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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 29, 2020 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016527

RESUMEN

Short-chain halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g. perchloroethene, trichloroethene) are among the most toxic environmental pollutants. Perchloroethene and trichloroethene can be dechlorinated to non-toxic ethene through reductive dechlorination by Dehalococcoides sp. Bioaugmentation, applying cultures containing organohalide-respiring microorganisms, is a possible technique to remediate sites contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Application of site specific inocula is an efficient alternative solution. Our aim was to develop site specific dechlorinating microbial inocula by enriching microbial consortia from groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene using microcosm experiments containing clay mineral as solid phase. Our main goal was to develop fast and reliable method to produce large amount (100 L) of bioactive agent with anaerobic fermentation technology. Polyphasic approach has been applied to monitor the effectiveness of dechlorination during the transfer process from bench-scale (500 mL) to industrial-scale (100 L). Gas chromatography measurement and T-RFLP (Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) revealed that the serial subculture of the enrichments shortened the time-course of the complete dechlorination of trichloroethene to ethene and altered the composition of bacterial communities. Complete dechlorination was observed in enrichments with significant abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. cultivated at 8 °C. Consortia incubated in fermenters at 18 °C accelerated the conversion of TCE to ethene by 7-14 days. Members of the enrichments belong to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. According to the operational taxonomic units, main differences between the composition of the enrichment incubated at 8 °C and 18 °C occurred with relative abundance of acetogenic and fermentative species. In addition to the temperature, the site-specific origin of the microbial communities and the solid phase applied during the fermentation technique contributed to the development of a unique microbial composition.


Asunto(s)
Anaerobiosis/fisiología , Bacterias/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Arcilla/química , Microbiota/fisiología , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/metabolismo , Chloroflexi/genética , Chloroflexi/metabolismo , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Bacteriano/aislamiento & purificación , Fermentación , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/metabolismo , Geobacter/genética , Geobacter/metabolismo , Agua Subterránea/microbiología , Consorcios Microbianos , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Proteobacteria/genética , Proteobacteria/metabolismo , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/aislamiento & purificación , Tricloroetileno/química , Microbiología del Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo
2.
Zool Res ; 41(1): 20-31, 2020 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930784

RESUMEN

There is a growing appreciation for the specific health benefits conferred by commensal microbiota on their hosts. Clinical microbiota analysis and animal studies in germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice have been crucial for improving our understanding of the role of the microbiome on the host mucosal surface; however, studies on the mechanisms involved in microbiome-host interactions remain limited to small animal models. Here, we demonstrated that rhesus monkeys under short-term broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment could be used as a model to study the gut mucosal host-microbiome niche and immune balance with steady health status. Results showed that the diversity and community structure of the gut commensal bacteria in rhesus monkeys were both disrupted after antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing results indicated that Escherichia-Shigella were predominant in stool samples 9 d of treatment, and the abundances of bacterial functional genes and predicted KEGG pathways were significantly changed. In addition to inducing aberrant morphology of small intestinal villi, the depletion of gut commensal bacteria led to increased proportions of CD3 + T, CD4 + T, and CD16 + NK cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but decreased numbers of Treg and CD20 + B cells. The transcriptome of PBMCs from antibiotic-treated monkeys showed that the immune balance was affected by modulation of the expression of many functional genes, including IL-13, VCAM1, and LGR4.


Asunto(s)
Disbiosis/inmunología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/anatomía & histología , Macaca mulatta/microbiología , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/genética , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Heces/microbiología , Intestinos/microbiología , Masculino
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 779-787, 2020 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894986

RESUMEN

The chain length of fructan determines its different physiological effects. This study is to explore the effects of low-performance inulin [LPI, degree of polymerization (DP) ≤ 9] and high-performance inulin (HPI, DP ≥ 23) on obesity-associated liver injury of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding mice and its underlying mechanism. Eight weeks of supplementation of C57BL/6J mice with HPI, relative to LPI (p < 0.05), caused the more efficient improvement against the HFD-induced liver insulin resistance through activating IRS1/PI3K/Akt pathway and reduced protein expressions of inflammatory factors nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the liver. HPI exhibited the more positive effects on liver steatosis by inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) in comparison with LPI (p < 0.05). HPI also increased acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid levels in the colon of HFD-fed mice (p < 0.05). Compared to LPI, HPI feeding of HFD-fed mice led to the more effective decrease in the Firmicutes abundance from 72.1% to 34.5%, but a more significant increase in the Bacteroidetes population from 19.8 to 57.1% at the phyla level, and increased the abundance of Barnesiella, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides at the genus level (p < 0.05). Depending on DP, HPI exerts the more positive regulation on liver injury and gut microbiota dysfunction than LPI.


