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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 144757, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940701

RESUMEN

The Clinch River watershed of the upper Tennessee River Basin of Virginia and Tennessee, USA supports one of North America's greatest concentrations of freshwater biodiversity, including 46 extant species of native freshwater mussels (Order Unionida), 20 of which are protected as federally endangered. Despite the global biological significance of the Clinch River, mussel populations are declining in some reaches, both in species richness and abundance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of adult resident mussels to a suite of inorganic and organic contaminant stressors in distinct sections of the Clinch River that encompassed a range of mussel abundance and health. To provide insight into the potential role of pollutants in the decline of mussels, including within a previously documented "zone of mussel decline", the mainstem Clinch River (8 sites) and its tributaries (4 sites) were examined over two consecutive years. We quantified and related metals and organic contaminant concentrations in mussels to their associated habitat compartments (bed sediment, suspended particulate sediment, pore water, and surface water). We found that concentrations of organic contaminants in resident mussels, particularly the suite of 42 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analyzed, were related to PAH concentrations in all four habitat (media) compartments. Further, PAH concentrations in mussel tissue (range 37.8-978.1 ng/g dry weight in 2012 and 194.3-1073.7 ng/g dry weight in 2013) were negatively related to the spatial pattern in mussel densities (rs = -0.64, p ≤ 0.05 in 2012 and rs = -0.83, p ≤ 0.05 in 2013) within the river, and were highest in the "zone of mussel decline". In contrast, the suite of 22 metals analyzed in resident mussels were largely unrelated to the spatial pattern of variation of metals in the four habitat compartments except for Manganese (Mn; range 3630.5-23,749.2 µg/g dry weight in 2012 and 1540.4-12,605.8 µg/g dry weight in 2013) in surface water (rs = 0.58, p < 0.1) and pore water (rs = 0.76, p ≤ 0.05). This study revealed that PAHs and Mn are important pollutant stressors to mussels in the Clinch River and that they are largely being delivered through the Guest River tributary watershed. Accordingly, future conservation and management efforts would benefit by identifying, and ideally mitigating, the sources of PAHs, Mn, and other current or legacy mining-associated pollutants to the mainstem river and its tributaries.


Asunto(s)
Bivalvos , Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Biodiversidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua Dulce , Tennessee , Virginia , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145664, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940752

RESUMEN

The need for international cooperation in marine resource management and conservation has been reflected in the increasing number of agreements aiming for effective and well-connected networks of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). However, the extent to which individual MPAs are connected remains mostly unknown. Here, we use a biophysical model tuned with empirical data on species dispersal ecology to predict connectivity of a vast spectrum of biodiversity in the European network of marine reserves (i.e., no-take MPAs). Our results highlight the correlation between empirical propagule duration data and connectivity potential and show weak network connectivity and strong isolation for major ecological groups, resulting from the lack of direct connectivity corridors between reserves over vast regions. The particularly high isolation predicted for ecosystem structuring species (e.g., corals, sponges, macroalgae and seagrass) might potentially undermine biodiversity conservation efforts if local retention is insufficient and unmanaged populations are at risk. Isolation might also be problematic for populations' persistence in the light of climate change and expected species range shifts. Our findings provide novel insights for management directives, highlighting the location of regions requiring additional marine reserves to function as stepping-stone connectivity corridors.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Ecosistema , Animales , Biodiversidad , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 286, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877445

RESUMEN

The noxious plant species Parthenium hysterophorus L. has become a major concern for the conservation of many natural and managed areas. The species is known for its various adverse effects on the invaded ecosystems, particularly in terms of biodiversity loss. Currently, P. hysterophorus is a leading invasive species widespread in the grasslands of productive and diversity rich Indo-Gangetic plains of India and is responsible for various changes in the ecosystem. The present study addresses the changes that P. hysterophorus can bring in the vegetation structure (species richness, species evenness, and species composition) of the grasslands of Indo-Gangetic plain. To broaden our understanding of the invasion success and facilitated expansion, we also focus on the variability of soil nitrogen pool and processes as a consequence of invasion. We report that in the presence of P. hysterophorus, the species diversity, evenness, composition and richness were altered, affecting many native and non-native flora of the ecosystem. The effect was more prominent during the second and third year of the study with more increase in the invasion outcomes. Significant changes in soil nitrogen (N) dynamics, particularly, increased available (N), N-mineralization and microbial biomass N have been found in the invaded plots along with changes in vegetation of the grassland community. Overall, the result suggested that the invasive species, P. hysterophorus, modifies the soil and this modification is correlated with changes in vegetation structure and this situation is likely to further facilitate severe alterations in the ecosystem and could favor encroachment of other non-native species in the area.


