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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

RESUMEN

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Aves , Biodiversidad , Estaciones del Año , Brasil , Bosques , Ecosistema
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254095, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355860

RESUMEN

Abstract In northern central Chile, ephemeral pools constitute shallow isolated water bodies with a favourable habitat for fauna adapted to seasonal changes. Based on the limited knowledge about the fauna—particularly insects—associated to these ecosystems, the objective of this study was to characterize the richness, composition, structure and similarity of the insect communities associated with ephemeral pools in Huentelauquén (29º S, Coquimbo Region, Chile). By using pitfall traps, 10,762 individuals were captured, represented by 7 orders, 27 families, and 51 species. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the best represented orders, with Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Plecoptera being poorly represented groups. The non-parametric estimators evaluated showed wealth values above those observed for all the studied pools, and their accumulation curves suggest the existence of an incomplete species inventory in the studied community. Additionally, the hierarchical and ordering analysis showed groupings of pools located in the northwest and southeast of Huentelauquén. Preliminarily we found a negative correlation between the area of the pools and the richness (species) and abundance of insects. Additional studies (on other arthropod groups and other seasons of the year) could provide a better understanding of the local processes of extinction and colonization of the species inhabiting these fragile coastal environments.


Resumo No norte central do Chile, lagoas efêmeras constituem corpos de água isolados e pouco profundos, com um habitat favorável para a fauna adaptada as mudanças sazonais que as zonas úmidas estão sujeitas. Com relação a estes ecossistemas, sabe-se pouco sobre sua fauna, principalmente a de insetos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a riqueza, composição, estrutura e similaridade das comunidades de insetos que habitam as lagoas temporárias de Huentelauquén (29º S, Região de Coquimbo, Chile). Usando armadilhas de interceptação, se capturou um total de 10.762 indivíduos, pertencentes a 7 ordens, 27 famílias e 51 espécies. Coleoptera e Hymenoptera foram as ordens mais representativas, enquanto Neuroptera, Orthoptera e Plecoptera foram grupos pouco representativos. Os estimadores não paramétricos avaliados mostraram valores de riqueza superiores ao observados para todas as lagoas estudadas, e suas curvas de acumulação parecem indicar que o inventario da comunidade estudada está incompleto. A análise hierárquica e de ordenamento revelou agrupamentos de lagoas correspondentes a zona nordeste e sudeste de Huentelauquén. Preliminarmente encontramos uma correlação negativa entre a área de lagoas efêmeras e a riqueza (espécies) e abundância de insetos. É necessário realizar estudos adicionais (sobre outros grupos de artrópodes e em outras estações do ano) para melhor compreensão dos processos locais de extinção e colonização das espécies que habitam estes frágeis ambientes costeiros estudados.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Escarabajos , Ecosistema , Estaciones del Año , Chile , Biodiversidad , Insectos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251733, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355875

RESUMEN

Abstract Mining is vital for human sustenance and a crucial sector in the state economy. However, its impacts on the environment and biodiversity cannot be underestimated. Which are potent to the attract government's attention. Environment and wildlife are subject to the harmful impacts of mining and its related activities. In this study, districts, namely Mardan and Mohmand have been targeted with respect to mining impacts. The assessment was carried out on wildlife adversely affected by the mining sector. The fauna has been keenly observed to bring the calculated risks and threat perception of the regional wildlife. Total 9 species of mammals, 21 species of birds, were recorded in District Mardan. While in District Mohmand 2 species of mammals, 9 species of birds, and 4 species of reptiles were studied. The Study explored that mining primarily responsible for land degradation. Which lead to food and agriculture losses. Several other factors like blasting, pollution, hunting, deforestation, habitat loss was also observed. Deforestation surfaced one of the major causes for extinction of fauna in the said region. preemptive measures are needed to seize the man-made catastrophe.