Asunto(s)
Disbiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Inulina/administración & dosificación , Inulina/química , Hígado/lesiones , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Disbiosis/genética , Disbiosis/metabolismo , Disbiosis/microbiología , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Obesos , FN-kappa B/genética , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidad/genética , Obesidad/metabolismo , Obesidad/microbiología , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/metabolismo , Polimerizacion
4.
Microbes Environ ; 35(1)2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932538

RESUMEN

Accretionary prisms are thick masses of sedimentary material scraped from the oceanic crust and piled up at convergent plate boundaries found across large regions of the world. Large amounts of anoxic groundwater and natural gas, mainly methane (CH4), are contained in deep aquifers associated with these accretionary prisms. To identify the subsurface environments and potential for CH4 production by the microbial communities in deep aquifers, we performed chemical and microbiological assays on groundwater and natural gas derived from deep aquifers associated with an accretionary prism and its overlying sedimentary layers. Physicochemical analyses of groundwater and natural gas suggested wide variations in the features of the six deep aquifers tested. On the other hand, a stable carbon isotope analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon in the groundwater and CH4 in the natural gas showed that the deep aquifers contained CH4 of biogenic or mixed biogenic and thermogenic origins. Live/dead staining of microbial cells contained in the groundwater revealed that the cell density of live microbial cells was in the order of 104 to 106| |cells| |mL-1, and cell viability ranged between 7.5 and 38.9%. A DNA analysis and anoxic culture of microorganisms in the groundwater suggested a high potential for CH4 production by a syntrophic consortium of hydrogen (H2)-producing fermentative bacteria and H2-utilizing methanogenic archaea. These results suggest that the biodegradation of organic matter in ancient sediments contributes to CH4 production in the deep aquifers associated with this accretionary prism as well as its overlying sedimentary layers.


Asunto(s)
Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiología , Agua Subterránea/microbiología , Metano/biosíntesis , Consorcios Microbianos , Anaerobiosis , Archaea/clasificación , Archaea/genética , Archaea/aislamiento & purificación , Archaea/metabolismo , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Carbono/análisis , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Agua Subterránea/química , Hidrógeno/metabolismo , Japón , Metano/análisis , Gas Natural/análisis , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
5.
Microbes Environ ; 35(1)2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932540

RESUMEN

Chitin amendment is an agricultural management strategy for controlling soil-borne plant disease. We previously reported an exponential decrease in chitin added to incubated upland soil. We herein investigated the transition of the bacterial community structure in chitin-degrading soil samples over time and the characteristics of chitinolytic bacteria in order to elucidate changes in the chitinolytic bacterial community structure during chitin degradation. The addition of chitin to soil immediately increased the population of bacteria in the genus Streptomyces, which is the main decomposer of chitin in soil environments. Lysobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Cellulosimicrobium, Streptosporangium, and Nonomuraea populations increased over time with decreases in that of Streptomyces. We isolated 104 strains of chitinolytic bacteria, among which six strains were classified as Lysobacter, from chitin-treated soils. These results suggested the involvement of Lysobacter as well as Streptomyces as chitin decomposers in the degradation of chitin added to soil. Lysobacter isolates required yeast extract or casamino acid for significant growth on minimal agar medium supplemented with glucose. Further nutritional analyses demonstrated that the six chitinolytic Lysobacter isolates required methionine (Met) to grow, but not cysteine or homocysteine, indicating Met auxotrophy. Met auxotrophy was also observed in two of the five type strains of Lysobacter spp. tested, and these Met auxotrophs used d-Met as well as l-Met. The addition of Met to incubated upland soil increased the population of Lysobacter. Met may be a factor increasing the population of Lysobacter in chitin-treated upland soil.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Quitina/farmacología , Metionina/metabolismo , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Microbiología del Suelo , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Quitina/análisis , Quitina/metabolismo , Lysobacter/clasificación , Lysobacter/genética , Lysobacter/aislamiento & purificación , Lysobacter/metabolismo , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Suelo/química , Streptomyces/clasificación , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/aislamiento & purificación , Streptomyces/metabolismo
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18504, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914021