Asunto(s)
Pradera , Suelo , Biodiversidad , Biomasa , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , India , Nitrógeno
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2287-2295, 2021 May 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884798

RESUMEN

Sediment bacteria have attracted much attention because of their important roles in energy flow and pollutant cycle transformation. The changes in the spatial distribution pattern of bacteria are the basis for research on the biodiversity generation and maintenance mechanisms. However, there are few studies on the spatial variation in benthic microorganisms and its biogeographic models. The highly artificial North Canal River across the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area was chosen as the research area in this study. The spatial variation in the different classification levels of the Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species, and operational taxonomic units and their diversity formation mechanisms were analyzed. The results showed that the samples at different classification levels had a more homogeneous distribution pattern. There were clearer distribution boundaries at the low classification levels than at the high classification levels. The significance of the bacterial community variation increased as the classification level of the bacterial community decreased. Furthermore, the difference between groups increased and the similarities within groups decreased as the classification level of the bacterial community decreased. The typical rhizosphere microorganisms represented by Frankiales and Rhodobacterales showed significant enrichment in the upstream samples, followed by the midstream samples and a significant decrease in the downstream samples. Microorganisms related to the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles represented by Anaerolineales and Desulfobacterales showed significant enrichment in the midstream, followed by the downstream and a significant reduction in the upstream. The genus Phenylobacterium was significantly enriched in the upstream followed by the midstream, and was significantly reduced in the downstream. The pathogenic bacteria represented by Clostridium_gasigenes and Moraxella_osloensis showed a significant enrichment pattern in the midstream. The contents of Ca2+, SO42-, and total organic carbon (TOC) in the downstream samples were significantly higher than those in the upstream and midstream samples. The discharge of untreated wastewater downstream increased the salt and TOC contents in the sediment. The ecological restoration project in the sediment of the riparian zone decreased the salt and TOC contents in the upstream and midstream samples. Environmental selection was the main driving factor of the pattern of spatial variation in the bacterial communities in the sediments of the North Canal River.


Asunto(s)
Acuaporinas , Ríos , Bacterias/genética , Beijing , Biodiversidad , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos
5.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112400, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823436

RESUMEN

Over the past century, the decline in biodiversity due to climate change and habitat loss has become unprecedentedly serious. Multiple drivers, including climate change, land-use/cover change, and qualitative change in habitat need to be considered in an integrated approach, which has rarely been taken, to create an effective conservation strategy. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate and map the combined impacts of those multiple drivers on biodiversity in the Republic of Korea (ROK). To this end, biodiversity persistence (BP) was simulated by employing generalized dissimilarity modeling with estimates of habitat conditions. Habitat Condition Index was newly developed based on national survey datasets to represent the changes in habitat quality according to the land cover changes and forest management, especially after the ROK's National Reforestation Programme. The changes in habitat conditions were simulated for a period ranging from the 1960s to the 2010s; additionally, future (2050s) spatial scenarios were constructed. By focusing on the changes in forest habitat quality along with climate and land use, this study quantitatively and spatially analyzed the changes in BP over time and presented the effects of reforestation and forest management. The results revealed that continuous forest management had a positive impact on BP by offsetting the negative effects of past urbanization. Improvements in forest habitat quality also can effectively reduce the negative impacts of climate change. This quantitative analysis of successful forest restoration in Korea proved that economic development and urbanization could be in parallel with biodiversity enhancement. Nevertheless, current forest management practices were found to be insufficient in fully offsetting the decline in future BP caused by climate change. This indicates that there is a need for additional measures along with mitigation of climate change to maintain the current biodiversity level.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Bosques , República de Corea
6.
Science ; 372(6539): 300-303, 2021 04 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859037

