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1.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808745

RESUMEN

Isotopic ratios of δ13CVPDB and δ18OVSMOW have been used as an additional parameter to ensure the authenticity of the aging time of 100% agave tequila. For this purpose, 120 samples were isotopically analyzed (40 silver class, 40 aged class, and 40 extra-aged classes). The samples were obtained through a stratified sampling by proportional allocation, considering tequila producers from the main different regions of Jalisco, Mexico (Valles 41%, Altos Sur 31%, Cienega 16%, and Centro 12%). The results showed that the δ13CVPDB was found in an average of -12.85 ‰ for all the analyzed beverages, with no significant difference between them. Since for all the tested samples the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety was used as source of sugar to obtain alcohol, those results were foreseeable, and confirm the origin of the sugar source. Instead, the results for δ18OVSMOW showed a positive slope linear trend for the aging time (silver class 19.52‰, aged class 20.54‰, extra-aged class 21.45‰), which is associated with the maturation process, there are oxidation reactions that add congeneric compounds to the beverage, these can be used as tracers for the authenticity of the aging time. Additionally, the experimental data showed homogeneity in the beverages regardless of the production region, evidencing the tequila industry's high-quality standards. However, a particular case occurs with the δ18OVSMOW data for the silver class samples, in which a clear trend is noted with the altitude of the region of origin; therefore, this information suggests that this analytical parameter could be useful to authenticate the regional origin of beverage.


Asunto(s)
Agave , Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(15): 4509-4517, 2021 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829784

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to improve our knowledge on the chemical markers of Cognac aromas. We report results concerning the distribution and sensorial impact of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (MND), a well-known compound in aged red wine, reminiscent of anise or "dried fruit", according to its concentration. We assayed first this diketone (solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS), chemical ionization (CI)) in many Cognac samples followed by grappa, brandy, rum, whisky, vodka, and fruit spirits, and concentrations ranged from traces to 11.2 µg/L. Highest concentrations were obtained in grappa and freshly distilled eaux-de-vie of Cognac samples. Exceeding its detection threshold (100 ng/L, 70 vol %), MND contributes to the anise descriptor of these spirits. Its concentration decreased over aging while being highly correlated with the total amount of fatty acid ethyl ester. In addition, we showed that MND was produced during distillation according to the oxidation state of the white wine as well as the amount of lees used.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas , Vino , Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Alcanos/análisis , Diacetil/análogos & derivados , Odorantes/análisis , Vino/análisis
3.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920200

RESUMEN

Seventy-three samples of alcoholic beverages and juices that were purchased on the Polish market and home-made were analyzed for their elemental profiles. The levels of 23 metals were determined by ICP-MS (Ag, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Tl), ICP-OES (Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ti and Zn) and CVAAS (Hg) techniques in twenty-five samples of ciders widely available on the Polish market; six samples of home-made ciders; two samples of juices used in the production of these ciders; and forty samples of low-percentage, flavored alcoholic beverages based on beer. The gathered analytical data confirmed that the final elemental fingerprint of a product is affected by the elemental fingerprint of the ingredients used (apple variety) as well as the technology and equipment used by the producer, and in the case of commercial ciders, also the impact of type of the packaging used was proven. These factors are specific to each producer and the influence of the mentioned above parameters was revealed as a result of the performed analysis. Additionally, the inclusion of the home-made ciders in the data set helped us to understand the potential origin of some elements, from the raw materials to the final products. The applied statistical tests revealed (Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA) the existence of statistically significant differences in the concentration of the following metals: Ag, Al, B, Bi, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Na, Ni, Ti and Zn in terms of the type of cider origin (commercial and home-made). In turn, for different packaging (can or bottle) within one brand of commercial cider, the existence of statistically significant differences for Cu, Mn and Na was proved. The concentrations of all determined elements in the commercial cider from the Polish market and home-made cider samples can be considered as nontoxic, because the measured levels of elements indicated in the regulations were lower than the allowable limits. Moreover, the obtained results can be treated as preliminary for the potential authentication of products in order to distinguish the home-made (fake) from the authentic products, especially for premium-class alcoholic beverages.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Malus/química , Metales/aislamiento & purificación , Oligoelementos/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Iones/química , Iones/aislamiento & purificación , Espectrometría de Masas , Metales/química , Polonia , Análisis Espectral , Oligoelementos/química
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1644: 462134, 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848765

