Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.300
Filtrar
1.
20 Century Br Hist ; 29(4): 605-624, 2018 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982817

RESUMEN

From 1968, the central government established a series of area-based initiatives that operated on the basis of 'positive discrimination' towards the social needs of local residents. Over the course of the next 10 years, this area-based positive discrimination became an increasingly important part of social policy in Britain. This article uses Glasgow as a case study to show, first, how both the local and the central government attempted to define the problem of 'multiple deprivation' in the 1970s. Second, it shows how social studies were used to locate multiply deprived communities within urban areas, thereby feeding into the identification of the 'inner city' as a policy problem. Finally, this article shows how evidence of the concentration of multiple deprivation and the adoption of area-based strategies contributed to the fracturing of the welfare state, eroding the universalist principles upon which post-war social policy had been based.


Asunto(s)
Características de la Residencia , Bienestar Social , Historia del Siglo XX , Escocia , Bienestar Social/historia , Población Urbana
3.
20 Century Br Hist ; 29(4): 522-546, 2018 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036716

RESUMEN

It is often assumed that 'Hayekian' or 'neoliberal' influences lay behind Conservative attacks on socialism in 1945 and subsequent calls to 'set the people free' in 1950 and 1951. This assumption has had consequences for our understanding of late-1940s Conservatism and for wider interpretations of post-war politics. Heeding recent calls to reconnect the inter-war and post-war parties and to pay closer attention to how opponents and contexts generate arguments, this article revisits senior Conservatives' rhetoric between 1945 and 1951 to break the link between neoliberal influence and freedom rhetoric. First, it argues that the rhetoric of 1945 was derived from a distinctly Conservative lineage of interwar argument and reflected strategies developed before the publication of F. A. Hayek's 'The Road to Serfdom'. Second, it demonstrates that senior Conservatives' emancipatory rhetoric in opposition after 1945 was neither a simple continuation of these themes nor primarily a response to the public's growing antipathy towards rationing and controls. Rather, such rhetoric was a complex response to Britain's immediate economic difficulties and the political challenges presented by austerity. Finally, the article sheds new light on the strategy that governed the party's campaigns in 1950 and 1951. Churchill and others' calls to 'set the people free' stemmed from a belief that the rhetorical opportunity lay in reconciling liberty with security. In that sense, the leadership had moved beyond begrudging compromises with the 'Attleean settlement' and was instead attempting to define a new identity within the parameters of the welfare state.


Asunto(s)
Libertad , Política , Bienestar Social , Inglaterra , Historia del Siglo XX , Liderazgo , Bienestar Social/historia , Socialismo
4.
Salud Publica Mex ; 59(4): 429-436, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211264

RESUMEN

Some interpretations frequently argue that three Disability Models (DM) (Charity, Medical/Rehabilitation, and Social) correspond to historical periods in terms of chronological succession. These views permeate a priori within major official documents on the subject in Mexico. This paper intends to test whether this association is plausible by applying a timeline method. A document search was made with inclusion and exclusion criteria in databases to select representative studies with which to depict milestones in the timelines for each period. The following is demonstrated: 1) models should be considered as categories of analysis and not as historical periods, in that the prevalence of elements of the three models is present to date, and 2) the association between disability models and historical periods results in teleological interpretations of the history of disability in Mexico.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad/rehabilitación , Modelos Teóricos , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Organizaciones de Beneficencia/historia , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Personas con Discapacidad/historia , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , México/epidemiología , Seguridad Social/historia , Bienestar Social/historia
6.
Index enferm ; 26(3): 190-194, jul.-sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-168617

RESUMEN

El Estado de Bienestar en el contexto europeo en su versión actual se crea a mediados del siglo XX como un mecanismo corrector del mercado y de la mercantilización de las relaciones salariales, estando vinculado a la idea moderna de ciudadanía. En la actualidad cabe diferenciar entre cuatro regímenes de bienestar: el modelo liberal/residual, el modelo conservador, el modelo de los países del sur de Europa y el modelo socialdemócrata. Las actitudes y valores de la ciudadanía frente al Estado de Bienestar juegan un papel clave, en tanto en cuanto los ciudadanos valoran las políticas sociales como elementos básicos para mantener niveles razonables de seguridad vital. Respecto al futuro del Estado de Bienestar en Europa dependerá, en último término, de decisiones políticas


