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1.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(8): 8692-8700, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488358

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies comprehensively compared the performance of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and transient elastography (TE) in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the diagnostic efficacy of these 2 techniques in patients with hepatic fibrosis in order to gain a better understanding of their overall diagnostic performance and aid in maximizing their clinical utility. METHODS: Systematic literature searches of the PubMed, EmBase, Cocharane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were carried out to identify studies that applied MRE and TE in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis. The combined sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratio (ORs) were estimated using a bivariate random effects model. Review Manager 5.2 was used to analyze the selected articles, and forest plot, sensitivity, and bias analyses were performed for the included literature. To determine the diagnostic efficacy of MRE and TE for liver fibrosis, pooled sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. In the diagnosis of stage F0-F1 liver fibrosis, MRE showed higher sensitivity than TE (OR =0.62, 95% CI: 0.41-0.95, P=0.03). MRE also showed higher specificity than TE for diagnosing stage F2-F4 liver fibrosis (OR =0.41, 95% CI: 0.27-0.62, P<0.0001). There was no difference in the sensitivity of MRE and Te to F2-F4 hepatic fibrosis and the specificity of MRE and Te to F0-F1 hepatic fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of sensitivity and specificity, MRE is superior to TE in diagnosing different stages of liver fibrosis to a certain extent. MRE may be a useful, noninvasive method for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease.


Asunto(s)
Diagnóstico por Imagen de Elasticidad , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática/diagnóstico por imagen , Proyectos de Investigación , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
2.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 92(7): 593-596, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503634

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Accidents with aircraft standing are more likely with helicopters than fixed-wing aircraft due to the common presence of off-airport landings and the possibility of the rotor system to strike objects in its immediate surroundings.METHODS: A total of 115 accidents involving helicopters characterized as standing as a broad phase of flight were selected from the NTSB online database for the period 1998 until 2018.RESULTS: Accidents reporting fatal (8.7) or serious injuries (7.8) were significantly less likely to occur when the aircraft was substantially damaged (84.3) or destroyed (5.2). The majority of the cases occurred after off-airport landings (57.4), which were reported significantly more often in Alaska (N= 15). A main rotor strike with an individual was at the basis of each of the 10 fatal accidents in the dataset and in 8 of these cases the cause of the accident was attributed to the victim. None of the accidents occurred in instrument meteorological conditions, but, in particular, high winds and gusts proved a main cause of accident (18.3).CONCLUSION: Pilot, passengers, and crew endangered themselves when they were outside the aircraft while the rotors were still turning. Helicopter operating manuals should highlight the limitations and dangers for wind and wind gusts not only during takeoff and flight, but specifically when standing.de Voogt AJ, Hummel C, Kalagher H. Fatality and operational specificity of helicopter accidents on the ground. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2021; 92(7):593596.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Aviación , Accidentes , Aeronaves , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4096-4102, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467719

RESUMEN

The pharmacological effects of Angelicae Sinensis Radix from different producing areas are uneven. Accurate identification of its producing areas by computer vision and machine learning(CVML) is conducive to evaluating the quality of Angelicae Sinensis Radix. This paper collected the high-definition images of Angelicae Sinensis Radix from different producing areas using a digital camera to construct an image database, followed by the extraction of texture features based on the grayscale relationship of adjacent pixels in the image. Then a support vector machine(SVM)-based prediction model for predicting the producing areas of Angelicae Sinensis Radix was built. The experimental results showed that the prediction accuracy reached up to 98.49% under the conditions of the model training set occupying 80%, the test set occupying 20%, and the sampling radius(r) of adjacent pixels being 2. When the training set was set to 10%, the prediction accuracy was still over 93%. Among the three producing areas of Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Huzhu county, Qinghai province exhibited the highest error rate, while Heqing county, Yunnan province the lowest error rate. Angelicae Sinensis Radix from Minxian county, Gansu province and Huzhu county, Qinghai province were both wrongly attributed to Heqing county, Yunnan province, while most of those from Huzhu county, Qinghai province were misjudged as the samples produced in Minxian county, Gansu province. The method designed in this paper enabled the rapid and non-destructive prediction of the producing areas of Angelicae Sinensis Radix, boasting high accuracy and strong stability. There were definite morphological differences between Angelicae Sinensis Radix samples from Minxian county, Gansu province and those from Huzhu county, Qinghai province. The wrongly predicted samples from Minxian county, Gansu province and Huzhu city, Qinghai province shared similar morphological characteristics with those from Heqing county, Yunnan province. Most wrongly predicted samples from Heqing county, Yunnan province were similar to the ones from Minxian county, Gansu province in morphological characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Angelica sinensis , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , China , Bases de Datos Factuales , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/análisis , Raíces de Plantas/química
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4238-4243, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467738