Resumo A mineração é vital para o sustento humano e um setor crucial na economia do Estado. No entanto, seus impactos sobre o meio ambiente e a biodiversidade não podem ser subestimados, visto serem potentes para atrair a atenção do governo. O meio ambiente e a vida selvagem estão sujeitos aos impactos prejudiciais da mineração e de suas atividades relacionadas. Neste estudo, os distritos, nomeadamente Mardan e Mohmand, foram selecionados ​​no que diz respeito aos impactos da mineração. A avaliação foi realizada em animais selvagens afetados negativamente pelo setor de mineração. A fauna tem sido observada atentamente para trazer os riscos calculados e a percepção de ameaça à vida selvagem regional. Um total de nove espécies de mamíferos, 21 espécies de pássaros, foi registrado no Distrito Mardan. Enquanto no Distrito Mohmand, duas espécies de mamíferos, nove espécies de pássaros e quatro espécies de répteis foram estudadas. O estudo explorou essa mineração que é principalmente responsável pela degradação do solo, acarretando perdas de alimentos e na agricultura. Vários outros fatores como explosões, poluição, caça, desmatamento, perda de habitat também foram observados. O desmatamento veio à tona como uma das principais causas de extinção da fauna da região, e tem-se que medidas preventivas são necessárias para dimensionar a catástrofe provocada pelo homem.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Biodiversidad , Animales Salvajes , Minería , Pakistán
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251566, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355890

RESUMEN

Abstract The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream


Resumo O Seybouse é um rio no nordeste da Argélia, é o segundo maior rio, tem uma área de captação de cerca de 6.500 km2 que acolhe cerca de 1,5 milhões de habitantes. Importantes atividades agrícolas e industriais são desenvolvidas nesta bacia hidrográfica. O uso de macroinvertebrados bentônicos como indicadores biológicos tem uma longa tradição em países desenvolvidos e está integrado em todas as avaliações da qualidade ecológica dos sistemas fluviais. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o inventário e o papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos nas águas interiores do rio Seybouse e determinar o impacto da poluição em suas distribuições. Resultados semelhantes foram relatados para outros países e rios argelinos. Este estudo enfoca a macrofauna bentônica de Wadi Seybouse e seus afluentes. Foram prospectados 03 locais, um no alto Seybousse Bouhamdane em Medjez Amar e dois no meio Seybousse Salah Salah Salah e Oued Zimba. Entre dezembro de 2019 e maio de 2020, dez parâmetros físico-químicos (pH, CE, DO, velocidade da água, NO3, Salinidade, NO2, MES, turbidez, deth) foram medidos para estabelecer um diagnóstico do estado de saúde desses ecossistemas aquáticos. A abordagem biológica complementar pela análise de populações de macroinvertebrados identificou 7.482 indivíduos e 40 táxons divididos em cinco classes: Crustáceos que são os mais dominantes, Insetos com as ordens principais (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera e Odonata), Moluscos, Nematóides e Anelídeos. As análises físico-químicas e a aplicação dos índices de poluição orgânica, indicaram uma poluição forte a excessiva para todos os locais especialmente Salah Salah Salah.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Ecosistema , Invertebrados , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Biodiversidad , Ríos
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253156, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355904

RESUMEN

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Resumo Os fungos endofíticos são um grupo ubiquituo que colonizam todas as espécies de plantas na terra. Os estudos que comparam a localização dos fungos endofíticos dentro das folhas de Manihot esculenta Crantz (mandioca) e o tempo de amostragem são muito escassos. Neste estudo, folhas maduras de M. esculenta foram coletadas do Panamá com a finalidade de comparar a diversidade cultivável de endófitos e determinar sua distribuição dentro das folhas. Um total de 170 endófitos foram isolados de 97 espécies que representam 13 gêneros e 8 morfoespécies determinadas como micélios esterilizados contendo 63 isolados. Os fungos Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia e mycelia sterilia 1 e 3 foram os isolados mais predominantes. Também detectamos que os endófitos variaram ao longo do tempo de amostragem, mas não entre os locais dentro das folhas. A composição de endófitos na amostragem e localização de endófitos dentro da folha foi semelhante, exceto para Periconia e mycelia sterilia 3 e 7. Os dados gerados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da biodiversidade de fungos endofíticos no Panamá e estabelecem as bases para pesquisas sobre o entendimento da função de endófitos em culturas de M. esculenta.