RESUMEN

We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of bacterial coexistence and the coinfection dynamics between bacteria and respiratory viruses among young children. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from children aged < 5 years hospitalized with a community-acquired single respiratory viral infection of influenza, adenovirus, or RSV during 2 recent consecutive influenza seasons. Remnant respiratory specimens were used for bacterial PCR targeting Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus.A total of 102 children were included; median age was 0.8 years and 44.1% had underlying comorbidities. Overall, 6.8% (7/102) of cases were classified as severe diseases requiring intensive care unit admission and/or mechanical ventilation and ranged from 8.8% for a patient with RSV and 7.6% for those with adenovirus to 0% for those with influenza viruses. The overall viral-bacterial codetection rate was 59.8% (61/102); M catarrhalis was the most frequent (33.3%), followed by H influenzae (31.4%). Influenza cases showed higher bacterial codetection rates (80.0%; 8/10) compared with those with adenoviruses (69.2%; 9/13) and RSV (55.7%; 44/79). S pneumoniae and H influenzae codetections were associated with reduced severity (aOR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.89), and reduced risk of wheezing (aOR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.13-0.98), respectively.We observed the interactions between respiratory viruses and bacteria and the clinical significance of viral-bacterial coexistence in upper airway on disease severity. Future study will be necessary to elucidate the active interactions between different viruses and bacteria and give clues to risk stratified strategy in the management of respiratory infections among young children.


Asunto(s)
Adenoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Haemophilus influenzae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/virología , Bacterias/genética , Preescolar , Coinfección/microbiología , Coinfección/virología , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/microbiología , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/virología , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Gripe Humana/virología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Ruidos Respiratorios/diagnóstico , Ruidos Respiratorios/etiología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/virología , Virus Sincitiales Respiratorios/genética , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Streptococcus pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Virus/genética
7.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(2): 289-302, 2020 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961431

RESUMEN

Preeclampsia (PE) is regarded as a pregnancy-associated hypertension disorder that is related to excessive inflammatory responses. Although the gut microbiota (GM) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been related to hypertension, their effects on PE remain unknown. We determined the GM abundance and faecal SCFA levels by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing and gas chromatography, respectively, using faecal samples from 27 patients with severe PE and 36 healthy, pregnant control subjects. We found that patients with PE had significantly decreased GM diversity and altered GM abundance. At the phylum level, patients with PE exhibited decreased abundance of Firmicutes albeit increased abundance of Proteobacteria; at the genus level, patients with PE had lower abundance of Blautia, Eubacterium_rectale, Eubacterium_hallii, Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, Alistipes, and Subdoligranulum, albeit higher abundance of Enterobacter and Escherichia_Shigella. The faecal levels of butyric and valeric acids were significantly decreased in patients with PE and significantly correlated with the above-mentioned differential GM abundance. We predicted significantly increased abundance of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-synthesis pathway and significantly decreased abundance of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pathway in patients with PE, based on phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt). Finally, we evaluated the effects of oral butyrate on LPS-induced hypertension in pregnant rats. We found that butyrate significantly reduced the blood pressure (BP) in these rats. In summary, we provide the first evidence linking GM dysbiosis and reduced faecal SCFA to PE and demonstrate that butyrate can directly regulate BP in vivo, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic agent for PE.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/análisis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Preeclampsia/fisiopatología , Adulto , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Butiratos/administración & dosificación , Butiratos/análisis , Butiratos/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/metabolismo , Heces/química , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Hipertensión/metabolismo , Hipertensión/microbiología , Ácidos Pentanoicos/análisis , Ácidos Pentanoicos/metabolismo , Dinámica Poblacional , Preeclampsia/metabolismo , Preeclampsia/microbiología , Embarazo , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 128-137, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825613

