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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 303, 2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765944

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Proper detection of disease-causing organisms is very critical in controlling the course of outbreaks and avoiding large-scale epidemics. Nonetheless, availability of resources to address these gaps have been difficult due to limited funding. This report sought to highlight the importance of in-country partners and non-governmental organizations in improving detection of microbiological organisms in Ghanaian Public Health Laboratories (PHLs). METHODS/CONTEXT: This study was conducted between June, 2018 to August, 2019. U. S CDC engaged the Centre for Health Systems Strengthening (CfHSS) through the Association of Public Health Laboratories to design and implement strategies for strengthening three PHLs in Ghana. An assessment of the three PHLs was done using the WHO/CDS/CSR/ISR/2001.2 assessment tool. Based on findings from the assessments, partner organizations (CfHSS/APHL/CDC) serviced and procured microbiological equipment, laboratory reagents and logistics. CfHSS provided in-house mentoring and consultants to assist with capacity building in detection of epidemic-prone infectious pathogens by performing microbiological cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. RESULTS: A total of 3902 samples were tested: blood (1107), urine (1742), stool (249) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (804). All-inclusive, 593 pathogenic bacteria were isolated from blood cultures (70; 11.8%); urine cultures (356; 60%); stool cultures (19; 3.2%) and from CSF samples (148; 25%). The most predominant pathogens isolated from blood, urine and stool were Staphylococcus aureus (22/70; 31%), Escherichia coli (153/356; 43%) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (5/19; 26.3%), respectively. In CSF samples, Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequent pathogen detected (80/148; 54.1%). New bacterial species such as Pastuerella pneumotropica, Klebsiella oxytoca, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Halfnia alvei were also identified with the aid of Analytical Profile Index (API) kits that were introduced as part of this implementation. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis detections in CSF were highest during the hot dry season. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed high rate of S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli resistance to gentamicin (35-55%). In urine, E. coli was highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (39.2%) and ampicillin (34%). CONCLUSION: Detection of epidemic-prone pathogens can be greatly improved if laboratory capacity is strengthened. In-country partner organizations are encouraged to support this move to ensure accurate diagnosis of diseases and correct antimicrobial testing.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Sangre/microbiología , Líquido Cefalorraquídeo/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Heces/microbiología , Ghana , Humanos , Laboratorios , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Organizaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estaciones del Año , Orina/microbiología
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 1757-1773, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688190

RESUMEN

Background: NiO nanoparticles have attracted much attention due to their unique properties. They have been synthesized using chemical and physical techniques that often need toxic chemicals. These toxic chemicals cannot easily be removed from the nanoparticle's surface, make them less biocompatible, and limit their biological applications. Instead, plants based green synthesis of nanoparticles uses phytomolecules as reducing and capping agents. These phytomolecules are biologically active with no or less toxic effects. Materials and Methods: Phytomolecules-coated NiO nanoparticles were synthesized employing a green route using Abutilon indicum leaf extract. For comparative study, we also have synthesized NiO nanoparticles using the co-precipitation method. Synthesized nanoparticles were successfully characterized using different spectroscopic techniques. The synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated for antibacterial activity with agar well diffusion assay against different bacteria compared to standard drug and plant extract. They are also examined for anticancer potential using MTT assay against HeLa cancer cells, and further, their antioxidant potential was determined using DPPH assay. Biocompatibility of the synthesized nanoparticles was assessed against fibroblast cells. Results: Phytomolecules-coated NiO nanoparticles were demonstrated superior antibacterial and anticancer performance against bacteria (E. coli, B. bronchiseptica, B. subtilis, and S. aureus) by presenting highest zone of inhibitions (18 ± 0.58 mm, 21 ± 0.45 mm, 22 ± 0.32 mm, and 23 ± 0.77 mm) and HeLa cancer cells by exhibiting the least cell viability percentage (51.74 ± 0.35%) compared to plant extract and chemically synthesized NiO nanoparticles but were comparable to standard antibiotic and anticancer drugs, respectively. Phytomolecules-coated NiO nanoparticles were also demonstrated excellent antioxidant activity (79.87 ± 0.43% DPPH inhibition) and biocompatibility (> 90% cell viability) with fibroblast cells. Conclusion: Nanoparticle synthesis using the Abutilon indicum leaf extract is an efficient and economical method, produces biocompatible and more biologically active nanoparticles, which can be an excellent candidate for therapeutic applications.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Malvaceae/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Fitoquímicos/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos de Bifenilo/química , Fibroblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Tecnología Química Verde , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Nanopartículas del Metal/ultraestructura , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Picratos/química , Espectrometría por Rayos X , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Electricidad Estática , Difracción de Rayos X
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 216, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632144

