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2.
Am J Nurs ; 120(3): 32-38, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049689

RESUMEN

In 1968, the criteria for brain death were established by the Harvard Ad Hoc Committee. Despite what may appear to be unambiguous definitions, clinicians, ethicists, and the public have grappled with the concept of brain death since its inception. In light of recent public discourse on the topic, Harvard Medical School convened a conference to examine research and ethical inquiry conducted over the past 50 years related to death as defined by neurologic criteria. Drawing on the report produced by this conference, this article provides an overview of the development of brain death criteria, describes recent controversies and updates, and discusses implications of these criteria for nurses.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/historia , Muerte Encefálica/diagnóstico , Muerte Encefálica/fisiopatología , Familia/psicología , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
5.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 27(3): 446-454, jul.-set. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041975

RESUMEN

Resumo Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar os desafios atuais da bioética no Brasil. Trata-se de pesquisa exploratória, analítica, de abordagem qualitativa e perspectiva histórico-social. Utilizou-se a técnica de entrevista semiestruturada, e a seleção dos participantes (14 pesquisadores brasileiros) se deu por conveniência e amostragem por bola de neve. Dos resultados surgiram quatro eixos: características da bioética brasileira; desafio de ultrapassar fronteiras; dificuldade de aproximação à política da bioética; e introdução desse campo do conhecimento no âmbito acadêmico. Concluiu-se que, como processo em permanente devir, a bioética transpôs diversas barreiras desde que chegou ao país e, à medida que avança e se constitui como campo de conhecimento e ação política, novos desafios se apresentam. Aprovação CEP-UFSC CAAE 04382612.0.0000.0121


Abstract This study aims to analyze the current challenges of bioethics in the Brazilian perspective. This is an analytical-exploratory study with a qualitative approach and a social-historical perspective. The semi-structured interview technique was applied. The selection of participants (14 Brazilian bioethics researchers) was performed by convenience and snowball sampling was used. Four axes emerged from the results: Characteristics of the Brazilian Bioethics; the Challenge of overcoming borders; the Challenge of bringing politics to bioethics; and Academic challenges for Brazilian Bioethics. It is concluded that, as a process in permanent transformation, Brazilian Bioethics has overcome several obstacles from the beginning of the discussions and, as it progresses, it grows as a field of knowledge and political action. Aprovação CEP-UFSC CAAE 04382612.0.0000.0121


Resumen Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar los desafíos actuales de la Bioética en Brasil. Se trata de una investigación exploratoria, analítica, de abordaje cualitativo y con perspectiva histórico-social. Se utilizó la técnica de entrevista semiestructurada. La selección de los participantes (14 investigadores brasileños) se realizó por conveniencia y el muestreo por bola de nieve. De los resultados emergieron cuatro ejes: características de la bioética brasileña; desafío de atravesar las fronteras; dificultad de aproximación a la política de la bioética; e introducción de este campo de conocimiento en el ámbito académico. Se concluye que, en tanto proceso en constante devenir, la bioética transpuso diversas barreras desde que llegó al país y, a medida que avanza y se constituye como campo de conocimiento y de acción política, se presentan nuevos desafíos. Aprovação CEP-UFSC CAAE 04382612.0.0000.0121


Asunto(s)
Política , Bioética , Bioética/historia , Brasil , Ética
6.
Rev. latinoam. bioét ; 19(1): 27-50, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115711

RESUMEN

Resumo: Considerando a importância do trabalho desenvolvido pelos Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa (CEPs) e sua implicação com a própria história da formação da bioética, o objetivo deste artigo é analisar as fontes de informação sobre os Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo seres humanos presentes na Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), a fim de mapear os principais aspectos do campo nesta área. Trata-se de pesquisa exploratória descritiva com técnica de análise de revisão sistemática para coleta de dados. Foram recuperados 137 resumos, dos quais foram analisados 41. Pela análise dos dados, verifica-se que há uma intensificação nas publicações sobre este tema a partir de 2010, não apresentando uma clara concentração num periódico específico. A maior parte dos estudos é de cunho teórico e varia entre análises exploratórias de orientação descritiva sobre o papel dos CEPs e críticas sobre a forma em que estes elaboram seus pareceres. Observa-se uma intensificação do debate em relação à análise das pesquisas sociais. Nesse sentido, quatro questões nos parecem marcantes: (a) a ingerência promovida pelos CEPs em relação ao método das pesquisas; (b) a questão da análise ética das pesquisas oriundas das ciências humanas não pode ser vista como uma relação de inclusão ou exclusão; (c) a burocratização dos CEPs; e (d) a questão em relação à necessidade de acreditação dos CEPs.