RESUMEN

Wuwei Ganlu, a formula for medicated bath, consists of medicinal materials of Ephedra sinica, Platycladus orientalis, Myricaria squamosa, Artemisia carvifolia, and Rhododendron anthopogonoides, which is effective in inducing perspiration, resisting inflammation, relieving pain, regulating yellow water disease, and activating blood circulation. On this basis, a variety of formulas for Tibetan medicated bath have been derived for the treatment of diseases in internal organs, joints, nerves, etc. Modern studies have confirmed that Wuwei Ganlu has a good therapeutic efficacy on knee osteoarthritis(KOA). The present study explored the mechanism of Wuwei Ganlu in treating KOA based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. Firstly, the chemical components of Wuwei Ganlu were obtained through literature mining and database retrieval, and corresponding potential targets were predicted according to the BATMAN-TCM database. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was obtained after the potential targets were input into the STRING database. The network function modules were analyzed by the Molecular Complex Detection(MCODE) algorithm, and the functions of the modules were annotated to analyze the action mode of Wuwei Ganlu. Secondly, the related targets of KOA were collected through the DisGeNET database, and the overlapping targets were confirmed to analyze the mechanism of Wuwei Ganlu in treating KOA. Finally, the key targets were selected for molecular docking with the main components of Wuwei Ganlu to verify the component-target interaction. A total of 550 chemical components and 1 365 potential targets of Wuwei Ganlu were obtained. PPI analysis indicated that this formula could exert the effects of oxidation-reduction, inflammation resistance, bone absorption, bone mineralization, etc. Nineteen common targets were obtained from the intersection of potential targets of Wuwei Ganlu and KOA disease targets. It was found that the Wuwei Ganlu mainly acts on nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB), interleukin-1 beta(IL1ß), tumor necrosis factor(TNF), IL6, IL1 receptor antagonist(IL1 RN), and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2(PTGS2) to treat KOA. Among the 550 chemical components of Wuwei Ganlu, 252 potential active components were docked with TNF and 163 with PTGS2, indicating good binding of the components with potential key targets. The study preliminarily explored the mechanism of Wuwei Ganlu in treating KOA to provide a reference for the further development and utilization of Tibetan medicated bath that has been included in the UN Intangible Cultural Heritage.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Inflamación , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3527-3534, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468648

RESUMEN

The scope of this article is to address the relationship between mandatory restraint devices and hospitalizations and deaths of zero- to four-year-old age children in traffic accidents in Brazil. Based on the mandatory use of child restraint devices for children up to 4 years of age under Brazilian traffic legislation in 2010, the authors apply data from the DataSUS and Denatran databases to analyze the time series of hospitalizations and deaths of zero- to four-year-old age children in traffic accidents between September 2005 and August 2015. Two cut-off sample periods were examined, the first consisting of an analysis from 2005 to 2015, which was subsequently subdivided into two samples, namely before and after the requirement. The results of both cut-off sample periods suggest that demands concerning the use of restraint devices led to decreased hospitalizations and deaths of children due to traffic accidents in the zero- to four-year-old age group, with a prevalence of decreased rates of hospitalization over deaths.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Hospitalización , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Bases de Datos Factuales , Familia , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1228-1232, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473684

