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1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304103, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768130

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with high mortality rates. Despite antibiotic therapy, persistent bacteremia is challenging to treat. Combination therapy with ceftaroline has emerged as a potential treatment option; however, the optimal duration and clinical implications after bacteremia clearance are unknown. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined patients with high-grade or persistent MRSA bacteremia who were treated with ceftaroline combination therapy at the University of New Mexico Hospital between January 2014 and June 2021. Patients were categorized into short- (<7 days) or long-duration (≥7 days) groups based on the duration of combination therapy after bacteremia clearance. Outcomes included 30-day all-cause mortality, bacteremia recurrence, post-bacteremia clearance length of stay, and adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 32 patients were included in this study. The most common sources of bacteremia were bone/joint and endovascular (28.1%, 9/32 each). The median duration of combination therapy after clearance was seven days (IQR 2.8, 11). Patients in the long-duration group had a lower Charlson comorbidity index (1.0 vs 5.5, p = 0.017) than those in the short-duration group. After adjusting for confounders, there was no significant difference in the 30-day all-cause mortality between the groups (AOR 0.17, 95% CI 0.007-1.85, p = 0.18). No association was found between combination therapy duration and recurrence (OR 2.53, 95% CI 0.19-inf, p = 0.24) or adverse drug events (OR 3.46, 95% CI 0.39-74.86, p = 0.31). After controlling for total hospital length of stay, there was no significant difference in the post-bacteremia clearance length of stay between the two groups (p = 0.37). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonging ceftaroline combination therapy after bacteremia clearance did not significantly improve outcomes in patients with persistent or high-grade MRSA bacteremia. The limitations of this study warrant cautious interpretation of its results. Larger studies are needed to determine the optimal duration and role of combination therapy for this difficult-to-treat infection.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Bacteriemia , Ceftarolina , Cefalosporinas , Quimioterapia Combinada , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Femenino , Bacteriemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Bacteriemia/mortalidad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/microbiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/mortalidad , Cefalosporinas/uso terapéutico , Cefalosporinas/administración & dosificación , Anciano , Resultado del Tratamiento
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303132, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768224

RESUMEN

There are few studies comparing proportion, frequency, mortality and mortality rate following antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections between tertiary-care hospitals (TCHs) and secondary-care hospitals (SCHs) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) to inform intervention strategies. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the utility of an offline tool to generate AMR reports and data for a secondary data analysis. We conducted a secondary-data analysis on a retrospective, multicentre data of hospitalised patients in Thailand. Routinely collected microbiology and hospital admission data of 2012 to 2015, from 15 TCHs and 34 SCHs were analysed using the AMASS v2.0 (www.amass.website). We then compared the burden of AMR bloodstream infections (BSI) between those TCHs and SCHs. Of 19,665 patients with AMR BSI caused by pathogens under evaluation, 10,858 (55.2%) and 8,807 (44.8%) were classified as community-origin and hospital-origin BSI, respectively. The burden of AMR BSI was considerably different between TCHs and SCHs, particularly of hospital-origin AMR BSI. The frequencies of hospital-origin AMR BSI per 100,000 patient-days at risk in TCHs were about twice that in SCHs for most pathogens under evaluation (for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii [CRAB]: 18.6 vs. 7.0, incidence rate ratio 2.77; 95%CI 1.72-4.43, p<0.001; for carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa [CRPA]: 3.8 vs. 2.0, p = 0.0073; third-generation cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli [3GCREC]: 12.1 vs. 7.0, p<0.001; third-generation cephalosporin resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae [3GCRKP]: 12.2 vs. 5.4, p<0.001; carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae [CRKP]: 1.6 vs. 0.7, p = 0.045; and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]: 5.1 vs. 2.5, p = 0.0091). All-cause in-hospital mortality (%) following hospital-origin AMR BSI was not significantly different between TCHs and SCHs (all p>0.20). Due to the higher frequencies, all-cause in-hospital mortality rates following hospital-origin AMR BSI per 100,000 patient-days at risk were considerably higher in TCHs for most pathogens (for CRAB: 10.2 vs. 3.6,mortality rate ratio 2.77; 95%CI 1.71 to 4.48, p<0.001; CRPA: 1.6 vs. 0.8; p = 0.020; 3GCREC: 4.0 vs. 2.4, p = 0.009; 3GCRKP, 4.0 vs. 1.8, p<0.001; CRKP: 0.8 vs. 0.3, p = 0.042; and MRSA: 2.3 vs. 1.1, p = 0.023). In conclusion, the burden of AMR infections in some LMICs might differ by hospital type and size. In those countries, activities and resources for antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programs might need to be tailored based on hospital setting. The frequency and in-hospital mortality rate of hospital-origin AMR BSI are important indicators and should be routinely measured to monitor the burden of AMR in every hospital with microbiology laboratories in LMICs.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Humanos , Centros de Atención Terciaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tailandia/epidemiología , Bacteriemia/mortalidad , Bacteriemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Femenino , Masculino , Infección Hospitalaria/mortalidad , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Infección Hospitalaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Adulto , Mortalidad Hospitalaria
4.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 37(4): 387-398, 2024 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727161

