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1.
Nurs Ethics ; 28(1): 58-65, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427018

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic crisis has had profound effects on global health, healthcare, and public health policy. It has also impacted education. Within undergraduate healthcare education of doctors, nurses, and allied professions, rapid shifts to distance learning and pedagogic content creation within new realities, demands of healthcare practice settings, shortened curricula, and/or earlier graduation have also challenged ethics teaching in terms of curriculum allotments or content specification. We propose expanding the notion of resilience to the field of ethics education under the conditions of remote learning. Educational resilience starts in the virtual classroom of ethics teaching, initially constituted as an "unpurposed space" of exchange about the pandemic's challenging impact on students and educators. This continuously transforms into "purposed space" of reflection, discovering ethics as a repertory of orientative knowledge for addressing the pandemic's challenges on personal, professional, societal, and global levels and for discovering (and then addressing) that the health of individuals and populations also has moral determinants. As such, an educational resilience framework with inherent adaptability rises to the challenge of supporting the moral agency of students acting both as professionals and as global citizens. Educational resilience is key in supporting and sustaining professional identify formation and facilitating the development of students' moral resilience and leadership amid moral complexity and potential moral transgression-not only but especially in times of pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/educación , Personal de Salud/educación , Resiliencia Psicológica , Educación en Enfermería/organización & administración , Humanos
2.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (49): 93-106, jul. 2020.
Artículo en Catalán | IBECS | ID: ibc-192096

RESUMEN

L'educació, tant en els primers nivells de socialització com en les seves etapes posteriors d'educació formal, està posant en risc el desenvolupament de l'autonomia individual tan necessària perquè l'alumne arribi a la maduresa pròpia de l'etapa adulta. Les polítiques educatives, els nous models educatius I la societat mateixa estan desvinculant l' autonomia progressiva de la responsabilitat, els sentiments de la raó, l'emoció de la voluntat I la motivació del deure en la seva praxi educativa. Les conseqüències són que els alumnes queden ancorats en actituds infantils d'omnipotència amb incapacitat de fer un ajustament adequat amb la realitat I reaccionant en la majoria de casos amb agressivitat. La bioètica I l'educació tenen una relació necessària amb la construcció de subjectes morals I autònoms És urgent traçar una línia per sota de la qual no es donin les condiciones necessaries pel desenvolupament ple de la nostra joventut. La bioètica, que té un caràcter multidisciplinar I interdisciplinar, ha d' atendre als problemes actuals I complexos de l' educació I contribuir a pensar models educatius que formin ciutadans compromesos, responsables I solidaris. Un model educatiu s'ha de construir dins d'un debat bioètic i, en el marc de l'ètica del cuidar, sense desvincular-se de les ètiques de caràcter normatiu


La educación, tanto en los primeros niveles de socialización como en sus etapas posteriores de educación formal, está poniendo en riesgo el desarrollo de la autonomía individual tan necesaria para que el alumno llegue a la madurez propia de la etapa adulta. Las políticas educativas, los nuevos modelos educativos y la sociedad misma están desvinculando la autonomía progresiva de la responsabilidad, los sentimientos de la razón, la emoción de la voluntad y la motivación del deber en su praxis educativa. Las consecuencias son que los alumnos quedan anclados en actitudes infantiles de omnipotencia con incapacidad de hacer un ajuste adecuado con la realidad y reaccionando en la mayoría de casos con agresividad. La bioética y la educación tienen una relación necesaria con la construcción de sujetos morales y autónomos. Es urgente trazar una línea por debajo de la cual no se den las condiciones necesarias para el desarrollo pleno de nuestra juventud. La bioética, que tiene un carácter multidisciplinar e interdisciplinar, debe atender a los problemas actuales y complejos de la educación y contribuir a pensar modelos educativos que formen ciudadanos comprometidos, responsables y solidarios. Un modelo educativo debe construirse dentro de un debate bioético y, en el marco de la ética del cuidar, sin desvincularse de las éticas de carácter normativo