RESUMEN

Viral infections are a common cause of myocarditis, an inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium) that can result in hospitalization, heart failure, and sudden death (1). Emerging data suggest an association between COVID-19 and myocarditis (2-5). CDC assessed this association using a large, U.S. hospital-based administrative database of health care encounters from >900 hospitals. Myocarditis inpatient encounters were 42.3% higher in 2020 than in 2019. During March 2020-January 2021, the period that coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk for myocarditis was 0.146% among patients diagnosed with COVID-19 during an inpatient or hospital-based outpatient encounter and 0.009% among patients who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, patients with COVID-19 during March 2020-January 2021 had, on average, 15.7 times the risk for myocarditis compared with those without COVID-19 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.1-17.2); by age, risk ratios ranged from approximately 7.0 for patients aged 16-39 years to >30.0 for patients aged <16 years or ≥75 years. Overall, myocarditis was uncommon among persons with and without COVID-19; however, COVID-19 was significantly associated with an increased risk for myocarditis, with risk varying by age group. These findings underscore the importance of implementing evidence-based COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination, to reduce the public health impact of COVID-19 and its associated complications.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Miocarditis/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Miocarditis/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(3): 323-329, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479310

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is no recent information on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Chile. AIM: To describe and evaluate the temporal incidence trend of AMI in Chile between 2008 and 2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A time series study. We included all AMI cases (ICD10 = I21) that were registered in Chile between 2008 and 2016 in the national hospital discharge and death databases. Rates were stratified according to sex and age group. We calculated crude and standardized rates (direct method). Time trends were evaluated using Prais-Winsten (PW) regression models. RESULTS: There were 132,784 cases of AMI. The mean age of cases was 67 ± 14 years, 67% were men. Crude and standardized rates were 84.4 and 73.1 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Standardized incidence increased in total population and women, whose PW coefficients were 0.43 (0.01-0.82; p = 0.045) and 0.26 (0.005-0.47; p = 0.02), respectively. Regarding age, an upward trend was observed in the younger age groups, whose coefficients were 0.20 (0.08 - 0.31; p = 0.004) for cases < 45 years, 1.31 (0.81-1.81; p < 0.01) for cases between 45 and 54 years, and 2.68 (1.31 - 4.04; p = 0.002) for cases between 55 and 64 years. CONCLUSIONS: An increase in the number of cases with AMI was observed, especially in younger age groups. This estimation could be useful for planning and evaluating public policies.


Asunto(s)
Infarto del Miocardio , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Chile/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Alta del Paciente
8.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(4): 554-558, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479343

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Stroke is the third largest single cause of death in Chile, responsible for 7.3% of all deaths in 2019. Large declines in stroke mortality rates in most Latin American countries in recent decades have been reported. AIM: To analyze the trend in stroke mortality in Chile between 1980 and 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We extracted data for age-standardized death rate (ASDR) stroke mortality per 100,000 inhabitants in Chile for the period 1980-2015from the WHO Mortality Database. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to analyze the trend and compute the average annual percent change (AAPC) by gender in Chile. RESULTS: The ASDR from stroke decreased from 92.8 per 100,000 in 1980 to 34.4 per 100,000 in 2015. The AAPC was -2.8% (-3.5, -2.1), with two jointpoints, 2008 and 2012. By gender, the AAPC was -2.4% and -2.9% in men and women, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke mortality rate decreased significantly between 1980 and 2015 in Chile, mainly in women.


Asunto(s)
Accidente Cerebrovascular , Chile/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidad , Análisis de Regresión
9.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(9): 1488-1496, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465149

