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1.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 87: 103722, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391907

RESUMEN

We assessed metal/metalloid pollutants (through multi-indices) in seawater, sediments, tissues and shells of gastropods using various indices such as contamination degree (modified/unmodified; Cd/mCd; 1875/187.5). From sediment indices; e.g. the potential ecological risk index/enrichment factor (Eri/EF; 3396.8/105.5) indicated the area to be highly contaminated with metal/metalloid pollutants. Indeed, bioaccumulation with these materials was gastropod size dependent. Antimicrobial and percentage activity indices (AMI/PAI) for; T. telescopium was (AMI/PAI; 1.59/159), N. albicilla (1.14/114) and L. coronata (0.95/95) against E. coli. Similarly T. telescopium (1.33/133), N. albicilla (1.19/119) and L. coronata (1.14/114) have AMI/PAI against A. terreus. The total activity index (TAI), for T. telescopium was the highest, while L. coronata has lowest for all pathogens. This study indicates, T. telescopium, N. albicilla and L. coronata, surviving under metal/metalloid stress exhibited altered natural defense to pathogens which was related to the degree of toxin bioaccumulation.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico/metabolismo , Gastrópodos/metabolismo , Metales/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Arsénico/análisis , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bioacumulación , Tamaño Corporal , Mezclas Complejas/farmacología , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Hongos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Gastrópodos/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/análisis , Metales/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
2.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(10): 911-917, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399860

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify pathogens isolated in acute external otitis cases and determine their distribution according to ages and seasons as well as investigate the susceptibility or resistance to the aminoglycoside and quinolone group antibiotics of which topical forms are available. METHOD: A total of 168 patients diagnosed with acute external otitis were evaluated retrospectively. Growing bacteria were identified according to the species by conventional methods. Antibiotic susceptibility status was determined for the growing bacteria. RESULTS: The most common bacteria detected were pseudomonas group bacteria (38.7 per cent). Resistance to the amikacin group of antibiotics was found to be the lowest and resistance to the ciprofloxacin group of antibiotics was the highest. CONCLUSION: External auditory canal cultures should be taken simultaneously with empirical treatment. Seasonal effect and age group should be taken into consideration in the choice of treatment and after questioning about chronic exposure to water. Empirical treatment should then be started.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Otitis Externa/tratamiento farmacológico , Otitis Externa/microbiología , Enfermedad Aguda , Administración Tópica , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Amicacina/administración & dosificación , Amicacina/uso terapéutico , Aminoglicósidos/administración & dosificación , Aminoglicósidos/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ciprofloxacina/administración & dosificación , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Otitis Externa/diagnóstico , Pseudomonas/aislamiento & purificación , Quinolonas/administración & dosificación , Quinolonas/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estaciones del Año
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444870

RESUMEN

Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) consumption could affect gut microbiota diversity and profile. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UPFs on microbiota, considering the role of sex. The consumption of UPFs (using NOVA criteria) was assessed with a validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire. Participants (n = 359) were classified into less than three servings per day (n = 96) of UPFs and more than five (n = 90). Women and men were subclassified following the same criteria. 16S rRNA sequencing was performed from DNA fecal samples, and differences in microbiota were analyzed using EdgeR. The relationship between UPFs and bacteria was assessed by Spearman correlation and comparison of tertiles of consumption. Women who consumed more than five servings/day of UPFs presented an increase in Acidaminococcus, Butyrivibrio, Gemmiger, Shigella, Anaerofilum, Parabacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Enterobacteriales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinobacteria and a decrease in Melainabacter and Lachnospira. Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacteriales and Actinobacteria was positively associated with pizza and Actinobacteria with industrially processed dairy in women. Men who consumed more than five servings/day presented an increase of Granulicatella, Blautia, Carnobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Bacteroidia and Bacteroidetes and a decrease of Anaerostipes and Clostridiaceae. Bacteroidia and Bacteroidetes correlated positively with industrially processed meat. This study suggests that UPFs may affect microbiota composition differently in women and men.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Productos Lácteos/efectos adversos , Dieta/efectos adversos , Comida Rápida/efectos adversos , Manipulación de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiología , Adulto , Disbiosis , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Nutritivo , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , España
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445037

