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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 625581, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659220

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the pandemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This virus is highly transmissible among individuals through both droplets and aerosol leading to determine severe pneumonia. Among the various factors that can influence both the onset of disease and the severity of its complications, the microbiome composition has also been investigated. Recent evidence showed the possible relationship between gut, lung, nasopharyngeal, or oral microbiome and COVID-19, but very little is known about it. Therefore, we aimed to verify the relationships between nasopharyngeal microbiome and the development of either COVID-19 or the severity of symptoms. To this purpose, we analyzed, by next generation sequencing, the hypervariable V1-V2-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA in nasopharyngeal swabs from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients (n=18) and control (CO) individuals (n=12) using Microbiota solution A (Arrow Diagnostics). We found a significant lower abundance of Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria in COVID-19 patients in respect to CO (p=0.003 and p<0.0001, respectively) from the phylum up to the genus (p<0.001). The Fusobacterium periodonticum (FP) resulted as the most significantly reduced species in COVID-19 patients respect to CO. FP is reported as being able to perform the surface sialylation. Noteworthy, some sialic acids residues on the cell surface could work as additional S protein of SARS-CoV-2 receptors. Consequently, SARS-CoV-2 could use sialic acids as receptors to bind to the epithelium of the respiratory tract, promoting its clustering and the disease development. We can therefore speculate that the significant reduction of FP in COVID-19 patients could be directly or indirectly linked to the modulation of sialic acid metabolism. Finally, viral or environmental factors capable of interfering with sialic metabolism could determine a fall in the individual protection from SARS-CoV-2. Further studies are necessary to clarify the precise role of FP in COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por Fusobacterium/microbiología , Fusobacterium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Microbiota , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Pandemias , /aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Fusobacterium/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Boca/microbiología , Nasofaringe/microbiología
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734952

RESUMEN

Introduction. Oral tissues are generally homeostatic despite exposure to many potential inflammatory agents including the resident microbiota. This requires the balancing of inflammation by regulatory mechanisms and/or anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria. Thus, the levels of anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria in resident populations may be critical in maintaining this homeostatic balance.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. The incidence of immunosuppressive streptococci in the oral cavity is not well established. Determining the proportion of these organisms and the mechanisms involved may help to understand host-microbe homeostasis and inform development of probiotics or prebiotics in the maintenance of oral health.Aim. To determine the incidence and potential modes of action of immunosuppressive capacity in resident oral streptococci.Methodology. Supragingival plaque was collected from five healthy participants and supragingival and subgingival plaque from five with gingivitis. Twenty streptococci from each sample were co-cultured with epithelial cells±flagellin or LL-37. CXCL8 secretion was detected by ELISA, induction of cytotoxicity in human epithelial cells by lactate dehydrogenase release and NFκB-activation using a reporter cell line. Bacterial identification was achieved through partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and next-generation sequencing.Results. CXCL8 secretion was inhibited by 94/300 isolates. Immunosuppressive isolates were detected in supragingival plaque from healthy (4/5) and gingivitis (4/5) samples, and in 2/5 subgingival (gingivitis) plaque samples. Most were Streptococcus mitis/oralis. Seventeen representative immunosuppressive isolates all inhibited NFκB activation. The immunosuppressive mechanism was strain specific, often mediated by ultra-violet light-labile factors, whilst bacterial viability was essential in certain species.Conclusion. Many streptococci isolated from plaque suppressed epithelial cell CXCL8 secretion, via inhibition of NFκB. This phenomenon may play an important role in oral host-microbe homeostasis.


Asunto(s)
Inmunomodulación , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Microbiota/inmunología , Boca/microbiología , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Streptococcus/inmunología , Células A549 , Línea Celular , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Encía/microbiología , Gingivitis/microbiología , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Streptococcus/clasificación , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación
3.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 32, 2021 01 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517907