RESUMEN

AIMS: The current study aimed to compare robotic arm-assisted (RA-THA), computer-assisted (CA-THA), and manual (M-THA) total hip arthroplasty regarding in-hospital metrics including length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition, in-hospital complications, and cost of RA-THA versus M-THA and CA-THA versus M-THA, as well as trends in use and uptake over a ten-year period, and future projections of uptake and use of RA-THA and CA-THA. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample was queried for primary THAs (2008 to 2017) which were categorized into RA-THA, CA-THA, and M-THA. Past and projected use, demographic characteristics distribution, income, type of insurance, location, and healthcare setting were compared among the three cohorts. In-hospital complications, LOS, discharge disposition, and in-hospital costs were compared between propensity score-matched cohorts of M-THA versus RA-THA and M-THA versus CA-THA to adjust for baseline characteristics and comorbidities. RESULTS: RA-THA and CA-THA did not exhibit any clinically meaningful reduction in mean LOS (RA-THA 2.2 days (SD 1.4) vs 2.3 days (SD 1.8); p < 0.001, and CA-THA 2.5 days (SD 1.9) vs 2.7 days (SD 2.3); p < 0.001, respectively) compared to their respective propensity score-matched M-THA cohorts. RA-THA, but not CA-THA, had similar non-home discharge rates to M-THA (RA-THA 17.4% vs 18.5%; p = 0.205, and 18.7% vs 24.9%; p < 0.001, respectively). Implant-related mechanical complications were lower in RA-THA (RA-THA 0.5% vs M-THA 3.1%; p < 0.001, and CA-THA 1.2% vs M-THA 2.2%; p < 0.001), which was associated with a significantly lower in-hospital dislocation (RA-THA 0.1% vs M-THA 0.8%; p < 0.001). Both RA-THA and CA-THA demonstrated higher mean higher index in-hospital costs (RA-THA $18,416 (SD $8,048) vs M-THA $17,266 (SD $8,396); p < 0.001, and CA-THA $20,295 (SD $8,975) vs M-THA $18,624 (SD $9,226); p < 0.001, respectively). Projections indicate that 23.9% and 3.2% of all THAs conducted in 2025 will be robotic arm- and computer-assisted, respectively. Projections indicated that RA-THA use may overtake M-THA by 2028 (48.3%) and reach 65.8% of all THAs by 2030. CONCLUSION: Technology-assisted THA, particularly RA-THA, may provide value by lowering in-hospital early dislocation rates and and other in-hospital metrics compared to M-THA. Higher index-procedure and hospital costs warrant further comprehensive cost analyses to determine the true added value of RA-THA in the episode of care, particularly since we project that one in four THAs in 2025 and two in three THA by 2030 will use RA-THA technology. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(9):1488-1496.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera/métodos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Cirugía Asistida por Computador , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17689, 2021 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480062

RESUMEN

COVID-19, a global pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 virus, has claimed millions of lives worldwide. Amid soaring contagion due to newer strains of the virus, it is imperative to design dynamic, spatiotemporal models to contain the spread of infection during future outbreaks of the same or variants of the virus. The reliance on existing prediction and contact tracing approaches on prior knowledge of inter- or intra-zone mobility renders them impracticable. We present a spatiotemporal approach that employs a network inference approach with sliding time windows solely on the date and number of daily infection numbers of zones within a geographical region to generate temporal networks capturing the influence of each zone on another. It helps analyze the spatial interaction among the hotspot or spreader zones and highly affected zones based on the flow of network contagion traffic. We apply the proposed approach to the daily infection counts of New York State as well as the states of USA to show that it effectively measures the phase shifts in the pandemic timeline. It identifies the spreaders and affected zones at different time points and helps infer the trajectory of the pandemic spread across the country. A small set of zones periodically exhibit a very high outflow of contagion traffic over time, suggesting that they act as the key spreaders of infection. Moreover, the strong influence between the majority of non-neighbor regions suggests that the overall spread of infection is a result of the unavoidable long-distance trips by a large number of people as opposed to the shorter trips at a county level, thereby informing future mitigation measures and public policies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trazado de Contacto , Bases de Datos Factuales , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , Humanos , New York/epidemiología , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 99, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466201

RESUMEN

Introduction: the provision of basic diagnostic imaging services is pivotal to achieving universal health coverage. An estimated two-thirds of the world's population have no access to basic diagnostic imaging. Accurate data on current imaging equipment resources are required to inform health delivery strategy and policy at national level. This is an audit of Zimbabwean public sector diagnostic ultrasound resources and services. Methods: utilising the Ministry of Health and Child Care (MHCC) database, sequential interviews were conducted with provincial health authorities and local facility managers. Ultrasound equipment, personnel and services in all hospitals and clinics, nationally were recorded, collated, and analysed for the whole country, and by province. Results: of the 1798 Zimbabwean public sector healthcare facilities, sixty-six (n=66, 3.67%) have ultrasound equipment. Ninety-nine (n=99) ultrasound units are distributed across the sonar facilities, representing a national average of 8 units per million people. More than half the equipment units (n=53, 54%) are in secondary-level healthcare facilities (district and mission hospitals), and approximately one-fifth (n=22, 22%) in the central hospitals (quaternary level). The best-resourced province has twice the resources of the least resourced. One-hundred and forty-two (n=142) healthcare workers, from six different professional groups, provide the public sector ultrasound service. Most facilities with sonar equipment (n=64/66, 97%) provide obstetrics and gynaecology services, while general abdominal scanning is available at one third (n=22, 33%). Two facilities with ultrasound equipment have no capacity to offer a sonography service. Conclusion: in order to reach the WHO recommendation of 20 sonar units per million people, an estimated 140 additional sonar units are required nationally. The need is greatest in Masvingo, Midlands and Mashonaland East Provinces. Task-shifting plays a key role in the provision of Zimbabwean sonar services. Consideration should be given to formal training and accreditation of all healthcare workers involved in sonar service delivery.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Ultrasonografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Instituciones de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Política de Salud , Humanos , Sector Público , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Zimbabwe
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 713487, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497794