Abstract: Considering the importance of the work developed by the Research Ethics Committees (REC) and their involvement with the history of bioethics training itself, the objective of this article is to analyze the sources of information on the Research Ethics Committees that involve human beings present in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), in order to map the main aspects of the field in this area. This is a descriptive exploratory investigation with systematic review analysis technique for data collection. 137 abstracts were retrieved, of which 41 were analyzed. By analyzing the data, it is verified that there is an increase in the publications on this subject as of 2010, not presenting a clear concentration in a specific newspaper. A large part of the studies is theoretical and varies between exploratory analysis of descriptive guidance on the role of the RES and criticisms on how they prepare their opinions. There is an intensification of the debate regarding the analysis of social research. In this sense, four points seem important to us: (a) the interference promoted by the CIS in relation to the research method; (b) the ethical analysis of the investigations of the human sciences cannot be seen as a relation of inclusion or exclusion; (c) the bureaucratization (burocratização) of the RES; and (d) the need for accreditation of the RES.


Resumen: Considerando la importancia del trabajo desarrollado por los Comités de Ética en Investigación (CEI) y su implicación con la propia historia de la formación de la bioética, el objetivo de este artículo es analizar las fuentes de información sobre los Comités de Ética en Investigación que involucran seres humanos presentes en el Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), con el fin de mapear los principales aspectos del campo en esta área. Se trata de una investigación exploratoria descriptiva con técnica de análisis de revisión sistemática para la recolección de datos. Fueron recuperados 137 resúmenes, de los cuales se analizaron 41. Por el análisis de los datos, se verifica que hay una intensificación en las publicaciones sobre este tema a partir de 2010, no presentando una clara concentración en un periódico específico. Gran parte de los estudios es de carácter teórico y varía entre análisis exploratorios de orientación descriptiva sobre el papel de los CEI y críticas sobre la forma como estos elaboran sus pareceres. Se observa una intensificación del debate en relación al análisis de las investigaciones sociales. En este sentido, cuatro puntos nos parecen importantes: (a) la injerencia promovida por los CEI con relación al método de las investigaciones; (b) el análisis ético de las investigaciones oriundas de las ciencias humanas no puede ser visto como una relación de inclusión o exclusión; (c) la burocratização de los CEI; y (d) la necesidad de acreditación de los CEI.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Bioética/historia , Comités de Ética en Investigación , Ciencias Sociales , Bases de Datos Bibliográficas
7.
HEC Forum ; 31(3): 219-232, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877430

RESUMEN

For more than two decades, classes on "professionalism" have been the dominant platform for the non-technical socialization of medical students. It thus subsumes elements of previous foundation courses in bioethics and "medicine and society" in defining the appropriate relation between practitioners, patients, and society-at-large. Despite its importance, there is, however, no clear definition of what "professionalism" entails or the manner in which it serves various purported goals. This essay reviews, first, the historical role of the vocational practitioner in society, and second, the introduction of "professionalism" as a newly constituted, core value in teaching. The structure of the paper is as an archaeology, a Foucauldian term for an investigation of seemingly separate but related antecedent contexts and ideas whose result is a perspective or point of view. The goal thus is an attempt to precisely locate "professionalism" within the greater history of medicine and its contemporary role in medical socialization.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/historia , Profesionalismo/ética , Juramento Hipocrático , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos
8.
J Bioeth Inq ; 16(3): 323-331, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778904

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To present a narrative review of the history of bioethics in Latin America and of scientific output in this interdisciplinary field. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods study. RESULTS: A total of 1458 records were retrieved, of which 1167 met the inclusion criteria. According to the Web of Science classification, the predominant topics of study were medical ethics (n= 488), social sciences and medicine (n= 354), and environmental and public health topics (n= 279). Four themes of bioethics output in the Latin American literature have emerged: (a) issues involving the beginning and end of life, (b) ethics in human research, (c) patient-provider relationships, and (d) ethics training for health professionals. CONCLUSION: Although bioethics is a growing interdisciplinary field in Latin America, its academic impact is still very low, and programmes are highly concentrated in large urban centres in a few countries. Challenges includes the regional and international impact of local scientific output.