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While indoor microbiomes impact our health and well-being, much remains unknown about taxonomic and functional transitions that occur in human-derived microbial communities once they are transferred away from human hosts. Toothbrushes are a model to investigate the potential response of oral-derived microbiota to conditions of the built environment. Here, we characterize metagenomes of toothbrushes from 34 subjects to define the toothbrush microbiome and resistome and possible influential factors. RESULTS: Toothbrush microbiomes often comprised a dominant subset of human oral taxa and less abundant or site-specific environmental strains. Although toothbrushes contained lower taxonomic diversity than oral-associated counterparts (determined by comparison with the Human Microbiome Project), they had relatively broader antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) profiles. Toothbrush resistomes were enriched with a variety of ARGs, notably those conferring multidrug efflux and putative resistance to triclosan, which were primarily attributable to versatile environmental taxa. Toothbrush microbial communities and resistomes correlated with a variety of factors linked to personal health, dental hygiene, and bathroom features. CONCLUSIONS: Selective pressures in the built environment may shape the dynamic mixture of human (primarily oral-associated) and environmental microbiota that encounter each other on toothbrushes. Harboring a microbial diversity and resistome distinct from human-associated counterparts suggests toothbrushes could potentially serve as a reservoir that may enable the transfer of ARGs. Video abstract.


Asunto(s)
Entorno Construido , Microbiota , Boca/microbiología , Cepillado Dental , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Humanos , Metagenoma/efectos de los fármacos , Metagenoma/genética , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Microbiota/genética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Boca/efectos de los fármacos , Triclosán/farmacología , Adulto Joven
5.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 54, 2021 02 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622378

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The oral microbiota is acquired very early, but the factors shaping its acquisition are not well understood. Previous studies comparing monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins have suggested that host genetics plays a role. However, all twins share an equal portion of their parent's genome, so this model is not informative for studying parent-to-child transmission. We used a novel study design that allowed us to directly examine the genetics of transmission by comparing the oral microbiota of biological versus adoptive mother-child dyads. RESULTS: No difference was observed in how closely oral bacterial community profiles matched for adoptive versus biological mother-child pairs, indicating little if any effect of host genetics on the fidelity of transmission. Both adopted and biologic children more closely resembled their own mother as compared to unrelated women, supporting the role of contact and environment. Mother-child strain similarity increased with the age of the child, ruling out early effects of host genetic influence that are lost over time. No effect on the fidelity of mother-child strain sharing from vaginal birth or breast feeding was seen. Analysis of extended families showed that fathers and mothers were equally similar to their children, and that cohabitating couples showed even greater strain similarity than mother-child pairs. These findings support the role of contact and shared environment, and age, but not genetics, as determinants of microbial transmission, and were consistent at both species and strain level resolutions, and across multiple oral habitats. In addition, analysis of individual species all showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: The host is clearly active in shaping the composition of the oral microbiome, since only a few of the many bacterial species in the larger environment are capable of colonizing the human oral cavity. Our findings suggest that these host mechanisms are universally shared among humans, since no effect of genetic relatedness on fidelity of microbial transmission could be detected. Instead our findings point towards contact and shared environment being the driving factors of microbial transmission, with a unique combination of these factors ultimately shaping the highly personalized human oral microbiome. Video abstract.


Asunto(s)
Adopción , Ambiente , Salud de la Familia , Microbiota , Madres , Boca/microbiología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Adulto , Bacterias/genética , Niño , Preescolar , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Salud de la Familia/estadística & datos numéricos , Padre , Femenino , Vivienda , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Embarazo , Estudios en Gemelos como Asunto , Gemelos/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 27, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397904

RESUMEN

Bacteriophages (phages), or bacterial viruses, are very diverse and highly abundant worldwide, including as a part of the human microbiomes. Although a few metagenomic studies have focused on oral phages, they relied on short-read sequencing. Here, we conduct a long-read metagenomic study of human saliva using PromethION. Our analyses, which integrate both PromethION and HiSeq data of >30 Gb per sample with low human DNA contamination, identify hundreds of viral contigs; 0-43.8% and 12.5-56.3% of the confidently predicted phages and prophages, respectively, do not cluster with those reported previously. Our analyses demonstrate enhanced scaffolding, and the ability to place a prophage in its host genomic context and enable its taxonomic classification. Our analyses also identify a Streptococcus phage/prophage group and nine jumbo phages/prophages. 86% of the phage/prophage group and 67% of the jumbo phages/prophages contain remote homologs of antimicrobial resistance genes. Pan-genome analysis of the phages/prophages reveals remarkable diversity, identifying 0.3% and 86.4% of the genes as core and singletons, respectively. Furthermore, our study suggests that oral phages present in human saliva are under selective pressure to escape CRISPR immunity. Our study demonstrates the power of long-read metagenomics utilizing PromethION in uncovering bacteriophages and their interaction with host bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/virología , Bacteriófagos/genética , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/genética , Metagenómica , Boca/microbiología , Boca/virología , Repeticiones Palindrómicas Cortas Agrupadas y Regularmente Espaciadas/genética , Contaminación de ADN , ADN Viral/genética , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Genes Virales , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Integrasas/genética , Metagenoma , Profagos/genética , Proteómica , Streptococcus/virología
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401545

