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1.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 33: 33-40, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491027

RESUMEN

The purpose of the present study is to consider a number of possible risks that may emerge when processed human wastes are involved into mass exchange processes as fertilizers for plants cultivated in the experimental model of the closed ecosystem (CEEM). The problems relating to the disruption of cycling processes in closed ecosystems can be tentatively divided into two groups: the problems that can be rather easily overcome and the chronic problems. Addition of plant inedible biomass to the soil-like substrate (SLS) can result in a decrease in plant productivity because of allelopathic interactions and enhanced growth of microorganisms. The 30% decrease in wheat productivity by the end of long-duration experiments in the CEEM, with plants grown on quasi-non-renewed solutions based on liquid products prepared by physicochemical mineralization of human wastes, was caused by lower resistance of the plants affected by toxicants accumulated in the solution because of incomplete mineralization of the wastes. The reason for the differences between the macronutrient inflows and outflows was that the donor of human wastes followed a European-type diet while the system produced only part of the plant-based diet. Moreover, macronutrients were partly sorbed in rooting substrates and became unavailable to plants: the substrates in the system retained about 50% of the Ca and 20% ÷ 25% of the Mg, Na, and P inflows over one cycle. These problems are temporary and can be minimized in the foreseeable future.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Ecológicos Cerrados , Ecosistema , Biomasa , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Plantas
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 1): e20210805, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508022

RESUMEN

Carbonaceous aerosols can affect climate, especially particles containing black carbon (BC). BC originated from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and biomass, which can heat the atmosphere and increase ice melting, but little is known about BC sources to Antarctica. We quantified the contribution of distant origin (biomass burning) and local emissions (fossil fuel) to atmospheric BC concentration in the King George Island (Antarctic Peninsula) and the Southern Ocean. We examine the BC concentrations using a multi-wavelength Aethalometer AE-33 and AE-42 aboard the Brazilian Oceanographic Research Ship Almirante Maximiano. The results indicate that the region is influenced by local sources and air masses coming from surrounding continents. Fossil fuel combustion was the major source of carbonaceous aerosols in the region, whereas the total average concentration was 41.8 ± 22.8 ng m-3. The findings indicate a contribution of biomass burning coming from low and mid-latitudes of South America over the Antarctic Peninsula and the Southern Ocean around 62ºS latitude. We demonstrated that fossil fuel is the main contributor to atmospheric BC concentration for the Austral summer and autumn. Scientific stations, local tourism, and traffic are possible local BC sources. Our work invokes the urgency of questionable sustainability issues about Antarctica exploration.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Combustibles Fósiles , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Regiones Antárticas , Océano Atlántico , Biomasa , Brasil , Carbono/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Combustibles Fósiles/análisis , Estaciones del Año
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2469: 89-102, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508832

RESUMEN

Cell wall biopolymers are major factors responsible for the high recalcitrance of sugarcane biomass. The study of suberization and lignification mechanisms in sugarcane and of the networks that control biosynthesis of these polymers will contribute to the biotechnological improvement of this crop. Here, we describe experiments that allow the visualization of the suberization and lignification mechanism in response to mechanical injury in sugarcane.


Asunto(s)
Saccharum , Biomasa , Pared Celular , Grano Comestible , Lignina
4.
J Vis Exp ; (182)2022 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532279

RESUMEN

Bacterial biofilms are difficult to eradicate from surfaces using conventional antimicrobial interventions. High-throughput 96-well microplate methods are frequently used to cultivate bacterial biofilms for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing to calculate minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values. Standard biofilm devices consist of polystyrene pegged-lids fitted to 96-well microplates and are ideal for measuring biofilm biomass and MBEC values, but these devices are limited by available peg surface area for biomass accumulation and cost. Here, we outline a protocol to use self-assembled polypropylene 96-well deep well PCR-plate pegged-lid device to grow Escherichia coli BW25113 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. A comparison of 24-hour biofilms formed on standard and deep well devices by each species using crystal violet biomass staining and MBEC determination assays are described. The larger surface area of deep well devices expectedly increased overall biofilm formation by both species 2-4-fold. P. aeruginosa formed significantly greater biomass/mm2 on deep well pegs as compared to the standard device. E. coli had greater biomass/mm2 on standard polystyrene devices as compared the deep well device. Biofilm eradication assays with disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite (bleach) or benzalkonium chloride (BZK) showed that both compounds could eliminate E. coli and P. aeruginosa biofilms from both devices but at different MBEC values. BZK biofilm eradication resulted in variable E. coli MBEC values between devices, however, bleach demonstrated reproducible MBEC values for both species and devices. This study provides a high throughput deep well method for growing larger quantities of biofilms on polypropylene devices for downstream studies requiring higher amounts of static biofilm.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli , Poliestirenos , Antibacterianos , Bacterias , Biopelículas , Biomasa , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polipropilenos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2535, 2022 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534480