RESUMEN

Objective: Recombinase-aided polymerase chain reaction (RAP) is a sensitive, single-tube, two-stage nucleic acid amplification method. This study aimed to develop an assay that can be used for the early diagnosis of three types of bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) in the bloodstream based on recombinant human mannan-binding lectin protein (M1 protein)-conjugated magnetic bead (M1 bead) enrichment of pathogens combined with RAP. Methods: Recombinant plasmids were used to evaluate the assay sensitivity. Common blood influenza bacteria were used for the specific detection. Simulated and clinical plasma samples were enriched with M1 beads and then subjected to multiple recombinase-aided PCR (M-RAP) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Kappa analysis was used to evaluate the consistency between the two assays. Results: The M-RAP method had sensitivity rates of 1, 10, and 1 copies/µL for the detection of SA, PA, and AB plasmids, respectively, without cross-reaction to other bacterial species. The M-RAP assay obtained results for < 10 CFU/mL pathogens in the blood within 4 h, with higher sensitivity than qPCR. M-RAP and qPCR for SA, PA, and AB yielded Kappa values of 0.839, 0.815, and 0.856, respectively ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: An M-RAP assay for SA, PA, and AB in blood samples utilizing M1 bead enrichment has been developed and can be potentially used for the early detection of bacteremia.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia , Lectina de Unión a Manosa , Humanos , Lectina de Unión a Manosa/sangre , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Bacteriemia/sangre , Recombinasas/metabolismo , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Acinetobacter baumannii/aislamiento & purificación , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/aislamiento & purificación , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación
5.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 25(4): 335-337, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696669

RESUMEN

Background: Raoultella planticola is an uncommon gram-negative organism found in the environment. Patients and Methods: The patient, an 81-year-old female who had undergone total cystectomy and bilateral ureteral stoma surgery, presented to the hospital with a fever. It was determined that Raoultella planticola was responsible for the bacteremia. Results: Rapid identification of bacteria using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in blood culture samples and appropriate antibacterial treatment was begun and the patient was discharged three days later. Conclusions: This case emphasizes the presence of a rare pathogen as the cause of bacteremia and underscores the importance of utilizing rapid methods for bacterial identification to establish an accurate diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Bacteriemia , Cultivo de Sangre , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae , Enterobacteriaceae , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción , Humanos , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción/métodos , Femenino , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enterobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiología , Cultivo de Sangre/métodos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 489, 2024 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741035