The Welfare State in the European context in its current version was created in the mid-twentieth century as a corrective mechanism of the market and the commodification of wage relations and is linked to the modern idea of citizenship. At present, it is possible to differentiate between four welfare regimes: the liberal/residual model, the conservative model, the Southern European countries model and the social-democratic model. The attitudes and values of citizenship vis-a-vis the welfare state play a key role, as one of the limitations with which governments try to cut them is that citizens value social policies as key elements for maintain reasonable levels of life safety. With regard to the future of the welfare state in Europe, it will ultimately depend on political decisions


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XX , Bienestar Social/historia , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Mercantilización , Política Pública/economía , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Salarios y Beneficios/economía
7.
Med Hist ; 61(2): 225-245, 2017 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28260565

RESUMEN

In recent years there has been growing acknowledgement of the place of workhouses within the range of institutional provision for mentally disordered people in nineteenth-century England. This article explores the situation in Bristol, where an entrenched workhouse-based model was retained for an extended period in the face of mounting external ideological and political pressures to provide a proper lunatic asylum. It signified a contest between the modernising, reformist inclinations of central state agencies and local bodies seeking to retain their freedom of action. The conflict exposed contrasting conceptions regarding the nature of services to which the insane poor were entitled. Bristol pioneered establishment of a central workhouse under the old Poor Law; 'St Peter's Hospital' was opened in 1698. As a multi-purpose welfare institution its clientele included 'lunatics' and 'idiots', for whom there was specific accommodation from before the 1760s. Despite an unhealthy city centre location and crowded, dilapidated buildings, the enterprising Bristol authorities secured St Peter's Hospital's designation as a county lunatic asylum in 1823. Its many deficiencies brought condemnation in the national survey of provision for the insane in 1844. In the period following the key lunacy legislation of 1845, the Home Office and Commissioners in Lunacy demanded the replacement of the putative lunatic asylum within Bristol's workhouse by a new borough asylum outside the city. The Bristol authorities resisted stoutly for several years, but were eventually forced to succumb and adopt the prescribed model of institutional care for the pauper insane.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Psiquiátricos/historia , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Inglaterra , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Pobreza/historia , Pobreza/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bienestar Social/historia , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia
9.
Sociol Health Illn ; 39(2): 244-257, 2017 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177142

RESUMEN

This article explains how old, poor people living with dementia came to be institutionalised in 19th-century Britain (with a focus on London), and how they were responded to by the people who ran those institutions. The institutions in question are lunatic asylums, workhouses and charitable homes. Old people with dementia were admitted to lunatic asylums, workhouses and charitable homes, but were not welcome there. Using the records of Hanwell lunatic asylum, published texts of psychiatric theory, and the administrative records that all of these institutions generated at local and national levels, this article argues that 'the senile' were a perpetual classificatory residuum in the bureaucracy of 19th-century health and welfare. They were too weak and unresponsive to adhere to the norms of the asylum regime, yet too challenging in their behaviour to conform to that of the workhouse, or the charitable home. Across all of these institutions, old people with dementia were represented as an intractable burden, many decades before the 'ageing society' became a demographic reality.


Asunto(s)
Demencia/historia , Hospitales Psiquiátricos/historia , Institucionalización/historia , Bienestar Social/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Pobreza , Reino Unido , Poblaciones Vulnerables/psicología
10.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 33(1): 174-204, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27344908

RESUMEN

Following the. Second World War, many west European nations developed welfare states to enhance the health and security of their populations, but the systems that were created differed significantly in form and function. This article will provide a comparative overview of the development of hospital services in urban England and France in the first forty years of the 20th century using evidence from two case study cities to enhance our understanding of how these welfare systems developed. It will consider the structure of the two hospital systems; governance and accountability; institutional finance; patients; and the role of the central and local state to argue that the maintenance of two separate providers and the exclusion of hospitals from state health insurance in England prompted a different set of responses to the delivery of hospital care compared to what was found in the unified and increasingly state-funded French system.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/historia , Hospitales/historia , Bienestar Social/historia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Inglaterra , Francia , Historia del Siglo XX , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia
11.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 23(2): 321-40, 2016 01 26.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27276039