Asunto(s)
Ascomicetos , Manihot , Filogenia , Hojas de la Planta , Biodiversidad , Endófitos , Hongos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239642, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278543

RESUMEN

Abstract The knowledge of ant assemblages that occurs in Conservation Units in the Atlantic Forest domain is a priority, considering the number of endemic species and the impacts that this biome has been suffering. The aim of this study was to evaluate ant assemblages in the Turvo State Park, which is the largest conservation unit in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and presents an important role on biodiversity protection. Two samplings were conducted in 2019, one in the summer (January) and the other in the spring (November and December), at five sites 2 km apart, with pitfall traps (soil and canopy), sardine baits, glucose, beating net, sweeping net and manual collection. We sampled 121 species in the summer and 120 in the spring, totaling 163 ant species. A total of 78 species (47.8%) occurred in both sampling seasons. The richest genera in the study were Camponotus (S = 30), Pheidole (S = 23) and Linepithema (S = 11). Seventeen species were recorded for the first time for Rio Grande do Sul state. The results indicate that this is one of the most species-rich assemblages of ants ever surveyed in a conservation unit in southern Brazil. The study highlights the importance of Conservation Units as protected environments against habitat loss for ant biodiversity. The results of this study contribute to myrmecofauna knowledge and serve as a basis for environmental impact studies, management plans and conservation of Atlantic Forest remnants.


Resumo O conhecimento das assembleias de formigas que ocorrem em Unidades de Conservação no domínio Mata Atlântica é prioritário, considerando-se o número de espécies endêmicas e os impactos que este bioma vem sofrendo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar a assembleia de formigas que ocorre no Parque Estadual do Turvo, a maior unidade de conservação do Rio Grande do Sul que se destaca pelo seu papel na proteção da biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica austral. Foram realizadas duas amostragens no ano de 2019, uma no verão (janeiro) e a outra na primavera (novembro e dezembro), em cinco pontos distantes 2 km entre si, com armadilhas pitfall (solo e dossel), iscas de sardinha, iscas de glicose, guarda-chuva entomológico, rede de varredura e coleta manual. A riqueza amostrada no verão foi de 121 e na primavera de 120, totalizando 163 espécies. Ao todo, 78 espécies (47,8%) ocorreram concomitantemente nas duas amostragens. Os gêneros mais ricos foram Camponotus (S=30), Pheidole (S=23) e Linepithema (S=11). Dezessete espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os resultados se constituem em uma das mais ricas assembleias de formigas já inventariadas em uma unidade de conservação na região sul do Brasil. O estudo destaca a importância das Unidades de Conservação como ambientes protegidos contra a perda de habitat para a biodiversidade de formigas. Os resultados deste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da mirmecofauna e servem como base para estudos de impacto ambiental, planos de manejo e conservação de remanescentes da Mata Atlântica.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Hormigas , Estaciones del Año , Brasil , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249211, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345523

RESUMEN

Abstract This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H'=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H'=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information's regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para estimar a diversidade e a ocorrência de espécies de peixes comercialmente importantes coletadas por vinte locais de amostragem de peixes nas costas de Sindh e Baluchistão do mar da Arábia, no Paquistão, de janeiro a dezembro de 2019. Além disso, as características físico-químicas da água do mar foram analisadas a partir desses peixes locais selecionados e considerados dentro dos intervalos adequados necessários para o crescimento e sobrevivência dos peixes. Um total de 8.1287 indivíduos de peixes foi coletado e identificado como 49 espécies pertencentes a 26 famílias em nosso estudo. A família mais diversificada foi Sparidae (13 espécies), seguida por Carangidae e Lutjanidae (4 espécies), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 espécies) e Sciaenidae (2 espécies). As 20 famílias restantes foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Os valores do índice de diversidade de Shannon calculados para os quatro habitats selecionados revelaram que uma alta diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa Sonmiani (H' = 1,81), enquanto menos na costa Ormara (H' = 0,23). Da mesma forma, o índice de regularidade (E) foi alto na costa de Sonmiani (E = 0,50) e menos diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa de Ormara (E = 0,06). A redução dos riscos para as espécies marinhas ameaçadas em habitats costeiros também requer ações de conservação em várias escalas. Assim, concluiu-se que nosso estudo pode ser valioso para fornecer mais informações sobre a diversidade de espécies de peixes finos e sua ocorrência ao longo da costa do Paquistão. Além disso, para compreender melhor os efeitos, medidas regulares de monitoramento e conservação devem ser tomadas para mitigar a influência das atividades antropogênicas e proteger a diversidade de peixes finos de um declínio maior.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Agua , Biodiversidad , Agua de Mar , Ecosistema , Peces
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249229, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339374

