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1.
Recurso Educacional Abierto en Español | CVSP - Argentina | ID: oer-3877

RESUMEN

1º Jornada «Derecho a la Salud», organizada por el CVSP Nodo Argentina, la Sala de Derecho a la Salud del Colegio de Abogados de Córdoba y la Escuela de Salud Pública y Ambiente de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas–UNC. La misma se llevó a cabo el día 4 de diciembre del corriente año en el Salón Rojo de la Secretaría de Graduados en Ciencias de la Salud FCM-UNC. La jornada contó con la presencia de Profesionales de la Salud, Profesionales del Derecho, alumnos de postgrado de las Carreras de Ciencias Médicas, Derecho y Ciencias Sociales y público en general. Conferencia dictada por la Prof. Dra. Viviana Perracini. Directora de la Sala de Derecho a la Salud del Colegio de Abogados de Córdoba. Profesora Especialista en Salud UNC y US21


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Salud/economía , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Derecho Sanitario
2.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 800-814, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682358

RESUMEN

In 2017 and 2018 Australia almost implemented laws to require unemployed people to undertake mandatory drug testing and treatment. Debate about linking welfare with mandatory drug treatment suffers from the complexity and paucity of research specifically about the efficacy of mandatory welfare drug treatment. This allows the possibility for mandatory welfare drug treatment to remain on the political horizon. This article situates the Australian proposal to introduce mandatory drug treatment for the unemployed within the relevant research literature. It concludes that the literature shows there is little chance of efficacy if welfare is linked with mandatory drug treatment. Instead, cost ineffectiveness and perverse outcomes are more probable than treatment efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Detección de Abuso de Sustancias , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Australia , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia
3.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 874-895, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682365

RESUMEN

Internationally, profoundly disabled children have received growth attenuation treatment to allow their parents to continue to care for them as they mature into adulthood. This article considers how the Family Court of Australia might approach this topic. It assumes that parents wishing to attenuate the linear growth of their child require an order from the Family Court under its welfare jurisdiction. This assumption is made because of the parents' conflict of interests; the treatment's irreversible nature; and the fact that it is sought for non-Gillick competent children. This article highlights the view that there are concerns about how the Court, given its adversarial nature and current approach to medical decisions, will determine whether this treatment is in a child's best interests. It concludes that a federally funded interdisciplinary administrative panel is better positioned to assess and decide each application on a case-by-case basis.


Asunto(s)
Niños con Discapacidad , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto , Australia , Niño , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Padres
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(3): 1065-1073, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892526

RESUMEN

This paper analyzes the decision-making process involving the formulation of Bill 3077/20081 by the Ministry of Social Development and Fight against Hunger, and its subsequent approval as Law 12.435/2011, which institutionalized the Unified Social Assistance System (SUAS). The methodology was based on bibliographic research, analysis of the minutes of the National Social Assistance Council from 2008 to 2011, and public documents from the Ministry and interviews with key stakeholders who worked at the Ministry between 2008 and 2011. The results showed that the Law aimed mainly to legitimize management practices already underway in Social Assistance and to establish legal certainty for federal managers. The decision to propose the Law highlights the relevance of "policymakers" in including issues on the public agenda.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Formulación de Políticas , Política Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Brasil , Humanos , Hambre , Cambio Social
6.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 63(3): 448-470, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070600

RESUMEN

This article identifies and describes a set of behavioral indicators associated with illegal drug carrying in public spaces. Through the use of focus group data, our research documents and translates the visual search techniques that veteran law enforcement and drugs experts report using in their work. Here, we catalogue these findings into 10 overarching categories, and discuss how each indicator may be incorporated into an officer's visual search. Knowledge of these indicators, when combined with proper training and an understanding of a public space, can help law enforcement identify persons who may be carrying drugs. The ability to identify drug-carrying individuals facilitates the interdiction and apprehension of offenders, and also protects the civil rights and liberties of the law-abiding public.