RESUMEN

The study of deep-time ecological dynamics has the ability to inform conservation decisions by anticipating the behavior of ecosystems millions of years into the future. Using network analysis and an exceptional fossil dataset spanning the past 21 million years, we show that mammalian ecological assemblages undergo long periods of functional stasis, notwithstanding high taxonomic volatility due to dispersal, speciation, and extinction. Higher functional richness and diversity promoted the persistence of functional faunas despite species extinction risk being indistinguishable among these different faunas. These findings, and the large mismatch between functional and taxonomic successions, indicate that although safeguarding functional diversity may or may not minimize species losses, it would certainly enhance the persistence of ecosystem functioning in the face of future disturbances.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Ecosistema , Fósiles , Mamíferos , Distribución Animal , Animales , Biodiversidad , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Extinción Biológica , Especiación Genética , Mamíferos/clasificación , Dinámica Poblacional
7.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(3): 367-374, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907000

RESUMEN

The connection between nature conservation and human wellbeing is well known, however, the role of declining biodiversity and emerging diseases is relatively less studied. The presence of a thriving biological diversity is known to have therapeutic effects on human health. On the other hand, human economic activities have contributed to a sharp decline in species, resulting in poor ecosystem health. Several studies have shown how microorganisms have switched from animals to humans, leading to novel diseases. This review describes studies on zoonotic diseases and biodiversity, with examples from India. It is argued that conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems and changes in economic activities must be made to ward off new diseases, and why cooperation between ministries is critical to restrict the decline of biological diversity in a megadiverse country like India.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Animales , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Zoonosis/epidemiología
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20201604, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852672

RESUMEN

The Program for Biodiversity Research (PPBio) is an innovative program designed to integrate all biodiversity research stakeholders. Operating since 2004, it has installed long-term ecological research sites throughout Brazil and its logic has been applied in some other southern-hemisphere countries. The program supports all aspects of research necessary to understand biodiversity and the processes that affect it. There are presently 161 sampling sites (see some of them at Supplementary Appendix), most of which use a standardized methodology that allows comparisons across biomes and through time. To date, there are about 1200 publications associated with PPBio that cover topics ranging from natural history to genetics and species distributions. Most of the field data and metadata are available through PPBio web sites or DataONE. Metadata is available for researchers that intend to explore the different faces of Brazilian biodiversity spatio-temporal variation, as well as for managers intending to improve conservation strategies. The Program also fostered, directly and indirectly, local technical capacity building, and supported the training of hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students. The main challenge is maintaining the long-term funding necessary to understand biodiversity patterns and processes under pressure from global environmental changes.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Brasil , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Conocimiento
9.
Extremophiles ; 25(3): 257-265, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837855

RESUMEN

We assessed the diversity of fungal DNA present in sediments of three lakes on Vega Island, north-east Antarctic Peninsula using metabarcoding through high-throughput sequencing (HTS). A total of 640,902 fungal DNA reads were detected, which were assigned to 224 taxa of the phyla Ascomycota, Rozellomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mortierellomycota, in rank order of abundance. The most abundant genera were Pseudogymnoascus, Penicillium and Mortierella. However, a majority (423,508, 66%) of the reads, representing by 43 ASVs, could only be assigned at higher taxonomic levels and may represent taxa not currently included in the sequence databases used or be new or previously unreported taxa present in Antarctic lakes. The three lakes were characterized by high sequence diversity, richness, and moderate dominance indices. The ASVs were dominated by psychrotolerant and cosmopolitan cold-adapted Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota commonly reported in Antarctic environments. However, other taxa detected included unidentified members of Rozellomycota and Chytridiomycota species not previously reported in Antarctic lakes. The assigned diversity was composed mainly of taxa recognized as decomposers and pathogens of plants and invertebrates.


Asunto(s)
Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico , Lagos , Regiones Antárticas , Biodiversidad , ADN de Hongos/genética , Hongos/genética , Islas
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5731-5741, 2021 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819033