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is challenging to diagnose brucellosis in nonendemic regions because it is a nonspecific febrile disease. The accurate identification of Brucella spp. in clinical microbiology laboratories (CMLs) continues to pose difficulties. Most reports of misidentification are for B. melitensis, and we report a rare case of misidentified B. abortus. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old man visited an outpatient clinic complaining of fatigue, fever, and weight loss. The patient had a history of slaughtering cows with brucellosis one year prior, and his Brucella antibody tests were negative twice. After blood culture, the administration of doxycycline and rifampin was initiated. The patient was hospitalized due to a positive blood culture. Gram-negative coccobacilli were detected in aerobic blood culture bottles, but the CML's lack of experience with Brucella prevented appropriate further testing. Inaccurate identification results were obtained for a GN ID card of VITEK 2 (bioMérieux, USA) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using a MALDI Biotyper (Bruker, Germany). The strain showed 100.0% identity with Brucella spp. according to 16S rRNA sequencing. MALDI-TOF MS peaks were reanalyzed using the CDC MicrobeNet database to determine Brucella spp. (score value: 2.023). The patient was discharged after nine days of hospitalization and improved after maintaining only doxycycline for six weeks. The isolate was also identified as Brucella abortus by genomic evidence. CONCLUSION: Automated identification instruments and MALDI-TOF MS are widely used to identify bacteria in CMLs, but there are limitations in accurately identifying Brucella spp. It is important for CMLs to be aware of the possibility of brucellosis through communication with clinicians. Performing an analysis with an additional well-curated MALDI-TOF MS database such as Bruker security-relevant (SR) database or CDC MicrobeNet database is helpful for quickly identifying the genus Brucella.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia , Brucella abortus , Brucelosis , Anciano , Humanos , Masculino , Brucelosis/diagnóstico , Brucelosis/microbiología , Brucelosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Brucella abortus/aislamiento & purificación , Brucella abortus/genética , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Bacteriemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Tardío , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción , Animales
7.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 23(1): 42, 2024 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711045

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Klebsiella aerogenes has been reclassified from Enterobacter to Klebsiella genus due to its phenotypic and genotypic similarities with Klebsiella pneumoniae. It is unclear if clinical outcomes are also more similar. This study aims to assess clinical outcomes of bloodstreams infections (BSI) caused by K. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae, through secondary data analysis, nested in PRO-BAC cohort study. METHODS: Hospitalized patients between October 2016 and March 2017 with monomicrobial BSI due to K. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae or E. cloacae were included. Primary outcome was a composite clinical outcome including all-cause mortality or recurrence until 30 days follow-up. Secondary outcomes were fever ≥ 72 h, persistent bacteraemia, and secondary device infection. Multilevel mixed-effect Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between microorganisms and outcome. RESULTS: Overall, 29 K. aerogenes, 77 E. cloacae and 337 K. pneumoniae BSI episodes were included. Mortality or recurrence was less frequent in K. aerogenes (6.9%) than in E. cloacae (20.8%) or K. pneumoniae (19.0%), but statistical difference was not observed (rate ratio (RR) 0.35, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.55; RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.71, respectively). Fever ≥ 72 h and device infection were more common in K. aerogenes group. In the multivariate analysis, adjusted for confounders (age, sex, BSI source, hospital ward, Charlson score and active antibiotic therapy), the estimates and direction of effect were similar to crude results. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that BSI caused by K. aerogenes may have a better prognosis than E. cloacae or K. pneumoniae BSI.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia , Enterobacter aerogenes , Enterobacter cloacae , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae , Infecciones por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Humanos , Enterobacter cloacae/aislamiento & purificación , Klebsiella pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Femenino , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Bacteriemia/mortalidad , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Klebsiella/mortalidad , Infecciones por Klebsiella/microbiología , Infecciones por Klebsiella/tratamiento farmacológico , Enterobacter aerogenes/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiología , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/mortalidad , Estudios de Cohortes , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Recurrencia , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(17): e157, 2024 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711319