Asunto(s)
Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Aplicación de la Ley/métodos , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Asistencia Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medio Social
9.
Lancet Public Health ; 3(7): e333-e340, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976327

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the UK, lone parents must seek work as a condition of receiving welfare benefits once their youngest child reaches a certain age. Since 2008, the lower age limit at which these Lone Parent Obligations (LPO) apply has been reduced in steps. We used data from a nationally representative, longitudinal, household panel study to analyse the health effects of increased welfare conditionality under LPO. METHODS: From the Understanding Society survey, we used data for lone mothers who were newly exposed to LPO when the age cutoff was reduced from 7 to 5 years in 2012 (intervention group 1) and from 10 to 7 years in 2010 (intervention group 2), as well as lone mothers who remained unexposed (control group 1) or continuously exposed (control group 2) at those times. We did difference-in-difference analyses that controlled for differences in the fixed characteristics of participants in the intervention and control groups to estimate the effect of exposure to conditionality on the health of lone mothers. Our primary outcome was the difference in change over time between the intervention and control groups in scores on the Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). FINDINGS: The mental health of lone mothers declined in the intervention groups compared with the control groups. For intervention group 1, scores on the MCS decreased by 1·39 (95% CI -1·29 to 4·08) compared with control group 1 and by 2·29 (0·00 to 4·57) compared with control group 2. For intervention group 2, MCS scores decreased by 2·45 (-0·57 to 5·48) compared with control group 1 and by 1·28 (-1·45 to 4·00) compared with control group 2. When pooling the two intervention groups, scores on the MCS decreased by 2·13 (0·10 to 4·17) compared with control group 1 and 2·21 (0·30 to 4·13) compared with control group 2. INTERPRETATION: Stringent conditions for receiving welfare benefits are increasingly common in high-income countries. Our results suggest that requiring lone parents with school-age children toseek work as a condition of receiving welfare benefits adversely affects their mental health. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office, and National Health Service Research Scotland.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Madres , Padres Solteros , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Madres/psicología , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Padres Solteros/psicología , Padres Solteros/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido
10.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 71(suppl 1): 496-504, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562004

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to identify the participation dynamics of a municipal council and to develop a critical-reflexive process on "being a counselor", identifying weaknesses and possibilities of this council, in addition to collectively generating new knowledge and (re)elaborating the MHC Ordinary Law. METHOD: Convergent care research, including documentary analysis, non-participant observation and thematic workshops. The research was carried out in 2016, with municipal health counselors from a city in the Western Region of Santa Catarina. RESULTS: this study made it possible to identify forms of social participation that should be strengthened in the performance of social power, to reflect and share individual experiences, to anchor them in the current legislation, and to build knowledge that enabled the elaboration/organization of a product - a new text for the Ordinary Law of the Council, adjusted to current legislation. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: There is a need to increase participation, considering the presence of the counselors in the meetings, the effective representation and a greater interaction in the discussions and deliberations of the council.


Asunto(s)
Participación de la Comunidad/métodos , Consejeros/psicología , Consejeros/normas , Adulto , Brasil , Participación de la Comunidad/psicología , Femenino , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política de Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia
11.
Drug Discov Ther ; 12(1): 37-41, 2018 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479045