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV-associated chronic lung disease (CLD) is common among children living with HIV (CLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa, including those on antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the pathogenesis of CLD and its possible association with microbial determinants remain poorly understood. We investigated the prevalence, and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), and Moraxella catarrhalis (MC) among CLWH (established on ART) who had CLD (CLD+), or not (CLD-) in Zimbabwe and Malawi. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) and sputa were collected from CLD+ CLWH (defined as forced-expiratory volume per second z-score < - 1 without reversibility post-bronchodilation with salbutamol), at enrolment as part of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin (BREATHE trial - NCT02426112 ), and from age- and sex-matched CLD- CLWH. Samples were cultured, and antibiotic susceptibility testing was conducted using disk diffusion. Risk factors for bacterial carriage were identified using questionnaires and analysed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 410 participants (336 CLD+, 74 CLD-) were enrolled (median age, 15 years [IQR = 13-18]). SP and MC carriage in NP were higher in CLD+ than in CLD- children: 46% (154/336) vs. 26% (19/74), p = 0.008; and 14% (49/336) vs. 3% (2/74), p = 0.012, respectively. SP isolates from the NP of CLD+ children were more likely to be non-susceptible to penicillin than those from CLD- children (36% [53/144] vs 11% [2/18], p = 0.036). Methicillin-resistant SA was uncommon [4% (7/195)]. In multivariate analysis, key factors associated with NP bacterial carriage included having CLD (SP: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2 [95% CI 1.1-3.9]), younger age (SP: aOR 3.2 [1.8-5.8]), viral load suppression (SP: aOR 0.6 [0.4-1.0], SA: 0.5 [0.3-0.9]), stunting (SP: aOR 1.6 [1.1-2.6]) and male sex (SA: aOR 1.7 [1.0-2.9]). Sputum bacterial carriage was similar in both groups (50%) and was associated with Zimbabwean site (SP: aOR 3.1 [1.4-7.3], SA: 2.1 [1.1-4.2]), being on ART for a longer period (SP: aOR 0.3 [0.1-0.8]), and hot compared to rainy season (SP: aOR 2.3 [1.2-4.4]). CONCLUSIONS: CLD+ CLWH were more likely to be colonised by MC and SP, including penicillin-non-susceptible SP strains, than CLD- CLWH. The role of these bacteria in CLD pathogenesis, including the risk of acute exacerbations, should be further studied.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones por VIH/microbiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares/microbiología , Adolescente , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Enfermedades Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Pulmonares/epidemiología , Malaui/epidemiología , Masculino , Microbiota , Nasofaringe/microbiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
4.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 83: 103606, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545380

RESUMEN

Heavy metal contamination of soil has become a public concern. Earthworms are key players in the functioning and service of soil ecosystems, with comprehension of their introduction in the polluted soil offering new insights into the protection of soil resources. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) introduction and Cd (0, 10, 30, and 60 mg kg-1 of Cd) exposure upon soil microbial community using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Our research demonstrated that Gemmatimonadetes and Deinococcus-Thermus upregulated significantly, while Chryseolinea showed an obvious decreasing trend after earthworm introduction. In Cd contaminated soil, many genera exhibited a greater presence of Cd-dependent bacteria, namely Cd-tolerant bacteria such as Altererythrobacter and Luteimonas, and a decrease of sensitive bacteria, such as Amaricoccus and Haliangium. Moreover, functional prediction analysis of soil microbiota indicated that earthworm introduction and Cd exposure changed functional pathways of soil microorganisms. The results obtained in this study are beneficial for understanding soil microbial community impacted by earthworm, and for exploring Cd resistant or tolerant bacteria, with potentially significant findings for soil biodiversity and Cd bioremediation.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Oligoquetos , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Animales , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/genética , Microbiota/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Microbiología del Suelo
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 111981, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592372