RESUMEN

Amino acids (AAs) are minor compounds occurring in meads contributing to their final organoleptic properties. Determination of AAs profile and content can help to assess the mead authenticity, adulteration and thus its quality. This work deals with the optimization of rapid analysis of 21 AAs present in mead using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection after simple derivatization procedure with phenyl isothiocyanate agent without any sample pre-treatment. Optimized derivatization and separation conditions have been successfully applied to the quantification of AAs present in five Czech meads using the multiple point standard addition method. The total amino acid content was in the range of 134-828 mg/L. The content of proline was confirmed by Harmonised spectrophotometric method. Both chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods provided overlapping results in the range of 30-266 mg/L.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Aminoácidos/análisis , Isotiocianatos/análisis , Cromatografía de Fase Inversa , República Checa , Estándares de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
5.
Food Chem ; 351: 129264, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662908

RESUMEN

The valorization of the brewer's spent grain (BSG) generated in a craft beer industry was studied by subcritical water hydrolysis in a semi-continuous fixed-bed reactor. Temperature was varied from 125 to 185 °C at a constant flow rate of 4 mL/min. Biomass hydrolysis yielded a maximum of 78% of solubilized protein at 185 °C. Free amino acids presented a maximum level at 160 °C with a value of 55 mg free amino acids/gprotein-BSG. Polar amino acid presented a maximum at lower temperatures than non-polar amino acids. The maximum in total phenolic compounds was reached at 185 °C. This maximum is the same for aldehyde phenolic compounds such as vanillin, syringic and protocatechuic aldehyde; however, for hydroxycinnamic acids, such as ferulic acid and p-coumaric, the maximum was obtained at 160 °C. This allows a fractionation of the bioactive compounds. Subcritical water addresses opportunities for small breweries to be incorporated within the biorefinery concept.


Asunto(s)
Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Grano Comestible/química , Proteínas de Plantas/aislamiento & purificación , Residuos , Agua/química , Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Biomasa , Ácidos Cumáricos/análisis , Hidrólisis , Fenoles/análisis , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 345: 109129, 2021 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711686

RESUMEN

The production of pome fruits as pears and apples, as well as their derived industries, is of great economic importance in North Patagonia. The elaboration of fermented beverages as cider or perry has evidenced a substantial diversification during the last years, with the evaluation of different fruit varieties, yeast starters and technological changes. In this work, two cryotolerant yeasts belonging to the species Saccharomyces uvarum were evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale in sterile and no-sterile pear must. One of the strains was originally isolated from apple chicha (strain NPCC1314) and the other from apple cider (strain NPCC1420) in Patagonia. Both physicochemical and sensory features of the fermented products were evaluated. Both strains were able to successfully complete the fermentations, although strain NPCC1420 showed the better kinetic properties including a faster sugar consumption than the strain NPCC1314. Both strains showed excellent implantation capacity, but the fermented products showed different chemical profiles. The perry fermented with the strain NPCC1314 was characterized by better sensory attributes as assessed by trained panelists and a greater acceptance for untrained public than the same fermented with the strain NPCC1420. The two strains were able to consume sorbitol, both in pear must and in agar-plates supplemented with sorbitol as the sole carbon source. This ability is described for the first time in S. uvarum, at least for the two strains evaluated in this work.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Alimentos y Bebidas Fermentados/microbiología , Pyrus/microbiología , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Argentina , Reactores Biológicos , Chile , Fermentación , Frutas/química , Frutas/microbiología , Malus/microbiología , Saccharomyces/aislamiento & purificación , Levaduras/clasificación , Levaduras/aislamiento & purificación
7.
Food Chem ; 352: 129363, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676120

RESUMEN

A study was carried out to determine systematically the key aroma-active compounds of Langyatai Baijiu with Jian flavour (LBJF) using sensory omics analysis (SOA). A total of 56 odorants were screened out using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS)/Osme analysis. Among them, 15 aroma-active components were first identified. After quantitation, 30 odorants had odour activity values (OAVs) > 1.0 in LBJF. Recombinant and omission experiments proved that the esters, alcohols, acids, especially ethyl hexanoate, γ-nonalactone, and dimethyl trisulfide, were critical to the flavour of LBJF. The basic and commercial liquors had obvious differences in the skeleton compositions of esters and acids. This study uncovers the characteristics of Jian flavour Baijiu (JFB) and provides a scientific basis for the quality control of JFB, which is helpful for the development of Chinese Baijiu flavour styles.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Odorantes/análisis , Gusto , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Olfatometría , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
8.
Food Chem ; 352: 129450, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714803