RESUMEN

Smoking cessation efforts in Japan reduce smoking rates. A future zero-smoking policy would completely prohibit smoking (0% rate). We therefore analyzed the social welfare of smokers and non-smokers under a hypothetical zero-smoking policy. The demand curve for smoking from 1990 to 2014 was estimated by defining quantity as the number of cigarettes smoked and price as total tobacco sales/total cigarettes smoked by the two-stage least squares method using the tax on tobacco as the instrumental variable. In the estimation equation (calculated using the ordinary least squares method), the price of tobacco was the dependent variable and tobacco quantity the explanatory variable. The estimated constant was 31.90, the estimated coefficient of quantity was - 0.0061 (both, p < 0.0004), and the determinant coefficient was 0.9187. Thus, the 2015 consumer surplus was 1.08 trillion yen (US$ 9.82 billion) (95% confidence interval (CI), 889 billion yen (US$ 8.08 billion) - 1.27 trillion yen (US$ 11.6 billion)). Because tax revenue from tobacco in 2011 was 2.38 trillion yen (US$ 21.6 billion), the estimated deadweight loss if smoking were prohibited in 2014 was 3.31 trillion yen (US$ 30.2 billion) (95% CI, 3.13 trillion yen (US$ 28.5 billion) - 3.50 trillion yen (US$ 31.8 billion)), representing a deadweight loss about 0.6 trillion yen (US$ 5.45 billion) below the 2014 disease burden (4.10-4.12 trillion yen (US$ 37.3-37.5 billion)). We conclude that a zero-smoking policy would improve social welfare in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar/economía , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comercio , Política de Salud , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Fumar/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD009820, 2018 02 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29480555

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of WtW interventions on mental and physical health in lone parents and their children living in high-income countries. The secondary objective is to assess the effects of welfare-to-work interventions on employment and income. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, PsycINFO EBSCO, ERIC EBSCO, SocINDEX EBSCO, CINAHL EBSCO, Econlit EBSCO, Web of Science ISI, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) via Proquest, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS) via ProQuest, Social Services Abstracts via Proquest, Sociological Abstracts via Proquest, Campbell Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) (CRD York), Turning Research into Practice (TRIP), OpenGrey and Planex. We also searched bibliographies of included publications and relevant reviews, in addition to many relevant websites. We identified many included publications by handsearching. We performed the searches in 2011, 2013 and April 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mandatory or voluntary WtW interventions for lone parents in high-income countries, reporting impacts on parental mental health, parental physical health, child mental health or child physical health. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author extracted data using a standardised extraction form, and another checked them. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and the quality of the evidence. We contacted study authors to obtain measures of variance and conducted meta-analyses where possible. We synthesised data at three time points: 18 to 24 months (T1), 25 to 48 months (T2) and 49 to 72 months (T3). MAIN RESULTS: Twelve studies involving 27,482 participants met the inclusion criteria. Interventions were either mandatory or voluntary and included up to 10 discrete components in varying combinations. All but one study took place in North America. Although we searched for parental health outcomes, the vast majority of the sample in all included studies were female. Therefore, we describe adult health outcomes as 'maternal' throughout the results section. We downgraded the quality of all evidence at least one level because outcome assessors were not blinded. Follow-up ranged from 18 months to six years. The effects of welfare-to-work interventions on health were generally positive but of a magnitude unlikely to have any tangible effects.At T1 there was moderate-quality evidence of a very small negative impact on maternal mental health (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.07, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.00 to 0.14; N = 3352; studies = 2)); at T2, moderate-quality evidence of no effect (SMD 0.00, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.05; N = 7091; studies = 3); and at T3, low-quality evidence of a very small positive effect (SMD -0.07, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.00; N = 8873; studies = 4). There was evidence of very small positive effects on maternal physical health at T1 (risk ratio (RR) 0.85, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.36; N = 311; 1 study, low quality) and T2 (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.18; N = 2551; 2 studies, moderate quality), and of a very small negative effect at T3 (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.04; N = 1854; 1 study, low quality).At T1, there was moderate-quality evidence of a very small negative impact on child mental health (SMD 0.01, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.09; N = 2762; studies = 1); at T2, of a very small positive effect (SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.01; N = 7560; studies = 5), and at T3, there was low-quality evidence of a very small positive effect (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.05; N = 3643; studies = 3). Moderate-quality evidence for effects on child physical health showed a very small negative effect at T1 (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.03; N = 2762; studies = 1), a very small positive effect at T2 (SMD 0.07, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.12; N = 7195; studies = 3), and a very small positive effect at T3 (SMD 0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.06; N = 8083; studies = 5). There was some evidence of larger negative effects on health, but this was of low or very low quality.There were small positive effects on employment and income at 18 to 48 months (moderate-quality evidence), but these were largely absent at 49 to 72 months (very low to moderate-quality evidence), often due to control group members moving into work independently. Since the majority of the studies were conducted in North America before the year 2000, generalisabilty may be limited. However, all study sites were similar in that they were high-income countries with developed social welfare systems. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effects of WtW on health are largely of a magnitude that is unlikely to have tangible impacts. Since income and employment are hypothesised to mediate effects on health, it is possible that these negligible health impacts result from the small effects on economic outcomes. Even where employment and income were higher for the lone parents in WtW, poverty was still high for the majority of the lone parents in many of the studies. Perhaps because of this, depression also remained very high for lone parents whether they were in WtW or not. There is a lack of robust evidence on the health effects of WtW for lone parents outside North America.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Niño , Empleo/psicología , Estado de Salud , Salud Materna , Salud Mental , Padres Solteros/psicología , Bienestar Social/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Salud del Niño/ética , Preescolar , Empleo/economía , Empleo/ética , Empleo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Lactante , Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Materna/ética , Pobreza , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Bienestar Social/ética , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia
13.
Gac Sanit ; 32(2): 193-197, 2018.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28958574