RESUMEN

Abstract Birds are very valuable indicators of species richness and endemic patterns in a specified ecosystem, which eventually help the scientist to measure the environmental degradation. The aim of present study was to know human knowledge and attitude toward urban birds in Faisalabad city, Pakistan. The study conducted in four consecutive months: November 2019 to February 2020. Population of birds was noted from eight residential towns of Faisalabad city, data were collected through questionnaire. Faisalabad has a reasonably large population of birds and present data show that, there is a significant difference between favorite bird of residential areas and institutions. The pigeon received the most likeness in bird population among residential area residents, while the myna received the least. The most popular bird in Faisalabad institutions was the sparrow, while the least popular bird was the common myna. Bird adaptation percentage of residential areas and institutional areas of Faisalabad was the highest for parrot and sparrow respectively. People in residential areas and institutions, on the other hand, adapted least to common myna. It is concluded that people of the study area like birds and offered food and high population of birds are present in study area.


Resumo Os pássaros são indicadores muito valiosos da riqueza de espécies e padrões endêmicos em um determinado ecossistema, o que acaba ajudando o cientista a medir a degradação ambiental. O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer o conhecimento humano e a atitude em relação às aves urbanas na cidade de Faisalabad, Paquistão. O estudo foi conduzido em quatro meses consecutivos: novembro de 2019 a fevereiro de 2020. A população de pássaros foi observada em oito cidades residenciais da cidade de Faisalabad, os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário. Faisalabad tem uma população razoavelmente grande de pássaros, e os dados atuais mostram que há uma diferença significativa entre as aves favoritas de áreas residenciais e instituições. O pombo recebeu mais semelhanças na população de pássaros entre os residentes de áreas residenciais, enquanto o myna recebeu menos. A ave mais popular nas instituições de Faisalabad era o pardal, enquanto a ave menos popular era o myna comum. A porcentagem de adaptação de pássaros em áreas residenciais e institucionais de Faisalabad foi a mais alta para papagaios e pardais, respectivamente. As pessoas em áreas residenciais e instituições, por outro lado, se adaptaram menos ao myna comum. Conclui-se que pessoas da área de estudo como pássaros e alimentos oferecidos e alta população de pássaros estão presentes na área de estudo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Aves , Ecosistema , Pakistán , Ciudades , Biodiversidad
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243666, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339361

RESUMEN

Abstract Brazil is the world's richest country in biodiversity, including mammal species. In the Brazilian Cerrado biome, mammalian diversity is vast, with about 251 species, 32 of them are endemic and 22 listed as threatened species. In this work, we investigated species diversity of medium- and large-sized mammals in the private protected area RPPN Pontal do Jaburu (RPPN-PJ) and its surroundings, which is a flooded area located in an important biological corridor in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone zone, a priority area for biodiversity conservation in Brazil. We used camera-trapping, active search (night and day), and track survey during dry season (Apr - Aug 2016). We recorded 29 mammal species, being the Carnivora order the most representative with 11 species. Regarding threat status, 35.7% of the recorded species were listed as threatened in Brazil and 32.1% worldwide. We highlight the high relative frequency of threatened species records such as Tapirus terrestris, Panthera onca, Blastocerus dichotomus, Pteronura brasiliensis, Priodontes maximus, and other, as well as the presence of the newly described aquatic mammal species Inia araguaiaensis. We stress the importance of RPPN-PJ and its surroundings for mammal conservation, which include complex habitats (wetlands) located in an important ecotone zone.