RESUMEN

Among cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, coronary heart disease and stroke are the most well-known and extensively studied. The onset and progression of CVD is associated with multiple risk factors, among which, gut microbiota has received much attention in the past two decades. Gut microbiota, the microbial community colonizing in the gut, plays a prominent role in human health. In particular, gut dysbiosis is directly related to many acute or chronic dysfunctions of the cardiovascular system (CVS) in the host. Earlier studies have demonstrated that the pathogenesis of CVD is strongly linked to intestinal microbiota imbalance and inflammatory responses. Probiotics and prebiotics conferring various health benefits on the host are emerging as promising therapeutic interventions for many diseases. These two types of food supplements have the potential to alleviate the risks of CVD through improving the levels of several cardiovascular markers, such as total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and certain cytokines involved in the inflammatory response. In this review, we focus mainly on the preventive effects of probiotics and prebiotics on CVD via rebalancing the structural and functional changes in gut microbiota and maintaining immune homeostasis.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Enfermedad Coronaria/prevención & control , Intestinos/microbiología , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/prevención & control , Animales , Bacterias/inmunología , Enfermedad Coronaria/epidemiología , Enfermedad Coronaria/inmunología , Enfermedad Coronaria/microbiología , Disbiosis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiaca , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Intestinos/inmunología , Prebióticos/efectos adversos , Prevalencia , Probióticos/efectos adversos , Factores Protectores , Medición de Riesgo , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/inmunología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/microbiología
5.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356622

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The human intestinal microbiome plays a central role in overall health status, especially in early life stages. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing is used to profile its taxonomic composition; however, multiomic approaches have been proposed as the most accurate methods for study of the complexity of the gut microbiota. In this study, we propose an optimized method for bacterial diversity analysis that we validated and complemented with metabolomics by analyzing fecal samples. METHODS: Forty-eight different analytical combinations regarding (1) 16S rRNA variable region sequencing, (2) a feature selection approach, and (3) taxonomy assignment methods were tested. A total of 18 infant fecal samples grouped depending on the type of feeding were analyzed by the proposed 16S rRNA workflow and by metabolomic analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that the sole use of V4 region sequencing with ASV identification and VSEARCH for taxonomy assignment produced the most accurate results. The application of this workflow showed clear differences between fecal samples according to the type of feeding, which correlated with changes in the fecal metabolic profile. CONCLUSION: A multiomic approach using real fecal samples from 18 infants with different types of feeding demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed 16S rRNA-amplicon sequencing workflow.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Heces/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , ARN Bacteriano/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5577760, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423036

RESUMEN

Aim: One of the main problems in dentistry is the injury caused by the long-term application of an ill-fitting denture. The existence of multiple microorganisms along with the susceptibility of the tissue conditioners to colonize them can lead to denture stomatitis. This study is aimed at developing a tissue conditioner incorporated with Carum copticum L. (C. copticum L.) for the effective treatment of these injuries. Materials and Methods: The Carum copticum L. essential oil composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass (GC-mass) spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil against the standard strains of bacterial and fungal species was determined by broth microdilution methods as suggested by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The physical and chemical properties of the prepared tissue conditioner were investigated by viscoelasticity, FTIR assays, and the release study performed. Furthermore, the antibiofilm activity of the Carum copticum L. essential oil-loaded tissue conditioner was evaluated by using the XTT reduction assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: The main component of the essential oil is thymol, which possesses high antimicrobial activity. The broth microdilution assay showed that the essential oil has broad activity as the minimum inhibitory concentration was in the range of 32-128 µg mL-1. The viscoelasticity test showed that the essential oil significantly diminished the viscoelastic modulus on the first day. The FTIR test showed that Carum copticum L. essential oil was preserved as an independent component in the tissue conditioner. The release study showed that the essential oil was released in 3 days following a sustained release and with an ultimate cumulative release of 81%. Finally, the Carum copticum L. essential oil exhibited significant activity in the inhibition of microbial biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. Indeed, the lowest and highest amounts of biofilm formation on the tissue conditioner disks are exhibited in the Streptococcus salivarius and Candida albicans by up to 22.4% and 71.4% at the 64 µg mL-1 concentration of C. copticum L. with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The obtained results showed that the Carum copticum L. essential oil-loaded tissue conditioner possessed suitable physical, biological, and release properties for use as a novel treatment for denture stomatitis.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/química , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Carum/química , Hongos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Aceites Volátiles/química , Acondicionamiento de Tejidos Dentales/instrumentación , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Módulo de Elasticidad , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Aceites Vegetales/química , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
7.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439820