RESUMEN

Increases in the salt concentration of freshwater result in detrimental impacts on water quality and ecosystem biodiversity. Biodiversity effects include freshwater microbiota, as increasing salinity can induce shifts in the structure of native freshwater bacterial communities, which could disturb their role in mediating basal ecosystem services. Moreover, salinity affects the wave breaking and bubble-bursting mechanisms via which water-to-air dispersal of bacteria occurs. Given this dual effect of freshwater salinity on waterborne bacterial communities and their aerosolization mechanism, further effects on aerosolized bacterial diversity and abundance are anticipated. Cumulative salt additions in the freshwater-euhaline continuum (0-35 g/kg) were administered to a freshwater sample aerosolized inside a breaking wave analogue tank. Waterborne and corresponding airborne bacteria were sampled at each salinity treatment and later analyzed for diversity and abundance. Results demonstrated that the airborne bacterial community was significantly different (PERMANOVA; F1,22 = 155.1, r2 = 0.38, p < 0.001) from the waterborne community. The relative aerosolization factor (r-AF), defined as the air-to-water relative abundance ratio, revealed that different bacterial families exhibited either an enhanced (r-AF ≫ 1), neutral (r-AF ∼ 1), or diminished (r-AF ≪ 1) transfer to the aerosol phase throughout the salinization gradient. Going from freshwater to euhaline conditions, aerosolized bacterial abundance exhibited a nonmonotonic response with a maximum peak at lower oligohaline conditions (0.5-1 g/kg), a decline at higher oligohaline conditions (5 g/kg), and a moderate increase at polyhaline-euhaline conditions (15-35 g/kg). Our results demonstrate that increases in freshwater salinity are likely to influence the abundance and diversity of aerosolized bacteria. These shifts in aerosolized bacterial communities might have broader implications on public health by increasing exposure to airborne pathogens via inhalation. Impacts on regional climate, related to changes in biological ice-nucleating particles (INPs) emission from freshwater, are also expected.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Salinidad , Bacterias , Biodiversidad , Agua Dulce , Humanos
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808181

RESUMEN

The global illegal wildlife trade directly threatens biodiversity and leads to disease outbreaks and epidemics. In order to avoid the loss of endangered species and ensure public health security, it is necessary to intervene in illegal wildlife trade and promote public awareness of the need for wildlife conservation. Anthropomorphism is a basic and common psychological process in humans that plays a crucial role in determining how a person interacts with other non-human agents. Previous research indicates that anthropomorphizing nature entities through metaphors could increase individual behavioral intention of wildlife conservation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism by which anthropomorphism influences behavioral intention and whether social context affects the effect of anthropomorphism. This research investigated the impact of negative emotions associated with a pandemic situation on the effectiveness of anthropomorphic strategies for wildlife conservation across two experimental studies. Experiment 1 recruited 245 college students online and asked them to read a combination of texts and pictures as anthropomorphic materials. The results indicated that anthropomorphic materials could increase participants' empathy and decrease their wildlife product consumption intention. Experiment 2 recruited 140 college students online and they were required to read the same materials as experiment 1 after watching a video related to epidemics. The results showed that the effect of wildlife anthropomorphization vanished if participants' negative emotion was aroused by the video. The present research provides experimental evidence that anthropomorphic strategies would be useful for boosting public support for wildlife conservation. However, policymakers and conservation organizations must be careful about the negative effects of the pandemic context, as the negative emotions produced by it seems to weaken the effectiveness of anthropomorphic strategies.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Epidemias , Animales , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Empatía , Especies en Peligro de Extinción
12.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(4)2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856291

RESUMEN

Introduction. Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesion (FORL) is one of the most common and painful oral diseases of the cat. It is characterised by tooth resorption due to destructive activity of odontoclasts. FORL can result in tooth loss. While the aetiology of FORL is not clearly understood, it is thought to be multifactorial and bacteria are likely to play a major role.Hypothesis. Dysbiosis of the normal feline oral microbiota leads to an alteration in commensal bacteria populations, which results in the development of FORL.Aim. The purpose of the current study was to determine the composition of the microbiomes associated with feline oral health and FORL.Methodology. Supragingival plaque was collected from 25 cats with a healthy oral cavity and 40 cats with FORL. DNA was extracted from each sample, the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene amplified by polymerase chain reaction and amplicons sequenced. Diversity and species richness analyses were performed, principal component analysis was used to explore differences between the oral microbiomes of healthy cats and those with FORL, and linear discriminant analysis effect size was used to assess differences between the groups.Results. The six most abundant bacterial genera identified were Bergeyella, Capnocytophaga, Lampropedia, Morexella, Porphyromonas and Treponema. Two-step cluster analysis of the data identified two FORL sub-groups (FORL-1, FORL-2). The FORL-2 sub-group was very similar to the healthy group, whilst the FORL-1 sub-group was clearly different from both the FORL-2 sub-group and the healthy groups. In this analysis, Capnocytophaga (P <0.001) and Lampropedia (P <0.01) were found at significantly lower levels and Porphyromonas at a slightly higher level in the FORL-1 sub-group compared to the healthy and FORL-2 sub-groups. Microbial diversity was found to be less in the FORL-1 sub-group than in the healthy group. Lampropedia sp., a phosphate-accumulating oral commensal species, was significantly lower in the FORL-1 sub-group.Conclusion. The oral microbiota associated with the FORL-1 sub-group is distinct from that found in the healthy group and FORL-2 sub-group. Lampropedia species may influence the local calcium-phosphate ratio, which could be a factor in tooth and bone resorption observed in FORL.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos/microbiología , Microbiota , Osteoclastos/patología , Resorción Dentaria/veterinaria , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Biodiversidad , Enfermedades de los Gatos/patología , Gatos , Femenino , Masculino , Boca/microbiología , Salud Bucal , Resorción Dentaria/microbiología , Resorción Dentaria/patología
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806276