RESUMEN

Meeting the 1.5 °C target may require removing up to 1,000 Gtonne CO2 by 2100 with Negative Emissions Technologies (NETs). We evaluate the impacts of Direct Air Capture and Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (DACCS and BECCS), finding that removing 5.9 Gtonne/year CO2 can prevent <9·102 disability-adjusted life years per million people annually, relative to a baseline without NETs. Avoiding this health burden-similar to that of Parkinson's-can save substantial externalities (≤148 US$/tonne CO2), comparable to the NETs levelized costs. The health co-benefits of BECCS, dependent on the biomass source, can exceed those of DACCS. Although both NETs can help to operate within the climate change and ocean acidification planetary boundaries, they may lead to trade-offs between Earth-system processes. Only DACCS can avert damage to the biosphere integrity without challenging other biophysical limits (impacts ≤2% of the safe operating space). The quantified NETs co-benefits can incentivize their adoption.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Agua de Mar , Biomasa , Secuestro de Carbono , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7527, 2022 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534634

RESUMEN

The rapid growth rate, high biomass production, and annual harvesting make bamboo a suitable species for commercial production. Allometric equations for many broadleaf and conifer tree species are available. However, knowledge of biomass production and allometric equations of bamboos is limited. This study aims to develop species- specific allometric models for predicting biomass and synthetic height values as a proxy variable for seven bamboo species in Himalayan foothills. Two power form-based allometric models were used to predict aboveground and culm biomass using diameter at breast height (D) alone and D combined with culm height (H) as an independent variable. This study also extended to establishing an H-D allometric model that can be used to generate synthetic H values as a proxy to missing H. In the seven bamboo species studied, among three major biomass components (culm, branch and foliage), culm is the most important component with the highest share (69.56-78.71%). The distribution of percentage (%) share of culm, branch and foliage to above-ground fresh weight varies significantly between different bamboo species. D. hamiltonii has the highest productivity for above-ground biomass components. Ratio of dry to fresh weight of seven bamboo species was estimated for culm, branch, foliage and above-ground biomass to convert fresh weight to dry weight.


Asunto(s)
Tracheophyta , Árboles , Biomasa , India
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7106, 2022 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501329

RESUMEN

Declines in abundance of scleractinian corals on shallow Caribbean reefs have left many reefs dominated by forests of arborescent octocorals. The ecological mechanisms favoring their persistence require exploration. We quantified octocoral communities from 2014 to 2019 at two sites in St. John, US Virgin Islands, and evaluated their dynamics to assess whether portfolio effects might contribute to their resilience. Octocorals were identified to species, or species complexes, and their abundances and heights were measured, with height2 serving as a biomass proxy. Annual variation in abundance was asynchronous among species, except when they responded in similar ways to hurricanes in September 2017. Multivariate changes in octocoral communities, viewed in 2-dimensional ordinations, were similar between sites, but analyses based on density differed from those based on the biomass proxy. On the density scale, variation in the community composed of all octocoral species was indistinguishable from that quantified with subsets of 6-10 of the octocoral species at one of the two sites, identifying structural redundancy in the response of the community. Conservation of the relative colony size-frequency structure, combined with temporal changes in the species represented by the tallest colonies, suggests that portfolio effects and functional redundancy stabilize the vertical structure and canopy in these tropical octocoral forests.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Tormentas Ciclónicas , Animales , Antozoos/fisiología , Biomasa , Región del Caribe , Bosques
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 749-756, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524528