RESUMEN

Cold-loving microorganisms of all three domains of life have unique and special abilities that allow them to live in harsh environments. They have acquired structural and molecular mechanisms of adaptation to the cold that include the production of anti-freeze proteins, carbohydrate-based extracellular polymeric substances and lipids which serve as cryo- and osmoprotectants by maintaining the fluidity of their membranes. They also produce a wide diversity of pigmented molecules to obtain energy, carry out photosynthesis, increase their resistance to stress and provide them with ultraviolet light protection. Recently developed analytical techniques have been applied as high-throughoutput technologies for function discovery and for reconstructing functional networks in psychrophiles. Among them, omics deserve special mention, such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, glycomics, lipidomics and metabolomics. These techniques have allowed the identification of microorganisms and the study of their biogeochemical activities. They have also made it possible to infer their metabolic capacities and identify the biomolecules that are parts of their structures or that they secrete into the environment, which can be useful in various fields of biotechnology. This Review summarizes current knowledge on psychrophiles as sources of biomolecules and the metabolic pathways for their production. New strategies and next-generation approaches are needed to increase the chances of discovering new biomolecules.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica/genética , Antibacterianos/biosíntesis , Proteínas Anticongelantes/biosíntesis , Bacterias/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular de Sustancias Poliméricas/metabolismo , Redes y Vías Metabólicas/genética , Proteínas Anticongelantes/genética , Regiones Árticas , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Biotecnología/métodos , Chlorophyta/genética , Chlorophyta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Chlorophyta/metabolismo , Frío , Biología Computacional/métodos , Diatomeas/genética , Diatomeas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Diatomeas/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular de Sustancias Poliméricas/genética , Hongos/genética , Hongos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hongos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lípidos/biosíntesis , Lípidos/genética , Fluidez de la Membrana , Metagenoma , Pigmentos Biológicos/biosíntesis , Pigmentos Biológicos/genética
8.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443670

RESUMEN

Enterococci and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are among the menacing bacterial pathogens. Novel antibiotics are urgently needed to tackle these antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. This article reports the design, synthesis, and antimicrobial studies of 30 novel pyrazole derivatives. Most of the synthesized compounds are potent growth inhibitors of planktonic Gram-positive bacteria with minimum inhibitory concertation (MIC) values as low as 0.25 µg/mL. Further studies led to the discovery of several lead compounds, which are bactericidal and potent against MRSA persisters. Compounds 11, 28, and 29 are potent against S. aureus biofilms with minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values as low as 1 µg/mL.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Inhibidores de Crecimiento/síntesis química , Inhibidores de Crecimiento/farmacología , Pirazoles/síntesis química , Pirazoles/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Muerte Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/efectos de los fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiología , Inhibidores de Crecimiento/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/fisiología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Pirazoles/química
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360611

RESUMEN

Due to the high exposition to changing environmental conditions, bacteria have developed many mechanisms enabling immediate adjustments of gene expression. In many cases, the required speed and plasticity of the response are provided by RNA-dependent regulatory mechanisms. This is possible due to the very high dynamics and flexibility of an RNA structure, which provide the necessary sensitivity and specificity for efficient sensing and transduction of environmental signals. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge about known bacterial regulatory mechanisms which rely on RNA structure. To better understand the structure-driven modulation of gene expression, we describe the basic theory on RNA structure folding and dynamics. Next, we present examples of multiple mechanisms employed by RNA regulators in the control of bacterial transcription and translation.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Regulación Bacteriana de la Expresión Génica , Conformación de Ácido Nucleico , Pliegue del ARN , ARN Bacteriano/química , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bacterias/metabolismo , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Transcripción Genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360657