RESUMEN

As climate changes and species extinction accelerate, the global community focuses on Green New Deal plans to promote economic development based on environmental sustainability. The Green New Deal should encourage sustainable resilience in the environment and strengthen the community's innate ties with natural resources and biodiversity. This study describes biophilic design for sustainable and resilient residential regeneration from the perspective of the Green New Deal, and suggests potential possibilities for these approaches on a residential regeneration scale. A case study clarifies the applicable features of biophilic design in various fields, such as architectural planning and design, technology, and services, and is subdivided according to the scale of residential regeneration (unit, building, and complex). The results of this study suggest new values for existing Green New Deal policies and contribute to the segmentation of residential regeneration projects and the expansion of related industries.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920075

RESUMEN

The world's oceans are one of the most valuable sources of biodiversity and resources on the planet, although there are areas where the marine ecosystem is threatened by human activities. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are distinctive spaces protected by law due to their unique characteristics, such as being the habitat of endangered marine species. Even with this protection, there are still illegal activities such as poaching or anchoring that threaten the survival of different marine species. In this context, we propose an autonomous surface vehicle (ASV) model system for the surveillance of marine areas by detecting and recognizing vessels through artificial intelligence (AI)-based image recognition services, in search of those carrying out illegal activities. Cloud and edge AI computing technologies were used for computer vision. These technologies have proven to be accurate and reliable in detecting shapes and objects for which they have been trained. Azure edge and cloud vision services offer the best option in terms of accuracy for this task. Due to the lack of 4G and 5G coverage in offshore marine environments, it is necessary to use radio links with a coastal base station to ensure communications, which may result in a high response time due to the high latency involved. The analysis of on-board images may not be sufficiently accurate; therefore, we proposed a smart algorithm for autonomy optimization by selecting the proper AI technology according to the current scenario (SAAO) capable of selecting the best AI source for the current scenario in real time, according to the required recognition accuracy or low latency. The SAAO optimizes the execution, efficiency, risk reduction, and results of each stage of the surveillance mission, taking appropriate decisions by selecting either cloud or edge vision models without human intervention.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Robótica , Inteligencia Artificial , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Océanos y Mares
15.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112375, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813301

RESUMEN

The much-publicized threats to coral reef systems necessitate a considered management response based on comprehensive ecological data. However, data from large reef systems commonly originate from multiple monitoring programs that use different methods, each with distinct biases that limit united assessments of ecological status. The effective integration of data from different monitoring methods would allow better assessment of system status and hence, more informed management. Here we examine the scope for comparability and complementarity of fish data from two different methods used on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR): underwater visual census (UVC) and baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS). We compared commonly reported reef fish measures from UVC and BRUVS on similar reef slope habitats of three central GBR reefs. Both methods recorded similar estimates of total species richness, although ~30% of recorded species were not common to both methods. There were marked differences between methods in sub-group species richness, frequency of species occurrences, relative abundances of taxa and assemblage structure. The magnitude and orientation of inter-method differences were often inconsistent among taxa. However, each method better categorized certain components of fish communities: BRUVS sampled more predatory species in higher numbers while UVC was similarly better at sampling damselfishes (Pomacentridae). Our results suggest limited scope for direct or adjusted comparisons of data from UVC and BRUVS. Conversely, complementary aspects of the two methods confirm that their integration in monitoring programs will provide a more complete and extensive assessment of reef fish status for managers than from either method alone.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Censos , Animales , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema , Peces
16.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112523, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839605

