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1.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114354, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763639

RESUMEN

Carotenoids, versatile natural pigments with numerous health benefits, face environmental concerns associated with conventional petrochemical-based extraction methods and limitations of their synthetic equivalents. In this context, this study aims to introduce eco-friendly approaches using ultrasound-based strategies (probe and bath) for the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae, initially focusing on Microchloropsis gaditana and subsequently evaluating the versatility of the method by applying it to other microalgae species of interest (Tisochrysis lutea, Porphyridium cruentum, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and defatted microalgal residues. Among the approaches evaluated, the 5-min ultrasonic probe system with ethanol showed comparable carotenoid recovery efficiency to the reference method (agitation, 24 h, acetone) (9.4 ± 2.5 and 9.6 ± 3.2 mg g-1 carotenoids per dry biomass, for the green and the reference method, respectively). Moreover, the method's sustainability was demonstrated using the AGREEprep™ software (scored 0.62 out of 1), compared to the traditional method (0.22 out of 1). The developed method yielded high carotenoid contents across species with diverse cell wall compositions (3.1 ± 0.2, 2.1 ± 0.3, and 4.1 ± 0.1 mg g-1 carotenoid per dry biomass for T. lutea, P. cruentum, and P. tricornutum, respectively). Moreover, the application of the method to defatted biomass showed potential for microalgal valorization with carotenoid recovery rates of 41 %, 60 %, 61 %, and 100 % for M.gaditana, P. tricornutum, T. lutea, and P. cruentum, compared to the original biomass, respectively. Furthermore, by using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), we reported the carotenoid and chlorophyll profiles of the different microalgae and evaluated the impact of the eco-friendly methods. The carotenoid and chlorophyll profiles varied depending on the species, biomass, and method used. In summary, this study advances a green extraction method with improved environmental sustainability and shorter extraction time, underscoring the potential of this approach as a valuable alternative for the extraction of microalgal pigments.


Asunto(s)
Carotenoides , Microalgas , Carotenoides/análisis , Carotenoides/aislamiento & purificación , Microalgas/química , Espectrometría de Masas , Ultrasonido/métodos , Biomasa , Tecnología Química Verde
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11469, 2024 05 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769392

RESUMEN

Large amount of wastes are burnt or left to decompose on site or at landfills where they cause air pollution and nutrient leaching to groundwater. Waste management strategies that return these food wastes to agricultural soils recover the carbon and nutrients that would otherwise have been lost, enrich soils and improve crop productivity. The incorporation of liming materials can neutralize the protons released, hence reducing soil acidity and its adverse impacts to the soil environment, food security, and human health. Biochar derived from organic residues is becoming a source of carbon input to soil and provides multifunctional values. Biochar can be alkaline in nature, with the level of alkalinity dependent upon the feedstock and processing conditions. This study conducted a characterization of biochar derived from the pyrolysis process of eggplant and Acacia nilotica bark at temperatures of 300 °C and 600 °C. An analysis was conducted on the biochar kinds to determine their pH, phosphorus (P), as well as other elemental composition. The proximate analysis was conducted by the ASTM standard 1762-84, while the surface morphological features were measured using a scanning electron microscope. The biochar derived from Acacia nilotica bark exhibited a greater yield and higher level of fixed carbon while possessing a lower content of ash and volatile components compared to biochar derived from eggplant. The eggplant biochar exhibits a higher liming ability at 600 °C compared to the acacia nilotica bark-derived biochar. The calcium carbonate equivalent, pH, potassium (K), and phosphorus (P) levels in eggplant biochars increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The results suggest that biochar derived from eggplant could be a beneficial resource for storing carbon in the soil, as well as for addressing soil acidity and enhancing nutrients availability, particularly potassium and phosphorus in acidic soils.