RESUMEN

Purpose: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, which began in December 2019, has not been completely controlled; therefore, COVID-19 has received much attention from countries around the world. Many related clinical studies, such as clinical trials, have been published, but to the knowledge of the authors, there has been no bibliometric analysis of these publications focusing on clinical research studies on COVID-19. Methods: Global publications on COVID-19 from January 2020 to December 2020 were extracted from the Web of Science (WOS) collection database. The VOSviewer software and CiteSpace were employed to perform a bibliometric study. In addition, we obtained information on relevant clinical trials from the website http://clinicaltrials.gov. Results: China published most of the articles in this field and had the highest number of citations and H-index. The Journal of Medical Virology published most of the articles related to COVID-19. In terms of institutions, Huazhong University of Science and Technology had the most publications, and Wang, JW received the highest number of citations. Conclusion: The diagnosis, prevention, and prognosis of COVID-19 are still the focus of attention at present. The overall analysis of the disease were identified as the emerging topics from the perspectives of epidemiology and statistics. However, finding an effective treatment remains the focus of clinical trials.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Bibliometría , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Publicaciones , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(5): 605-609, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380108

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Identification of modifiable risk factors and treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) are needed. Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, causes fetal and animal model skeletal abnormalities. Vitamin K insufficiency has been associated with OA, but whether warfarin is also detrimental to OA is not known. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using a UK general practitioner electronic medical records database. We identified cases of knee or hip replacement (KR or HR) from among adults with atrial fibrillation newly prescribed either warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Cases were matched with four controls by age and sex. We assessed the relation of warfarin compared with DOAC use to risk of joint replacement using conditional logistic regression. We also evaluated different durations of warfarin use. RESULTS: We identified 857 subjects with KR or HR (cases), of whom 64.6% were warfarin users, and 3428 matched controls, of whom 56.1% were warfarin users (mean age 75, 47% female). Warfarin users had a 1.59 times higher risk of joint replacement than DOAC users (adjusted OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.92). Longer duration of warfarin use was associated with higher risk of joint replacement in comparison with <1 year of warfarin use. CONCLUSION: Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, was associated with greater risk of KR and HR (an indicator for end-stage knee OA) than DOAC use, supporting the importance of adequate vitamin K functioning in limiting OA progression.


Asunto(s)
Anticoagulantes/efectos adversos , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera/estadística & datos numéricos , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla/estadística & datos numéricos , Osteoartritis/cirugía , Warfarina/efectos adversos , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteoartritis/inducido químicamente , Factores de Riesgo , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inhibidores
14.
J Mol Graph Model ; 108: 108008, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419932

RESUMEN

The UNited RESidue (UNRES) force field was tested in the 14th Community Wide Experiment on the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP14), in which larger oligomeric and multimeric targets were present compared to previous editions. Three prediction modes were tested (i) ab initio (the UNRES group), (ii) contact-assisted (the UNRES-contact group), and (iii) template-assisted (the UNRES-template group). For most of the targets, the contact restraints were derived from the server models top-ranked by the DeepQA method, while the DNCON2 method was used for 11 targets. Our consensus-fragment procedure was used to run template-assisted predictions. Each group also processed the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)- and Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS)-data assisted targets. The average Global Distance Test Total Score (GDT_TS) of the 'Model 1' predictions were 29.17, 39.32, and 56.37 for the UNRES, UNRES-contact, and UNRES-template predictions, respectively, increasing by 0.53, 2.24, and 3.76, respectively, compared to CASP13. It was also found that the GDT_TS of the UNRES models obtained in ab initio mode and in the contact-assisted mode decreases with the square root of chain length, while the exponent in this relationship is 0.20 for the UNRES-template group models and 0.11 for the best performing AlphaFold2 models, which suggests that incorporation of database information, which stems from protein evolution, brings in long-range correlations, thus enabling the correction of force-field inaccuracies.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas , Bases de Datos Factuales , Conformación Proteica , Dispersión del Ángulo Pequeño , Difracción de Rayos X
15.
Water Res ; 203: 117543, 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433109