RESUMEN

Environmental pollution due to resistance genes from livestock manure has become a serious issue that needs to be resolved. However, little studies focused on the removal of resistance genes in simultaneous processing of livestock feces and urine. This study investigated the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), metal resistance genes (MRGs), and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) during thermophilic fermentation of swine manure in an ectopic fermentation system (EFS), which has been regarded as a novel system for efficiently treating both feces and urine. The abundances of MRGs and tetracycline resistance genes were 34.44-97.71% lower in the EFS. The supplementation of heavy metals significantly increased the abundance of intI1, with the enhancement effect of copper being more prominent than that of zinc. The highest abundances of resistance genes and intI1 were observed at high Cu levels (A2), indicating that Cu can increase the spreading of resistance genes through integrons. Network analysis revealed the co-occurrence of ARGs, MRGs, and intI1, and these genes potentially shared the same host bacteria. Redundancy analysis showed that the bacterial community explained most of the variations in ARGs, and environmental factors had influences on ARGs abundances by modulating the bacterial community composition. The decreased Sphingomonas, Comamonas, Acinetobacter, Lactobacillus, Bartonella, Rhizobium, and Bacteroides were mainly responsible for the reduced resistance genes. These results demonstrate that EFS can reduce resistance genes in simultaneous processing of livestock feces and urine.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Fermentación/fisiología , Genes Bacterianos , Estiércol/microbiología , Metales Pesados/análisis , Animales , Antibacterianos/análisis , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Cobre , Integrones , Ganado , Estiércol/análisis , Porcinos , Tetraciclina/farmacología
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24847, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607856

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors, pathogenic bacteria and drug sensitivity of maternal sepsis, and provide evidence for clinical prevention and treatment.A retrospective investigation of pregnant women with full-term maternal sepsis was performed to analyze the risk factors, pathogenic bacteria, and drug sensitivity of maternal sepsis.Univariate analysis showed that temperature, serum procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at admission, white blood cell count (WBC), PCT, CRP and neutrophilic granulocyte percentage (N%) during fever, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), antibiotic use within 1 week, mode of production, onset and duration of fever, between groups were statistically significant (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis showed that cesarean section was an independent risk factor for sepsis (OR = 11.839, 95%CI: 3.121-44.906). Apparent increase was found in body temperature (OR = 3.664, 95%CI: 1.722-7.795), duration of fever (OR = 1.953, 95%CI: 1.242-3.071), and PCT (OR = 1.080, 95%CI: 1.002-1.163). Also, increasing neutrophil ratio (OR = 1.180, 95%CI: 1.073-1.297) indicated a high possibility of maternal sepsis. The organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) was the most common pathogenic bacteria in the positive blood culture group (90%), and the sensitivity to carbapenems (meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin) was 100%, that to piperacillin-tazobactam and amoxicillin sulbactam was over 90%, and that to ceftazidime was 95%.Cesarean section was an independent risk factor for maternal sepsis in term pregnant women with positive blood culture. Besides, the E. coli was the most common pathogenic bacteria in the positive blood culture group. Antibiotics should be used in time and reasonably when the temperature was significantly increased with elevated PCT and N% after a cesarean section.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/microbiología , Adulto , Antibacterianos/normas , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Cultivo de Sangre/métodos , Cultivo de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Cesárea/estadística & datos numéricos , China/epidemiología , Escherichia coli/patogenicidad , Femenino , Rotura Prematura de Membranas Fetales/epidemiología , Fiebre , Humanos , Recuento de Leucocitos/métodos , Recuento de Leucocitos/estadística & datos numéricos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/métodos , Neutrófilos/citología , Neutrófilos/patología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Mujeres Embarazadas , Polipéptido alfa Relacionado con Calcitonina/sangre , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112027, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578100