Asunto(s)
Biomasa , Carbón Orgánico , Pirólisis , Carbón Orgánico/química , Fósforo/química , Fósforo/análisis , Madera/química , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Suelo/química , Temperatura , Acacia/química , Carbono/química , Carbono/análisis
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 426, 2024 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769488

RESUMEN

To alleviate the selenium (Se) stress in fruit trees and improve its accumulation, the effects of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on the growth and Se accumulation of grapevine under Se stress were studied. The application of exogenous IAA increased the biomass of grapevine, and the concentration of exogenous IAA had a regression relationship with the biomass. The root and shoot biomass were the maximum at 60 mg L- 1 IAA, increasing by 15.61% and 23.95%, respectively, compared with the control. Exogenous IAA also increased the photosynthetic pigments and the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in grapevine. Moreover, exogenous IAA increased the contents of total Se, organic Se, and inorganic Se, and the concentration of exogenous IAA had a regression relationship with the total Se content. The highest contents of root total Se and shoot total Se were accumulated at 90 mg L- 1 IAA, increasing by 29.94% and 55.77% respectively,. In addition, the correlation and path analyses revealed that the carotenoid content and root total Se content were closely associated with the shoot total Se content. Therefore, the application of exogenous IAA can alleviate the stress of Se to grape and promote its uptake and the most effective amount for the uptake of Se is 90 mg L- 1 IAA.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Indolacéticos , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas , Selenio , Vitis , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Selenio/metabolismo , Vitis/efectos de los fármacos , Vitis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Vitis/metabolismo , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Brotes de la Planta/metabolismo , Brotes de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Brotes de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Biomasa
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10938, 2024 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740878

RESUMEN

Plant disease often increases with N, decreases with CO2, and increases as biodiversity is lost (i.e., the dilution effect). Additionally, all these factors can indirectly alter disease by changing host biomass and hence density-dependent disease transmission. Yet over long periods of time as communities undergo compositional changes, these biomass-mediated pathways might fade, intensify, or even reverse in direction. Using a field experiment that has manipulated N, CO2, and species richness for over 20 years, we compared severity of a specialist rust fungus (Puccinia andropogonis) on its grass host (Andropogon gerardii) shortly after the experiment began (1999) and twenty years later (2019). Between these two sampling periods, two decades apart, we found that disease severity consistently increased with N and decreased with CO2. However, the relationship between diversity and disease reversed from a dilution effect in 1999 (more severe disease in monocultures) to an amplification effect in 2019 (more severe disease in mixtures). The best explanation for this reversal centered on host density (i.e., aboveground biomass), which was initially highest in monoculture, but became highest in mixtures two decades later. Thus, the diversity-disease pattern reversed, but disease consistently increased with host biomass. These results highlight the consistency of N and CO2 as drivers of plant disease in the Anthropocene and emphasize the critical role of host biomass-despite potentially variable effects of diversity-for relationships between biodiversity and disease.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Biomasa , Dióxido de Carbono , Nitrógeno , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/prevención & control , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/genética , Poaceae/microbiología
5.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 138, 2024 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750569

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) serve as effective tools for understanding cellular phenotypes and predicting engineering targets in the development of industrial strain. Enzyme-constrained genome-scale metabolic models (ecGEMs) have emerged as a valuable advancement, providing more accurate predictions and unveiling new engineering targets compared to models lacking enzyme constraints. In 2022, a stoichiometric GEM, iDL1450, was reconstructed for the industrially significant fungus Myceliophthora thermophila. To enhance the GEM's performance, an ecGEM was developed for M. thermophila in this study. RESULTS: Initially, the model iDL1450 underwent refinement and updates, resulting in a new version named iYW1475. These updates included adjustments to biomass components, correction of gene-protein-reaction (GPR) rules, and a consensus on metabolites. Subsequently, the first ecGEM for M. thermophila was constructed using machine learning-based kcat data predicted by TurNuP within the ECMpy framework. During the construction, three versions of ecGEMs were developed based on three distinct kcat collection methods, namely AutoPACMEN, DLKcat and TurNuP. After comparison, the ecGEM constructed using TurNuP-predicted kcat values performed better in several aspects and was selected as the definitive version of ecGEM for M. thermophila (ecMTM). Comparing ecMTM to iYW1475, the solution space was reduced and the growth simulation results more closely resembled realistic cellular phenotypes. Metabolic adjustment simulated by ecMTM revealed a trade-off between biomass yield and enzyme usage efficiency at varying glucose uptake rates. Notably, hierarchical utilization of five carbon sources derived from plant biomass hydrolysis was accurately captured and explained by ecMTM. Furthermore, based on enzyme cost considerations, ecMTM successfully predicted reported targets for metabolic engineering modification and introduced some new potential targets for chemicals produced in M. thermophila. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the incorporation of enzyme constraint to iYW1475 not only improved prediction accuracy but also broadened the model's applicability. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of integrating of machine learning-based kcat data in the construction of ecGEMs especially in situations where there is limited measured enzyme kinetic parameters for a specific organism.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Automático , Redes y Vías Metabólicas , Sordariales , Sordariales/metabolismo , Sordariales/enzimología , Sordariales/genética , Ingeniería Metabólica/métodos , Biomasa , Modelos Biológicos , Cinética , Genoma Fúngico
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302680, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753896