RESUMEN

According to the European Directives (UE) 2020/2184 and 2009/54/EC, which establishes the sanitary criteria for water intended for human consumption in Europe, water suitable for human consumption must be free of the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Enterococcus spp. Drinking water is also monitored for heterotrophic bacteria, which are not a human health risk, but can serve as an index of bacteriological water quality. Therefore, a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method for the identification of these colonies would improve our understanding of the culturable bacteria of drinking water and facilitate the task of water management by treatment facilities. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is potentially such a method, although most of the currently available mass spectral libraries have been developed in a clinical setting and have limited environmental applicability. In this work, a MALDI-TOF MS drinking water library (DWL) was defined and developed by targeting bacteria present in water intended for human consumption. This database, made up of 319 different bacterial strains, can contribute to the routine microbiological control of either treated drinking water or mineral bottled water carried out by water treatment and distribution operators, offering a faster identification rate compared to a clinical sample-based library. The DWL, made up of 96 bacterial genera, 44 of which are not represented in the MALDI-TOF MS bacterial Bruker Daltonics (BDAL) database, was found to significantly improve the identification of bacteria present in drinking water.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Purificación del Agua , Bacterias , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444959

RESUMEN

The rapid rise in prevalence of overweight/obesity, as well as high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and other nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases, has led the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to propose a front-of-package labeling (FOPL) regulation. An effective FOPL system applies a nutrient profile model that identifies foods high in sugar, sodium, and saturated fat that would receive a warning label for consumers to effectively discern between more and less healthy foods. Previous Nutrition Alchemy data collected by the food industry (n = 1306 products) estimated that approximately 96% of foods in India would have at least one warning label based on the FSSAI proposed FOPL. This near universal coverage of warning labels may be inaccurate and misleading. To address this, the current study compared two nutrient profile models, the WHO South-East Asia Region Organization (SEARO) and the Chilean Warning Octagon (CWO) Phase 3, applied to food products available in the Indian market from 2015-2020, collected through Mintel Global New Products Database (n = 10,501 products). Results suggest that 68% of foods and beverages would have at least one ' high-in' level warning label. This study highlights the need to include a more comprehensive sample of food products for assessing the value of warning labels.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Industria de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Etiquetado de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Política Nutricional/legislación & jurisprudencia , Chile , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Bases de Datos Factuales , Lejano Oriente , Humanos , India , Valor Nutritivo , Organización Mundial de la Salud
17.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 209: 106334, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450483

RESUMEN

Introduction Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and analysis are techniques that are, each year, applied to millions of patients with pathologies with million of patients annually. The detection of the so called A and B-waves, and the analysis of subtle changes in C-waves, which are present in ICP waveform, may indicate decreased intracranial compliance, and may improve the clinical outcome. Despite the advances in the field of computerized data analysis, the visual screening of ICP continues to be the means principally employed to detect these waves. To the best of our knowledge, no review study has addressed automated ICP analysis in sufficient detail and a need to research the state of the art of ICP analysis has, therefore, been identified. Methodology This paper presents a systematic mapping study to provide answers to 7 research questions: publication time, venue and source trends, medical tasks undertaken, research methods used, computational systems developed, validation methodology, tools and systems employed for evaluation and research problems identified. An ICP software prototype is presented and evaluated as a consequence of the results. Results A total of 23 papers, published between 1990 and 2020, were selected from 6 online databases. After analyzing these papers, the following information was obtained: diagnosis and monitoring medical tasks were addressed to the same extent, and the main research method used was evaluation research. Several computational systems were identified in the papers, the main one being image classification, while the main analysis objective was single pulse analysis. Correlation with expert analysis was the most frequent validation method, and few of the papers stated the use of a published dataset. Few authors referred to the tools used to build or evaluate the proposed solutions. The most frequent research problem was the need for new analysis methods. These results have inspired us to propose a software prototype with which provide an automated solution that integrates ICP analysis and monitoring techniques. Conclusions The papers in this study were selected and classified with regard to ICP automated analysis methods. Several research gaps were identified, which the authors of this study have employed as a based on which to recommend future work. Furthermore, this study has identified the need for an empirical comparison between methods, which will require the use and development of certain standard metrics. An in-depth analysis conducted by means of systematic literature review is also required. The software prototype evaluation provided positive results, showing that the prototype may be a reliable system for A-wave detection.