RESUMEN

The unique flavor of and rich physiological activities exhibited by the Chinese JingJiu has made it become an essential part of the blended alcoholic beverage. In this study, the aromatic characteristics of Chinese JingJiu have been identified using sensory analysis, aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA), and quantitative analysis techniques. The odor activity values (OAVs) were also used to characterize the compound. A total of 136 aroma compounds were identified through the AEDA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The flavor dilution (FD) factors were found to be in the range of 2-1024. Seventy aroma-active compounds with FD ≥ 8 were identified. Forty-three aroma-active compounds were identified using the molecular sensory science approach. Furthermore, 13 compounds were confirmed to be the key aroma-active compounds present in the Chinese JingJiu. The work provides a certain guiding effect on the regulation and optimization of the Chinese JingJiu production process.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Odorantes/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Técnicas de Dilución del Indicador , Gusto , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
9.
Appl Opt ; 60(7): 1924-1929, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690282

RESUMEN

A rapid and label free aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) microfluid sensor was proposed and tested. The device was fabricated with hollow-core photonics crystal fiber infiltrated with the AFB1 solution. The autofluorescence emitting from the AFB1 molecules was detected. The sensor length was optimized. The AFB1 concentration was tested with a 4 cm long sensor. The best limit of detection was achieved as low as 1.34 ng/ml, which meets the test requirement of the national standards for AFB1 in food. The effectiveness of this sensor being applied in beer solution was also verified to be a little more sensitive than in aqueous solution. Compared with traditional AFB1 detection methods, the proposed single-ended device perfectly satisfies the demand of process control in alcoholic beverages manufacture.


Asunto(s)
Aflatoxina B1/química , Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Dispositivos Laboratorio en un Chip , Bebidas Alcohólicas/microbiología , Microbiología de Alimentos , Límite de Detección
10.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562235

RESUMEN

Wine aroma represents one of the main properties that determines the consumer acceptance of the wine. It is different for each wine variety and depends on a large number of various chemical compounds. The aim of this study was to prepare red wine concentrates with enriched aroma compounds and chemical composition. For that purpose, Cabernet Sauvignon red wine variety was concentrated by reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) processes under different operating conditions. Different pressures (2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 MPa) and temperature regimes (with and without cooling) were applied on Alfa Laval LabUnit M20 equipped with six composite polyamide RO98pHt M20 or NF M20 membranes. Higher pressure increased the retention of sugars, SO2, total and volatile acids and ethanol, but the temperature increment had opposite effect. Both membranes were permeable for water, ethanol, acetic acid, 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol and their concentration decreased after wine filtration. RO98pHt membranes retained higher concentrations of total aroma compounds than NF membranes, but both processes, reverse osmosis and nanofiltration, resulted in retentates with different aroma profiles comparing to the initial wine. The retention of individual compounds depended on several factors (chemical structure, stability, polarity, applied processing parameters, etc.).


Asunto(s)
Odorantes/análisis , Vitis/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/química , Vino/análisis , Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Etanol/química , Filtración , Humanos , Ósmosis
11.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 131(5): 557-564, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593699

RESUMEN

Six categories of Japanese sake have been established by the National Tax Agency of Japan. In this system, the rice polishing ratio and the addition of alcohol are the main criteria for classification. The most common nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry method is 1H-NMR, and has higher throughput than gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis due to its short measurement time, easy sample preparation, and high reproducibility. However, owing to the production of dominant ethanol signals, metabolome analyses have not been used for classifying Japanese sake using 1H-NMR. In this study, a technique to selectively suppress ethanol signals was used to classify Japanese sake by 1H-NMR, and a model was constructed to predict the rice polishing ratio. The results were compared to those obtained by GC-MS. The suppression of ethanol signals enabled the detection of trace components by 1H-NMR. In a principal component analysis (PCA) score plot of 1H-NMR spectra with ethanol signal suppression, PC1 was associated with both the addition of alcohol and the rice polishing ratio. Additionally, the separation of samples observed was similar when PCA score plots of 1H-NMR and GC-MS data were compared. Similarly, to predict the rice polishing ratio using partial least squares regression analysis, a model was constructed using 1H-NMR data, and showed nearly similar values for precision and predictive performance with the model constructed using GC-MS data. These results suggest that metabolomic analyses of Japanese sake based on 1H-NMR spectral patterns may be useful for classification.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Metabolómica/métodos , Espectroscopía de Protones por Resonancia Magnética , Fermentación , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Análisis de Componente Principal , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 253: 119580, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618261