RESUMEN

Scalesia pendunculata Hook.f. is the dominant tree in several highlands' areas of the Galapagos Archipelago, yet in inhabited islands the conversion to agricultural fields has reduced its cover. The transition to agroforestry systems including the species shows promising scenarios to restore its cover and to provide ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Here, based on field gathered data, we model the potential contribution of S. pedunculata stands in the carbon sequestration of Galapagos. Between 2013-2021, 426 S. pedunculata seedlings were planted in the highlands of Santa Cruz and Floreana islands using several restoration technologies, and their height and survival were monitored every three months. A sub-sample of 276 trees alive since 2020 was used to estimate the DBH based on plant age and height. Based on scientific literature, biomass and carbon content were estimated across time. The final modelling included the density of plants in the restoration sites, estimated DBH, potential survival by restoration treatment, and a Brownian noise to add stochastic events. Overall, survival of S. pedunculata was high in control and slightly increased by most restoration treatments. A stand of 530 trees/ha was projected to sequester ~21 Mg C/ha in 10 years. If this is replicated over all Galapagos coffee production would contribute to the reduction of -1.062% of the Galapagos carbon footprint for the same period. This study adds to compiling benefits of restoring Galapagos flora.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Secuestro de Carbono , Agricultura/métodos , Ecuador , Ecosistema , Carbono/metabolismo , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Biomasa , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4141, 2024 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755127

RESUMEN

Soil biodiversity contains the metabolic toolbox supporting organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling in the soil. However, as soil develops over millions of years, the buildup of plant cover, soil carbon and microbial biomass may relax the dependence of soil functions on soil biodiversity. To test this hypothesis, we evaluate the within-site soil biodiversity and function relationships across 87 globally distributed ecosystems ranging in soil age from centuries to millennia. We found that within-site soil biodiversity and function relationship is negatively correlated with soil age, suggesting a stronger dependence of ecosystem functioning on soil biodiversity in geologically younger than older ecosystems. We further show that increases in plant cover, soil carbon and microbial biomass as ecosystems develop, particularly in wetter conditions, lessen the critical need of soil biodiversity to sustain function. Our work highlights the importance of soil biodiversity for supporting function in drier and geologically younger ecosystems with low microbial biomass.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Biomasa , Carbono , Ecosistema , Microbiología del Suelo , Suelo , Suelo/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Carbono/análisis , Plantas
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11248, 2024 05 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755228

RESUMEN

An effective strategy for enhancing fruit production continuity during extended sweet pepper season involves adopting innovative biostimulants such as potassium silicate (PS) and vinasse. Adjusting PS and vinasse concentrations are crucial for maintaining the balance between vegetative and fruit growth, particularly in sweet pepper with a shallow root system, to sustain fruiting over prolonged season. However, the interaction between PS and vinasse and the underlying physiological mechanisms that extend the sweet pepper season under greenhouse conditions remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the impact of PS and vinasse treatments on the yield and biochemical constituents of perennial pepper plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions. For two consecutive seasons [2018/2019 and 2019/2020], pepper plants were sprayed with PS (0, 0.5, and 1 g/l) and drenched with vinasse (0, 1, 2, and 3 l/m3). To estimate the impact of PS and vinasse on the growth, yield, and biochemical constituents of pepper plants, fresh and dry biomass, potential fruit yield, and some biochemical constituents were evaluated. Results revealed that PS (0.5 g/l) coupled with vinasse (3 l/m3) generated the most remarkable enhancement, in terms of plant biomass, total leaf area, total yield, and fruit weight during both growing seasons. The implementation of vinasse at 3 l/m3 with PS at 0.5 and 1 g/l demonstrated the most pronounced augmentation in leaf contents (chlorophyll index, nitrogen and potassium), alongside improved fruit quality, including total soluble solid and ascorbic acid contents, of extended sweet pepper season. By implementing the optimal combination of PS and vinasse, growers can significantly enhance the biomass production while maintaining a balance in fruiting, thereby maximizing the prolonged fruit production of superior sweet pepper under greenhouse conditions.