RESUMEN

Salmonellosis is a world-wide epidemic, and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) possess various health benefits. This study is aimed to investigate the preventive effects of n-3 LCPUFAs against Salmonella infection. By pretreatment with n-3 LCPUFAs, but not n-6 LCPUFAs, the survival rate of the infected mice was increased. Further studies showed that n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased the fecal contents of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The cytokine expression in the liver and production in serum were both modulated by n-3 LCPUFAs into an anti-inflammatory profile against infection. Moreover, the changes in gut microbiota by n-3 LCPUFAs favored the host against pathogens, closely related to the modified SCFA production and immune responses. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFAs prevented Salmonella infection through multiple mechanisms, especially by the interaction with gut microbiota and host immunology. Our results suggested great perspectives for n-3 LCPUFAs and their related products to control the prevalence of Salmonella, a most predominant food-borne pathogen.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Salmonella/prevención & control , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/metabolismo , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Salmonella/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella/fisiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1155-1163, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680254

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil microorganisms can form complex and varied communities which interact with each other in many different ways depending on environmental conditions. These microbial diversities are accompanied by different metabolic paths and adaptability reflected even in extreme environments. In recent decades, the biodiversity of microbes in extreme environments has been in scientific focus because such specifically adapted bacteria can improve bioremediation processes in industrial and agricultural applications. Instead of the time-consuming process of identification of new bacterial strains from habitats rich in microbiota, artificial neural networks have been proposed as a mapping model for resolving the problem of prediction of microbial behaviour. RESULTS: The occurrence and diversity of alkaliphilic sporogenic bacteria in alkaline soils were investigated. For this purpose, soil samples were collected from various locations: leached soil from the Danube river, cement factory wastewater accumulation, deposit of limestone near the Besenovo lake and the Beli Majdan cave in the Fruska gora mountain. According to the obtained results, two empirical models were developed that gave a good fit to experimental data and were able to predict successfully the pH and temperature growth profiles of the natural isolates. The artificial neural network models showed a reasonably good predictive capability (overall R2 for temperature growth profile was 0.727, while the overall R2 for pH growth profile was 0.906). CONCLUSIONS: The developed mathematical models provided adequate precision for practical study in the microbiology laboratory and scale-up processes for a wide range of laboratory and industrial applications, where specifically adapted microbial communities are needed. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiología del Suelo , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Biodiversidad , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Microbiota , Modelos Teóricos , Suelo/química , Temperatura Ambiental , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Aguas Residuales/microbiología
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1164-1173, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680258

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to analyze the effects of endophytic Bacillus megaterium (BM 18-2) colonization on structure strengthening, microbial community, chemical composition and stabilization properties of Hybrid Pennisetum. RESULTS: The BM 18-2 had successfully colonized in the interior tissues in both leaf and stem of Hybrid Pennisetum. During ensiling, the levels of pH, acetic acid (AA), butyric acid (BA), propionic acid (PA), and the population of yeast and aerobic bacteria were significantly (P > 0.05) lower, while lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and lactic acid (LA) were significantly (P < 0.001) higher with the steps forward of ensiling in with BM 18-2 as compared to without BM 18-2 colonized of Hybrid Pennisetum. During the different ensiling days, at days 3, 6, 15, and 30, the genus Brevundimonas, Klebsiella, Lactococcus, Weissella, Enterobacter, Serratia, etc. population were significantly decreased, while genus Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum were significantly influenced in treated groups as compared to control. The genus Lactobacillus and Pediococcus were positively correlated with treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that the endophytic bacteria strain BM 18-2 significantly promoted growth characteristics and biomass yield before ensiling and after ensiling inoculated with or without Lactobacillus plantarum could improve the distinct changes of the undesirable microbial diversity, chemical composition, and stabilization properties in with BM 18-2 as compared to without BM 18-2 colonized Hybrid Pennisetum. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus megaterium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Endófitos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Microbiota , Pennisetum/microbiología , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Bacillus megaterium/genética , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Endófitos/genética , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Pennisetum/genética , Pennisetum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Levaduras/clasificación , Levaduras/genética , Levaduras/aislamiento & purificación , Levaduras/metabolismo
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1274-1284, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721238