Education, both at the early levels of socialization and in the later stages of formal education, is putting at risk the development of the individual autonomy so necessary for the student to reach the maturity of adulthood. Educational policies, the new educational models and society itself are dissociating progressive autonomy from responsibility, feelings of reason, emotion from will and motivation of duty in their educational practice. The consequences are that students are anchored in childish attitudes of omnipotence with an inability to adjust accordingly to reality and reacting, in most cases, aggressively. Bioethics and education have a necessary relationship with the construction of moral and autonomous subjects. Bioethics, which has a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary character, must address the current and complex problems of education and contribute to thinking about educational models that form committed, responsible and supportive citizens. An educational model must be constructed within a bioethical debate and, within the framework of the ethics of care, without dissociating itself from normative ethics


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Empatía/ética , Modelos Educacionales , Bioética/educación , Conducta Infantil/ética , Socialización , Autonomía Personal , Educación/ética , Agresión/ética
4.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 24: e190029, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056558

RESUMEN

O trabalho aborda a ética global em sua perspectiva aplicada, voltada à prática educativa, objetivando analisar, a partir de investigação teórica sustentada no campo da Bioética, a legitimidade para definição de metas globais para seu ensino. Considerando que a produção do conhecimento se relaciona ao lócus geopolítico a partir do qual se desenvolve, a pesquisa utiliza os referenciais da Bioética de Intervenção, uma abordagem teórica identificada com o pensamento crítico do "sul global", para analisar a possibilidade de definição de consensos éticos universais, propondo duas categorias a serem consideradas em programas para o ensino da ética global: o imperialismo moral e a colonialidade da vida. Conclui defendendo um pressuposto axiológico crítico - baseado na universalidade do corpo - a partir do qual poderiam ser definidos objetivos comuns para programas de ensino da ética global.(AU)


The article approaches global ethics in its applied perspective, targeted at educational practice, aiming to analyze, based on a theoretical investigation supported by the field of Bioethics, legitimacy for the definition of global goals to its teaching. Understanding that knowledge production is related to the geopolitical locus from which it develops, the study uses the framework of Intervention Bioethics, a theoretical approach identified with the critical thought of the "global south", to analyze the possibility of defining universal ethical consensuses. It proposes two categories to be considered in programs for the teaching of global ethics: moral imperialism and the coloniality of life. In conclusion, the study defends a critical axiological presupposition - based on the universality of the body - from which common objectives for global ethics teaching programs can be defined.(AU)


El trabajo aborda la ética global en su perspectiva aplicada, enfocada en la práctica educativa, con el objetivo de analizar, a partir de investigación teórica sostenida en el campo de la Bioética, la legitimidad para definición de metas globales para su enseñanza. entendiendo que la producción del conocimiento se relaciona al locus geopolítico a partir del cual se desarrolla, utiliza las referencia de la Bioética de Intervención, un abordaje teórico identificado con el pensamiento crítico del "sur global", para analizar la posibilidad de definición de consensos éticos universales, proponiendo dos categorías a considerar en programas para la enseñanza de la ética global: el imperialismo moral y la colonialidad de la vida. Concluye defendiendo una presuposición axiológica crítica, con base en la universalidad del cuerpo, a partir de la cual podrían definirse objetivos comunes para programas de enseñanza de la ética global.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Enseñanza/tendencias , Bioética/educación , Internacionalidad , Ética
5.
Cult. cuid ; 23(57): 232-249, 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195916