Resumo O Brasil é o país mais rico em biodiversidade no mundo, incluindo espécies de mamíferos. No bioma Cerrado, a diversidade de mamíferos é enorme, com cerca de 251 espécies, sendo 32 delas endêmicas e 22 listadas como ameaçadas de extinção. Neste estudo, investigamos a diversidade de espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte da RPPN Pontal do Jaburu (RPPN-PJ) e seu entorno, que é uma floresta de inundação localizada em um importante corredor biológico na zona de ecótono Cerrado-Amazonia, uma área prioritária para conservação da biodiversidade no Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por armadilhas fotográficas, busca ativa (noturna e diurna) e identificação de pegadas durante a estação seca (abril - agosto de 2016). Registramos um grande número de espécies de mamíferos (n = 29), sendo a ordem carnívora a mais representativa com 11 espécies. Com relação ao status de ameaça, 34,5% das espécies registradas foram listadas como ameaçadas na lista vermelha do Brasil e 20,7% na lista vermelha da IUCN. Destacamos a alta frequência relativa de registros de espécies ameaçadas como Tapirus terrestris, Panthera onca, Blastocerus dichotomus, Pteronura brasiliensis, Priodontes maximus, bem como a presença da recém descrita espécie de mamífero aquático Inia araguaiaensis. Nós discutimos a importância da RPPN-PJ e seus arredores para a conservação de espécies de mamíferos, onde inclui habitats complexos (áreas de inundação) localizados em uma importante zona de ecótono.. Os resultados reforçam a relevância desta área para a conservação de mamíferos.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Humedales , Mamíferos , Brasil , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Biodiversidad
11.
Extremophiles ; 26(2): 16, 2022 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499659

RESUMEN

We studied the fungal DNA present in a lake sediment core obtained from Trinity Peninsula, Hope Bay, north-eastern Antarctic Peninsula, using metabarcoding through high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Sequences obtained were assigned to 146 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) primarily representing unknown fungi, followed by the phyla Ascomycota, Rozellomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mortierellomycota. The most abundant taxa were assigned to Fungal sp., Pseudeurotium hygrophilum, Rozellomycota sp. 1, Pseudeurotiaceae sp. 1 and Chytridiomycota sp. 1. The majority of the DNA reads, representing 40 ASVs, could only be assigned at higher taxonomic levels and may represent taxa not currently included in the sequence databases consulted and/or be previously undescribed fungi. Different sections of the core were characterized by high sequence diversity, richness and moderate ecological dominance indices. The assigned diversity was dominated by cosmopolitan cold-adapted fungi, including known saprotrophic, plant and animal pathogenic and symbiotic taxa. Despite the overall dominance of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota and psychrophilic Mortierellomycota, members of the cryptic phyla Rozellomycota and Chytridiomycota were also detected in abundance. As Boeckella Lake may cease to exist in approaching decades due the effects of local climatic changes, it also an important location for the study of the impacts of these changes on Antarctic microbial diversity.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Lagos , Animales , Regiones Antárticas , Bahías , Biodiversidad , Hongos/genética
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(19): e2013171119, 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500110

RESUMEN

SignificanceDespite a significant amount of recent research describing how tree species diversity improves forest productivity, few studies examine how tree diversity affects tree mortality, which is a key ecosystem function that drives succession, composition, and competition. Using a plot network from across Canada and the United States, here we show that plots with higher tree diversity also experience higher tree mortality. This effect becomes even more prominent when tree diversity effects are modeled holistically; in particular, more-diverse plots have higher stem densities, translating into higher mortality probabilities. We call for the use of integrated model frameworks when examining the response of forest ecosystem functions to diversity, thus ensuring proper accounting of direct and indirect effects.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Canadá , Bosques , Estados Unidos
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(19): e2107361119, 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500119

RESUMEN

SignificanceHuman activities are causing biodiversity loss, but there is still strong debate on their effect on species richness. Here, I propose a unification of five trajectories of species richness response to increasing human pressure under the "replace then remove framework." It consists in a first phase of assemblage transformation (with the replacement of "loser" by "winner" species), often followed by a second phase of steep decline in species richness (with the decline of many winner species) when human pressure exceeds a certain threshold. The empirical results presented in this study provide an outstanding illustration of assemblage transformations that may cause biotic homogenization, demonstrating how habitat specialist, endemic, sensitive, and threatened species are replaced by others with increasing human pressure.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Humanos
14.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0264501, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511881