RESUMEN

This study assessed the performance of the BioFire Blood Culture Identification 2 (BCID2) panel in identifying microorganisms and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles in positive blood cultures (BCs) and its influence on turnaround time (TAT) compared with conventional culture methods. We obtained 117 positive BCs, of these, 102 (87.2%) were correctly identified using BCID2. The discordance was due to off-panel pathogens detected by culture (n = 13), and additional pathogens identified by BCID2 (n = 2). On-panel pathogen concordance between the conventional culture and BCID2 methods was 98.1% (102/104). The conventional method detected 19 carbapenemase-producing organisms, 14 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales, 18 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp., and four vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. BCID2 correctly predicted 53 (96.4%) of 55 phenotypic resistance patterns by detecting AMR genes. The TAT for BCID2 was significantly lower than that for the conventional method. BCID2 rapidly identifies pathogens and AMR genes in positive BCs.


Asunto(s)
Cultivo de Sangre , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex/métodos , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , beta-Lactamasas/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Enterococcus faecium/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Enterococos Resistentes a la Vancomicina/genética , Enterococos Resistentes a la Vancomicina/aislamiento & purificación , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico
9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 18(4): 595-599, 2024 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728642

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to show the bacteriologic picture of acute prostatitis and bacteremia caused by infective agent after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSBx) and to determine the resistance rates of the infections in patients undergoing transrectal biopsy and to guide prophylaxis approach before biopsy. METHODOLOGY: The retrospective data of 935 patients who underwent TRUSBx between January 2010 to January 2019 were reviewed. Pre-biopsy urine cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility were obtained. Subsequently, patients admitted to the hospital with any complaint after biopsy were examined for severe infection complications. RESULTS: Of the 430 (61.7%) patients who underwent urine culture before the procedure, 45 (10.5%) had growth; 30 (66.7%) of the growing microorganisms were Escherichia coli. Twenty (44.4%) of all Gram-negative agents in pre-biopsy urine culture were susceptible to quinolone. Post TRUSBx bacteremia was present in 18.2%, urinary system infection in 83.6%, and hospitalization in 61.8% of 55 patients who were admitted to the hospital. In the isolated gram-negative microorganisms, fluoroquinolones resistance in urinary system infections was seen in 40% and bacteremia was seen in 70% of the cases. ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria were determined in 40% of infections in blood and 38.5% of urinary system infections in the post biopsy period in the current study. CONCLUSIONS: These high antibiotic resistance rates suggest that we better review our pre-procedure prophylaxis approaches.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Profilaxis Antibiótica , Bacteriemia , Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Profilaxis Antibiótica/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Próstata/patología , Próstata/microbiología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacteriemia/prevención & control , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Prostatitis/microbiología , Prostatitis/prevención & control , Biopsia Guiada por Imagen/efectos adversos , Biopsia Guiada por Imagen/métodos , Infecciones Urinarias/prevención & control , Infecciones Urinarias/microbiología
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0298612, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771740

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcoholism associates with increased Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia incidence and mortality. The objective was to compare disease progression, treatment and prognosis of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in alcoholics versus non-alcoholics. METHODS: The study design was a multicenter retrospective analysis of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with 90-day follow-up. Patients were stratified as alcoholics or non-alcoholics based on electronic health record data. Altogether 617 Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia patients were included of which 83 (13%) were alcoholics. RESULTS: Alcoholics, versus non-alcoholics, were younger, typically male and more commonly had community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. No differences in McCabe´s classification of underlying conditions was observed. Higher illness severity at blood culture sampling, including severe sepsis (25% vs. 7%) and intensive care unit admission (39% vs. 17%), was seen in alcoholics versus non-alcoholics. Clinical management, including infectious disease specialist (IDS) consultations and radiology, were provided equally. Alcoholics, versus non-alcoholics, had more pneumonia (49% vs. 35%) and fewer cases of endocarditis (7% vs. 16%). Mortality in alcoholics versus non-alcoholics was significantly higher at 14, 28 and 90 days (14% vs. 7%, 24% vs. 11% and 31% vs. 17%), respectively. Considering all prognostic parameters, male sex (OR 0.19, p = 0.021) and formal IDS consultation (OR 0.19, p = 0.029) were independent predictors of reduced mortality, whereas ultimately or rapidly fatal comorbidity in McCabe´s classification (OR 12.34, p < 0.001) was an independent predictor of mortality in alcoholics. CONCLUSIONS: Alcoholism deteriorates Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia prognosis, and our results suggests that this is predominantly through illness severity at bacteremia onset. Three quarters of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia patients we studied had identified deep infection foci, and of them alcoholics had significantly less endocarditis but nearly half of them had pneumonia.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Bacteriemia , Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Humanos , Masculino , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Bacteriemia/epidemiología , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/microbiología , Alcoholismo/complicaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Anciano , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Pronóstico , Alcohólicos
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10758, 2024 05 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730020