RESUMEN

In this work we propose for the first time, a paper-based test strip to analyse Cu2+ content in sugar cane spirits, which, due to its simplicity, high portability and fast analytical response (3 min), can be easily applied to in situ analyses by producers. The test strip was developed aiming: i) identify qualitatively the Cu2+ content in sugar cane spirits, and, ii) determine quantitatively the Cu2+ content using a digital image method employing a smartphone. The paper-based test strip was functionalized with cuprizone and optimized through a Box-Behnken, an experimental design for obtaining the best reaction conditions. Based on qualitative method with naked eyes approach performed by six volunteers analyst untrained, the method present a percentage of accuracy of 93%. For the quantitative analysis, it was determined the metal content at a level of statistical agreement with the reference method, as well as it was obtained the dynamic linear range from 2 to 13 mg L-1 with limits of detection and quantification of 0.034 and 0.103 mg L-1, respectively. Furthermore, the quantitative method showed a reliable precision with an RSD of 4.3% (n = 10) and the recovery of Cu2+ ranged from 80 to 103.8%.


Asunto(s)
Saccharum , Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Cuprizona , Grano Comestible , Humanos , Teléfono Inteligente
13.
Food Chem ; 349: 129133, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561795

RESUMEN

The strategy of taste-guided assisted by solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction and semipreparative HPLC were applied to isolate the main nonvolatile bitter components from mechanized Huangjiu. The potential fraction was identified by amino acid analysis and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-MS/MS. Bitter pyroglutamate peptide Pyr-LFNPSTNPWHSP (PGP) was successfully identified from Huangjiu for the first time. Quantitative analysis showed that PGP contents ranged from below the limit of quantitation to 32.97 mg/L, among mechanized Huangjiu had higher contents than manual and commercial Huangjiu. The formation of PGP mainly occurred in the primary fermentation and it was stable in Huangjiu. Moreover, the PGP content of the Huangjiu brewed using raw wheat Qu was 112.6% higher than that using cooked wheat Qu, but presented subtle change with the increase of raw wheat Qu. The results revealed that PGP contributed the bitterness to Huangjiu, which may offer a possibility to reduce the bitterness of Huangjiu.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Análisis de los Alimentos , Gusto , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Fermentación , Humanos , Péptidos/análisis , Péptidos/química , Péptidos/aislamiento & purificación
14.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513731

RESUMEN

Lignin isolated from black liquor waste was studied in this research to be utilized as binderless, all-lignin briquette, with a calorific value in the range of 5670-5876 kcal/kg. Isolation of lignin from black liquor was conducted using the acid precipitation method. Sulfuric acid, citric acid, and acetic acid were used to maintain the pH level, which varied from 5 to 2 for the precipitation process. The influence of these isolation conditions on the characteristic of lignin and the properties of the resulted briquette was evaluated through the Klasson method, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), adiabatic bomb calorimeter, density measurement, and Drop Shatter Index (DSI) testing. The finding showed that the lignin isolated using citric acid maintained to pH 3 resulted in briquette with 72% fixed carbon content, excellent 99.7% DSI, and a calorific value equivalent to coal-based briquette.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Etanol/química , Lignina/química , Ácido Acético/química , Precipitación Química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Carbón Mineral/análisis , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Residuos Industriales , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Ácidos Sulfúricos/química
15.
Food Chem ; 347: 129028, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503572

RESUMEN

Caoyuanwang Baijiu (CYW), a mild-flavor style Baijiu (MSB), is popular in northern China. However, there is a lack of studies reporting its aroma-active components. The aroma compounds of five CYW samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-olfactory-mass spectrometry coupled with aroma extraction dilution analysis. Fifty-five aroma-active compounds were identified in CYW, of which 27 had odor activity values ≥ 1. Reconstituted models successfully simulated the aroma profiles of CYW. The omission tests elucidated that ß-damascenone, dimethyl trisulfide, ethyl pentanoate, butanoic acid, ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutanal, ethyl lactate, hexanoic acid, γ-nonalactone, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, ethyl butanoate, 1-propanol, 4-(ethoxymethyl)-2-methoxy-phenol, and vanillin were key odorants in CYW. The addition test confirmed the significant influence of dimethyl trisulfide on Chen-aroma note. Nine key odorants were identified as the differential quality-markers, and 85.71% key odorants were predicted using the partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis, indicating the applicability of PLSR in selecting the target compounds for omission tests.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Odorantes/análisis , Olfatometría , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Adulto , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
16.
Food Chem ; 346: 128896, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421901

