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1.
Science ; 371(6536): 1309-1310, 2021 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766873
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20191526, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787753

RESUMEN

The Environmental enrichment technique, although scientifically recognized for raising the level of animal welfare, has led to the questioning of its influence on the results of experimental research. Thus, the goal is to promote reflection about the need for standardization of these procedures. For that, documents and experimental analysis were done, in order to quantify and characterize the types of environmental enrichment used and to evaluate the effect of that in the social behavior of Rattus norvegicus. Data from the document review confirmed the hypothesis that the researchers have used a variety of methods, not demonstrating a concern for standardization and prior assessment of its effects on the search results. Demand was corroborated in the experimental study in which, although there was available a simple object acting as refuge promotes behavioral improvements, the presence of the co-specific, as well as characteristics of the micro and macro environment can compromise the homogeneity of the sample. The data from this study endorse the need for validation procedures of environmental enrichment for specific proposals, to investigative data comparison, are possible and contribute to the refinement of the search to reduce the number of animals targeted for this purpose.


Asunto(s)
Experimentación Animal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio , Conducta Animal , Vivienda para Animales , Ratas , Conducta Social
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(2): 378-383, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645141

RESUMEN

In recent years, to solve the increasingly prominent problem of the contradiction between human social development and environmental resources, artificial meat has appeared in public view more and more. Generally speaking, the artificial meat can be divided into vegetable protein meat and cell cultured meat. Among them, vegetable protein meat has gradually begun to be commercialized, and cell cultured meat is cultured with animal cells, which is more similar to the real meat. Based on the analysis of the essence of cell cultured meat, we explore the positive significance of cell cultured meat technology for the meat production industry, consumer groups, and the sustainable development of mankind in the future. From the perspective of bioethics, the research, development and production of cell cultured meat can help ensure the sustainable development of human society, improve animal welfare, reduce resource demand, improve the nutritional function of meat products, and provide new growth points for the development of other industries. In addition, the ethical risks of food safety, technology abuse and technical supervision involved in cell cultured meat production are put forward for deep consideration, hoping to provide reference for the sustainable development of artificial meat industry from the perspective of bioethics.


Asunto(s)
Productos de la Carne , Carne , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Humanos
4.
Animal ; 15(2): 100078, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712217

RESUMEN

Inflammation and loss of tail integrity can be reasons for serious impairment of animal welfare and one of the major challenges facing modern pig farming. Evidence from practice increasingly suggests that tail lesions might be caused not only by tail biting but also by inflammation and necrosis, which can occur without any action from other pigs. Such changes are not limited to the tail but can also be observed in the ears, heels and soles, claw coronary bands, teats, navel, vulva and face. To describe inflammatory and necrotic manifestations in newborn piglets, all 146 piglets from 11 sows were clinically examined not later than 2 h after birth. In addition, the tail base of 30 randomly selected piglets out of the 146 was histo-pathologically examined as one of the most conspicuously affected body parts. Over 80% of the newborns showed affections in the tail base, claw wall and heels. In 65-87% of the animals, the coronary bands, teats, the face and the ears were affected. None of the 146 piglets was completely free from pathological manifestations. On average, the piglets were affected in six out of nine body parts simultaneously. Histological examinations showed that clear alterations in the skin were already manifested around the time of birth in all examined piglets. Alterations were characterised by the occurrence of numerous lymphocytes and granulocytes throughout the entire subepithelial connective tissue, predominantly in perivascular and perifollicular localisation but also within directly subepithelial glandular ducts and diffusely within the subepithelial connective tissue. In the majority of individuals, the epithelial structure was intact. This concurrence of symptoms in the newborns indicates a primarily endogenous aetiology of an inflammation and necrosis syndrome. Further studies in diverse herd contexts are necessary to establish the conditions for the emergence of such a syndrome and develop welfare indicators.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Femenino , Inflamación/veterinaria , Necrosis/veterinaria , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Cola (estructura animal)
5.
Animal ; 15(3): 100154, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573976