RESUMEN

This article analyzes the root causes of the shortage of social support for the relatives of people with leprosy, especially their children, in the state of Goiás, Central West region of Brazil, between 1920 and 1962. It focuses on the constitution of discourses that defined the medical and philanthropic care for the children of people isolated in leper colonies as a problem, and how this process resulted in the organization of the Society for the Welfare of Lepers and Defense Against Leprosy, and the construction of Afrânio de Azevedo children's home in Goiânia, the state capital. These elements are directly associated with the construction of a new approach in the regional history and social and medical policies for leprosy.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Protección Infantil/historia , Lepra/historia , Bienestar Social/historia , Brasil , Niño , Bienestar del Niño/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Colonias de Leprosos/historia , Lepra/terapia
14.
J Homosex ; 63(5): 633-66, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26565769

RESUMEN

Seeking to understand the highly unfavorable conditions for the development of gay male theater in Sweden, this essay engages in a historical study of the national opening of Mart Crowley's The Boys in the Band at Malmö City Theatre in 1970. Propelled by a Foucauldian-inspired theoretical approach, it identifies the subtle, yet highly effective, measures of control that the, at the time, social democratic welfare state exercised over representations of homosexuality on stage. State representatives, who complied with the official political and medical doctrine that homosexuality was a mental illness and posed a potential threat to social stability, interfered at various levels of the production, including the rehearsal process and post-performance talks between cast members and audiences. This alliance between Swedish theaters and members of the medical, psychological, and sexological professions constituted a medico-artistic complicity that supervised and regulated early attempts of gay representation on stage.


Asunto(s)
Arte , Homosexualidad Masculina , Bienestar Social , Arte/historia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Homosexualidad Masculina/historia , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Política , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Bienestar Social/historia , Suecia
15.
Br J Sociol ; 66(4): 645-72, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26607691

RESUMEN

Those students who were among the first sociology graduates in the UK barely feature in standard histories of the discipline, which all have an intellectual and institutional focus. This article remedies this neglect by researching the social backgrounds and later careers of sociology graduates from the London School of Economics and Political Science [LSE] and Bedford College for Women from the first such graduate in 1907 until those graduating in the 1930s. Data for this exercise were compiled from a variety of sources. The more important are: UK censuses, especially that of 1911; various civil registration records; archived student files; and, for the graduates who entered university teaching, issues of the Yearbook of the Universities of the Empire [later the Commonwealth Universities' Yearbook]. The dataset includes all identified graduates in the BSc(Econ), Special Subject Sociology, degree from 1907 to 1935 and all in the BA (Honours) in Sociology degree from 1925 to 1939. LSE sociology graduates tended to be older and to have more cosmopolitan backgrounds, with fathers more likely than for Bedford College graduates to come from commercial rather than professional backgrounds. Both institutions' graduates' careers tended to the Civil Service and local government. LSE graduates gravitated to education, especially to higher education if male, whilst those of Bedford College went into welfare work, countering a stereotype from some previous literature that especially women graduates were heavily constrained to follow careers in schoolteaching. The article also gives comparisons with the social-class profile and career destinations of several cohorts of postwar sociology graduates, noting a number of similarities.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Sociología/historia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Bienestar Social/historia , Sociología/educación , Reino Unido
16.
Br J Sociol ; 66(4): 673-90, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26373464

RESUMEN

T. H. Marshall in his famous tract Citizenship and Social Class wrote briefly about what he called 'industrial citizenship', a type of belonging rooted in the workplace. Here Marshall's ideas are developed alongside a consideration of Durkheim's Professional Ethics and Civic Morals together with research material from the Guinness Company. It shows the way the Company actively sought to create 'Guinness citizenship' within its London brewery. The article draws out the ways in which the significance and potential of work based citizenship for ameliorating the ills of industrial society are clearly articulated in mid-twentieth century Britain and echo earlier neglected Durkheimian sociological ideas on work. These ideas have real potential to inform contemporary academic and policy debates about the nature of capitalism and the form and content of work now and in the future.