RESUMEN

Agricultural livestock production ranks among the most environmental impactful industry sectors at the global level, and within the livestock sector, beef production accounts for a large proportion of environmental damage. Beef production in Alpine mountain regions, such as in South Tyrol (Italy), is a small, but increasing agricultural sector. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the environmental impact of different organic and conventional beef production systems in South Tyrol and to compare their environmental impact and effect on biodiversity under Alpine production conditions. Live cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used and 1 kg of live weight (LW) was chosen as functional unit (FU). Global warming potential (GWP, kg CO2-eq), acidification potential (AP, g SO2-eq), eutrophication potential (EP, g PO4-eq), non-renewable energy use (NRE, MJ-eq), land occupation (LO, m2 organic land/year) and biodiversity damage potential (BDP) expressed in potential disappeared fraction (PDF) were investigated. The study involved 18 beef cattle farms in the South Tyrolean region: Conventional calf-fattening farms (CCF = 6), organic suckler cow farms (SCF = 6), and conventional heifer/ox fattening farms (HOF = 6). The CCF system showed a higher environmental impact compared to SCF and HOF systems for all impact categories (P < 0.05). Between the organic and the conventional system (SCF and HOF), no significant differences (P > 0.05) were found for most of the considered impact categories (means ± SEM per FU): GWP: 19.8 vs 17.1 ± 4.2 kg CO2-eq, AP: 11.4 vs 9.3 ± 4.7 g SO2-eq, EP: 4.1 vs 2.8 ± 1.2, NRE: 21.9 vs 13.8 ± 7 MJ-eq, SCF and HOF respectively. Only for LO (70.8 vs 44.1 ± 17.7 m2 organic/y, P < 0.01, SCF and HOF respectively) and the effect on BDP (-1.93 vs -0.85 ± 0.35, PDF, P < 0.01, SCF and HOF respectively) differences between organic and conventional production methods could be revealed. The study showed that beef cattle husbandry in the Alpine area has a satisfactory environmental performance. In particular, the systems studied showed a positive impact in terms of biodiversity.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Eutrofización , Animales , Biodiversidad , Bovinos , Granjas , Femenino , Italia
17.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112559, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865026

RESUMEN

This paper aims to present a new quantitative systematic approach to evaluate the effectiveness of utilizing and allocating resources based on the concept of "Work" in physics. This method is examined in the Urmia Lake Basin (ULB), shrinking of which has threatened the life of about five million inhabitants and ecosystem biodiversity. In the proposed approach, the role of three types of financial, human, and environmental resources in the development process is evaluated quantitatively, and they have been compared in two periods before and after the severe reduction of the lake water volume. Results show that although financial resources have increased by 1.9 times in the second period, the effectiveness of the development process has decreased. Therefore, the resources have not been utilized properly in a direction compatible with sustainable development strategies. Additionally, the improperly-spent financial resources on the development projects especially in the second period have had a more destructive role than the human and environmental resources in the ULB crisis.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Lagos , Biodiversidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2213, 2021 04 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850115

RESUMEN

Global oceanographic monitoring initiatives originally measured abiotic essential ocean variables but are currently incorporating biological and metagenomic sampling programs. There is, however, a large knowledge gap on how to infer bacterial functions, the information sought by biogeochemists, ecologists, and modelers, from the bacterial taxonomic information (produced by bacterial marker gene surveys). Here, we provide a correlative understanding of how a bacterial marker gene (16S rRNA) can be used to infer latitudinal trends for metabolic pathways in global monitoring campaigns. From a transect spanning 7000 km in the South Pacific Ocean we infer ten metabolic pathways from 16S rRNA gene sequences and 11 corresponding metagenome samples, which relate to metabolic processes of primary productivity, temperature-regulated thermodynamic effects, coping strategies for nutrient limitation, energy metabolism, and organic matter degradation. This study demonstrates that low-cost, high-throughput bacterial marker gene data, can be used to infer shifts in the metabolic strategies at the community scale.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/genética , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Redes y Vías Metabólicas/genética , Metagenómica/métodos , Bacterias/clasificación , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biodiversidad , Ecología , Metagenoma , Océano Pacífico , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Termodinámica
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