RESUMEN

Although some metallic nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly used in the food processing plants as nanomaterials for food packaging, or as coatings on the food handling equipment, little is known about antimicrobial properties of palladium (PdNPs) and platinum (PtNPs) nanoparticles and their potential use in the food industry. In this study, common food-borne pathogens Salmonella enterica Infantis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were tested. Both NPs reduced viable cells with the log10 CFU reduction of 0.3-2.4 (PdNPs) and 0.8-2.0 (PtNPs), average inhibitory rates of 55.2-99% for PdNPs and of 83.8-99% for PtNPs. However, both NPs seemed to be less effective for biofilm formation and its reduction. The most effective concentrations were evaluated to be 22.25-44.5 mg/L for PdNPs and 50.5-101 mg/L for PtNPs. Furthermore, the interactions of tested NPs with bacterial cell were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM visualization confirmed that NPs entered bacteria and caused direct damage of the cell walls, which resulted in bacterial disruption. The in vitro cytotoxicity of individual NPs was determined in primary human renal tubular epithelial cells (HRTECs), human keratinocytes (HaCat), human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), human epithelial kidney cells (HEK 293), and primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Due to their antimicrobial properties on bacterial cells and no acute cytotoxicity, both types of NPs could potentially fight food-borne pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Nanopartículas del Metal/administración & dosificación , Paladio/química , Platino (Metal)/química , Antibacterianos/química , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/citología , Fibroblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Humanos , Riñón/citología , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Nanopartículas del Metal/química
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371869

RESUMEN

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (H.s.) is a polyphenolic-rich plant commonly consumed either as a beverage or spice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro digestibility of H.s. polyphenols using an in vitro model of digestion which simulates the human stomach and small intestine. The bioaccessible polyphenols released in the digested samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. H.s. anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside) content drastically dropped during the digestion process from 2.91 ± 0.03 µg g-1 and 8.53 ± 0.08 µg g-1 (w/w) CG (Cyanidin-glucoside) in the raw extract, respectively, to 0.12 ± 0.01 µg g-1 0.12 ± 0.01 µg g-1 (w/w) CG at the end of duodenal digestion. Total polyphenols also have shown a decrease from 1192.65 ± 30.37 µg g-1 (w/w) in the raw extract to 282.24 ± 7.21 µg g-1 (w/w) by the end of gastric digestion, in contrast to their increase by the end of duodenal digestion 372.91 ± 3.97 µg g-1 (w/w). On the other hand, the decrease in certain compounds (e.g., caffeoylquinicandcoumaroylquinic acids) was observed during gastric digestion resulting in an increase of quinic acid in the duodenal aliquots, thus suggesting that this compound was derived from the degradation of the more complex hydroxycinnamic acids. H.s. extract also exhibited a bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (MIC of 2.5 mg mL-1) and a bactericidal effect against a food isolate of Listeria monocytogenes (MBC of 2.5 mg mL-1). The undigested polyphenols of H.s. in the upper gastrointestinal tract enters the colon, where they are metabolized by the gut microbiota. The present study results showed that resistance of H.s. polyphenols during gastrointestinal digestion might affect their uptake, resulting in a decrease in their digestibility.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Digestión , Hibiscus , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Polifenoles/farmacología , Antibacterianos/aislamiento & purificación , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Disponibilidad Biológica , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Jugo Gástrico/química , Hibiscus/química , Humanos , Secreciones Intestinales/química , Listeria monocytogenes/efectos de los fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Polifenoles/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371912

RESUMEN

The human gut microbiota are the microorganisms (generally bacteria and archaea) that live in the digestive tracts of humans. Due to their numerous functions, the gut microbiota can be considered a virtual organ of the body, playing a pivotal role in health maintenance. Dietary habits contribute to gut microbiota composition, and evidence from observational and intervention studies suggest that vegan diets may promote health, potentially through affecting the diverse ecosystem of beneficial bacteria in the gut. A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed and Scopus to identify studies investigating the microbiota composition in vegans. Vegans are defined as people excluding food products that are derived from animals from their diet. Nine observational studies were identified. The main outcome of the systematic review was an increase in Bacteroidetes on the phylum level and a higher abundance of Prevotella on the genus level. In conclusion, the present systematic literature review highlighted some benefits of a vegan diet but also demonstrated the complexity of evaluating results from gut microbiota research. The available evidence only consisted of cross-sectional studies, therefore suggesting the need for well-designed randomised controlled trials. Furthermore, the quality assessment of the studies included in the review suggested a lack of standardised and validated methods for participant selection as well as for faecal sampling and faecal analysis.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dieta Saludable , Dieta Vegana , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiología , Adulto , Disbiosis , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Nutritivo
13.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443349