RESUMEN

In many respects, freshwater springs can be considered as unique ecosystems on the fringe of aquatic habitats. This integrates their uniqueness in terms of stability of environmental metrics. The main objective of our study was to evaluate how environmental variables may shape invertebrate diversity and community composition in different freshwater spring types and habitats within. In order to do so, we sampled invertebrates from 49 springs in Iceland, where we included both limnocrene and rheocrene springs. At each site, samples were taken from the benthic substrate of the spring ("surface") and the upwelling groundwater at the spring source ("source"). To collect invertebrates from the spring sources we used a modified method of "electrobugging" and Surber sampler for collecting invertebrates from the surface. In total, 54 invertebrate taxa were identified, mostly Chironomidae (Diptera). Chironomid larvae also dominated in terms of abundance (67%), followed by Ostracoda (12%) and Copepoda (9%). The species composition in the surface samples differed considerably between rheocrene and limnocrene springs and was characterised by several indicator species. Alpha diversity was greater at the surface of springs than at the source, but the beta diversity was higher at the source. Diversity, as summarized by taxa richness and Shannon diversity, was negatively correlated with temperature at the surface. At the source, on the other hand, Shannon diversity increased with temperature. The community assembly in springs appears to be greatly affected by water temperature, with the source community of hot springs being more niche-assembled (i.e., affected by mechanisms of tolerance and adaptation) than the source community of cold springs, which is more dispersal-assembled (i.e., by mechanisms of drift and colonization).


Asunto(s)
Manantiales de Aguas Termales , Manantiales Naturales , Animales , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Agua Dulce , Invertebrados
15.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268048, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511960

RESUMEN

Although terrestrial gastropods are remarkably diverse, our knowledge of them is still lacking, especially for species from the Global South. As such, new tools to help researchers collect data on these organisms are very welcome. With this in mind, we investigated Brazilian observations on iNaturalist to assess the feasibility of the data available on the platform as a basis for studies on the tropical terrestrial gastropod fauna. The observations on iNaturalist were filtered by country, Brazil, and higher taxa, namely Eupulmonata, Cyclophoroidea and Helicinoidea, yielding a sample of 4,983 observations. These observations were then reviewed in search of records of rare or little-known species, species found outside their previously known range, and interesting ecological interactions. Exotic species made up 35% to 39% of the sampled iNaturalist records. The most commonly observed species were Lissachatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822), Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1822), Drymaeus papyraceus (Mawe, 1823), Drymaeus interpunctus (E. von Martens, 1887), Limacus flavus (Linnaeus, 1758), Meghimatium pictum (Stoliczka, 1873), Cornu aspersum (O. F. Müller, 1774), Vaginulus taunaisii (Férussac, 1821), Ovachlamys fulgens (Gude, 1900), and Bulimulus tenuissimus (Férussac, 1832). In total, 166 observations were deemed of interest to our purposes (e.g., rare species, range extensions, ecological interactions), totalling 46 identified species and 16 observations identified at genus level. Among the selected observations, we found pictures of live specimens of species that were previously known only from their shells, such as Megalobulimus pergranulatus (Pilsbry, 1901), bringing to light their appearances in life. Two potentially new species belonging to the genera Plekocheilus Guilding, 1827 and Megalobulimus K. Miller, 1878 were revealed. Additionally, we found records of living individuals of two species that were previously presumed to be possibly extinct, Leiostracus carnavalescus Simone & Salvador, 2016, and Gonyostomus egregius (Pfeiffer, 1845). We take the opportunity to discuss individual records of interest, evaluate the quality of the data and possible improvements, as well the potential and implications of the use of the iNaturalist platform for research in Brazil and other tropical countries. While iNaturalist has its limitations, it holds great potential to help document biodiversity in the tropics.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos , Moluscos , Animales , Biodiversidad , Brasil , Humanos
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2426, 2022 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504876