RESUMEN

Humanizar la educación se constituye en un pilar para la formación bioética de los profesionales de enfermería en contextos interculturales, lo que orienta el sentido transformador de la visión de cuidado disciplinar. Con este estudio se buscó comprender los sentidos que otorgan a la bioética los actores de formación desde las prácticas formativas en un contexto intercultural. Para ello se planteó una investigación cualitativa descriptiva con enfoque epistémico hermenéutico; el análisis de datos se realizó desde la teoría fundamentada. Se recolectaron datos a través de: revisión documental, entrevistas semiestructuradas, observación no participante, diarios de campo y grupos focales. Los participantes corresponden a los estudiantes, docentes y directivos del programa de enfermería de una universidad del suroccidente colombiano, tutores de práctica y sujetos de cuidado que fueron atendidos por los estudiantes. Los resultados permitieron concluir que el principal sinsentido en la formación radica en un problema de colonialidad del ser y saber, porque el currículo continúa privilegiando el saber técnico sobre una formación humana. Tejer la bioética intercultural desde la reflexión pedagógica en contextos interculturales permite desarrollar una formación con sentido crítico respecto aquello que no favorece la armonía del ser humano con el territorio y que conlleve al futuro profesional a ser consciente de su responsabilidad con el cuidado de salud


Humanizing education constitutes a pillar for bioethical formation of nursing professionals in intercultural contexts, which guides the transformative sense of the vision of disciplinary care. It was sought to understand the senses that the training actors grant bioethics from the training practices in an intercultural context. For this, a descriptive qualitative investigation with a hermeneutical epistemic approach is proposed, the data analysis was carried out from the grounded theory. Data were collected through: documentary review, semi-structured interviews, non-participant observation, field diaries and focus groups. Participants correspond to students, teachers and directors of the nursing program of a university in southwestern Colombia, practice tutors and care subjects who were attended by the students. The results allow us to conclude that the main nonsense in formation lies in a problem of coloniality of being and knowing, because the curriculum continues to privilege technical knowledge over a human formation. Weaving intercultural bioethics from pedagogical reflection in intercultural contexts allows developing a critical training regarding what does not favor the harmony of human being with territory and that leads the professional future to be aware of their responsibility with health care


A educação humanizada constitui um pilar para a formação bioética dos profissionais de enfermagem em contextos interculturais, que norteiam o sentido transformador da visão do cuidado disciplinar. Buscou-se compreender os sentidos que os atores treinadores conferem bioética a partir das práticas de treinamento em um contexto intercultural. Para isso, propõe-se uma investigação qualitativa descritiva, com abordagem epistêmica hermenêutica, e a análise dos dados foi realizada a partir da teoria fundamentada. Os dados foram coletados por meio de: revisão documental, entrevistas semiestruturadas, observação não participante, diários de campo e grupos focais. Os participantes correspondem a estudantes, professores e diretores do programa de enfermagem de uma universidade no sudoeste da Colômbia, tutores de prática e assuntos de atendimento que foram atendidos pelos alunos. Os resultados permitem concluir que o principal absurdo da formação está em um problema de colonialidade do ser e do saber, porque o currículo continua privilegiando o conhecimento técnico sobre a formação humana. A tecer a bioética intercultural da reflexão pedagógica em contextos interculturais permite desenvolver um treinamento crítico sobre o que não favorece a harmonia do ser humano com o território e que leva o futuro profissional a ter consciência de sua responsabilidade com os cuidados em saúde


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Bioética/educación , Educación en Enfermería/ética , Competencia Cultural/ética , Curriculum , Teoría Fundamentada , Grupos Focales , Colombia
7.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 49(5): 15-22, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581336

RESUMEN

In November 2018, the practice of health care ethics consultation crossed a major threshold when 138 candidates took the inaugural Healthcare Ethics Consultant Certification Examination. This accomplishment, long in the making, has had and continues to have both advocates and critics. The Healthcare Ethics Consultant Certification Commission, a functionally autonomous body created and funded by the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, was charged with overseeing creation of the certification process, developing the exam, and formulating certification standards and policies to assess candidates' qualifications. In this essay, as members of the commission, we describe the process of developing, administering, and scoring the certification examination as well as the historical context and the outlook for certification. By detailing the decisions and actions of the commission, we aim to provide a transparent account of the commission's efforts to develop a psychometrically sound, reliable, and secure examination through a deliberative, fair, and data-driven process.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/educación , Consultoría Ética/normas , Ética Clínica/educación , Competencia Profesional/normas , Certificación , Consultores/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Rol Profesional , Estados Unidos
8.
Ann Epidemiol ; 38: 1-3, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543226