RESUMEN

Human health has improved throughout the 20th century, at the same time that the Welfare State was consolidated. This paper explores the current relationship between the welfare state and public health. The essential functions of public health are exercised as part of the State, and currently the main challenge is to ensure that health is protected and promoted through different public policies, including employment. Studies assessing the health effect of different types of welfare state are contradictory, but when the impact of specific policies, such as unemployment benefits, is considered, the results are positive and consistent. However, the current crisis of the Welfare State hampers its continuity, largely due to changes in the labour market, with more flexible and insecure jobs.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Políticos , Salud Pública , Política Pública , Bienestar Social , Economía , Financiación Gubernamental , Predicción , Programas de Gobierno , Producto Interno Bruto , Política de Salud , Humanos , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cambio Social , Bienestar Social/economía , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , España , Desempleo
14.
Am J Community Psychol ; 60(1-2): 9-16, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28913851

RESUMEN

Policy emerges from the legislative, agency, and practice levels and from several pathways, including litigation; high profile or tragic events; community-based service provision and practice innovations; and research evidence. This commentary places an emphasis throughout on discussions of the articles included in this issue. It explores pathways that influenced the development of housing policy targeting child and family well being and provides examples to illustrate each pathway. The article further highlights how research on housing and child well being has influenced policy and practice and notes gaps for further research. It concludes with suggestions for structuring research to more effectively assist policymakers to make informed decisions that achieve positive change for children, youth, and families.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Niño/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vivienda/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política Pública , Servicio Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Niño , Humanos , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional , Estados Unidos
15.
Index enferm ; 26(3): 190-194, jul.-sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-168617

RESUMEN

El Estado de Bienestar en el contexto europeo en su versión actual se crea a mediados del siglo XX como un mecanismo corrector del mercado y de la mercantilización de las relaciones salariales, estando vinculado a la idea moderna de ciudadanía. En la actualidad cabe diferenciar entre cuatro regímenes de bienestar: el modelo liberal/residual, el modelo conservador, el modelo de los países del sur de Europa y el modelo socialdemócrata. Las actitudes y valores de la ciudadanía frente al Estado de Bienestar juegan un papel clave, en tanto en cuanto los ciudadanos valoran las políticas sociales como elementos básicos para mantener niveles razonables de seguridad vital. Respecto al futuro del Estado de Bienestar en Europa dependerá, en último término, de decisiones políticas