RESUMEN

Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent agent of bacteraemia. This bacterium has a variety of virulence traits that allow the establishment and maintenance of infection. This study explored the virulence profile of S. aureus strains causing paediatric bacteraemia (SAB) in Manhiça district, Mozambique. We analysed 336 S. aureus strains isolated from blood cultures of children younger than 5 years admitted to the Manhiça District Hospital between 2001 and 2019, previously characterized for antibiotic susceptibility and clonality. The strains virulence potential was evaluated by PCR detection of the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) encoding genes, lukS-PV/lukF-PV, assessment of the capacity for biofilm formation and pathogenicity assays in Galleria mellonella. The overall carriage of PVL-encoding genes was over 40%, although reaching ~ 70 to 100% in the last years (2014 to 2019), potentially linked to the emergence of CC152 lineage. Strong biofilm production was a frequent trait of CC152 strains. Representative CC152 and CC121 strains showed higher virulence potential in the G. mellonella model when compared to reference strains, with variations within and between CCs. Our results highlight the importance of monitoring the emergent CC152-MSSA-PVL+ and other lineages, as they display important virulence traits that may negatively impact the management of SAB paediatric patients in Manhiça district, Mozambique.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia , Biopelículas , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas , Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Humanos , Mozambique/epidemiología , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidad , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Virulencia/genética , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/microbiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Preescolar , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Bacteriemia/epidemiología , Infecciones Comunitarias Adquiridas/microbiología , Lactante , Animales , Exotoxinas/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Leucocidinas/genética , Factores de Virulencia/genética , Femenino , Masculino , Mariposas Nocturnas/microbiología
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732074

RESUMEN

Early diagnosis of infections in young infants remains a clinical challenge. Young infants are particularly vulnerable to infection, and it is often difficult to clinically distinguish between bacterial and viral infections. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in young infants, and the incidence of associated bacteremia has decreased in the recent decades. Host RNA expression signatures have shown great promise for distinguishing bacterial from viral infections in young infants. This prospective study included 121 young infants admitted to four pediatric emergency care departments in the capital region of Denmark due to symptoms of infection. We collected whole blood samples and performed differential gene expression analysis. Further, we tested the classification performance of a two-gene host RNA expression signature approaching clinical implementation. Several genes were differentially expressed between young infants with UTI without bacteremia and viral infection. However, limited immunological response was detected in UTI without bacteremia compared to a more pronounced response in viral infection. The performance of the two-gene signature was limited, especially in cases of UTI without bloodstream involvement. Our results indicate a need for further investigation and consideration of UTI in young infants before implementing host RNA expression signatures in clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Urinarias , Humanos , Infecciones Urinarias/genética , Lactante , Estudios Prospectivos , Femenino , Masculino , Transcriptoma , Recién Nacido , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/métodos , Bacteriemia/genética , ARN/genética , Virosis/genética
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 177(5): JC52, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710092