RESUMEN

The unregulated deposition of metal-based nanoparticles in terrestrial ecosystems particularly in agricultural systems has alarmingly threatened the sustainability of the environment and diversity of beneficial microbial populations such as soil bacteria and fungi. This occurs due to the poor treatment of biosolids during wastewater treatment and their application in agricultural fields to enhance the fertility of soils. Continuous deposition, low biodegradability, and longer persistence of metal nanoparticles in soils adversely impact the population of soil beneficial bacteria and fungi. The current literature suggests the toxic outcome of nanoparticle-fungi and nanoparticle-bacteria interactions based on various toxicity endpoints. Therefore, due to the extreme importance of beneficial soil bacteria and fungi for soil fertility and plant growth, this review summarizes the production, application, release of metal nanoparticles in the soil system and their impact on various soil microbes specifically plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, cellular toxicity and impact of nanoparticles on bioactive molecule production by microbes, destructive nanoparticle impact on unicellular, mycorrhizal, and cellulose/lignin degrading fungi. This review also highlights the molecular alterations in fungi and bacteria-induced by nanoparticles and suggests a plausible toxicity mechanism. This review advances the understanding of the nano-toxicity aspect as a common outcome of nanoparticles and fungi/bacteria interactions.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Nanopartículas del Metal/toxicidad , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Agricultura , Biodegradación Ambiental , Biosólidos , Ecosistema , Micorrizas/química , Desarrollo de la Planta , Plantas , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111822, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418156

RESUMEN

Heavy metal pollution can serve as a selective pressure for antibiotic resistance genes in polluted environments. Anaerobic fermentation, as a recommended wastewater treatment method, is an effective mitigation measure of antibiotic resistance diffusion. To explore the influence of copper on anaerobic fermentation, we exposed the fermentation substrate to copper in a laboratory setup. We found that the relative abundance of 8 genes (pcoD, tetT, tetA, tetB, tetO, qnrS, ermA and ermB) increased at the late stage of fermentation and their abundance was linked to copper content. Corynebacterium and Streptococcus were significantly positively correlated with ermA, ermB, tetA and tetB (P < 0.05). The relative abundance of tetT was significantly positively correlated with Terrisporobacter, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and Turicibacter (P < 0.05). We screened 90 strains of copper resistant bacteria from blank, medium and high copper test groups on days 25, 31 and 37. The number of fragments carried by a single strain increased with time while intl1, ermA and ermB existed in almost all combinations of the multiple fragments we identified. The relative abundance of these three genes were linearly correlated with Corynebacterium and Streptococcus. The antibiotic resistance genes carried by class 1 integrons gradually increased with time in the fermentation system and integrons carrying ermA and ermB most likely contributed to host survival through the late stages of fermentation. The genera Corynebacterium and Streptococcus may be the primary carriers of such integrated mobile gene element and this was most likely the reason for their rebound in relative abundance during the late fermentation stages.


Asunto(s)
Cobre/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Anaerobiosis , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/genética , Fermentación/efectos de los fármacos , Integrones/genética , Purificación del Agua
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(2): 3237-3245, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405504

RESUMEN

Cationic polymers are promising antibacterial agents because bacteria have a low propensity to develop resistance against them, but they usually have low biocompatibility because of their hydrophobic moieties. Herein, we report a new biodegradable and biocompatible chitosan-derived cationic antibacterial polymer, 2,6-diamino chitosan (2,6-DAC). 2,6-DAC shows excellent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8-32 µg/mL against clinically relevant and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Furthermore, 2,6-DAC shows an excellent synergistic effect with various clinically relevant antibiotics proved by decreasing the MICs of the antibiotics against MDR A. baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to <1 µg/mL. In vivo biocompatibility of 2,6-DAC is proved by a dosage of 100 mg/kg compound via oral administration and 25 mg/kg compound via intraperitoneal injection to mice; 2,6-DAC does not cause any weight loss and any significant change in liver and kidney biomarkers or the important blood electrolytes. The combinations of 2,6-DAC together with novobiocin and rifampicin show >2.4 log10 reduction of A. baumannii in murine intraperitoneal and lung infection models. The novel chitosan derivative, 2,6-DAC, can be utilized as a biocompatible broad-spectrum cationic antimicrobial agent alone or in synergistic combination with various antibiotics.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Quitosano/análogos & derivados , Quitosano/farmacología , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(4): 4874-4885, 2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464809