RESUMEN

Intensive pig production systems are a source of stress, which is linked to reduced animal welfare and increased antimicrobial use. As the gatekeepers of the welfare of the animals under their care, farmers are seen as the stakeholder responsible for improving animal welfare. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitudes of pig farmers towards pig welfare and the impact of such attitudes on farmers' selection of management strategies on the farm. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with 44 pig farmers in one of the main pig producing regions of Brazil. Interviews covered knowledge and attitudes towards pig sentience and behaviour and welfare-related issues commonly observed in intensive pig farms (belly-nosing, fights, tail-biting, diarrhoea and castration without pain control) and farmers' conception and attitudes towards pig welfare. We identified many management and animal-based indicators of poor welfare, such as the use of painful and stressful management practices and use of environments that limit the expression of natural behaviours. However, most farmers were satisfied with animal welfare standards at their farms. Farmers' perceptions are aligned with their understanding of animal welfare. Although they identified all the dimensions that impact the welfare of a pig on a farm (affect, biological functioning and naturalness), their social reality, industry demands and available advice pushed them to perceive their range of action limited to biological and environmental aspects of the animals that do not necessarily benefit affective state. This precluded farmers from making associations between good health and the animal's ability to express a full behavioural repertoire, as well as from viewing abnormal behaviours as problems. The negative consequences for the welfare of the animals were commonly alleviated by routines that relied on constant use of medication, including high dependence on antibiotics. Expressions of estrangement from the production chain were common voices among the participants. This suggests that farmers may not be sufficiently informed or engaged in responding to consumers' expectations and commitments made by companies, which can pose a severe economic risk for farmers. The findings of this study indicate that economic, technical and social factors restrict farmers' autonomy and their ability to perform their role as stewards of animal welfare. (Re)connecting different human, animal and environmental interests may be a step to changing this scenario.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Agricultores , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Antibacterianos , Brasil , Granjas , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Porcinos
6.
Animal ; 15(2): 100134, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573945

RESUMEN

The stunning process is an important component of slaughter with implications for animal welfare due to the potential distress and pain in the case of a sub-effective or lengthy stun. This study examined the factors correlated with variation in responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning of pigs in five Australian commercial abattoirs. A total of 1 769 pigs (199-492 focal pigs per abattoir) were individually followed from lairage to post-stunning. A standardised observation protocol was used based on a literature review of the pre-slaughter factors that may influence the reaction to CO2 stunning, such as animal background, lairage conditions, handling, stunning system and conditions. Pigs lost posture 22.5 ±â€¯0.2 s after commencement of descent of the gondola into the CO2 chamber. Latency to loss of posture was associated with farm of origin and time of day, which could be linked to various factors. Pigs that crawled or attempted to escape while in the gondola within the CO2 chamber took longer to lose posture. Crawl and escape attempts differed between abattoirs (0.6-46.2% of the pigs observed) as well as mounting other pigs (1.0-24.3%). Greater amounts of forceful contacts during handling in the race were related to more mounting in the gondola, but to less pigs crawling or attempting to escape. Mounting in the gondola was more frequent for pigs from lairage pens of mixed sexes, followed by pens of entire males and finally pens of females. Males were also twice as likely to show crawl and escape attempts than females. Gasping in the gondola was relatively frequent (63.1-81.8%) and was associated with higher activity in the lairage pen and higher skin injuries. Convulsions (60.1-69.6%) were generally observed after loss of posture. The type of CO2 system (group-wise vs single-file loading) had no significant effect on behaviour in the gondola. Nevertheless, pigs slaughtered in abattoirs with group-wise loading systems and automatic gates had lower cortisol concentrations post-stunning, which may be linked to minimal handling by stockpeople, other factors related to the systems, or differences in timing of when blood samples were taken. In conclusion, substantial variation in the reaction of pigs to CO2 stunning was observed between and within abattoirs using a uniform protocol for data collection. This variation in outcomes between abattoirs and stunning systems and the relationships between handling and behavioural outcomes indicates that improvements can be made to reduce aversive responses to CO2 stunning. In particular, avoiding mixing pigs of different sexes in lairage and aversive handling in the race may reduce aversive response to CO2 stunning.