RESUMEN

This commentary provides an update on the evolution of the American College of Epidemiology's online and open-source collection of ethics syllabi in epidemiology and public health. Begun in 2011, the syllabus-collection project anticipated the Council on Education for Public Health's accreditation requirement calling for "the development of ethical practice" and identifying a need to "demonstrate our commitment to ethical dealings." The Ethics Committee of the American College of Epidemiology continued the project in 2018 seeking to acquire as many syllabi as possible for the repository; all 180 Council on Education for Public Health-accredited schools and programs were contacted and asked to share syllabi that addressed ethical and related issues. The overarching goal was to support institutions that have not yet introduced ethics into public health and epidemiology curricula. In total, 45 new syllabi were collected in 2018 and collated with the 38 acquired in 2011; 83 syllabi have been compiled from 52 accredited entities. Having a readily available on-line resource to support institutions and faculty seeking to introduce or improve the presentation of ethics in public health and epidemiology curricula is believed to be an important contribution to public health science and pedagogy.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/educación , Curriculum , Epidemiología , Ética Profesional/educación , Salud Pública/educación , Comités de Ética , Humanos , Salud Pública/ética , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
9.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 27(3): 386-393, jul.-set. 2019.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041976

RESUMEN

Resumen La bioética ha dedicado persistentes esfuerzos en proponer diversos modos de enseñanza de la disciplina, detallando currículos y métodos pedagógicos que enfatizan la activa participación de los educandos, cuya aplicación se ve dificultada por realidades contextuales que determinan, y generalmente limitan, los métodos docentes disponibles: escaseces presupuestarias, espacios reducidos en las mallas curriculares, falta de docentes para la enseñanza en grupos pequeños llevan frecuentemente a desatender las necesidades de impartir una adecuada formación en bioética. Este artículo se propone una crítica revisión de las características de algunos métodos didácticos participativos como el método socrático, y neosocrático, el jacotodiano (maestro ignorante), el casuismo y el aprendizaje basado en problemas, identificando algunas limitaciones a su utilidad en la enseñanza de ética médica y bioética. Más que reemplazar la enseñanza teórica, la docencia participativa tiene por tarea complementarla.


Abstract Persistent efforts have been displayed in proposing a diversity of teaching methods in bioethics, presenting curricula, and pedagogical methods that emphasize active student participation, but are often inapplicable due to limitations of available teaching resources. Scarce financial support, reduced space in curricular programs, insufficient number of well-prepared teachers to tutor small working groups are obstacles to fulfill the needs for adequate training in bioethics. Time and again the Socratic method is hailed as especially appropriate for the teaching of bioethics. The present article intends a critical revision of some participative methods such as the Socratic and Neo-Socratic approaches, as well as casuism and problem solving learning, identifying certain limitations in their usefulness for medical ethics and bioethics teaching. Rather than substituting theoretical teaching, active participation should complement it.


Resumo A bioética tem dedicado esforços persistentes para propor diferentes formas de ensinar a disciplina, detalhando currículos e métodos de ensino que enfatizam a participação ativa dos alunos, cuja implementação é dificultada pelas realidades contextuais que determinam, e geralmente limitam, as variáveis de métodos de ensino atualmente disponíveis: falta de orçamento, espaços reduzidos nos currículos, falta de professores para o ensino em pequenos grupos muitas vezes levam a negligenciar a necessidade de fornecer treinamento adequado em bioética. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão crítica das características de alguns métodos de ensino participativos, como o método socrático, o neossocrático, o jacotodiano (mestre ignorante), casuística e aprendizagem baseada em problemas, identificando algumas limitações para a sua utilidade no ensino de ética médica e bioética. Em vez de substituir o ensino teórico, o ensino participativo tem a tarefa de complementá-lo.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/educación , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Informes de Casos
12.
Indian J Med Ethics ; 4(3): 242-244, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378718