RESUMEN

This work is strategically premeditated to study the potential of a herbal medicinal product as a natural bioactive ingredient to generate nanocellulose-based antibacterial architectures. In situ fibrillation of purified cellulose was done in cinnamon extract (ciE) to obtain microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). To this MFC suspension, carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals (cCNCs) were homogeneously mixed and the viscous gel thus obtained was freeze-dried to obtain lightweight and flexible composite aerogel architectures impregnated with ciE, namely, ciMFC/cCNCs. At an optimal concentration of 0.3 wt % cCNCs (i.e., for ciMFC/cCNCs_0.3), an improvement of around 106% in compressive strength and 175% increment in modulus were achieved as compared to pristine MFC architecture. The efficient loading and interaction of ciE components, specifically cinnamaldehyde, with MFC and cCNCs resulted in developing competent antibacterial surfaces with dense and uniform microstructures. Excellent and long-term antimicrobial activity of the optimized architectures (ciMFC/cCNCs_0.3) was confirmed through various antibacterial assays like the zone inhibition method, bacterial growth observation at OD600, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, here 1 mg/mL), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, here 3-5 mg/mL), and Live/Dead BacLight viability tests. The changes in the bacterial morphology with a disrupted membrane were further confirmed through various imaging techniques like confocal laser scanning microscopy, FESEM, AFM, and 3D digital microscopy. The dry composite architecture showed the persuasive capability of suppressing the growth of airborne bacteria, which in combination with antibacterial efficiency in the wet state is considered as an imperative aspect for a material to act as the novel biomaterial. Furthermore, these architectures demonstrated excellent antibacterial performance under real "in use" contamination prone conditions. Hence, this work provides avenues for the application of crude natural extracts in developing novel forms of advanced functional biomaterials that can be used for assorted biological/healthcare applications such as wound care and antimicrobial filtering units.


Asunto(s)
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Antibacterianos/química , Celulosa/química , Cinnamomum aromaticum/química , Nanogeles/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Acroleína/química , Acroleína/farmacología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Adhesión Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones Bacterianas/prevención & control , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
11.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 21, 2021 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514424

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global problem to which the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may further contribute. With resources deployed away from antimicrobial stewardship, evidence of substantial pre-emptive antibiotic use in COVID-19 patients and indirectly, with deteriorating economic conditions fuelling poverty potentially impacting on levels of resistance, AMR threat remains significant. MAIN BODY: In this paper, main AMR countermeasures are revisited and priorities to tackle the issue are re-iterated. The need for collaboration is stressed, acknowledging the relationship between human health, animal health and environment ("One Health" approach). Among the stated priorities, the initiative by the European Medicines Regulatory Network to further strengthen the measures in combatting AMR is highlighted. Likewise, it is asserted that other emerging health threats require global collaboration with the One Health approach offering a valuable blueprint for action. CONCLUSION: The authors stress the importance of an integrated preparedness strategy to tackle this public health peril.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Salud Única/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias , /patogenicidad , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bienestar del Animal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Animales , Programas de Optimización del Uso de los Antimicrobianos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Ganado/microbiología
12.
Food Chem ; 347: 128917, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465691

RESUMEN

Contamination with bacteria leads to food waste and foodborne diseases with severe consequences for the environment and human health. Aiming to reduce food spoilage and infection, the present study developed novel highly active food-grade antimicrobial peptides affecting a wide range of bacteria. After extraction from chickpea, the storage protein legumin was hydrolyzed by the digestive protease chymotrypsin. Subsequent analysis by ultrahigh-performance micro-liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry determined the resulting peptide profiles. Virtual screening identified 21 potential antimicrobial peptides in the hydrolysates. Among those, the peptides Leg1 (RIKTVTSFDLPALRFLKL) and Leg2 (RIKTVTSFDLPALRWLKL) exhibited antimicrobial activity against 16 different bacteria, including pathogens, spoilage-causing bacteria and two antibiotic-resistant strains. Leg1/Leg2 showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) down to 15.6 µmol/L and were thus 10-1,000-fold more active compared to conventional food preservatives. Moreover, Leg1 and Leg2 showed bactericidal activity in contrast to the bacteriostatic activity of conventional preservatives.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Cicer/química , Microbiología de Alimentos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacología , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacología , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/farmacología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/aislamiento & purificación , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/química , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/aislamiento & purificación
13.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 141(1): 135-142, 2021.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390440