RESUMEN

In Taiyue Mountain of Shanxi Province, five types of organic matter, i.e., biochar, maize straw, leaves of Quercus mongolica and Pinus tabuliformis, and sawdust of wood stem, were separately added to the soils of a P. tabuliformis forest. Nutrient content, enzyme activity, and microbial biomass were analyzed to elucidate the characteristics of soil ecoenzymatic stoichiometry and the element homeostasis of soil microorganisms. The results showed that the addition of woody sawdust significantly increased soil nitrogen and phosphorus content by 17.1% and 37.6%, and enhanced carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents of soil microbial biomass by 118.0%, 41.0%, and 176.6%, respectively. The activities of carbon-, nitrogen- and phosphorus-targeting enzymes (i.e., ß-1, 4-glucosaminosidase, ß-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminosidase, leucine aminopeptidase and acid phosphatase) generally increased with the C:N of the added organic matter (biochar

Asunto(s)
Pinus , Suelo , Biomasa , Carbono/análisis , China , Bosques , Homeostasis , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo/análisis , Microbiología del Suelo , Zea mays
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(5): 374, 2022 Apr 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437705

RESUMEN

Increasing environmental concerns have brought natural surfactant produced by microorganisms into limelight due to their lesser toxicity, biodegradable nature, and retention of activity at extreme conditions. In the present investigation, the surfactant production perspective of capsulated Gram-negative bacilli Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae BK34 was explored. It was identified on the basis of PCR amplification of conserved region of 16SrRNA using species specific primers. Highest oil displacement and emulsification (E24) index of 6.8 cm and 20% along with 4.38-fold increase in biomass were attained using olive oil (2% (v/v)) as substrate. Incorporation of urea at 0.5% (w/v) concentration increased the oil displacement, E24 index, and drop diameter to 9.2 cm, 77.50%, and 0.80 cm, respectively, accompanied by 5.38-fold increase in biomass production. Biosurfactant level was recorded maximum at 30 °C as apparent from the oil displacement of 9.3 cm and E24 index of 75%. Reduction in incubation temperature to 25 °C abated oil displacement (5.2 cm) and E24 index (17.66%). Biosurfactant production was also appeared to be pH sensitive as shifting pH from 7.0 to 6.0 or 8.0 reduced the E24 index from 75 to 35% and 25%, respectively. Inoculum of stationary phase bacterial biomass at the proportion of 0.05% (w/v) was found adequate in triggering maximum biosurfactant production while the log phase biomass delayed the production significantly. Acid precipitation method was able to yield 7 g/L biosurfactant at pH 2. The surfactant was allocated to glycolipopeptide class on the basis of FTIR spectroscopy.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Biomasa , Klebsiella pneumoniae/metabolismo , Tensoactivos/química , Temperatura
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 352: 127129, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398537

RESUMEN

Wastewater generated by the food industry is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus with possible presence of heavy metals. Physical and chemical methods of treatment, although effective, are expensive and may cause secondary environmental pollution damaging aquatic and human life. Traditional biological methods are eco-friendly and cost-effective but involve standalone microorganisms that pose risk of contamination and are not as effective. This review discusses the application of novel microalgal-bacterial consortium as a solution for the resource recovery and treatment of dairy, starch and aquaculture wastewater. Use of biofilm reactors containing anaerobic and aerobic sludge has shown 80-90% and > 90% COD and nutrient removal efficiency in treatment of dairy and starch processing wastewater, respectively. The treatment of aquaculture processing wastewater can be challenging due to high sality and requires salt-tolerant bacteria-microalgae consortium. In this regard, the identification of dominant microalgae and bacteria using 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Microalgas , Aguas Residuales , Bacterias , Biomasa , Industria de Alimentos , Humanos , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Almidón
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409427