RESUMEN

Bioethics is not taught as a subject discipline in the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum in Pakistan. Recently, medical colleges have introduced the behavioural sciences in the undergraduate curriculum, but this has its own limitations, as students are not examined at the end of course work, as in other subjects, which they have to clear in order to get promoted.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Bioética/educación , Educación Médica/ética , Hospitales Públicos , Humanos , Consentimiento Informado/ética , Mala Praxis , Errores Médicos/ética , Pakistán , Relaciones Médico-Paciente/ética , Informe de Investigación
13.
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 14(4): 395-407, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423879

RESUMEN

This article reports the outcomes of qualitative research on the teaching of "vulnerability in research" undertaken with principal investigators of international bioethics training programs funded by the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United States. To properly contextualize this research, we begin with an overview of the various ways in which vulnerability has been conceptualized both by writers and by ethical guidance from low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We conclude with some preliminary suggestions for best practice and recommendations for further research. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time research of this kind has been carried out.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/educación , Ética en Investigación , Experimentación Humana , Sujetos de Investigación , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Humanos , Enseñanza
14.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 143, 2019 07 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311603

RESUMEN

Big data, coupled with the use of advanced analytical approaches, such as artificial intelligence (AI), have the potential to improve medical outcomes and population health. Data that are routinely generated from, for example, electronic medical records and smart devices have become progressively easier and cheaper to collect, process, and analyze. In recent decades, this has prompted a substantial increase in biomedical research efforts outside traditional clinical trial settings. Despite the apparent enthusiasm of researchers, funders, and the media, evidence is scarce for successful implementation of products, algorithms, and services arising that make a real difference to clinical care. This article collection provides concrete examples of how "big data" can be used to advance healthcare and discusses some of the limitations and challenges encountered with this type of research. It primarily focuses on real-world data, such as electronic medical records and genomic medicine, considers new developments in AI and digital health, and discusses ethical considerations and issues related to data sharing. Overall, we remain positive that big data studies and associated new technologies will continue to guide novel, exciting research that will ultimately improve healthcare and medicine-but we are also realistic that concerns remain about privacy, equity, security, and benefit to all.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Macrodatos , Bioética , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Algoritmos , Inteligencia Artificial/ética , Inteligencia Artificial/provisión & distribución , Inteligencia Artificial/tendencias , Macrodatos/provisión & distribución , Bioética/educación , Bioética/tendencias , Investigación Biomédica/ética , Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , Prestación de Atención de Salud/ética , Prestación de Atención de Salud/tendencias , Registros Electrónicos de Salud/ética , Registros Electrónicos de Salud/provisión & distribución , Registros Electrónicos de Salud/tendencias , Genómica/tendencias , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Conocimiento
16.
J Med Ethics ; 45(9): 600-603, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253639

RESUMEN

In 2017, UNESCO introduced an Undergraduate Bioethics Integrated Curriculum to be taught in Indian medical schools, with an implied suggestion that it could subsequently be rolled out to medical schools in UNESCO's other member states. Its stated aim is to create ethical awareness from an early stage of a doctor's training by infusing ethics instructions throughout the entire undergraduate medical syllabus. There are advantages to a standardised integrated curriculum where none existed. However, the curriculum as presently drafted risks failing to achieve its laudable aims. There are important lessons to be drawn from UNESCO's First Syllabus for Youth Bioethics Education (2018), which is aimed at schoolchildren and teenagers, and represents a creative, effective and culturally sensitive way to teach bioethics.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/educación , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/organización & administración , UNESCO , Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/normas , Humanos
17.
J Med Humanit ; 40(4): 473-487, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209629