RESUMEN

Environmental microorganisms can cause several infections in humans, especially in compromised hosts. Since there are many compromised hosts in a hospital setting, it is important to control environmental pathogens in such scenarios. To disinfect the environment, photocatalysts that produce reactive oxygen in response to light have attracted attention. In the present study, the effects of a visible-light-driven antimicrobial photocatalyst, silver (I) iodide and benzalkonium complex, on bacteria, viruses, and fungi were evaluated in vitro. In addition, uncoated panels and panels coated with the photocatalyst were set up at 11 points in a university campus for 6 months, and the adherent bacteria and fungi were measured. Bacteria, bacterial spores, viruses, and fungi were completely inactivated within 45 min on the photocatalyst-coated surface exposed to approximately 700-lux fluorescent light. In the university setting, there were fewer viable adherent bacteria and fungi on the coated plates. Our findings indicate that the silver (I) iodide and benzalkonium complex photocatalyst can decrease environmental bacteria in vitro and in actual environmental settings, and thus highlight its potential in controlling and disinfecting environmental pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Benzalconio , Desinfección/métodos , Microbiología Ambiental , Fluorescencia , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Yoduros , Luz , Compuestos de Plata , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos de Benzalconio/farmacología , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Yoduros/farmacología , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/farmacología , Compuestos de Plata/farmacología , Inactivación de Virus/efectos de los fármacos
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 481-492, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500618

RESUMEN

Background: Dihydromyricetin (DMY), a natural flavonoid, has reportedly antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer and other properties. In the present study, DMY was used as a reducing agent and stabilizer to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and the optimal conditions for its synthesis were studied. The DMY-AgNPs were investigated for their DPPH scavenging properties and their potential against human pathogenic and food-borne bacteria viz. Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella. In addition, DMY-AgNPs also showed excellent inhibitory effects on cancer Hela, HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Methods: The dihydromyricetin-mediated AgNPs (DMY-AgNPs) were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis spectra), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Antioxidant activity of DMY-AgNPs was determined by 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging. The antibacterial activity was determined by 96-well plate (AGAR) gradient dilution, while anticancer potential was determined by MTT assay. Results: The results showed that the dispersion of AgNPs had the maximum UV-visible absorption at about 410 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles were almost spherical. FTIR was used to identify functional groups that may lead to the transformation of metal ions into nanoparticles. The results showed that the prepared AgNPs were coated with biological molecules in the extraction solution. The biosynthesized DMY-AgNPs exhibited good antioxidant properties, at various concentrations (0.01-0.1mg/mL), the free radical scavenging rate was about 56-92%. Furthermore, DMY-AgNPs possessed good antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella at room temperature. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 10-6 g/L, and 10-4 g/L, respectively. The bioactivity of DMY-mediated AgNPs was studied using MTT assay against Hela, HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines, and all showed good inhibitory effects. Conclusion: The present study provides a green approach for the synthesis of DMY-AgNPs which exhibited stronger antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer properties compared to the dihydromyricetin. DMY-AgNPs can serve as an economical, efficient, and effective antimicrobial material for its applications in food and pharmaceutical fields.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Flavonoles/farmacología , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Plata/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular Tumoral , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas del Metal/ultraestructura , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta , Difracción de Rayos X
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 180, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420069