RESUMEN

Microalgae are considered a promising source for biodiesel. The addition of plant hormone can exert a significant impact on the production of microalgae biomass and lipid accumulation. Nevertheless, the response of microalgae cells to hormones is species- or strain-dependent. It remains controversial which genes involved in strong increase of fatty acids production in response to abscisic acid (ABA) in Chlorella sp. FACHB-8 strain. We investigated cell growth, lipid accumulation, and fatty acid composition when ABA and indol-3-acetic acid (IAA) were used in the growth medium of Chlorella sp. FACHB-8. The four treatments, including 5 mg/L IAA (E1), 10 mg/L IAA (E2), 10 mg/L ABA (E3), the combination of 5 mg/L IAA and 5 mg/L ABA (E4), were found to increase cell growth, but only 10 mg/L ABA treatment could enhance the lipid accumulation. The fatty acid profile was changed by the addition of ABA, making fatty acids afflux from polyunsaturated fatty acids to monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which were suitable for diesel application. Furthermore, a transcriptome analysis was conducted, unraveling the differentially expressed genes enriched in fatty acid biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and biosynthesis of the unsaturated fatty acid pathway in response to ABA. Our results clarified the correlation of fatty acid synthesis-related genes and fatty acid profiles, helping understand the potential response mechanism of Chlorella sp. FACHB-8 strain respond to ABA treatment.


Asunto(s)
Chlorella , Microalgas , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacología , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Biocombustibles , Biomasa , Chlorella/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408699

RESUMEN

Yarrowia lipolytica, an oleagineous species of yeast, is a carrier of various important nutrients. The biomass of this yeast is an extensive source of protein, exogenous amino acids, bioavailable essenctial trace minerals, and lipid compounds as mainly unsaturated fatty acids. The biomass also contains B vitamins, including vitamin B12, and many other bioactive components. Therefore, Y. lipolytica biomass can be used in food supplements for humans as safe and nutritional additives for maintaining the homeostasis of the organism, including for vegans and vegetarians, athletes, people after recovery, and people at risk of B vitamin deficiencies.


Asunto(s)
Yarrowia , Biomasa , Humanos , Yarrowia/metabolismo
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6046, 2022 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411062

RESUMEN

The staggering rate of population growth has augmented the reliance on fossil fuel utilization, and it kindled the society to explore alternative and sustainable sources of energy. In this regard, biodiesel from microalgae came to the limelight; but crucial energy-consuming and expensive processes like cultivation, harvesting, and drying make the microalgal biodiesel unsustainable and economically unfeasible. To surpass these impediments, in this research work, a low-cost box-type passive solar dryer (BTPSD) is designed and fabricated with zero energy consumption mode and compared with conventional hot air oven for drying the biomass, neutral lipids of the marine microalga Chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel application. The onset of the work, BTPSD with 2 cm thickness of glass wool as TIM (thermal insulation material), 4 cm TIM thickness and no TIM was simulated for thermal storage behaviour using ANSYS FLUENT 19.2 Computational Fluid Dynamics tool and based on the results, 4 cm TIM thickness was chosen for experimentation. The time taken by BTPSD and hot air oven to remove the moisture from algal biomass is 3 and 2 h, respectively, whereas for neutral lipids drying, it was 4 and 3.5 h, respectively. Though there is a little difference in drying time, neutral lipid and FAME content from both drying systems are tantamount, i.e., ~ 12% neutral lipid and 95% FAME. Further, the percentage of vital fatty acids identified from BTPSD and hot air oven methods are almost similar, i.e., C16:0 (23.4%), C18:1 (14.3%), C18:3 (11.42%), C18:1 (9.22%). Though the time taken for valorizing biomass and neutral lipids of C. vulgaris by BTPSD is slightly longer than hot air oven, low energy consumption and cost-effectiveness make the BTPSD a promising system to scale down the microalgal biodiesel production cost significantly.


Asunto(s)
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Biocombustibles , Biomasa , Lípidos
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(15): 4677-4689, 2022 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384649