Asunto(s)
Mataderos , Dióxido de Carbono , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Australia , Femenino , Hidrocortisona , Masculino , Porcinos
7.
Animal ; 15(2): 100130, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573954

RESUMEN

Temporary crating may be a more acceptable housing system for lactating sows than permanent crating from an animal welfare point of view. It remains unclear whether opening the crate leads to changes in sow lying down behaviour and piglet activity that may pose an increased risk of injury to piglets. This study aimed to assess whether the lying down behaviour of lactating sows housed in temporary crating changed shortly after removal of confinement, whether it was influenced by piglets' behaviour and age and whether sows preferentially used some support during lying down after crate opening. Sows (n = 13) were crated from 5 days pre partum to 3 days post partum. Their behaviours were recorded on video over a 24-h period both preceding and following crate opening, as well as over a 24-h period on day 25. The following behaviours were analysed: position and activity of the piglets when the sow lie down, duration of the lying down events, use of pen walls or crate bars as support when lying down; and position of the sow in the pen when lying down. Piglet mortality was assessed every day. Data were analysed in SAS using GLM. The duration of lying down events did not differ between the 24-h periods before and after opening the crate but increased on day 25 (P < 0.01). Similarly, the percentage of piglets in the danger zone did not differ between the 24-h periods before and after opening the crate, but increased on day 25 (P < 0.0001). The percentage of piglets in the creep area increased temporarily the day after the crate opening (P < 0.0001). Sows frequently utilised support when lying down, but less over the 24-h period after the crate opening compared to the two other periods (P < 0.001). A higher percentage of piglets in the creep area resulted in longer lying down events where the sow's snout was in contact with piglets located in the creep area (P < 0.05). The present study shows that opening the crate does have an immediate impact on lying down behaviour and piglet behaviour, but it does not pose an increased risk to piglets. Our results also indicate that piglet behaviour changed with age and influenced sow lying down behaviour. Finally, our findings further suggest that some available lying down support may be a very important feature of the pen during the whole lactation period.


Asunto(s)
Vivienda para Animales , Lactancia , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Conducta Animal , Femenino , Porcinos
8.
Animal ; 15(2): 100103, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573972

RESUMEN

The nature of the relationship between humans and farm animals has multiple repercussions on the animals and the farmers and varies with farmers attitudes towards their animals. In particular, this relationship influences animal welfare and human working conditions. The present study, part of a larger research project investigating human-animal relationship (HAR) in pig farming and ways to improve it, had two objectives: 1) to investigate the HAR in a diversity of pig farming situations and to evaluate the possible correlation between farmer attitudes, pigs' reactions to humans, husbandry practices, animal health, welfare and productivity and 2) to find a way to rapidly assign a farmer to a profile, in order to better adapt course content during training sessions on HAR. The study focused on 52 farrow-to-finish farms and consisted of a semi-structured interview with the farmer, observations of the farmer in contact with his/her livestock, two human approach tests conducted on sows and growers and productivity data. Finally, a questionnaire was left at the farm to be filled out by all stockpersons on the farm. Interviews, analyzed using a thematic analysis followed by multiple correspondence analysis and ascendant hierarchical clustering, showed that some farmers develop husbandry practices to improve their HARs and identified three farmer profiles that have been named in relation to the place of the HAR in their profession: Profile 1 farmers for whom HAR is secondary in their work with their pigs, Profile 2 for whom the HAR is useful in their work with their pigs and Profile 3 for whom HAR is central in their work with their pigs. Logistic regression models of the relationships between behavioral tests and productivity data showed that confident sows produce and wean more piglets than fearful sows and that sows of Profile 3 farmers trust more humans than those of Profile 1 or 2 farmers. Farmers' responses to the questionnaire did not predict their profile assignment. Our results confirm the main role of the farmer's attitude towards animals on their farming practices, animal welfare and productivity. The farmers who have more confident pigs and better productivity are those for whom the farm animal is central to their profession, express the most pleasure in working with them and convey empathy for them.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Eficiencia , Agricultores , Granjas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Porcinos
9.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 33-54, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541701