Asunto(s)
Discusiones Bioéticas , Bioética/educación , Bioética/historia , Ética Médica/educación , Personal de Salud/educación , Personal de Salud/ética , Modelos Teóricos , Comienzo de la Vida Humana/ética , Bioética/tendencias , Historia del Siglo XX , Experimentación Humana/ética , Humanos , Consentimiento Informado/ética , América Latina , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente/ética , Salud Pública/ética , Cuidado Terminal/ética , Salud Urbana
11.
Rio de Janeiro; Fiocruz; 2019. 210 p. (Coleção Bioética e Saúde).
Monografía en Portugués | HISA - História de la Salud | ID: his-43983

RESUMEN

A coletânea organizada por Marisa Palácios, professora titular da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), apresenta contribuições e diálogos entre a ética e a saúde pública. As muitas mudanças causadas pelas inovações tecnológicas nas áreas de saúde e, especialmente, na saúde coletiva são debatidas no livro, que reúne textos de especialistas de diversas áreas do conhecimento - Direito, Medicina, Farmácia, Ciências Sociais, Filosofia, Enfermagem, Psicologia - em torno de temas atuais e desafiadores para toda a sociedade. O título contempla oito capítulos, que abordam questões como origens e caminhos para a formação em bioética, objetos de estudo da prática bioética, bioética e saúde pública, atenção primária à saúde, emergências sanitárias, epidemias e pandemias, saúde da família, entre outras


Asunto(s)
Bioética/historia , Personal de Salud , Epidemiología
12.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 45(269): 205-208, 2018 Nov 28.
Artículo en Polaco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531672

RESUMEN

Bioethics was created in the 70s of the last century. From this period come works written by Van Resselaer Potter and André Hellegers, in which the authors raised the issue of the need to discuss the progress and to define a new reflection, they used for the first time in the scientific literature the term bioethics. In the United States of America, as well as in European countries, institutions began to emerge in which scientific bioethical reflection was realized. In Poland in the 1970s, the socio-political situation was not conducive to the integration of scientific circles or the freedom of exchange of views. Significant progress in the field of medicine, emerging new treatment options, posed questions that had to be answered. The questions were formulated in different environments, including by doctors who themselves participated in the progress of medical sciences, introducing, for example, new increasingly aggressive treatments, or saw new challenges emerging in the medical profession, which were not regulated by the hitherto applied principles of classical medical ethics. The article describes the achievements of prof. Jan Nielubowicz, prof. Józef Bogusz and prof. Tadeusz Kielanowski in the creation of Polish bioethical regulations in the field of experimental research in humans, the activity of prof. Kornel Gibinki in the formation of Bioethics Commisions, contribution of prof. Stefan Raszeja and prof. Marek Sych in bioethical education of the society and the role of prof. Krzysztof Szczygiel in the creation of the first Polish scientific bioethical unit.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/historia , Médicos , Historia de la Medicina , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Polonia
13.
Life Sci Soc Policy ; 14(1): 11, 2018 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770893

RESUMEN

The Council of Europe's legal regulation concerning development of biology and medicine undoubtedly form the most interesting, but certainly not perfect, over-national system of protection of human beings in prenatal stages of development. The strength of the mentioned system is that it based on well-known and common acceptable values and rules such as human dignity and its protection. The aim of the paper is to present the reasons behind adopting such a system, as well as the consequences of the latter.The author argues that in such a way a revolution within the human rights system of the Council of Europe took place. This revolution caused a significant expansion of the Council of Europe's system of human rights' protection and changed the perspective of the protection from vertical to the horizontal.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/historia , Investigación Biomédica/historia , Investigación Biomédica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Ética Médica/historia , Derechos Humanos/historia , Derechos Humanos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Congresos como Asunto , Europa (Continente) , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
14.
Indian J Med Ethics ; 3(1): 9-15, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477983