RESUMEN

Type of the wood used for the aging highly influences the quality of alcoholic beverages. In this research we explored the potential of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) to establish fingerprints characteristic for each wood and to enable determining the type of the wood used in the aging process. Eleven different wood samples were used to prepare three different types of spirits during 15 months. The highest extraction rate was obtained during the first month, while further aging was followed with almost constant amount of extracted polyphenols. Black locust, myrobalan plum, and mulberry extracts were discriminated from the spirits aged in oak and wild cherry wood when statistical analysis was applied. Although clear classification of all samples was not achieved, this long term study demonstrated a potential of both CV and DPV for differentiating wood species used in the aging, hence in the quality control of spirits.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Solventes/química , Madera/química , Frutas/química , Tecnología Química Verde , Factores de Tiempo , Madera/microbiología
17.
Food Chem ; 338: 127800, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798815

RESUMEN

For the first time, a method is proposed for colorimetric determination of reducing sugars in cachaça employing digital image and a smartphone as detector. The method was based on the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by sugars and followed by the formation of a colored Cu(I)-Neocuproine complex. A calibration curve was linear from 0.1 to 15 g L-1 for glucose and fructose with limits of detection of 0.012 g L-1 and 0.010 g L-1, respectively. It was observed that the non-aged cachaças, known for having inferior flavors and aromas, had a reducing sugar content three times higher than the aged cachaças, once a common practice among producers is to add sugar to adjust sensory deficits in the final product. Furthermore, the method is simple, does not require complex technical knowledge and it could be used as a tool to check possible fraud, adulteration or non-compliance to the law.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Análisis de los Alimentos/instrumentación , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Teléfono Inteligente , Azúcares/análisis , Colorimetría/instrumentación , Colorimetría/métodos , Cobre/química , Diseño de Equipo , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Fructosa/análisis , Glucosa/análisis , Fenantrolinas/química , Saccharum
18.
Food Chem ; 338: 127829, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818867

RESUMEN

Nine ciders obtained by cryo-extraction were analysed for chemical, olfactometric and sensory characteristics. Three types of ice apple juices and three autochthonous yeast strains were evaluated. The quantitative volatile profile is mainly influenced by the apple juice. Regarding the olfactometric profiles of the ice ciders, 23 odorants not previously found in Spanish still ciders, and described as sweet, spicy, fruity and floral were observed. Among these, it is worth mentioning 5 high-boiling point compounds found in an olfactometric zone where heavy, phenolic odours predominate in still ciders. The sensory descriptions obtained by Check-All-That-Apply classified the ice ciders mainly by their sweet taste and smoothness, these attributes being the most influential in the assessment of the overall quality of the ciders. The most highly valued ciders were described as the sweetest, most fruity ones, in agreement with their having the highest values for the ratio between total sugars and total acidity.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas , Malus/química , Odorantes/análisis , Adulto , Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Bebidas Alcohólicas/microbiología , Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Femenino , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Jugos de Frutas y Vegetales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Olfatometría , Fenoles/análisis , Gusto , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Levaduras
19.
Food Chem ; 338: 128107, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091989

RESUMEN

Recently developed and validated simple and reliable quantitative method employing ethanol as an internal standard (IS) for GC-MS quantification of volatile compounds in alcoholic products was applied to 36 samples including commercially available world-famous brand spirits from 18 countries and homemade distillates. The GC-MS analyses were performed simultaneously by the suggested approach and official IS method that is prescribed in the legislation of EU and USA. The independent samples t-test was employed to evaluate the statistical difference between the results of these two methods. The test revealed no difference in the results and their repeatability. The main benefits of the suggested method are the elimination of the necessity of manual IS addition and samples density measurement thus making it more economical and productive.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Calidad de los Alimentos , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos
20.
Food Chem ; 345: 128705, 2021 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310558

RESUMEN

Pottery jar is the preferred storage vessel for aging baijiu, Chinese liquor, and it could sorb liquor micro-compounds. The objective of this work was to identify the sorption of liquor micro-compounds onto pottery powder, and gained insights regarding the sorption processes and mechanism. The sorption of liquor micro-compounds onto pottery powder of different sizes was studied using different kinetic models. The results showed that the sorption capacity varied among particle size of pottery powder, which also affected equilibrium time. The sorption process could be well described by the pseudo-second-order model, and the external diffusion was the rate-limiting step. Liquor volatiles in pottery powder at equilibrium were characterized, which detected alcohols, esters, acids, and furan by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). These findings demonstrated pottery could not only cause subtractive changes that occur to liquor during the aging period, but also as a vector for transferring aromas sorbed when reused.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Ésteres/análisis , Odorantes/análisis , Polvos , Factores de Tiempo
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