RESUMEN

SOURCE CITATION: López-Cortés LE, Delgado-Valverde M, Moreno-Mellado E, et al; SIMPLIFY study group. Efficacy and safety of a structured de-escalation from antipseudomonal ß-lactams in bloodstream infections due to Enterobacterales (SIMPLIFY): an open-label, multicentre, randomised trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2024;24:375-385. 38215770.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Bacteriemia , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae , beta-Lactamas , Humanos , Bacteriemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamiento farmacológico , beta-Lactamas/uso terapéutico , Enterobacteriaceae/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Esquema de Medicación
14.
New Microbiol ; 47(1): 107-110, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700891

RESUMEN

We evaluated the performance of a new rapid phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility test (ASTar; Q-linea AB) on Gram-negative bacilli, directly from positive blood cultures bottles. MIC values obtained by the routine reference method (Microscan, Beckman Coulter) were compared to the ones provided by the tested method (ASTar). ASTar demonstrated an overall essential agreement of 98% and a category agreement of 96.1%. The overall rate of major errors and very major errors was 2.5% and 3.3%, respectively. ASTar can represent a rapid, simple, and reliable method to speed up information about antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative pathogens from positive blood culture bottles.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Cultivo de Sangre , Bacterias Gramnegativas , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Gramnegativas/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Cultivo de Sangre/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/microbiología , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Fenotipo
15.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 13(1): 53, 2024 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764050

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause hospital infections and outbreaks within hospitals. This study aimed to evaluate an outbreak of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, caused by ready-to-use commercial syringes containing liquid lithium and heparin for arterial blood gas collection in a university hospital. METHODS: Upon detecting an increase in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia growth in blood cultures between 15.09.2021 and 19.11.2021, an outbreak analysis and a case-control study (52 patients for the case group, 56 patients for the control group) were performed considering risk factors for bacteremia. Samples from possible foci for bacteremia were also cultured. Growing bacteria were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The genetic linkage and clonal relationship isolates were investigated with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in the reference laboratory. RESULTS: In the case-control study, the odds ratio for the central venous catheter [3.38 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.444, 8.705 ; p = 0.006)], for surgery [3.387 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.370, 8.373 ; p = 0.008)] and for arterial blood gas collection history [18.584 (95% confidence interval [CI]:4.086, 84.197; p < 0.001)] were identified as significant risk factors. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia growth was found in ready-to-use commercial syringes used for arterial blood gas collection. Molecular analysis showed that the growths in the samples taken from commercial syringes and the growths from blood cultures were the same. It was decided that the epidemic occurred because the method for sterilization of heparinized liquid preparations were not suitable. After discontinuing the use of the kits with this lot number, the outbreak was brought under control. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, disposable or sterile medical equipment should be included as a risk factor in outbreak analyses. The method by which injectors containing liquids, such as heparin, are sterilized should be reviewed. Our study also revealed the importance of the cooperation of the infection control team with the microbiology laboratory.


Asunto(s)
Infección Hospitalaria , Brotes de Enfermedades , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/epidemiología , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/microbiología , Masculino , Femenino , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Adulto , Factores de Riesgo , Bacteriemia/epidemiología , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Hospitales Universitarios , Jeringas/microbiología , Electroforesis en Gel de Campo Pulsado , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Heparina/farmacología
16.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299884, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691554

RESUMEN

Bloodstream infection (BSI) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and high healthcare costs. Early detection and appropriate treatment of BSI may improve patient's outcome. Data on machine-learning models to predict BSI in pediatric patients are limited and neither study included time series data. We aimed to develop a machine learning model to predict an early diagnosis of BSI in patients admitted to the PICU. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who had at least one positive blood culture result during stay at a PICU of a tertiary-care university hospital, from January 1st to December 31st 2019. Patients with positive blood culture results with growth of contaminants and those with incomplete data were excluded. Models were developed using demographic, clinical and laboratory data collected from the electronic medical record. Laboratory data (complete blood cell counts with differential and C-reactive protein) and vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature, oxygen saturation) were obtained 72 hours before and on the day of blood culture collection. A total of 8816 data from 76 patients were processed by the models. The machine committee was the best-performing model, showing accuracy of 99.33%, precision of 98.89%, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98.46%. Hence, we developed a model using demographic, clinical and laboratory data collected on a routine basis that was able to detect BSI with excellent accuracy and precision, and high sensitivity and specificity. The inclusion of vital signs and laboratory data variation over time allowed the model to identify temporal changes that could be suggestive of the diagnosis of BSI. Our model might help the medical team in clinical-decision making by creating an alert in the electronic medical record, which may allow early antimicrobial initiation and better outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Diagnóstico Precoz , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Pediátrico , Aprendizaje Automático , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Lactante , Estudios Retrospectivos , Preescolar , Niño , Sepsis/diagnóstico , Sepsis/sangre , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Recién Nacido , Adolescente
17.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 25(5): e232-e238, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695702