RESUMEN

Ulva sp. is known to be a source of bioactive compounds such as ulvans, but to date, their biological activity on skin commensal and/or opportunistic pathogen bacteria has not been reported. In this study, the effects of poly- and oligosaccharide fractions produced by enzyme-assisted extraction and depolymerization were investigated, for the first time in vitro, on cutaneous bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Cutibacterium acnes. At 1000 µg/mL, poly- and oligosaccharide fractions did not affect the growth of the bacteria regarding their generation time. Polysaccharide Ulva sp. fractions at 1000 µg/mL did not alter the bacterial biofilm formation, while oligosaccharide fractions modified S. epidermidis and C. acnes biofilm structures. None of the fractions at 1000 µg/mL significantly modified the cytotoxic potential of S. epidermidis and S. aureus towards keratinocytes. However, poly- and oligosaccharide fractions at 1000 µg/mL induced a decrease in the inflammatory potential of both acneic and non-acneic C. acnes strains on keratinocytes of up to 39.8%; the strongest and most significant effect occurred when the bacteria were grown in the presence of polysaccharide fractions. Our research shows that poly- and oligosaccharide Ulva sp. fractions present notable biological activities on cutaneous bacteria, especially towards C. acnes acneic and non-acneic strains, which supports their potential use for dermo-cosmetic applications.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Piel/microbiología , Ulva/química , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Propionibacteriaceae/efectos de los fármacos , Propionibacteriaceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Propionibacteriaceae/patogenicidad , Propionibacteriaceae/fisiología , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidad , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiología , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Staphylococcus epidermidis/patogenicidad , Staphylococcus epidermidis/fisiología , Virulencia/efectos de los fármacos
14.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(8)2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397349

RESUMEN

Introduction. Lactococcus petauri LZys1 (L. petauri LZys1) is a type of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which was initially isolated from healthy human gut.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. It was previously anticipated that L. petauri LZys1 has potential characteristics of probiotic properties. The genetic structure and the regulation functions of L. petauri LZys1 need to be better revealed.Aim. The aim of this study was to detect the probiotic properties L. petauri LZys1 and to reveal the genome information related to its genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles.Methodology. Multiple in vitro experiments were carried out to evaluate its lactic acid-producing ability, resistance to pathogenic bacterial strains, auto-aggregation and co-aggregation ability, and so on. Additionally, complete genome sequencing, gene annotation, and probiotic associated gene analysis were performed.Results. The complete genome of L. petauri LZys1 comprised of 1 985 765 bp, with a DNA G+C content of 38.07 %, containing 50 tRNA, seven rRNA, and four sRNA. A total of 1931 genes were classified into six functional categories by Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The neighbour-joining phylogeny tree based on the whole genome of L. petauri LZys1 and other probiotics demonstrated that L. petauri LZys1 has a significant similarity to Lactococcus garvieae. The functional genes were detected to expound the molecular mechanism and biochemical processes of its potential probiotic properties, such as atpB gene.Conclusion. All the results described in this study, together with relevant information previously reported, made L. prtauri LZys1 a very interesting potential strain to be considered as a prominent candidate for probiotic use.


Asunto(s)
Tracto Gastrointestinal/microbiología , Genoma Bacteriano , Lactococcus , Probióticos , Animales , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Secuencia de Bases , Heces/microbiología , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Lactococcus/citología , Lactococcus/genética , Lactococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Lactococcus/fisiología , Masculino , Anotación de Secuencia Molecular , Mariposas Nocturnas/microbiología , Filogenia , Polisacáridos Bacterianos/biosíntesis , Polisacáridos Bacterianos/genética , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Adulto Joven
15.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371922