RESUMEN

The highly reactive nature of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the basis for widespread use in environmental and health-related fields. Conventionally, there are only two kinds of catalysts used for ROS generation: photocatalysts and piezocatalysts. However, their usage has been limited due to various environmental and physical factors. To address this problem, herein, we report thermoelectric materials, such as Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3, and PbTe, as thermocatalysts which can produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under a small surrounding temperature difference. Being the most prevalent environmental factors in daily life, temperature and related thermal effects have tremendous potential for practical applications. To increase the practicality in everyday life, bismuth telluride nanoplates (Bi2Te3 NPs), serving as an efficient thermocatalyst, are coated on a carbon fiber fabric (Bi2Te3@CFF) to develop a thermocatalytic filter with antibacterial function. Temperature difference induced H2O2 generation by thermocatalysts results in the oxidative damage of bacteria, which makes thermocatalysts highly promising for disinfection applications. Antibacterial activity as high as 95% is achieved only by the treatment of low-temperature difference cycles. The current work highlights the horizon-shifting impacts of thermoelectric materials for real-time purification and antibacterial applications.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bismuto/farmacología , Desinfección/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/farmacología , Nanotecnología/métodos , Telurio/farmacología , Filtros de Aire , Antibacterianos/química , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bismuto/química , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tamaño de la Partícula , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Telurio/química , Temperatura , Textiles , Difracción de Rayos X
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470889

RESUMEN

In this study, we investigated the interaction of submicron-sized bioplastics with environmentally and clinically important bacteria under seawater and sediment conditions. To examine the relationship between submicron-sized bioplastics and bacteria in seawater and sediment, we focused on the bacterial activation and their biochemical key events toward the protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and antioxidant response. In addition, culture-dependent biofilm formation on submicron-sized bioplastics and their characterization was performed. The results indicated that selected bacteria increased their viability both in seawater and sediment with the submicron-sized bioplastics in that the bioplastics decreased their mass at the level of 10-23%. However, the activation level and mechanism affected the polymer type, bacteria, and environmental media, and submicron-sized bioplastics promoted biofilm formation with enhancing basophilic characteristics of biofilms.


Asunto(s)
Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiología , Microplásticos/análisis , Polímeros/análisis , Agua de Mar/microbiología , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Viabilidad Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Microplásticos/toxicidad , Tamaño de la Partícula , Polímeros/metabolismo , Polímeros/toxicidad , Agua de Mar/química , Microbiología del Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 526, 2021 01 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483514

RESUMEN

Aciduric bacteria that can survive in extremely acidic conditions (pH < 4.0) are challenging to the current antimicrobial approaches, including antibiotics and photodynamic bacteria inactivation (PDI). Here, we communicate a photosensitizer design concept of halogenation of fluorescein for extremely acidic PDI. Upon halogenation, the well-known spirocyclization that controls the absorption of fluorescein shifts to the acidic pH range. Meanwhile, the heavy atom effect of halogens boosts the generation of singlet oxygen. Accordingly, several photosensitizers that could work at even pH < 2.0 were discovered for a broad band of aciduric bacteria families, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) lower than 1.1 µM. Since one of the discovered photosensitizers is an FDA-approved food additive (2',4',5',7'-tetraiodofluorescein, TIF), successful bacteria growth inhibition in acidic beverages was demonstrated, with greatly extended shelf life from 2 days to ~15 days. Besides, the in vivo PDI of Candidiasis with TIF under extremely acidic condition was also demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Fluoresceína/farmacología , Luz , Fármacos Fotosensibilizantes/farmacología , Ácidos/química , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/efectos de la radiación , Femenino , Fluoresceína/química , Halogenación , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Viabilidad Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Viabilidad Microbiana/efectos de la radiación , Estructura Molecular , Oxígeno Singlete/química , Oxígeno Singlete/metabolismo
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 223-235, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469282

RESUMEN

Purpose: Today, the development of wounds and their side effects has become a problematic issue in medical science research. Hydrogel-based dressings are some of the best candidates for this purpose due to their ability to keep the wound bed clean, as well as provide proper moisture, tissue compatibility and an antimicrobial effect for wound healing. On the other hand, copper and its compounds have been used experimentally for many years in studies as an antimicrobial substance. Various studies have been performed determining the antimicrobial properties of this element, during which significant effects on infection have been shown. Methods: Chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/copper nanofibers were successfully prepared by incorporating Cu onto a polymer electrospun using an electrospinning technique. A double-layer nanofiber composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) and chitosan incorporated with Cu nanoparticles as a protective layer and a second layer composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers which was adjacent to the damaged cells was prepared. The prepared nanofiber was characterized by TGA, FT-IR, TEM, SEM-EDS, and X-ray powder diffraction. The antimicrobial efficiency of the nanofibers was demonstrated through biological tests on some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Finally, the prepared hydrogel formulations were prepared to evaluate their effect on the healing process of rat open wounds. Results: In this study, data from SEM, TEM, EDS, and XRD confirmed the formation of uniform fibers with nanodiameters and the presence of Cu nanoparticles onto the electrospun nanofibers. The antibacterial activity of copper was observed against all of the selected bacteria, but the Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive compared to Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, the hydrogel wound dressing prepared in this research can be effective in caring for open wounds in the early stages of wound healing and preventing the occurrence of prolonged open wounds.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Vendajes , Quitosano/química , Cobre/química , Alcohol Polivinílico/química , Heridas y Traumatismos/microbiología , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Iones , Masculino , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Nanofibras/ultraestructura , Ratas Wistar , Espectrometría por Rayos X , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetría , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos , Difracción de Rayos X
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 83, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411117