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diet plays an important role in shaping the composition of gut microbiota. Starch is the main source of carbohydrates in diets of broilers. This study investigated the effects of dietary corn starch and resistant starch on composition and function of caecal microbiota of broilers. A total of 320, 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five groups including normal corn-soybean (NC) diet, corn starch (CS) diet group, 4%, 8% and 12% resistant starch (RS) diet groups. The caecal contents of 42-day old broilers were sampled and microbiota community was analysed with 16S rRNA gene sequences. RESULTS: The CS group increased the abundances of Bilophila, Eggerthella, Olsenella and Sellimonas and decreased proportion of Akkermansia, Eisenbergiella, Oscillospira, Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group and Synergistes in the caecum of birds compared to the NC group. However, the birds from RS groups had higher abundances of Anaerofilum, Bacteroides, Desulfovibrio and Parasutterella and lower abundances of Alistipes, Bilophila, Christensenellaceae R-7 group, Eggerthella and Ruminiclostridium 1 than the CS group. Functional prediction of these changes in microbiota revealed that the CS diet drove caecal microbiota that were more inclined to utilize carbohydrates through glycolysis/gluconeogenesis metabolism, while the 8%RS and 12%RS diets depleted microbial glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and amino acids metabolism. CONCLUSION: Dietary CS and RS alter the microbial composition and diversity, and modulate the metabolic pathways of microbial metabolism in caecum of broilers, which may further affect nutrient utilization and hindgut health of the host. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Ciego/metabolismo , Pollos/metabolismo , Pollos/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Almidón/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Ciego/microbiología , Masculino , Soja/química , Soja/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
12.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 31-41, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456050

RESUMEN

Anaerobic digestion, a recently hot technology to produce biogases especially methane generation for biofuel from wastewater, is considered an effective explanation for energy crisis and global pollution threat. A complex microbiome population is present in sludge, which plays an important role in the digestion of complex polymer into simple monomers. 16S rRNA approaches simply are not enough for amplification due to the involvement of extreme complex population. However, Illumina sequencing is a recent powerful technology to reveal the entire microbiome structure and methane generation pathways in anaerobic digestion. Metagenomic sequencing was tested to reveal the microbial structure of a digested sludge from a local wastewater treatment plant in Beijing. The Illumina HiSeq program was used to extract about 5 GB of data for metagenomic analysis. The classification investigation revealed about 97.64% dominancy of bacteria while 1.78% were detected to be archaea using MG-RAST server. The most abundant bacterial communities were reported to be Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Furthermore, the important microbiome involved in methane generation was revealed. The dominant methanogens were detected (Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina), with affiliation of dominant genes involved in acetoclastic methanogenesis in a digesting sludge. The metagenomic analysis showed that microbial structure and methane generation pathways were successfully dissected in an anaerobic digester.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles/microbiología , Genoma Microbiano/genética , Metagenoma/genética , Metano/metabolismo , Aguas del Alcantarillado/microbiología , Anaerobiosis , Archaea/genética , Bacterias/genética , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
13.
Acta Cytol ; 64(1-2): 81-91, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889574

RESUMEN

Fine needle aspiration samples and small biopsies provide a minimally invasive diagnostic modality for mass lesions. When an infectious process is suspected based on initial evaluation, ancillary techniques can assist in making a specific diagnosis. Here we review the cytopathology that should prompt additional testing and review the availability and interpretation of special stains, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. In addition, this review addresses when special cultures may be necessary and the use of newer molecular techniques for pathogen identification.


Asunto(s)
Biopsia con Aguja Fina/métodos , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Inmunohistoquímica/métodos , Hibridación in Situ/métodos , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
14.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 135-142, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535158

RESUMEN

The goal of this study is to compare the gut microbiota of domestic blue fox (Alopex lagopus) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) to provide better understanding of their intestinal gut microbiota. We analyzed the structure of fecal microbes in 40 blue foxes and 40 raccoon dogs that were raised under same conditions, using high-throughput Illumina sequencing targeting the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 295,146 sequence reads were obtained. The average number of operational taxonomical units in the two group samples was 194 to 286. Firmicutes (blue fox 73.40%, raccoon dog 46.90%) and Bacteroidetes (blue fox 21.92%, raccoon dog 44.25%) were the most abundant phyla in the gut of blue fox and raccoon dog. At the genus level, Prevotella (blue fox 16.89%, raccoon dog 36.22%), Blautia (blue fox 9.02%, raccoon dog 13.72%), and Peptostreptococcaeae_incertae_sedi (blue fox 22.41%, raccoon dog 2.84%) were commonly presented in the gut of two kinds of animal. Principal coordinates analysis showed that the microbial communities were different between blue fox and raccoon dog. The Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio was higher in blue foxes (3:1) than in raccoon dogs (1:1). Moreover, Peptostreptococcaeae_incertae_sedi and Prevotella, were more abundant in the gut of blue fox, whereas the abundance of Prevotella and Blautia were higher in the gut of raccoon dog. In conclusion, the present study revealed the difference of the gut microbial composition between blue fox and raccoon dog under the same diet conditions.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Zorros/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Perros Mapache/microbiología , Animales , Bacterias/genética , Dieta , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
15.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 17-29, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444513