The Welfare State in the European context in its current version was created in the mid-twentieth century as a corrective mechanism of the market and the commodification of wage relations and is linked to the modern idea of citizenship. At present, it is possible to differentiate between four welfare regimes: the liberal/residual model, the conservative model, the Southern European countries model and the social-democratic model. The attitudes and values of citizenship vis-a-vis the welfare state play a key role, as one of the limitations with which governments try to cut them is that citizens value social policies as key elements for maintain reasonable levels of life safety. With regard to the future of the welfare state in Europe, it will ultimately depend on political decisions


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XX , Bienestar Social/historia , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Mercantilización , Política Pública/economía , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Salarios y Beneficios/economía
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD009820, 2017 08 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28823111

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of WtW interventions on mental and physical health in lone parents and their children living in high-income countries. The secondary objective is to assess the effects of welfare-to-work interventions on employment and income. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, PsycINFO EBSCO, ERIC EBSCO, SocINDEX EBSCO, CINAHL EBSCO, Econlit EBSCO, Web of Science ISI, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) via Proquest, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS) via ProQuest, Social Services Abstracts via Proquest, Sociological Abstracts via Proquest, Campbell Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) (CRD York), Turning Research into Practice (TRIP), OpenGrey and Planex. We also searched bibliographies of included publications and relevant reviews, in addition to many relevant websites. We identified many included publications by handsearching. We performed the searches in 2011, 2013 and April 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mandatory or voluntary WtW interventions for lone parents in high-income countries, reporting impacts on parental mental health, parental physical health, child mental health or child physical health. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author extracted data using a standardised extraction form, and another checked them. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and the quality of the evidence. We contacted study authors to obtain measures of variance and conducted meta-analyses where possible. We synthesised data at three time points: 18 to 24 months (T1), 25 to 48 months (T2) and 49 to 72 months (T3). MAIN RESULTS: Twelve studies involving 27,482 participants met the inclusion criteria. Interventions were either mandatory or voluntary and included up to 10 discrete components in varying combinations. All but one study took place in North America. Although we searched for parental health outcomes, the vast majority of the sample in all included studies were female. Therefore, we describe adult health outcomes as 'maternal' throughout the results section. We downgraded the quality of all evidence at least one level because outcome assessors were not blinded. Follow-up ranged from 18 months to six years. The effects of welfare-to-work interventions on health were generally positive but of a magnitude unlikely to have any tangible effects.At T1 there was moderate-quality evidence of a very small negative impact on maternal mental health (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.07, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.00 to 0.14; N = 3352; studies = 2)); at T2, moderate-quality evidence of no effect (SMD 0.00, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.05; N = 7091; studies = 3); and at T3, low-quality evidence of a very small positive effect (SMD -0.07, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.00; N = 8873; studies = 4). There was evidence of very small positive effects on maternal physical health at T1 (risk ratio (RR) 0.85, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.36; N = 311; 1 study, low quality) and T2 (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.18; N = 2551; 2 studies, moderate quality), and of a very small negative effect at T3 (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.04; N = 1854; 1 study, low quality).At T1, there was moderate-quality evidence of a very small negative impact on child mental health (SMD 0.01, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.09; N = 2762; studies = 1); at T2, of a very small positive effect (SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.01; N = 7560; studies = 5), and at T3, there was low-quality evidence of a very small positive effect (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.05; N = 3643; studies = 3). Moderate-quality evidence for effects on child physical health showed a very small negative effect at T1 (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.03; N = 2762; studies = 1), a very small positive effect at T2 (SMD 0.07, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.12; N = 7195; studies = 3), and a very small positive effect at T3 (SMD 0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.06; N = 8083; studies = 5). There was some evidence of larger negative effects on health, but this was of low or very low quality.There were small positive effects on employment and income at 18 to 48 months (moderate-quality evidence), but these were largely absent at 49 to 72 months (very low to moderate-quality evidence), often due to control group members moving into work independently. Since the majority of the studies were conducted in North America before the year 2000, generalisabilty may be limited. However, all study sites were similar in that they were high-income countries with developed social welfare systems. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effects of WtW on health are largely of a magnitude that is unlikely to have tangible impacts. Since income and employment are hypothesised to mediate effects on health, it is possible that these negligible health impacts result from the small effects on economic outcomes. Even where employment and income were higher for the lone parents in WtW, poverty was still high for the majority of the lone parents in many of the studies. Perhaps because of this, depression also remained very high for lone parents whether they were in WtW or not. There is a lack of robust evidence on the health effects of WtW for lone parents outside North America.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Niño , Empleo/psicología , Estado de Salud , Salud Materna , Salud Mental , Padres Solteros/psicología , Bienestar Social/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Salud del Niño/ética , Preescolar , Empleo/economía , Empleo/ética , Empleo/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Renta , Lactante , Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Materna/ética , Pobreza , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Bienestar Social/ética , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia
17.
Sante Publique ; 29(3): 345-360, 2017 Jul 10.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737356