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Ethanol lock therapy (ELT) is a potential method of central catheter salvage following central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) although there is potential risk of catheter damage in polyurethane catheters. Further, there is limited efficacy data across the spectrum of common pediatric catheters, and published ELT protocols describe dwell times that are not feasible for critically ill children. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ELT in polyurethane catheters using brief (30 min to 2 hr) dwell times in our PICU. DESIGN: Investigational pilot study using historical control data. SETTING: PICU in quaternary care, free-standing children's hospital. INTERVENTIONS: ELT in polyurethane central venous catheters for catheter salvage. RESULTS: ELT with brief dwell times was used in 25 patients, 22 of whom were bacteremic. Ultimately 11 patients, comprising 14 catheters, were diagnosed with a primary CLABSI. The catheter salvage rate in primary CLABSI patients receiving ELT was 92% (13/14) and significantly higher than the salvage rate in patients receiving antibiotics alone (non-ELT) (62%, 39/64; mean difference 0.32, 95% CI [0.14-0.50], p = 0.03). The rate of catheter fracture in all patients receiving ELT was 8% (2/25) while the rate of fracture in the non-ELT group was 13% (8/64; mean difference -0.05, 95% CI [-0.18 to 0.09], p = 0.72). The rate of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) use in the ELT group was 8% (2/25), whereas the rate of tPA use in the non-ELT group was significantly higher at 42% (26/64; mean difference -0.34, 95% CI [-0.49 to -0.17], p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The use of ELT for catheter salvage and prophylaxis in the PICU is safe in a variety of polyurethane catheters. Dwell times ranging from 30 minutes to 2 hours were effective in sterilizing the catheters while allowing other therapies to continue. This approach may decrease the need for frequent line changes in a medically fragile pediatric population.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Relacionadas con Catéteres , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Catéteres Venosos Centrales , Etanol , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Pediátrico , Poliuretanos , Humanos , Infecciones Relacionadas con Catéteres/prevención & control , Niño , Proyectos Piloto , Etanol/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Preescolar , Femenino , Lactante , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efectos adversos , Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentación , Catéteres Venosos Centrales/efectos adversos , Catéteres de Permanencia/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Bacteriemia/prevención & control , Bacteriemia/etiología , Antiinfecciosos Locales/administración & dosificación , Antiinfecciosos Locales/uso terapéutico
18.
J Microbiol Methods ; 221: 106940, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702032

RESUMEN

Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR-GNB) are a subject of major clinical concern, mainly those associated with carbapenemase-producing isolates. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been proposed to detect specific ß-lactamases, including KPC. We aimed to detect KPC enzyme directly from positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS. Overall, 146 clinical Gram-negative bacilli (46 CR-GNB) recovered from consecutive blood cultures were evaluated. Proteins were extracted using formic acid, isopropyl alcohol, and water and spotted onto a steel target plate using the double-layer sinapinic acid method. The relative ions intensity ≥120 arbitrary units (a.u.) of a peak close to 28,700 m/z indicated the presence of KPC. The results were compared to HRM-qPCR methodology. This specific peak was observed in 11/14 blood bottles with blaKPC positive isolates (78.6% sensitivity), with 3 false-positive results (97.7% specificity). Analysis from colonies reached identical sensitivity (78.6%), but higher specificity (100%). The detection of KPC peaks directly from positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS is feasible and rapid. It's excellent specificity indicates that positive results are consistently associated with the presence of a KPC producer in positive blood culture.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Bacterianas , Cultivo de Sangre , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción , beta-Lactamasas , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción/métodos , Humanos , beta-Lactamasas/genética , Cultivo de Sangre/métodos , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Bacterias Gramnegativas/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias Gramnegativas/enzimología , Bacterias Gramnegativas/clasificación , Bacterias Gramnegativas/genética , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/microbiología , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/sangre , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Carbapenémicos/farmacología
19.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 24(1): 123, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745177