RESUMEN

The role and activity of bacterial endophytes remains largely unexplored and detail insight into Indian rice agro ecosystem is still little explored. In this study, we examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in aerobic rice (variety ARB6) under aerobic and flooded field conditions. Based on 16S rRNA gene RFLP cloning sequencing, 900 clones with 144 representatives (72 aerobic and 72 flooded) revealed majority of clones affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria (64.58%), Betaproteobacteria (9.72%), Alphaproteobacteria (17.36), Firmicutes (6.26%) and Bacteroidetes (2.08). The study suggests that the aerobic rice variety harbours plant growth promoting (PGP) genera (viz. Pantoea, Enterobacter, Paenibacillus, etc). Investigations on aerobic rice under aerobic and flooded conditions revealed high richness and diversity of endophytic bacteria under aerobic condition inferring that the endophytic bacteria are beneficial for rice growth and productivity, and hence, would be helpful in designing better strategies for rice cultivation under drought or water scarce conditions.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/genética , Biodiversidad , Endófitos/genética , Oryza/microbiología , Aerobiosis , Anaerobiosis , Bacterias/clasificación , Ecosistema , Endófitos/clasificación , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Clima Tropical
16.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 43-53, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463601

RESUMEN

To evaluate the changes in bacterial diversity at various time points under resveratrol supplementation, we aimed to investigate the diversification of gut microbiota and the changes in total genetic diversity. We performed 16S rDNA gene sequencing at different time points (15, 30, and 45 days) to analyze the gut microbiota of tilapia. Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes (15 days) or Cyanobacteria (30 and 45 days) were found to be the three most abundant phyla. Cyanobacteria (15 and 30 days), Proteobacteria (15 days), Firmicutes and Chlamydiae (30 and 45 days), Planctomycetes (30 days), Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria (45 days) in the 0.05 g/kg RES group increased as compared to that in the controls. Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria significantly decreased and increased at 30 and 45 days, respectively, while the reverse pattern was observed at 15 days. The Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes and Proteobacteria:Cyanobacteria ratios were significantly increased (15 and 45 days, P < 0.05) and decreased (30 days, P < 0.05). RES supplementation did not affect the richness and diversity of the gut microbiota in tilapia. Our findings may contribute to the development of strategies for the management of diseases.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Cíclidos/microbiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Resveratrol/farmacología , Animales , Bacterias/genética , Biodiversidad , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 4-16, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829005

RESUMEN

Obesity has an important influence on health conditions, causing a multitude of complications and comorbidities, and drug therapy is considered to be one of the treatment strategies. Nowadays, there is increasing interest in the study of intestinal microbiota regulation of obesity; also, an increasing number of agricultural and sideline products have been found to have anti-obesity potential. In the present review, we summarize an overview of current known and potential anti-obesity oligosaccharides and their molecular structures. We describe their anti-obesity potential activity and the molecular structure associated with this activity, the regulation of intestinal microbiota composition and its mechanism of action, including regulation of the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) pathway and altering bile acid (BA) pathway. This review will provide new ideas for us to develop new anti-obesity functional foods.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Antiobesidad/administración & dosificación , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Oligosacáridos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Fármacos Antiobesidad/química , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Obesidad/metabolismo , Obesidad/microbiología , Oligosacáridos/química , Prebióticos/administración & dosificación , Prebióticos/análisis
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 705-713, 2020 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599967