RESUMEN

The relation between science and society is, simply put, very complex. In the history of global bioethics, it is the Code of Nuremberg which foregrounded the acute ways in which biomedical/scientific research could (negatively) impact society; this 1947 Code became the point of reference for subsequent research concerning humans. The Code "required that medical experiments on human beings must have the potential to yield fruitful results for the good of society". The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH), 1964 reinstated this concern by stressing that "clinical research cannot be legitimately carried out unless the risks to participants are justified by the importance of the research" - invoking the idea of the "social value" of research. However, in these initial days, "social value" of research was interpreted more in terms of the moral balance of research, a balance to ensure that the benefits of research unambiguously outweighed its risks as far as its participants were concerned.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/ética , Códigos de Ética , Análisis Ético , Experimentación Humana/ética , Responsabilidad Social , Valores Sociales , Beneficencia , Bioética/historia , Códigos de Ética/historia , Declaración de Helsinki , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , India , Consentimiento Informado , Medición de Riesgo
15.
Camb Q Healthc Ethics ; 27(1): 4-13, 2018 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214957

RESUMEN

In this series of essays, The Road Less Traveled, noted bioethicists share their stories and the personal experiences that prompted them to pursue the field. These memoirs are less professional chronologies and more descriptions of the seminal touchstone events and turning points that led-often unexpectedly-to their career path.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/historia , Discriminación en Psicología/ética , Eticistas/historia , Filosofía/historia , Protestantismo/historia , Segregación Social/historia , Universidades/historia , Derechos Civiles/ética , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Edición/historia , Enseñanza/historia , Texas
17.
Usp Fiziol Nauk ; 48(1): 53-65, 2017.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29283239

RESUMEN

Analysis of scientific works from the creation of an experimental model of diabetes before discovery insulin was done. Emphasized is the priority of the Russian pathologist L. W. Sobolew (1876-1919) in the discovery of the endocrine function of the pancreas in experimental animals - rabbits, dogs, cats. In 1923 Canadian scientists Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel prize for the discovery of insulin. However, the methods and the idea of Nobel laureates were the same that had been developed 20 years earlier by the Russian scientists. Currently, the incidence of diabetes and related pathologies of organs and systems are growing. The use of animals in experimental biology and medicine will continue for the foreseeable future. The benefits to science and medicine derived from the use of animals in research are undeniable, but this process inevitably increases the responsibility of researchers. It is required constant work on improvement of the experimental methods in order to minimize pain, stress, and the number of animals used in the experiment.


Asunto(s)
Bioética/historia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/historia , Endocrinología/historia , Insulina/biosíntesis , Islotes Pancreáticos/metabolismo , Animales , Canadá , Gatos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patología , Perros , Endocrinología/ética , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Insulina/farmacología , Islotes Pancreáticos/efectos de los fármacos , Islotes Pancreáticos/patología , Premio Nobel , Conejos , Federación de Rusia , Recursos Humanos
19.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(5): 1171-1179, set.-oct. 2017.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127723

RESUMEN

Hablar de la historia de una disciplina es una tarea difícil, que requiere cierto distanciamiento, sobre todo temporal, para poder tener una visión que permita acoger la totalidad en el discernimiento de los hechos más significativos. Cuando la disciplina misma es breve, es joven, se tiene la tentación de hablar de una historia que pudiera parecer la más completa posible a través de la enumeración cronológica del mayor número de hechos de los cuales se tiene conocimiento. De tal modo se corre el riesgo de perder la totalidad, y con ella su significado. Me parece que sea el caso en nuestra disciplina, la Bioética (AU).


Talking about the history of a discipline is a difficult task, which requires a certain distance, especially temporary, to have a vision to embrace all in discerning the most significant events. When the discipline itself is brief, it is young, it is tempting to speak of a story that might seem the most complete possible through the chronological list of the largest number of facts that are known. Therefore, you run the risk of losing all and with it its meaning. We seem to be the case in our discipline, bioethics (AU).


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Ciencia/educación , Bioética/historia , Filosofía/historia , Médicos/ética , Ciencia/historia , Bioética/educación , Bioética/tendencias , Artículo Histórico
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