RESUMEN

The early life gut microbiota has been reported to be involved in neonatal weight gain and later infant growth. Therefore, this early microbiota may constitute a target for the promotion of healthy neonatal growth and development with potential consequences for later life. Unfortunately, we are still far from understanding the association between neonatal microbiota and weight gain and growth. In this context, we evaluated the relationship between early microbiota and weight in a cohort of full-term infants. The absolute levels of specific fecal microorganisms were determined in 88 vaginally delivered and 36 C-section-delivered full-term newborns at 1 month of age and their growth up to 12 months of age. We observed statistically significant associations between the levels of some early life gut microbes and infant weight gain during the first year of life. Classifying the infants into tertiles according to their Staphylococcus levels at 1 month of age allowed us to observe a significantly lower weight at 12 months of life in the C-section-delivered infants from the highest tertile. Univariate and multivariate models pointed out associations between the levels of some fecal microorganisms at 1 month of age and weight gain at 6 and 12 months. Interestingly, these associations were different in vaginally and C-section-delivered babies. A significant direct association between Staphylococcus and weight gain at 1 month of life was observed in vaginally delivered babies, whereas in C-section-delivered infants, lower Bacteroides levels at 1 month were associated with higher later weight gain (at 6 and 12 months). Our results indicate an association between the gut microbiota and weight gain in early life and highlight potential microbial predictors for later weight gain.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Desarrollo Infantil , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiología , Nacimiento a Término , Aumento de Peso , Factores de Edad , Bacterias/genética , Cesárea , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , España
16.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371924

RESUMEN

The objective of this work was to characterize the microbiota of breast milk in healthy Spanish mothers and to investigate the effects of lactation time on its diversity. A total of ninety-nine human milk samples were collected from healthy Spanish women and were assessed by means of next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons and by qPCR. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum, followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Accordingly, Streptococcus was the most abundant genus. Lactation time showed a strong influence in milk microbiota, positively correlating with Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, while Firmicutes was relatively constant over lactation. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing showed that the highest alpha-diversity was found in samples of prolonged lactation, along with wider differences between individuals. As for milk nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and selenium levels were potentially associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus abundance. Additionally, Proteobacteria was positively correlated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels in breast milk, and Staphylococcus with conjugated linoleic acid. Conversely, Streptococcus and trans-palmitoleic acid showed a negative association. Other factors such as maternal body mass index or diet also showed an influence on the structure of these microbial communities. Overall, human milk in Spanish mothers appeared to be a complex niche shaped by host factors and by its own nutrients, increasing in diversity over time.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Lactancia , Leche Humana/microbiología , Periodo Posparto , Adulto , Bacterias/genética , Femenino , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Microbiota , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Ribotipificación , España , Factores de Tiempo
17.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 35(9): e22854, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331815

RESUMEN

Curcumin (CUR) is an ancient therapeutic agent with remarkable antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of the current study was to synthesize and evaluate a curcumin-based reparative endodontic material to reduce infection and inflammation besides the induction of mineralization during the healing of the dentin-pulp complex. Poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL)/gelatin (Gel)/CUR scaffold was synthesized and assessed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Agar diffusion test was performed against E. coli, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. faecalis, and S. mutans. Moreover, proliferative, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and calcification properties of these scaffolds on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were evaluated. The results showed that PCL/Gel/CUR scaffold had antibacterial effects. Also, these CUR-based scaffolds had significant inhibitory effects on the expression of tumor necrosis factor α and DCF from inflamed hDPSCs (p < 0.05). Moreover, the induction of mineralization in hDPSCs significantly increased after seeding on CUR-based scaffolds (p < 0.05). Based on these findings, the investigated CUR-loaded material was fabricated successfully and provided an appropriate structure for the attachment and proliferation of hDPSCs. It was found that these scaffolds had antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory characteristics and could induce mineralization in hDPSCs, which is essential for healing and repairing the injured dentin-pulp complex.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Materiales Biocompatibles , Curcumina , Materiales Dentales , Ensayo de Materiales , Andamios del Tejido/química , Animales , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Materiales Biocompatibles/química , Materiales Biocompatibles/farmacocinética , Materiales Biocompatibles/farmacología , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Curcumina/farmacología , Materiales Dentales/química , Materiales Dentales/farmacocinética , Materiales Dentales/farmacología , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Porcinos
18.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299584