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing importance of probiotics apparent health benefits, an impediment to the use of new probiotic cultures is their safety. Hence there is a need to strictly examine the biosafety as well as health benefits of probiotics in in vivo model systems. RESULTS: In this study, two lactic acid bacterial (LAB) cultures Lactobacillus fermentum NCMR 2826 and FIX proven for their in vitro probiotic properties were investigated for their in vivo safety in Wistar rats. An acute toxicity study (14 days) with a high dose of biomass (1016 colony-forming units (CFU) mL-1 ) followed by a subchronic test for 13 weeks with oral feeding of the probiotic cultures in three different doses (107 , 108 and 1010 CFU mL-1 ) on a daily basis revealed the safety of the L. fermentum cultures. The probiotic feeding had no toxic effects on survival, body weight and food consumption with any of the dosages used throughout the treatment period. No statistically significant changes in relative organ weights and serum biochemical and hematological indices were found between the control and the probiotic fed animals. In addition to the safety attributes, the L. fermentum culture fed rats showed reduced serum cholesterol levels, macrovesicular steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning compared with control animals. Further, quantification of intestinal microbiota using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis from animal feces indicated a significant increase and stability of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts but a decrease of Escherichia coli numbers. CONCLUSION: This study of safety and beneficial features highlights the use of the two native L. fermentum isolates as potential probiotic food supplements. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Anticolesterolemiantes/administración & dosificación , Colesterol/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Lactobacillus fermentum/metabolismo , Probióticos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Anticolesterolemiantes/metabolismo , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Colesterol/sangre , Intestinos/efectos de los fármacos , Intestinos/microbiología , Lactobacillus fermentum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Masculino , Probióticos/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
20.
Gastroenterology ; 158(1): 238-252, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585122

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We studied interactions among proteins of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family, which interact with microbes, and transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway, which is often altered in colorectal cancer cells. We investigated mechanisms by which CEACAM proteins inhibit TGFB signaling and alter the intestinal microbiome to promote colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: We collected data on DNA sequences, messenger RNA expression levels, and patient survival times from 456 colorectal adenocarcinoma cases, and a separate set of 594 samples of colorectal adenocarcinomas, in The Cancer Genome Atlas. We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing analyses of feces from wild-type mice and mice with defects in TGFB signaling (Sptbn1+/- and Smad4+/-/Sptbn1+/-) to identify changes in microbiota composition before development of colon tumors. CEACAM protein and its mutants were overexpressed in SW480 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines, which were analyzed by immunoblotting and proliferation and colony formation assays. RESULTS: In colorectal adenocarcinomas, high expression levels of genes encoding CEACAM proteins, especially CEACAM5, were associated with reduced survival times of patients. There was an inverse correlation between expression of CEACAM genes and expression of TGFB pathway genes (TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and SMAD3). In colorectal adenocarcinomas, we also found an inverse correlation between expression of genes in the TGFB signaling pathway and genes that regulate stem cell features of cells. We found mutations encoding L640I and A643T in the B3 domain of human CEACAM5 in colorectal adenocarcinomas; structural studies indicated that these mutations would alter the interaction between CEACAM5 and TGFBR1. Overexpression of these mutants in SW480 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines increased their anchorage-independent growth and inhibited TGFB signaling to a greater extent than overexpression of wild-type CEACAM5, indicating that they are gain-of-function mutations. Compared with feces from wild-type mice, feces from mice with defects in TGFB signaling had increased abundance of bacterial species that have been associated with the development of colon tumors, including Clostridium septicum, and decreased amounts of beneficial bacteria, such as Bacteroides vulgatus and Parabacteroides distasonis. CONCLUSION: We found expression of CEACAMs and genes that regulate stem cell features of cells to be increased in colorectal adenocarcinomas and inversely correlated with expression of TGFB pathway genes. We found colorectal adenocarcinomas to express mutant forms of CEACAM5 that inhibit TGFB signaling and increase proliferation and colony formation. We propose that CEACAM proteins disrupt TGFB signaling, which alters the composition of the intestinal microbiome to promote colorectal carcinogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Antígeno Carcinoembrionario/genética , Carcinogénesis/genética , Neoplasias Colorrectales/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Transducción de Señal/genética , Animales , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Antígeno Carcinoembrionario/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorrectales/microbiología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/mortalidad , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Heces/microbiología , Proteínas Ligadas a GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas a GPI/metabolismo , Mutación con Ganancia de Función , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Metagenómica , Ratones , Ratones Transgénicos , Dominios Proteicos/genética , Receptor Tipo I de Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Proteína Smad4/genética , Proteína Smad4/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares , Análisis de Supervivencia , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta/metabolismo
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