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Predicting whether Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial (CRGNB) cause bloodstream infection when giving advice may guide the use of antibiotics because it takes 2-5 days conventionally to return the results from doctor's order. METHODS: It is a regional multi-center retrospective study in which patients with suspected bloodstream infections were divided into a positive and negative culture group. According to the positive results, patients were divided into the CRGNB group and other groups. We used the machine learning algorithm to predict whether the blood culture was positive and whether the pathogen was CRGNB once giving the order of blood culture. RESULTS: There were 952 patients with positive blood cultures, 418 patients in the CRGNB group, 534 in the non-CRGNB group, and 1422 with negative blood cultures. Mechanical ventilation, invasive catheterization, and carbapenem use history were the main high-risk factors for CRGNB bloodstream infection. The random forest model has the best prediction ability, with AUROC being 0.86, followed by the XGBoost prediction model in bloodstream infection prediction. In the CRGNB prediction model analysis, the SVM and random forest model have higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, which are 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The machine learning algorithm can accurately predict the occurrence of ICU-acquired bloodstream infection and identify whether CRGNB causes it once giving the order of blood culture.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriemia , Carbapenémicos , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Aprendizaje Automático , Humanos , Carbapenémicos/farmacología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Anciano , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/tratamiento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias Gramnegativas/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana
20.
Korean J Intern Med ; 39(3): 448-457, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715233

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Improved knowledge of local epidemiology and predicting risk factors of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are required to optimize the management of infections. This study examined local epidemiology and antibiotic resistance patterns of liver cirrhosis (LC) patients and evaluated the predictors of MDR bacteremia in Korea. METHODS: This was a retrospective study including 140 LC patients diagnosed with bacteremia between January 2017 and December 2022. Local epidemiology and antibiotic resistance patterns and the determinants of MDR bacteremia were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The most frequently isolated bacteria, from the bloodstream, were Escherichia coli (n = 45, 31.7%) and Klebsiella spp. (n = 35, 24.6%). Thirty-four isolates (23.9%) were MDR, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase E. coli (52.9%) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (17.6%) were the most commonly isolated MDR bacteria. When Enterococcus spp. were cultured, the majority were MDR (MDR 83.3% vs. 16.7%, p = 0.003), particularly vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium. Antibiotics administration within 30 days and/or nosocomial infection was a significant predictor of MDR bacteremia (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.24-9.27, p = 0.02). MDR bacteremia was not predicted by sepsis predictors, such as positive systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA). CONCLUSION: More than 70% of strains that can be treated with a third-generation cephalosporin have been cultured. In cirrhotic patients, antibiotic administration within 30 days and/or nosocomial infection are predictors of MDR bacteremia; therefore, empirical administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics should be considered when these risk factors are present.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Bacteriemia , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Cirrosis Hepática , Humanos , Masculino , Cirrosis Hepática/epidemiología , Cirrosis Hepática/microbiología , Cirrosis Hepática/diagnóstico , Femenino , Bacteriemia/epidemiología , Bacteriemia/microbiología , Bacteriemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Anciano , Factores de Riesgo , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , República de Corea/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Infección Hospitalaria/diagnóstico , Infección Hospitalaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto
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