Asunto(s)
Presión Intracraneal , Programas Informáticos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Monitoreo Fisiológico
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16522, 2021 08 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389789

RESUMEN

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), namely Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. IBD patient conditions and treatments, such as with immunosuppressants, may result in a higher risk of viral and bacterial infection and more severe outcomes of infections. The effect of the clinical and demographic factors on the prognosis of COVID-19 among IBD patients is still a significant area of investigation. The lack of available data on a large set of COVID-19 infected IBD patients has hindered progress. To circumvent this lack of large patient data, we present a random sampling approach to generate clinical COVID-19 outcomes (outpatient management, hospitalized and recovered, and hospitalized and deceased) on 20,000 IBD patients modeled on reported summary statistics obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion (SECURE-IBD), an international database to monitor and report on outcomes of COVID-19 occurring in IBD patients. We apply machine learning approaches to perform a comprehensive analysis of the primary and secondary covariates to predict COVID-19 outcome in IBD patients. Our analysis reveals that age, medication usage and the number of comorbidities are the primary covariates, while IBD severity, smoking history, gender and IBD subtype (CD or UC) are key secondary features. In particular, elderly male patients with ulcerative colitis, several preexisting conditions, and who smoke comprise a highly vulnerable IBD population. Moreover, treatment with 5-ASAs (sulfasalazine/mesalamine) shows a high association with COVID-19/IBD mortality. Supervised machine learning that considers age, number of comorbidities and medication usage can predict COVID-19/IBD outcomes with approximately 70% accuracy. We explore the challenge of drawing demographic inferences from existing COVID-19/IBD data. Overall, there are fewer IBD case reports from US states with poor health ranking hindering these analyses. Generation of patient characteristics based on known summary statistics allows for increased power to detect IBD factors leading to variable COVID-19 outcomes. There is under-reporting of COVID-19 in IBD patients from US states with poor health ranking, underpinning the perils of using the repository to derive demographic information.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino , Aprendizaje Automático , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos , Niño , Preescolar , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/epidemiología , Masculino , Mesalamina/efectos adversos , Mesalamina/uso terapéutico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sulfasalazina/efectos adversos , Sulfasalazina/uso terapéutico , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26885, 2021 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414941

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Liver function tests (LFTs) use for common bile duct stone (CBDS) prediction in acute cholecystitis (AC) patients is challenging, especially in patients with chronic cholecystitis (CC) history.This study aims to describe characteristics of AC patients with CC history and assess LFTs' utility for CBDS prediction in these patients.A retrospective cohort study was conducted on adults with a diagnosis of AC and CC history included in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2008 to 2016. Patients were categorized into CBDS- (without CBDS) and CBDS+ (with CBDS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine CBDS predictors.This study included 7458 patients, of which 40.2% were CBDS+. CBDS+ patients were more commonly females (64.4% vs 54.7%, P < .001). Mean levels of bilirubin (1.70 vs 0.90, P < .001), SGOT (105.9 vs 49.0, P < .001) and ALP (164.6 vs 103.8, P < .001) were significantly higher among CBDS+ patients.Significant positive predictors of CBDS were female gender, increased BMI, and abnormal bilirubin, ALP and SGOT. AC patients with CC history are more likely to have CBDS. Abnormal LFTs are significantly associated with CBDS in this patient population. Familiarity with these findings can help raise clinical suspicion of providers for earlier evaluation and management of CBDS.


Asunto(s)
Colecistitis Aguda/complicaciones , Cálculos Biliares/complicaciones , Cálculos Biliares/fisiopatología , Hígado/fisiopatología , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios de Cohortes , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Pruebas de Función Hepática , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Estudios Retrospectivos
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