RESUMEN

Hypothesis: The 2009 Hospital, Patients, Health and Territories Act crystallises a central government attempt to regain control over the social and long term care sector, which involves the utilisation of policy instruments borrowed from the hospital sector: capped budgets, agreements on targets and resources, competitive tendering or quasi-market mechanisms involving hospitals and services, etc. This paper is therefore based on the hypothesis of a recentralisation and healthicization of the social and long term care sector, with a key role for the regional health authorities. Method and data: 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with actors operating within and outside the regional health agencies and thereafter analysed using Alceste. The aim was to describe and to analyse the positioning of the RHAs in relation to key actors of the social and long-term care sector in 2 regions in 2011. Results: Key issues for public organisations include the style of planning and knowhow transfer, while the professionals were chiefly concerned with the intensity of the ambulatory turn and needs analysis methodology. The compromises forged were related to types of democratic legitimacy, namely representative or participatory democracy. Conclusion: There is little evidence to support the initial hypothesis, namely the existence of a link between the creation of RHAs and a recentralisation of health policy between 2009 and 2013. One may rather suggest that a reconfiguration of the activities and resources of the actors operating at the centre (RHAs and conseils départementaux) and at the periphery (territorial units of the RHAs and third sector umbrella organisations) has occurred.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Legislación Hospitalaria , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia , Francia , Humanos
19.
Med Hist ; 61(2): 225-245, 2017 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28260565

RESUMEN

In recent years there has been growing acknowledgement of the place of workhouses within the range of institutional provision for mentally disordered people in nineteenth-century England. This article explores the situation in Bristol, where an entrenched workhouse-based model was retained for an extended period in the face of mounting external ideological and political pressures to provide a proper lunatic asylum. It signified a contest between the modernising, reformist inclinations of central state agencies and local bodies seeking to retain their freedom of action. The conflict exposed contrasting conceptions regarding the nature of services to which the insane poor were entitled. Bristol pioneered establishment of a central workhouse under the old Poor Law; 'St Peter's Hospital' was opened in 1698. As a multi-purpose welfare institution its clientele included 'lunatics' and 'idiots', for whom there was specific accommodation from before the 1760s. Despite an unhealthy city centre location and crowded, dilapidated buildings, the enterprising Bristol authorities secured St Peter's Hospital's designation as a county lunatic asylum in 1823. Its many deficiencies brought condemnation in the national survey of provision for the insane in 1844. In the period following the key lunacy legislation of 1845, the Home Office and Commissioners in Lunacy demanded the replacement of the putative lunatic asylum within Bristol's workhouse by a new borough asylum outside the city. The Bristol authorities resisted stoutly for several years, but were eventually forced to succumb and adopt the prescribed model of institutional care for the pauper insane.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Psiquiátricos/historia , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Inglaterra , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Pobreza/historia , Pobreza/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bienestar Social/historia , Bienestar Social/legislación & jurisprudencia
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