RESUMEN

The unicellular freshwater green alga Haematococcus pluvialis has attracted much research attention due to its biosynthetic ability for large amounts of astaxanthin, a blood-red ketocarotenoid that is used in cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Recently, numerous studies have investigated the functions of natural astaxanthin; however, the high cost of the production of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis cultures restricts its commercial viability. There is an urgent need to fulfill commercial demands by increasing astaxanthin accumulation from H. pluvialis cultures. In this study, we discovered that treatment of H. pluvialis cultures at the beginning of the macrozooid stage (day 0) with 1 µM rac-GR24, a synthetic analogue of strigolactones (a class of phytohormones), led to significant increases in biomass [up to a maximum dry cell weight (DCW) of 0.53 g/L] during the macrozooid stage and astaxanthin (from 0.63 to 5.32% of DCW) during the hematocyst stage. We elucidated that this enhancement of biomass accumulation during the macrozooid stage by rac-GR24 is due to its increasing CO2 utilization efficiency in photosynthesis and carbohydrate biosynthesis. We also found that rac-GR24 stimulated the overproduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and antioxidant enzymes in H. pluvialis cultures, which alleviated the oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species generated during the hematocyst stage due to the exhaustion of nitrogen supplies. Moreover, rac-GR24 treatment of H. pluvialis synergistically altered the activity of the pathways of fatty acid biosynthesis and astaxanthin esterification, which resulted in larger amounts of astaxanthin being generated by rac-GR24-treated cultures than by controls. In summary, we have developed a feasible and economic rac-GR24-assisted strategy that increases the amounts of biomass and astaxanthin generated by H. pluvialis cultures, and have provided novel insights into the mechanistic roles of rac-GR24 to achieve these effects.


Asunto(s)
Chlorophyceae , Biomasa , Suplementos Dietéticos , Xantófilas
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409382

RESUMEN

In nature, the deconstruction of plant carbohydrates is carried out by carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). A high-throughput (HTP) strategy was used to isolate and clone 1476 genes obtained from a diverse library of recombinant CAZymes covering a variety of sequence-based families, enzyme classes, and source organisms. All genes were successfully isolated by either PCR (61%) or gene synthesis (GS) (39%) and were subsequently cloned into Escherichia coli expression vectors. Most proteins (79%) were obtained at a good yield during recombinant expression. A significantly lower number (p < 0.01) of proteins from eukaryotic (57.7%) and archaeal (53.3%) origin were soluble compared to bacteria (79.7%). Genes obtained by GS gave a significantly lower number (p = 0.04) of soluble proteins while the green fluorescent protein tag improved protein solubility (p = 0.05). Finally, a relationship between the amino acid composition and protein solubility was observed. Thus, a lower percentage of non-polar and higher percentage of negatively charged amino acids in a protein may be a good predictor for higher protein solubility in E. coli. The HTP approach presented here is a powerful tool for producing recombinant CAZymes that can be used for future studies of plant cell wall degradation. Successful production and expression of soluble recombinant proteins at a high rate opens new possibilities for the high-throughput production of targets from limitless sources.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli , Plantas , Biomasa , Carbohidratos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Biblioteca de Genes , Humanos , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo
16.
Mar Drugs ; 20(4)2022 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447937

RESUMEN

Projections show that the cultivation of microalgae will extend to the production of bio-based compounds, such as biofuels, cosmetics, and medicines. This will generate co-products or residues that will need to be valorized to reduce the environmental impact and the cost of the process. This study explored the ability of lipid-extracted Chlorella vulgaris residue as a sole carbon and nitrogen source for growing oleaginous yeasts without any pretreatment. Both wild-type Yarrowia lipolytica W29 and mutant JMY3501 (which was designed to accumulate more lipids without their remobilization or degradation) showed a similar growth rate of 0.28 h-1 at different pH levels (3.5, 5.5, and 7.5). However, the W29 cell growth had the best cell number on microalgal residue at a pH of 7.5, while three times fewer cells were produced at all pH levels when JMY3501 was grown on microalgal residue. The JMY3501 growth curves were similar at pH 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5, while the fatty-acid composition differed significantly, with an accumulation of α-linolenic acid on microalgal residue at a pH of 7.5. Our results demonstrate the potential valorization of Chlorella vulgaris residue for Yarrowia lipolytica growth and the positive effect of a pH of 7.5 on the fatty acid profile.