RESUMEN

This article discusses key welfare issues for small ruminants and gives practical management advice. Welfare assessment is vital to ensure that optimal conditions are provided. Practitioners can play a key role in identifying areas of potential welfare compromise and implement interventions. With the knowledge and careful identification of indicators of welfare, practitioners and producers can develop a management plan that can ensure proper nutrition, environment, and health to allow for natural behaviors and a positive affective state; identification of animal health and management issues; and (3) allocation of adequate resources to improve the welfare of sheep and goats.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Bienestar del Animal/organización & administración , Cabras , Ovinos , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/normas , Bienestar del Animal/normas , Animales , Enfermedades de las Cabras/prevención & control , Rumiantes , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/prevención & control
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 1017-1020, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480584

RESUMEN

Beginning 01 January 2016, for all animals transferred into the collection, Disney's Animal Kingdom used a risk-based process that relies on pathogen hazard identification and then assessment and mitigation of the risk for each identified pathogen hazard. Data on morbidity, mortality, and disease introduction was compared for birds transferred in pre- and post-risk-based processes used during the period 2013-2018. When assessing morbidity within 3 mo of acquisition, logistic regression revealed that birds entering "straight to collection" had lower morbidity rates than those entering with either "standard quarantine" or "risk-based standard quarantine" methods (P = 0.032). Mortality within 3 mo of acquisition was not significantly different between straight-to-collection and standard quarantine or risk-based standard quarantine methods (P = 0.40). In addition, no transmissible pathogens of concern were introduced with acquired birds using either method. Implementation of a risk-based approach to animal transfers between zoos and aquariums may be an alternative method that does not pose a greater risk to animal morbidity or mortality while still protecting the collection from disease introduction.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales de Zoológico , Enfermedades de las Aves/prevención & control , Cuarentena/veterinaria , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/mortalidad , Enfermedades de las Aves/transmisión , Aves , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
11.
Animal ; 15(3): 100164, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461892

RESUMEN

Using carbon dioxide (CO2) for stunning pigs at slaughter is common in Europe. The use of group stunning is a major advantage with CO2, which is done without restraining the pigs and with minimized human contact. However, high concentrations of CO2 have been known for decades to cause pain, fear and distress in pigs before loss of consciousness, and the stunning method is clearly associated with animal welfare concerns. This study reviewed the scientific literature to find recent developments or evaluations of alternative methods that could lead to the replacement of CO2 for stunning pigs at slaughter. Potential alternative methods found in the literature were described and then assessed to identify specific research and development needs for their further development. Only 15 empirical studies were found in the search of peer-reviewed literature since 2004, which is less than one per year. Furthermore, half of the studies focused on evaluating methods to improve high-concentration CO2 stunning rather than an alternative to CO2. Since no clear alternative has emerged, nor a method to improve CO2 stunning, there is obviously a strong need to focus research and development to find solutions for improving animal welfare when stunning pigs at slaughter.


Asunto(s)
Mataderos , Dióxido de Carbono , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Estado de Conciencia , Europa (Continente) , Porcinos
12.
Animal ; 15(1): 100038, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515987