Asunto(s)
Capsicum , Frutas , Silicatos , Capsicum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Capsicum/efectos de los fármacos , Capsicum/metabolismo , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/efectos de los fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Biomasa , Potasio/metabolismo , Potasio/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Biometría , Compuestos de Potasio/farmacología
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11221, 2024 05 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755253

RESUMEN

The underutilization of digestate-derived polymers presents a pressing environmental concern as these valuable materials, derived from anaerobic digestion processes, remain largely unused, contributing to pollution and environmental degradation when left unutilized. This study explores the recovery and utilization of biodegradable polymers from biomass anaerobic digestate to enhance the performance of solar photovoltaic (PV) cells while promoting environmental sustainability. The anaerobic digestion process generates organic residues rich in biodegradable materials, often considered waste. However, this research investigates the potential of repurposing these materials by recovering and transforming them into high-quality coatings or encapsulants for PV cells. The recovered biodegradable polymers not only improve the efficiency and lifespan of PV cells but also align with sustainability objectives by reducing the carbon footprint associated with PV cell production and mitigating environmental harm. The study involves a comprehensive experimental design, varying coating thickness, direct normal irradiance (DNI) (A), dry bulb temperature (DBT) (B), and relative humidity (C) levels to analyze how different types of recovered biodegradable polymers interact with diverse environmental conditions. Optimization showed that better result was achieved at A = 8 W/m2, B = 40 °C and C = 70% for both the coated material studied. Comparative study showed that for enhanced cell efficiency and cost effectiveness, EcoPolyBlend coated material is more suited however for improving durability and reducing environmental impact NanoBioCelluSynth coated material is preferable choice. Results show that these materials offer promising improvements in PV cell performance and significantly lower environmental impact, providing a sustainable solution for renewable energy production. This research contributes to advancing both the utilization of biomass waste and the development of eco-friendly PV cell technologies, with implications for a more sustainable and greener energy future. This study underscores the pivotal role of exploring anaerobic digestate-derived polymers in advancing the sustainability and performance of solar photovoltaic cells, addressing critical environmental and energy challenges of our time.Please confirm if the author names are presented accurately and in the correct sequence (given name, middle name/initial, family name). Author 7 Given name: [Ashok] Last name [Kumar Yadav]. Also, kindly confirm the details in the metadata are correct.correct.


Asunto(s)
Biomasa , Polímeros , Energía Solar , Polímeros/química , Reciclaje , Anaerobiosis
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303264, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758743

RESUMEN

Saffron, the "golden spice" derived from Crocus sativus L., is renowned for its richness in secondary metabolites such as crocin and safranal, contributing to its unique properties. Facing challenges like decreasing global production, optimizing cultivation techniques becomes imperative for enhanced yields. Although the impact of factors like planting density, planting depth, spacing, and corm size on saffron growth has been studied, the interaction between corm size and planting depth remains underexplored. This study systematically investigates the interactive effects of corm size and planting depth on saffron growth and yield, providing evidence-based guidelines for optimizing cultivation. A factorial experiment, employing a completely randomized design, was conducted to assess the influence of corm size (05-10g, 10.1-15g, 15.1-20g) and planting depth (10cm, 15cm, 20cm) on saffron yield. Uniform-sized corms were obtained, and a suitable soil mixture was prepared for cultivation. Morphological and agronomic parameters were measured, and statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. The study revealed that planting depth significantly affected saffron emergence. The corms sown under 15cm depth showed 100% emergence regardless of corm size (either 05-10g, 10.1-15g, 15.1-20g) followed by 10cm depth corms. Corm dry weight exhibited a complex interaction, where larger corms benefited from deeper planting, while intermediate-sized corms thrived at shallower depths. Similar patterns were observed in shoot fresh weight and dry weight. Specifically, the largest corm size (t3, 15.1-20g) produced the greatest fresh-weight biomass at the deepest planting depth of 20cm (T3), while intermediate-sized corms (t2, 10.1-15g) were superior at the shallowest 10cm depth (T1). The total plant biomass demonstrated that larger corms excelled in deeper planting, while intermediate-sized corms were optimal at moderate depths. This research highlights the intricate interplay between corm size and planting depth in influencing saffron growth. Larger corms generally promote higher biomass, but the interaction with planting depth is crucial. Understanding these dynamics can aid farmers in tailoring cultivation practices for optimal saffron yields. The study emphasizes the need for a coordinated approach to corm selection and depth placement, providing valuable insights for sustainable saffron production and economic growth.


Asunto(s)
Crocus , Crocus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Crocus/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , Suelo/química , Biomasa , Carotenoides/metabolismo
11.
Sci Adv ; 10(20): eadm8096, 2024 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758798

RESUMEN

Organic matter (OM) transformations in marine sediments play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. However, secondary production and priming have been ignored in marine biogeochemistry. By incubating shelf sediments with various 13C-labeled algal substrates for 400 days, we show that ~65% of the lipids and ~20% of the proteins were mineralized by numerically minor heterotrophic bacteria as revealed by RNA stable isotope probing. Up to 11% of carbon from the algal lipids was transformed into the biomass of secondary producers as indicated by 13C incorporation in amino acids. This biomass turned over throughout the experiment, corresponding to dynamic microbial shifts. Algal lipid addition accelerated indigenous OM degradation by 2.5 to 6 times. This priming was driven by diverse heterotrophic bacteria and sulfur- and iron-cycling bacteria and, in turn, resulted in extra secondary production, which exceeded that stimulated by added substrates. These interactions between degradation, secondary production, and priming govern the eventual fate of OM in marine sediments.


Asunto(s)
Sedimentos Geológicos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Biomasa , Bacterias/metabolismo , Ciclo del Carbono , Carbono/metabolismo , Carbono/química , Isótopos de Carbono , Lípidos/química , Compuestos Orgánicos/química
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 278: 116417, 2024 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701655

RESUMEN

Cadmium (Cd) pollutes 7.0 % of China's land area. This study examined the potential of Houttuynia cordata for Cd phytoremediation because of its ability to accumulate Cd in its growth matrix. H. cordata were planted in plastic pots filled with paddy field soils having low (LCd), medium (MCd), and high (HCd) Cd levels of 0.19, 0.69, and 2.91 mg/kg, respectively. After six months of growth, harvested plant parts were evaluated for Cd uptake and tolerance mechanisms. Metabolomics and metagenomics approaches were employed to investigate the soil rhizosphere mechanism. Results showed that the average plant biomass increased as soil Cd increased. The biomass Cd contents surpassed the allowable Cd limits for food (≤ 0.2 mg/kg) and medicinal uses (≤ 0.3 mg/kg). Cd contents were higher in H. cordata roots (30.59-86.27 mg/kg) than in other plant parts (0.63-2.90 mg/kg), with significantly increasing values as Cd soil level increased. Phenolic acids, lipids, amino acids and derivatives, organic acids, and alkaloids comprised the majority (69 in MCd vs HCd and 73 % in LCd vs HCd) of the shared upregulated metabolites. In addition, 13 metabolites specific to H. cordata root exudates were significantly increased. The top two principal metabolic pathways were arginine and proline metabolism, and beta-alanine metabolism. H. cordata increased the abundance of Firmicutes and Glomeromycota across all three Cd levels, and also stimulated the growth of Patescibacteria, Rozellomycota, and Claroideoglomus in HCd. Accordingly, H. cordata demonstrated potential for remediation of Cd-contaminated soils, and safety measures for its production and food use must be highly considered.


Asunto(s)
Biodegradación Ambiental , Cadmio , Houttuynia , Rizosfera , Contaminantes del Suelo , Cadmio/metabolismo , Cadmio/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , China , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Suelo/química , Biomasa
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 211: 108729, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754177

RESUMEN

Microalgae, recognized as sustainable and eco-friendly photosynthetic microorganisms, play a pivotal role in converting CO2 into value-added products. Among these, Nannochloropsis salina (Microchloropsis salina) stands out, particularly for its ability to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a crucial omega-3 fatty acid with significant health benefits such as anti-inflammatory properties and cardiovascular health promotion. This study focused on optimizing the cultivation conditions of Nannochloropsis salina to maximize EPA production. We thoroughly investigated the effects of varying temperatures and nitrogen (NaNO3) concentrations on biomass, total lipid content, and EPA proportions. We successfully identified optimal conditions at an initial NaNO3 concentration of 1.28 g.L-1 and a temperature of 21 °C. This condition was further validated by response surface methodology, which resulted in the highest EPA productivity reported in batch systems (14.4 mg.L-1.day-1). Quantitative real-time PCR and transcriptomic analysis also demonstrated a positive correlation between specific gene expressions and enhanced EPA production. Through a comprehensive lipid analysis and photosynthetic pigment analysis, we deduced that the production of EPA in Nannochloropsis salina seemed to be produced by the remodeling of chloroplast membrane lipids. These findings provide crucial insights into how temperature and nutrient availability influence fatty acid composition in N. salina, offering valuable guidance for developing strategies to improve EPA production in various microalgae species.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Microalgas , Nitrógeno , Fotosíntesis , Estramenopilos , Temperatura , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/biosíntesis , Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Estramenopilos/metabolismo , Estramenopilos/genética , Biomasa
14.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 328: 103182, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759449

RESUMEN

Early disease detection is crucial since it raises the likelihood of treatment and considerably lowers the cost of therapy. Therefore, the improvement of human life and health depends on the development of quick, efficient, and credible biosensing methods. For improving the quality of biosensors, distinct nanostructures have been investigated; among these, carbon dots have gained much interest because of their great performance. Carbon dots, the essential component of fluorescence nanoparticles, having outstanding chemical characteristics, superb biocompatibility, chemical inertness, low toxicity and potential optical characteristics have attracted the researchers from every corner of the globe. Several carbon dots applications have been thoroughly investigated in recent decade, from optoelectronics to biomedical investigations. This review study primarily emphasizes the recent advancements in the field of biomass-derived carbon dots-based drug delivery, gene delivery and bioimaging, and highlights achievements in two major areas: in vivo applications that involve carbon dots absorption in zebrafish and mice, tumour therapeutics, and imaging-guided drug delivery. Additionally, the possible advantages, difficulties, and future possibilities of using carbon dots for biological applications are also explored.


Asunto(s)
Biomasa , Carbono , Puntos Cuánticos , Carbono/química , Animales , Humanos , Puntos Cuánticos/química , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Técnicas de Transferencia de Gen , Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos
15.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(6): 275, 2024 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775940

RESUMEN

In many European regions, both local metallic and non-metallic raw materials are poorly exploited due to their low quality and the lack of technologies to increase their economic value. In this context, the development of low cost and eco-friendly approaches, such as bioleaching of metal impurities, is crucial. The acidophilic strain Acidiphilium sp. SJH reduces Fe(III) to Fe(II) by coupling the oxidation of an organic substrate to the reduction of Fe(III) and can therefore be applied in the bioleaching of iron impurities from non-metallic raw materials. In this work, the physiology of Acidiphilium sp. SJH and the reduction of iron impurities from quartz sand and its derivatives have been studied during growth on media supplemented with various carbon sources and under different oxygenation conditions, highlighting that cell physiology and iron reduction are tightly coupled. Although the organism is known to be aerobic, maximum bioleaching performance was obtained by cultures cultivated until the exponential phase of growth under oxygen limitation. Among carbon sources, glucose has been shown to support faster biomass growth, while galactose allowed highest bioleaching. Moreover, Acidiphilium sp. SJH cells can synthesise and accumulate Poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) during the process, a polymer with relevant application in biotechnology. In summary, this work gives an insight into the physiology of Acidiphilium sp. SJH, able to use different carbon sources and to synthesise a technologically relevant polymer (PHB), while removing metals from sand without the need to introduce modifications in the process set up.


Asunto(s)
Acidiphilium , Hierro , Oxidación-Reducción , Hierro/metabolismo , Acidiphilium/metabolismo , Acidiphilium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hidroxibutiratos/metabolismo , Poliésteres/metabolismo , Polímeros/metabolismo , Medios de Cultivo/química , Biomasa , Polihidroxibutiratos
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 572, 2024 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777911

RESUMEN

This study analyzes arthropod biomass and abundance to track the changes in arthropod occurrence in relation to pesticide use in three winter wheat cropping systems managed at different intensities (organic, conventional, and hybrid). Arthropod occurrence was surveyed using three collection tools: sweeping nets, eclector traps, and yellow traps. Sampling was conducted over three years from 2020 to 2022 with 588 samples collected. The wet weight of the captured organisms was determined and arthropod abundance calculated. The application of a NOcsPS (no chemical-synthetic pesticides) strategy, a new hybrid cultivation method realized with optimized use of nitrogen fertilizers but without chemical-synthetic pesticides, showed a higher arthropod occurrence and performed more convincingly regarding produced arthropod biomass and abundance than the other cropping variants. The results also demonstrate a dependence of the obtained insect indices on the collection method. Although arthropod biomass and abundance correlated for all collection methods, the combination of various methods as well as multiple procedures of sample analysis gives a more realistic and comprehensive view of the impact of the wheat cultivation systems on the arthropod fauna than one-factor analyses.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fertilizantes , Nitrógeno , Triticum , Triticum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Nitrógeno/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Agricultura/métodos , Plaguicidas/análisis , Control de Plagas/métodos , Biomasa
17.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4354, 2024 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778013

RESUMEN

Natural ecosystems store large amounts of carbon globally, as organisms absorb carbon from the atmosphere to build large, long-lasting, or slow-decaying structures such as tree bark or root systems. An ecosystem's carbon sequestration potential is tightly linked to its biological diversity. Yet when considering future projections, many carbon sequestration models fail to account for the role biodiversity plays in carbon storage. Here, we assess the consequences of plant biodiversity loss for carbon storage under multiple climate and land-use change scenarios. We link a macroecological model projecting changes in vascular plant richness under different scenarios with empirical data on relationships between biodiversity and biomass. We find that biodiversity declines from climate and land use change could lead to a global loss of between 7.44-103.14 PgC (global sustainability scenario) and 10.87-145.95 PgC (fossil-fueled development scenario). This indicates a self-reinforcing feedback loop, where higher levels of climate change lead to greater biodiversity loss, which in turn leads to greater carbon emissions and ultimately more climate change. Conversely, biodiversity conservation and restoration can help achieve climate change mitigation goals.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Biomasa , Secuestro de Carbono , Carbono , Cambio Climático , Carbono/metabolismo , Ecosistema , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Plantas/metabolismo
18.
Molecules ; 29(10)2024 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792038

RESUMEN

Lignin, the largest non-carbohydrate component of lignocellulosic biomass, is also a recalcitrant component of the plant cell wall. While the aerobic degradation mechanism of lignin has been well-documented, the anaerobic degradation mechanism is still largely elusive. In this work, a versatile facultative anaerobic lignin-degrading bacterium, Klebsiella aerogenes TL3, was isolated from a termite gut, and was found to metabolize a variety of carbon sources and produce a single kind or multiple kinds of acids. The percent degradation of alkali lignin reached 14.8% under anaerobic conditions, and could reach 17.4% in the presence of glucose within 72 h. Based on the results of infrared spectroscopy and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, it can be inferred that the anaerobic degradation of lignin may undergo the cleavage of the C-O bond (ß-O-4), as well as the C-C bond (ß-5 and ß-ß), and involve the oxidation of the side chain, demethylation, and the destruction of the aromatic ring skeleton. Although the anaerobic degradation of lignin by TL3 was slightly weaker than that under aerobic conditions, it could be further enhanced by adding glucose as an electron donor. These results may shed new light on the mechanisms of anaerobic lignin degradation.


Asunto(s)
Lignina , Lignina/metabolismo , Anaerobiosis , Glucosa/metabolismo , Klebsiella/metabolismo , Biomasa , Biodegradación Ambiental , Animales
19.
Molecules ; 29(10)2024 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792198

RESUMEN

Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of lignocellulosic biomass is a promising pathway for the production of hydrogen. However, SCWG is a complex thermochemical process, the modeling of which is challenging via conventional methodologies. Therefore, eight machine learning models (linear regression (LR), Gaussian process regression (GPR), artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), extreme gradient boosting (XGB), and categorical boosting regressor (CatBoost)) with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and a genetic algorithm (GA) optimizer were developed and evaluated for prediction of H2, CO, CO2, and CH4 gas yields from SCWG of lignocellulosic biomass. A total of 12 input features of SCWG process conditions (temperature, time, concentration, pressure) and biomass properties (C, H, N, S, VM, moisture, ash, real feed) were utilized for the prediction of gas yields using 166 data points. Among machine learning models, boosting ensemble tree models such as XGB and CatBoost demonstrated the highest power for the prediction of gas yields. PSO-optimized XGB was the best performing model for H2 yield with a test R2 of 0.84 and PSO-optimized CatBoost was best for prediction of yields of CH4, CO, and CO2, with test R2 values of 0.83, 0.94, and 0.92, respectively. The effectiveness of the PSO optimizer in improving the prediction ability of the unoptimized machine learning model was higher compared to the GA optimizer for all gas yields. Feature analysis using Shapley additive explanation (SHAP) based on best performing models showed that (21.93%) temperature, (24.85%) C, (16.93%) ash, and (29.73%) C were the most dominant features for the prediction of H2, CH4, CO, and CO2 gas yields, respectively. Even though temperature was the most dominant feature, the cumulative feature importance of biomass characteristics variables (C, H, N, S, VM, moisture, ash, real feed) as a group was higher than that of the SCWG process condition variables (temperature, time, concentration, pressure) for the prediction of all gas yields. SHAP two-way analysis confirmed the strong interactive behavior of input features on the prediction of gas yields.


Asunto(s)
Biomasa , Hidrógeno , Lignina , Aprendizaje Automático , Agua , Lignina/química , Agua/química , Hidrógeno/química , Hidrógeno/análisis , Gases/química , Gases/análisis , Algoritmos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte , Metano/química , Metano/análisis
20.
Molecules ; 29(10)2024 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792212

RESUMEN

Lignanoids are an active ingredient exerting powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the treatment of many diseases. In order to improve the efficiency of the resource utilization of traditional Chinese medicine waste, Magnolia officinalis Rehder & E.H.Wilson residue (MOR) waste biomass was used as raw material in this study, and a series of deep eutectic solvents (ChUre, ChAce, ChPro, ChCit, ChOxa, ChMal, ChLac, ChLev, ChGly and ChEG) were selected to evaluate the extraction efficiency of lignanoids from MORs. The results showed that the best conditions for lignanoid extraction were a liquid-solid ratio of 40.50 mL/g, an HBD-HBA ratio of 2.06, a water percentage of 29.3%, an extract temperature of 337.65 K, and a time of 107 min. Under these conditions, the maximum lignanoid amount was 39.18 mg/g. In addition, the kinetics of the extraction process were investigated by mathematic modeling. In our antioxidant activity study, high antioxidant activity of the lignanoid extract was shown in scavenging four different types of free radicals (DPPH, ·OH, ABTS, and superoxide anions). At a concentration of 3 mg/mL, the total antioxidant capacity of the lignanoid extract was 1.795 U/mL, which was equal to 0.12 mg/mL of Vc solution. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity study found that the lignanoid extract exhibited good antibacterial effects against six tested pathogens. Among them, Staphylococcus aureus exerted the strongest antibacterial activity. Eventually, the correlation of the lignanoid extract with the biological activity and physicochemical properties of DESs is described using a heatmap, along with the evaluation of the in vitro hypoglycemic, in vitro hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activity of the lignanoid extract. These findings can provide a theoretical foundation for the extraction of high-value components from waste biomass by deep eutectic solvents, as well as highlighting its specific significance in natural product development and utilization.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Biomasa , Magnolia , Magnolia/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Disolventes Eutécticos Profundos/química , Lignina/química , Lignina/farmacología , Lignina/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/aislamiento & purificación , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/química , Antiinflamatorios/aislamiento & purificación , Animales
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