RESUMEN

This experiment examines the effects of bamboo charcoal (BC) powder, bamboo vinegar (BV), and their combination (BCV) in the diet of laying hens on performance, egg quality, relative organ weights, and intestinal bacterial populations. A total of 320 laying hens (36 weeks of age) were divided into 4 treatment groups, with 10 replicates per treatment and 8 hens per replicate. They were fed on a control diet, the control diet supplemented with 0.8% BC, the control diet supplemented with 0.4% BV, or the control diet supplemented with a combination of BC (0.8%) and BV (0.4%) from 36 to 51 weeks of age. Egg production increased in the hens fed the BV and BCV diets during 48 to 51 weeks of age (P < 0.05). Damaged egg rate decreased in the hens fed the BV and BCV diets for the whole experiment (P < 0.05). Shell thickness was highest in the BCV-fed group at week 43, and shell strength was higher in the BV-fed group at week 51 (P < 0.05). Supplementation of BC or BCV in the diet resulted in a decreased abdominal fat pad (P < 0.05). In the ileal content, the population of Salmonella spp. decreased in the BV and BCV groups and the population of Lactobacillus spp. increased in the BV group (P < 0.05). The present results indicate that feeding BV or BCV alleviates damaged egg rate and decreases intestinal pathogenic bacteria, while feeding BC benefits by reducing abdominal fat. These results suggest that the effect of BCV seems to be induced by the synergistic effect of BC and BV, and that the BCV contributes to the effective use of bamboo on the laying hen's production.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Carbón Orgánico/metabolismo , Pollos/fisiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Óvulo/efectos de los fármacos , Poaceae/química , Ácido Acético/administración & dosificación , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Carbón Orgánico/administración & dosificación , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Femenino , Polvos/administración & dosificación , Polvos/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111724, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396055

RESUMEN

In recent years, in order to promote animal growth and reduce the risk of disease, a variety of antibiotics are frequently added to the animal feed of livestock and poultry. However, these antibiotics can not be fully digested by animals and most of them are excreted with feces, consequently causing the enrichment of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and huge environmental risks. Nowadays, composting is a better option to solve these problems. Accordingly, this study explored the effects of co-composting swine manure with different inoculants dominated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium (p), Aspergillus niger (a), and Bacillus licheniformis (b) on the simultaneous removal of multiple antibiotics and resistance genes and evolution of the bacterial community. The results showed that the highest removal extent of tetracycline and oxytetracycline occurred in pile D (p:b:a=1:5:5, biomass) reaching 89.2% and 87.8%, respectively, while the highest removal extent of doxycycline and enrofloxacin occurred in pile A (p:b:a=1:0:0, biomass) reaching 98.6% and 89%, respectively. Compared with the levels in pile B (control check), in pile D, ARGs, except those for sulfonamides, decreased by 1.059 × 10-3-6.68 × 10-2 gene copies/16S rRNA copies. Inoculation with p alone effectively reduced intI1 and intI2. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) that microbial community structure evolution had a greater influence on ARGs than environmental factors. In summary, this study provided a feasible way to efficiently remove the antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in pig manure.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/análisis , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Estiércol/microbiología , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Compostaje/métodos , Genes Bacterianos , Ganado , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Oxitetraciclina/farmacología , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Porcinos , Tetraciclina/farmacología
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