RESUMEN

Official inspections to check the compliance of farms with European legislation to protect farm animals are often perceived negatively by farmers. In addition, the inspections have a limited effect on improving farm compliance. We looked at the perceptions of both farmers and their inspectors about animal welfare and the inspections in a case study of dairy production in France. The identification of gaps and commonalities between both parties should help us to propose improvements in the inspection method by which inspections could more likely encourage compliance with animal welfare legislation. To achieve this aim, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 dairy farmers and their 19 inspectors. Both farmers and inspectors described animal welfare in terms of the state of the animal and of the living conditions and care provided to them. The majority of farmers found that the official checklist used by the inspectors is inappropriate to assess the welfare of their animals; inspectors themselves reported that they often use their own criteria and indicators (often based on the observation of animals) in addition to the official checklist. Both groups disagreed with some requirements of the legislation. These findings suggest that the content and background of the legislation to protect animals should be made clearer to both farmers and inspectors and that these two groups of actors should be involved in the definition of key points to be checked on farms, with special attention to animal-based indicators. All this could improve farmers' engagement with the results of the inspections and, hopefully, could lead to better compliance with legislation and improvements in animal welfare on farms.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Agricultores , Animales , Animales Domésticos , Industria Lechera , Granjas , Francia , Humanos
13.
Animal ; 15(1): 100072, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516005

RESUMEN

Boar rearing, which avoids pain and suffering caused by surgical castration, provides better performance, a greater deposition of muscle tissue and leaner carcasses and thus has beneficial effects on both animal welfare and the product. Some countries that do not slaughter boars must consider their boar taint and aggressive and sexual behaviours. Considering that pigs are housed in large groups, which may complicate the formation of social hierarchies and increase fighting and mounting behaviours, some studies have conducted research with reduced numbers of pigs per pen, but these behaviours continued to be observed. However, a study of the reproductive status of pair-housed male pigs has yet to be reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the reproductive status of uncastrated, immunocastrated and surgically castrated pair-housed male pigs alters their natural, agonistic and sexual behaviours. A total of 48 male pigs from Agroceres PIC™ genetics were assigned to three groups: surgically castrated (barrows), immunocastrated and uncastrated (boars). Natural, aggressive and sexual behaviours of the pigs were assessed by direct observations during four periods of 12 h each (six, five and three weeks before slaughter and the slaughter week). The pigs were housed in pairs from the growing phase until slaughter. Animal behaviour was observed from the finishing phase to slaughter. Carcass lesions were assessed according to five different classes (one: no injury; two to five: severely injured). Overall, boars spent more time lying and less time eating and drinking than barrows. In total of all the periods (48 h), boars expressed more aggressive and sexual behaviours than barrows, whereas immunocastrated pigs displayed similar behaviours to boars, before and after the second vaccine dose. No differences in carcass lesions between treatments and no prevalence of carcasses with severe injuries were observed. In conclusion, the reproductive status of pair-housed male pigs did not change the natural behaviour of boars, immunocastrated pigs or barrows. The agonistic and sexual behaviours of boars and barrows remained unchanged. When housing pigs in pairs, immunocastrated pigs presented similar agonistic and sexual behaviours to boars before and after the second immunocastration vaccine dose. The use of pair-housed uncastrated male pigs has generated welfare benefits for these animals, as the number of carcasses with injuries did not differ from barrows and immunocastrated pigs.


Asunto(s)
Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina , Sus scrofa , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Castración/veterinaria , Masculino , Reproducción , Porcinos
14.
Animal ; 15(1): 100059, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516017

RESUMEN

Stretching behavior is one of the broiler comfort behaviors that could be used for animal welfare assessment. However, there is currently no methodology for automatic monitoring of stretching behavior under representative production practices. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a faster region-based convolutional neural network (faster R-CNN) stretching behavior detector for broiler stretching behavior detection, (2) evaluate broiler stretching behaviors under stocking densities (SDs) of 27 (27SD), 29 (29SD), 33 (33SD), and 39 kg/m2 (39SD) and at weeks 4 and 5 of bird ages, and (3) examine the temporal and spatial distribution of broiler stretching behaviors. The results show that the precision, recall, specificity, and accuracy were over 86% on broiler stretching detection across all SDs and bird ages using the faster R-CNN stretching behavior detector. Broilers spent 230-533 sec stretching every day and showed more stretching behaviors under the 29SD, 33SD, and 39SD in week 4 and under the 29SD and 33SD in week 5, as compared to other SDs. They performed less stretching in a couple of hours after light ON and before light OFF but preferred to stretch in areas with less traffic and disturbance, that is, along the fences and away from the inspection aisle. It is concluded that the stretching behavior detector had acceptable performance in detecting broiler stretching, thus being a useful tool for broiler stretching detection. Broiler stretching behavior is affected by SD and bird age and shows temporal and spatial variations.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Bienestar del Animal , Animales
15.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 21, 2021 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514424