Asunto(s)
Empleo/historia , Desarrollo Industrial/historia , Cerveza/historia , Industria de Alimentos/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Londres , Política Pública , Bienestar Social/historia , Lugar de Trabajo/historia
18.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 70(4): 588-622, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25159685

RESUMEN

This article uses data drawn from the overseers' accounts and supporting documentation in thirty-six parishes spread over four English counties, to answer three basic questions. First, what was the character, extent, structure, range of activities, and remuneration of the nursing labor force under the Old Poor Law between the late eighteenth century and the implementation of the New Poor Law in the 1830s? Second, were there regional and intra-regional differences in the scale and nature of spending on nursing care for the sick poor? Third, how might one explain such differences? The article suggests that nursing became an increasingly important category of spending for the poor law from the later eighteenth century, but that there were significant variations within and (particularly) between English counties in parochial attitudes toward the provision of nursing for the sick poor. These variations can be explained by applying a matrix of explanatory variables ranging from the minor (differences in how parishes defined "nursing") through to the major (long-standing cultural attitudes toward the responsibility of parishioners to their sick compatriots and the ingrained expectations of the sick poor). The article also throws new light on the hidden aspects of female labor force participation, pointing to the development of professional nursing networks long before the later nineteenth century.


Asunto(s)
Historia de la Enfermería , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pobreza/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bienestar Social/historia , Inglaterra , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/economía , Pobreza/economía , Pobreza/historia , Bienestar Social/economía , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia
19.
Dynamis (Granada) ; 35(2): 409-431, 2015. ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-144233

RESUMEN

El artículo estudia la sociabilidad en las fiestas y en las celebraciones del Consultorio de Niños de Pecho organizadas periódicamente por la sociedad de socorros mutuos La Conciliación entre 1902 y 1933. Eran actos recreativos que también tenían una finalidad educativa. La Conciliación (1902-1984) fue fundada en Pamplona, con carácter mixto y católico, exclusivamente masculina hasta 1936. Su principal actividad fue la mediación laboral y la asistencia en la enfermedad a los socios obreros y sus familias, a través de un subsidio económico y del servicio médico. A partir de las noticias publicadas en la prensa y de los documentos del archivo de la sociedad de socorros mutuos, se describen los acontecimientos y se analizan las prácticas emocionales de las celebraciones. Los actos del Consultorio de Niños de Pecho suscitaron emociones positivas que estimularon los sentimientos maternales, de piedad y caridad, o de utilidad social de las clases acomodadas. En las fiestas de La Conciliación se reconocen los aspectos emocionales relacionados con la comunicación, la movilización y la regulación: las conferencias y los actos proponían a los socios obreros y a sus familias un modelo social y una concepción ideológica y religiosa. El carácter performativo de las emociones reforzó la identidad de los miembros y su integración social en la ciudad. Se trató de una sociabilidad al servicio del proyecto de La Conciliación (AU)


This article studies the sociability evidenced in the fiestas and other celebrations held by the Breastfeeding Infant Clinic and periodically organized by La Conciliación Mutual Aid Society between 1902 and 1933 as recreational acts with educational purposes. La Conciliación (1902-1984) was founded in Pamplona as an exclusively male Catholic association (women were admitted from 1936) composed of workers, employers and protector members, with labor, healthcare, and economic objectives under a Mixed Board of Governors with representatives from the three cohorts. The description of the events and Contents Dynamis 2015; 35 (2): 263-269 267 the analyses of the emotional practices are based on newspaper reports and the association’s archives. The acts organized by the Breastfeeding Infant Clinic served to stimulate positive emotions and maternal feelings of piety and charity and to arouse a sense of social utility in the upper social classes. We acknowledge the regulatory component of the emotions that appeared in the fiesta of La Conciliation: conferences and social events proposed a social model that reinforced the participation of members and their families in the association’s ideological and religious goals. The performative character of emotions was designed to reinforce the identity of the members of La Conciliation and their social integration in the city. This model of sociability strengthened the project of La Conciliation (AU)


Asunto(s)
Femenino , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Sistemas de Socorro/ética , Sistemas de Socorro/historia , Socorro de Urgencia , Socialización , Emoción Expresada/fisiología , Emociones/ética , Emociones/fisiología , Apoyo Social , Conducta Infantil/fisiología , Mortalidad Infantil/tendencias , Historiografía , Política Pública/historia , Ajuste Social , Conducta Social , Seguridad Social/historia , Bienestar Social/historia , Servicio Social
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA