, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284350

RESUMEN

The infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae (DTM) was investigated in fishes from 2 representative visiting sites of migratory birds in Gyeongsangnam-do, the Republic of Korea (Korea). A totaly 220 freshwater fishes (7 species) were collected from Junam-jeosuji (reservoir), and 127 fishes (7 species) were also collected from Woopo-neup (swamp) in June and October 2017. As the control group, total 312 fish (22 spp.) from Yangcheon in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do were also collected in June and October 2017. All fishes collected in 3 sites were examined with the artificial digestion method. In the fishes from Junam-jeosuji, more than 4 species, i.e., Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma spp., Diplostomum spp. and Cyathocotyle orientalis, of DTM were detected and their endemicy was very low, 0.70. More than 6 species, i.e., C. sinensis, Echinostoma spp., Metorchis orientalis, Clinostomum complanatum, Diplostomum spp. and C. orientalis, of DTM were found in the fishes from Woopo-neup, and their endemicy was low, 5.16. In the fishes from Yangcheon, more than 8 species, i.e., C. sinensis, Metagonimus spp., Centrocestus armatus, C. complanatum, C. orientalis, M. orientalis, Echinostoma spp., and Diplostomum spp., of DTM were detected, and their endemicity was relatively high, 95.48. The percentages of avian trematode metacercariae (ATM) were 99.6% and 94.7% in fishes from Junam-jeosuji and Woopo-neup whereas it was 74.1% in the control site, Yangcheon. The above findings suggested that migratory birds partly affect in endemicity of DTM in the fish in the 2 visiting sites in Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Metacercarias/fisiología , Trematodos/fisiología , Infecciones por Trematodos/veterinaria , Migración Animal , Animales , Aves/parasitología , Aves/fisiología , Peces/clasificación , Peces/parasitología , Metacercarias/genética , Metacercarias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Metacercarias/aislamiento & purificación , República de Corea , Trematodos/genética , Trematodos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Trematodos/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología
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