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global problem to which the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may further contribute. With resources deployed away from antimicrobial stewardship, evidence of substantial pre-emptive antibiotic use in COVID-19 patients and indirectly, with deteriorating economic conditions fuelling poverty potentially impacting on levels of resistance, AMR threat remains significant. MAIN BODY: In this paper, main AMR countermeasures are revisited and priorities to tackle the issue are re-iterated. The need for collaboration is stressed, acknowledging the relationship between human health, animal health and environment ("One Health" approach). Among the stated priorities, the initiative by the European Medicines Regulatory Network to further strengthen the measures in combatting AMR is highlighted. Likewise, it is asserted that other emerging health threats require global collaboration with the One Health approach offering a valuable blueprint for action. CONCLUSION: The authors stress the importance of an integrated preparedness strategy to tackle this public health peril.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Salud Única/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias , /patogenicidad , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Bienestar del Animal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Animales , Programas de Optimización del Uso de los Antimicrobianos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Ganado/microbiología
16.
Animal ; 15(2): 100082, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509702

RESUMEN

Food animal welfare is an issue of great concern, as society has a responsibility for animals under human care. Pork is the most consumed meat worldwide, with more than a billion pigs being slaughtered globally every year. Still, in most countries, sows are restrained in farrowing crates throughout lactation. In these crates, sows are confined with bars to an area that is just slightly larger than their body. Thus, moving and turning around, grooming, or expressing other natural behaviors are typically impossible. In this study, we utilized a simple and practical modification of conventional farrowing crates to designed farrowing pens, by removable confinement bars, which provide the flexibility to change the housing system from one to another. Our objective was to examine the parameters of production and hair cortisol concentrations after different restraint periods during lactation. Analyses included data from 77 sows and their 997 piglets. Sows were housed in farrowing crates, but the confinement bars were removed after different periods, from 3 days post-farrowing to full restraint. For certain analyses, sows were grouped into Short or Long Restraint groups (3-10 days vs 13-24 days, respectively). Multiple linear regression revealed that for any additional day in restraint of the sows, piglets' weaning rate decreases by 0.4% (P < 0.05). Moreover, the total number of weaned piglets per litter was higher in the Short Restraint group as compared to the Long Restraint group (10.4 ±â€¯0.3 vs 9.7 ±â€¯0.3, respectively; P < 0.05). Accordingly, total litter weight on the weaning day tended to be higher in the Short Restraint group (68.8 ±â€¯2.2 vs 64.9 ±â€¯1.8 kg; P = 0.1210). The requirement for medical treatments during lactation (e.g., antibiotics, NSAID) tended to be less frequent in the Short Restraint group (Sows: 21.9% vs 40%; P = 0.1219. Piglets: 2.4% vs 17.1%; P = 0.0609). Hair cortisol as a marker for chronic stress during lactation decreased when the restraint period was shortened in both sows and piglets. Our analysis revealed that sows' hair cortisol is a significant mediator between the restraint of the sow and its piglets' hair cortisol (Sobel test; P < 0.05). For every day of sows' restraint, sows' hair cortisol increased by 0.5 pg/mg, and for any additional unit of sows' hair cortisol, piglets' hair cortisol increased by 0.36 pg/mg. In conclusion, sustainable swine farming management can be beneficial for both animals and farmers; limiting sow restraint during lactation is expected to reduce stress, enhance welfare and production, and potentially improve the economics of swine operations.