RESUMEN

Each year, many young professionals forego advanced education in the traditional doctoral programs of medicine, law, and philosophy in favor of pursuing a PhD or professional doctorate in bioethics or healthcare ethics that is offered by several major institutes of higher education across the United States. These graduates often leverage their degrees into careers within the broader field of bioethics. As such, they represent a growing percentage of professional bioethicists in both academia and healthcare nationwide. Given the significant role that doctoral bioethics programs play in the training of future professional bioethicists, it is imperative that programs conferring bioethics degrees are attuned to the knowledge and skills students will need as they transition to professional positions, especially where this training substantially differs from more traditional doctoral degree tracks. Yet, even given this need, there is nothing in the professional literature regarding doctoral bioethics graduates' perspectives or the overall efficacy of a bioethics doctorate as compared to more traditional doctoral degree tracks for future professional bioethicists. This paper then gives the perspective of five recent doctoral bioethics graduates on the utility of a bioethics doctorate and areas where the doctorate prepared or underprepared them in their roles as early-career professional bioethicists.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/educación , Educación de Postgrado , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
Pediatrics ; 143(5)2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036674

RESUMEN

In hospitals throughout the United States, institutional ethics committees (IECs) have become a standard vehicle for the education of health professionals about biomedical ethics, for the drafting and review of hospital policy, and for clinical ethics case consultation. In addition, there is increasing interest in a role for the IEC in organizational ethics. Recommendations are made about the membership and structure of an IEC, and guidance is provided for those serving on an IEC.


Asunto(s)
Bioética , Comités de Ética/ética , Personal de Salud/ética , Hospitales/ética , Bioética/educación , Comités de Ética/normas , Comités de Ética Clínica/ética , Comités de Ética Clínica/normas , Personal de Salud/educación , Personal de Salud/normas , Hospitales/normas , Humanos
19.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 36(1): 93-99, 2019.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116346

RESUMEN

Modern ethics, with its rationalism, has resulted in a dialectic between deontologism and teleologism that fragments practical reasoning into two dimensions: intuitive-transcendental and calculator-utilitarian. Inflexibility and casuistry are a consequence of this philosophy which vainly tries to give a foundation to duty. For modern philosophy, the first thing is the law, the principles from which obligations arise. Classical philosophy, on the other hand, penetrates into the nature of man and thus knows, better and better each day, the true good for the human person. It is a question of manifesting the "must be" from the "being," the ethics from the knowledge of the metaphysics of the act of being, thus overcoming the "naturalist fallacy." The appreciation and respect of the person as a subject who possesses a supreme value is what underpins this anthropologically-based ethics. Based on the foundation of ethics and bioethics in the philosophy of the being and anthropology, but not limited exclusively to a bioethical approach that disregards the contributions of other currents. For the study of medicine, we propose a humanistic plan that includes courses in philosophy, anthropology, ethics, and bioethics. This plan is mainly worked on in the early years of training but continues throughout the study of medical sciences and is completes, at the end, with the clinical courses. At the same time, the proposal goes beyond the teaching of the subjects per se and goes across the entire curriculum. The integral education that is sought for the medical student is not obtained only with the existence of certain subjects or credits, but it is guaranteed by the teaching work of all.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/educación , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Ética Médica/educación
20.
Camb Q Healthc Ethics ; 28(2): 361-368, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113523

RESUMEN

The author considers the role of narratives, specifically end-of-life narratives, in medical education. After addressing the role of indexing and other neurological explanations for the validity of narratives in the classroom, she focuses on one recent memoir that explores the medical experience of an ALS patient. The advantages of using narratives, including the understanding of the patients' perspective and the development of empathy, are two important reasons to adopt this approach.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/educación , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina , Narración , Enseñanza , Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral , Empatía , Humanos , Cuidado Terminal
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