RESUMEN

Ecological interactions are ubiquitous on tropical coral reefs, where sessile organisms coexist in limited space. Within these high-diversity systems, reef-building scleractinian corals form an intricate interaction network. The role of biotic interactions among reef corals is well established on ecological timescales. However, its potential effect on macroevolutionary patterns remains unclear. By analysing the rich fossil record of Scleractinia, we show that reef coral biodiversity experienced marked evolutionary rate shifts in the last 3 million years, possibly driven by biotic interactions. Our models suggest that there was an overwhelming effect of staghorn corals (family Acroporidae) on the fossil diversity trajectories of other coral groups. Staghorn corals showed an unparalleled spike in diversification during the Pleistocene. But surprisingly, their expansion was linked with increases in both extinction and speciation rates in other coral families, driving a nine-fold increase in lineage turnover. These results reveal a double-edged effect of diversity dependency on reef evolution. Given their fast growth, staghorn corals may have increased extinction rates via competitive interactions, while promoting speciation through their role as ecosystem engineers. This suggests that recent widespread human-mediated reductions in staghorn coral cover, may be disrupting the key macroevolutionary processes that established modern coral reef ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Animales , Antozoos/genética , Biodiversidad , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema , Fósiles , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267203, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507597

RESUMEN

Conservation areas are critical for biodiversity conservation, but few citizen science studies have evaluated their efficiency. In the absence of thorough survey data, this study assessed which species benefit most from conservation areas using citizen science bird counts extracted from the Atlas of Living Australia. This was accomplished by fitting temporal models using citizen science data taken from ALA for the years 2010-2019 using the INLA approach. The trends for six resident shorebird species were compared to those for the Australian Pied Oystercatcher, with the Black-fronted Dotterel, Red-capped Dotterel, and Red-kneed Dotterel exhibiting significantly steeper increasing trends. For the Black-fronted Dotterel, Masked Lapwing, and Red-kneed Dotterel, steeper rising trends were recorded in conservation areas than in other locations. The Dotterel species' conservation status is extremely favourable. This study demonstrates that, with some limits, statistical models can be used to track the persistence of resident shorebirds and to investigate the factors affecting these data.


Asunto(s)
Charadriiformes , Ciencia Ciudadana , Animales , Australia , Biodiversidad , Aves , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales
19.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267799, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507599

RESUMEN

Studies covering the social valuation of ecosystem services (ES) are increasingly incorporating people's attitudes, which allows social heterogeneity to be identified. This is especially relevant in mountain areas, where diverse complex interactions occur among the environment, the socioeconomic system, and a wide variety of farming practices. In this context, we aimed to: (i) identify the attitudinal dimensions that build people views about the agrifood system; and (ii) analyse how these attitudinal dimensions influence the value given to ES delivered by mountain agroecosystems of two European countries. We conducted a survey with a sample of 1008 individuals evenly distributed in the Italian Alps and Spanish Mediterranean mountain areas to collect information on people's attitudes toward: (i) the economy and the environment; (ii) rural development and agricultural intensification; (iii) food quality, production, and consumption; and (iv) agricultural and environmental policies. The survey included a choice experiment to assess the value that individuals attach to the most relevant ES provided by mountain agroecosystems in these areas (i.e., landscape, biodiversity, quality local products, wildfires prevention and water quality). The results showed four common attitudinal dimensions, namely Economy over environment, Mass-Market distribution reliability, Agricultural productivism, and Environmentalism and rural lifestyle. These attitudinal dimensions resulted in six groups of respondents. Most groups positively valued an increase in the delivery of all the analysed ES, which suggests that agricultural policies which aim to promote ES are likely to receive social support in the study areas. However, the differing attitudinal dimensions underlying people's preferences may result in disagreements about the steps to be taken to achieve the desired increase in ES delivery.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Actitud , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2448, 2022 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508497

RESUMEN

The ecological and oceanographic processes that drive the response of pelagic ocean microbiomes to environmental changes remain poorly understood, particularly in coastal upwelling ecosystems. Here we show that seasonal and interannual variability in coastal upwelling predicts pelagic ocean microbiome diversity and community structure in the Southern California Current region. Ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, targeting prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes, from samples collected seasonally during 2014-2020 indicate that nitracline depth is the most robust predictor of spatial microbial community structure and biodiversity in this region. Striking ecological changes occurred due to the transition from a warm anomaly during 2014-2016, characterized by intense stratification, to cooler conditions in 2017-2018, representative of more typical upwelling conditions, with photosynthetic eukaryotes, especially diatoms, changing most strongly. The regional slope of nitracline depth exerts strong control on the relative proportion of highly diverse offshore communities and low biodiversity, but highly productive nearshore communities.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Plancton , Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Microbiota/genética , Nutrientes , Plancton/genética , Agua de Mar
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