Asunto(s)
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Yarrowia , Biocombustibles , Biomasa , Chlorella vulgaris/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Lípidos , Microalgas/metabolismo
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 288: 119181, 2022 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450615

RESUMEN

Paramylon is a linear ß-1,3-glucan, similar to curdlan, produced as intracellular granules by the microalga Euglena gracilis, a highly versatile and robust strain, able to grow under various trophic conditions, with valorization of CO2, wastewaters, or food byproducts as nutrients. This review focuses in particular on the various processing routes leading to new potential paramylon based products. Due to its crystalline structure, involving triple helices stabilized by internal intermolecular hydrogen bonds, paramylon is neither water-soluble nor thermoplastic. The few solvents able to disrupt the triple helices, and to fully solubilize the polymer as random coils, allow non derivatizing shaping into films, fibers, and even nanofibers by a specific self-assembly mechanism. Chemical modification in homogeneous or heterogeneous conditions is also possible. The non-selective or regioselective substitution of the hydroxyl groups of glucosidic units leads to water-soluble ionic derivatives and thermoplastic paramylon esters with foreseen applications ranging from health to bioplastics.


Asunto(s)
Euglena gracilis , Microalgas , Biomasa , Euglena gracilis/química , Glucanos , Agua
18.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 114: 136-148, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459479

RESUMEN

The atmospheric chemistry in complex air pollution remains poorly understood. In order to probe how environmental conditions can impact the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from biomass burning emissions, we investigated the photooxidation of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) under different environmental conditions in a smog chamber. It was found that SO2 could promote the formation of SOA and increase the amounts of inorganic salts produced during the photooxidation. The formation rate of SOA and the corresponding SOA mass concentration increased gradually with the increasing DMF/OH ratio. The addition of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol accelerated the SOA formation rate and significantly shortened the time for the reaction to reach equilibrium. Additionally, a relatively high illumination intensity promoted the formation of OH radicals and, correspondingly, enhanced the photooxidation of DMF. However, the enhancement of light intensity accelerated the aging of SOA, which led to a gradual decrease of the SOA mass concentration. This work shows that by having varying influence on atmospheric chemical reactions, the same environmental factor can affect SOA formation in different ways. The present study is helpful for us to better understand atmospheric complex pollution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Aerosoles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Biomasa , Oxidación-Reducción , Esmog
19.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 114: 249-258, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459490

RESUMEN

Herein, we use an oxidation flow reactor, Gothenburg: Potential Aerosol Mass (Go: PAM) reactor, to investigate the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from wheat straw burning. Biomass burning emissions are exposed to high concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) to simulate processes equivalent to atmospheric oxidation of 0-2.55 days. Primary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated, and particles were measured before and after the Go: PAM reactor. The influence of water content (i.e. 5% and 11%) in wheat straw was also explored. Two burning stages, the flaming stage, and non-flaming stages, were identified. Primary particle emission factors (EFs) at a water content of 11% (∼3.89 g/kg-fuel) are significantly higher than those at a water content of 5% (∼2.26 g/kg-fuel) during the flaming stage. However, the water content showed no significant influence at the non-flaming stage. EFs of aromatics at a non-flaming stage (321.8±46.2 mg/kg-fuel) are larger than that at a flaming stage (130.9±37.1 mg/kg-fuel). The OA enhancement ratios increased with the increase in OH exposure at first and decreased with the additional increment of OH exposure. The maximum OA enhancement ratio is ∼12 during the non-flaming stages, which is much higher than ∼ 1.7 during the flaming stages. The mass spectrum of the primary wheat burning organic aerosols closely resembles that of resolved biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOA) based on measurements in ambient air. Our results show that large gap (∼60%-90%) still remains to estimate biomass burning SOA if only the oxidation of VOCs were included.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Biomasa , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Agua
20.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(6): 96, 2022 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460020

RESUMEN

The recent works have shown the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a relevant model for investigations of algal bioprocesses. In the current work, several media were evaluated in batch mode for a better understanding of C. reinhardtii metabolism. Nutrient-suppression using heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions were performed. The findings showed C. reinhardtii metabolized lactose (from milk whey permeate) resulting in high biomass density (2.08 g/L) and total chlorophyll content (86.74 mg/m3). It was observed a specific growth rate of 0.023 h and 29 h for the doubling time. In sulfur-suppression, the algal growth (1.17 g/L) was reduced even though a carbon source (glucose) has been supplemented. Also, the specific growth rate (0.022 h) and the doubling time (31 h) was verified. The production of ethanol was slight and the acetic acid-suppression affected the C. reinhardtii performance providing slow cell growth (0.004 h) and high doubling time (154 h).


Asunto(s)
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , Biomasa , Carbono/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Procesos Heterotróficos
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