Asunto(s)
Vivienda para Animales , Hidrocortisona , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Femenino , Lactancia , Porcinos , Destete
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1887-1899, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309358

RESUMEN

Shortening or omitting the dry period to improve the energy balance in early lactation have the trade-offs of reduction in milk production and loss of opportunity for dry-cow therapy (DCT; i.e., intramammary antibiotic use at dry-off). Customized dry-period strategies (i.e., deciding upon DCT and dry-period length per cow) could mitigate negative effects of short or no dry periods on milk production and udder health and simultaneously retain benefits from improved energy balance and fertility. In this study, we evaluated 3 decision trees to customize dry-period strategies for individual cows. In the control tree (CT), all cows had a 60-d dry period, with DCT if somatic cell count (SCC) was >150,000 cells/mL before dry-off. In decision tree 1 (T1), parity 1 and parity >1 cows were assigned DCT if SCC was ≥150,000 cells/mL and SCC ≥50,000 cells/mL, respectively; whereas in decision tree 2 (T2), the threshold for DCT was SCC ≥200,000 cells/mL for all animals. In T1 and T2, cows with DCT were assigned a 60-d dry period, whereas cows without DCT were assigned a 30-d or 0-d dry period if their milk production remained >12 kg/d at 67 and 37 d before calving, respectively. Cows were monitored from 8 wk before to 14 wk after calving. Milk production and composition, SCC, body condition score, body weight, and occurrence of treatment for disease (related to calving and start of lactation) were compared between CT (n = 61 cows), T1 (n = 59 cows), and T2 (n = 63 cows). Effects of decision trees (CT, T1, T2) and of dry-period strategies (60-d dry with or without antibiotics, 30-d dry, or 0-d dry) on measured variables were analyzed separately with mixed models, effects on udder-health status with a logistic regression, and occurrence of treatment for diseases with a Pearson chi-squared test. In T1, 36% of cows qualified for 30-d and 2% for 0-d dry periods, whereas in T2 this was 51% and 30% for 30-d and 0-d dry periods, respectively. Compared with CT, cows in T1 and T2 on average produced more milk in the 8 wk before calving (0.2 vs. 3.9 vs. 7.1 kg/d in CT vs. T1 vs. T2), and less in the 14 wk after calving (40.0 vs. 37.0 vs. 35.2 kg/d in CT vs. T1 vs. T2). There was no difference in udder-health status in the transition period among decision trees. In the first 14 wk after calving, recovery of body weight was greater for T2 than CT and T1. Overall, 30-d and 0-d dry periods reduced milk revenues, but this might be financially compensated by improved cow health with customized dry-period strategies.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Bovinos/fisiología , Metabolismo Energético , Leche/metabolismo , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Recuento de Células/veterinaria , Femenino , Lactancia/efectos de los fármacos , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/fisiología , Leche/química , Paridad , Embarazo
18.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 50(1): 5, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339990
19.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 103-117, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189246

RESUMEN

Problem behaviors are a leading cause of relinquishment in pet psittacines. Exotic animal practitioners with a good understanding of diagnosis and treatment of common psittacine behavior issues are in a position to enhance the welfare of these birds and their caregivers. Reduced-stress veterinary appointments also lead to less fear and better behavior diagnoses and treatment plans. Every treatment plan focuses on physical and social enrichment, along with behavior modification to treat the motivation behind the diagnosed problem. This article describes how to conduct an appointment that provides the best opportunity for an accurate behavior diagnosis and effective treatment plan.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Conducta Animal , Aves , Animales , Mascotas , Práctica Profesional , Medicina Veterinaria
20.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 153-174, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189248

RESUMEN

Birds of prey are highly complex and intelligent species with many of their activities deeply rooted in modal action patterns, such as foraging, courtship and nest building, migration, bathing, or preening. Raptors in managed care are susceptible to presenting undesired behavior when the environment provides antecedents for these behaviors and consequences to maintain them. This article aims to describe concepts of behavior in birds of prey in managed care, with inferences from their wild counterparts, to assist in understanding the etiologies and management of undesired behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Conducta Animal , Rapaces , Bienestar del Animal , Animales
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