RESUMEN

Currently, the potential utilization of fruits and vegetable waste as a source of micronutrients and antioxidants has increased. The present study, therefore, aimed to determine the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Citrus nobilis peel extract. A modified solvent evaporation technique was employed for peel extract preparation. For effective utilization of the natural product, quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds was carried out using liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy technique. Phenolic and flavonoids were present in high amounts, while ß-carotene and lycopene were present in vestigial amounts. The antimicrobial efficiency of peel extract was evaluated against four bacterial strains including Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 3384), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 2295), and Salmonella typhimurium (MTCC 1254), and one fungal strain Candida albicans (MTCC 183), and zone of inhibition was comparable to the positive control streptomycin and amphotericin B, respectively. The extract of Citrus nobilis peels showed effective anti-inflammatory activity during human red blood cell membrane stabilization (HRBC) and albumin denaturation assay. The extracts also exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity ranging from 53.46 to 81.13%. Therefore, the obtained results suggest that Citrus nobilis peel could be used as an excellent source of polyphenols and transformed into value-added products.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Candida albicans/crecimiento & desarrollo , Citrus/química , Membrana Eritrocítica/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Metanol/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antiinflamatorios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/química
19.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299656

RESUMEN

Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and antimicrobial activity of lavender essential oils (LEOs) extracted from three different varieties of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (1-Moldoveanca 4, 2-Vis magic 10, and 3-Alba 7) have been determined. These plants previously patented in the Republic of Moldova were cultivated in an organic agriculture system in the northeastern part of Romania and then harvested in 3 consecutive years (2017-2019) to obtain the essential oils. From the inflorescences in the complete flowering stage, the LEOs were extracted by hydrodistillation. Then, their composition was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The major identified constituents are as follows: linalool (1: 32.19-46.83%; 2: 29.93-30.97%; 3: 31.97-33.77%), linalyl acetate (1: 17.70-35.18%; 2: 27.55-37.13%; 3: 28.03-35.32%), and terpinen-4-ol (1: 3.63-7.70%; 2: 3.06-7.16%; 3: 3.10-6.53%). The antioxidant capacity as determined by ABTS and DPPH assays indicates inhibition, with the highest activity obtained for LEO var. Alba 7 from 2019. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the LEOs and combinations were investigated as well, by using the disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), the yeast Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and clinical isolates. Our results have shown that LEOs obtained from the three studied varieties of L. angustifolia manifest significant bactericidal effects against tested microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), and antifungal effects against Candida albicans. The mixture of LEOs (Var. Alba 7) and geranium, respectively, in tea tree EOs, in different ratios, showed a significant enhancement of the antibacterial effect against all the studied strains, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Antioxidantes , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Candida albicans/crecimiento & desarrollo , Lavandula/química , Aceites Volátiles , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antiinfecciosos/aislamiento & purificación , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Aceites Volátiles/química , Aceites Volátiles/aislamiento & purificación , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología
20.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(7): 852-864, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194036

RESUMEN

The plant microbiota consists of a multitude of microorganisms that can affect plant health and fitness. However, it is currently unclear how the plant shapes its leaf microbiota and what role the plant immune system plays in this process. Here, we evaluated Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with defects in different parts of the immune system for an altered bacterial community assembly using a gnotobiotic system. While higher-order mutants in receptors that recognize microbial features and in defence hormone signalling showed substantial microbial community alterations, the absence of the plant NADPH oxidase RBOHD caused the most pronounced change in the composition of the leaf microbiota. The rbohD knockout resulted in an enrichment of specific bacteria. Among these, we identified Xanthomonas strains as opportunistic pathogens that colonized wild-type plants asymptomatically but caused disease in rbohD knockout plants. Strain dropout experiments revealed that the lack of RBOHD unlocks the pathogenicity of individual microbiota members driving dysbiosis in rbohD knockout plants. For full protection, healthy plants require both a functional immune system and a microbial community. Our results show that the NADPH oxidase RBOHD is essential for microbiota homeostasis and emphasizes the importance of the plant immune system in controlling the leaf microbiota.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/microbiología , Homeostasis , Microbiota , NADPH Oxidasas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimología , Arabidopsis/inmunología , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Genotipo , NADPH Oxidasas/genética , Fenotipo , Inmunidad de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/enzimología , Hojas de la Planta/inmunología , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología
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