RESUMEN

Poly(methyl methacralyate) (PMMA) has long been used in dentistry as a base polymer for dentures, and it is recently being used for the 3D printing of dental materials. Despite its many advantages, its susceptibility to microbial colonization remains to be overcome. In this study, the interface between 3D-printed PMMA specimens and oral salivary biofilm was studied following the addition of zwitterionic materials, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) or sulfobetaine methacrylate (SB). A significant reduction in bacterial and biofilm adhesions was observed following the addition of MPC or SB, owing to their protein-repellent properties, and there were no significant differences between the two test materials. Although the mechanical properties of the tested materials were degraded, the statistical value of the reduction was minimal and all the properties fulfilled the requirements set by the International Standard, ISO 20795-2. Additionally, both the test materials maintained their resistance to biofilm when subjected to hydrothermal fatigue, with no further deterioration of the mechanical properties. Thus, novel 3D-printable PMMA incorporated with MPC or SB shows durable oral salivary biofilm resistance with maintenance of the physical and mechanical properties.


Asunto(s)
Materiales Biocompatibles/farmacología , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Resinas Compuestas/química , Materiales Dentales/farmacología , Boca/efectos de los fármacos , Polímeros/química , Impresión Tridimensional/instrumentación , Adhesión Bacteriana , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Metacrilatos/química , Boca/microbiología , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Fosforilcolina/química , Streptococcus mutans/efectos de los fármacos , Streptococcus mutans/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 346: 128957, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460960

RESUMEN

During wine consumption, aroma compounds are released from the wine matrix and are transported to the olfactory receptor in vivo, leading to retronasal perception which can affect consumer acceptance. During this process, in addition to the influence of the wine matrix compositions, some physiological factors can significantly influence aroma release leading to altered concentrations of the aroma compounds that reach the receptors. Therefore, this review is focused on the impact of multiple factors, including the physiology and wine matrix, on the aroma released during wine tasting. Moreover, to reflect the pattern of volatiles that reach the olfactory receptors during wine consumption, some analytical approaches have been described for in vitro and in vivo conditions.


Asunto(s)
Odorantes/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Vino/análisis , Humanos , Espectrometría de Movilidad Iónica , Microbiota , Boca/microbiología , Saliva/metabolismo , Gusto , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/química
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2210: 33-41, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815125

RESUMEN

Prevotella melaninogenica is a bacterium that is resident in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract and is associated with periodontal disease and aspiration pneumonia. Prevotella mutants are difficult to produce and only few reports have been reported. We examined several methods and many strains and succeeded in producing mutants in Prevotella melaninogenica GAI 07411. In this chapter, we will describe how to create a mutation of a target gene by carrying out conjugation transfer using Escherichia coli S17-1 as a donor and introducing a plasmid into P. melaninogenica.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli/genética , Mutación/genética , Prevotella melaninogenica/genética , Animales , Boca/microbiología , Enfermedades Periodontales/microbiología , Conejos
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2210: 43-50, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815126

RESUMEN

Fusobacterium nucleatum is a human periodontal pathogen that causes opportunistic infections. It has been implicated in preterm birth and has as a pathogen of colorectal cancer. However, it is a common member of the oral microbiota and can have a symbiotic relationship with its hosts. To date, studies of F. nucleatum have been hindered by a lack of effective genetic tools, and the transformation of F. nucleatum has not been investigated. In this chapter, protocols for the transformation of F. nucleatum strain 12230 using sonoporation are presented. We also include a genetic complementation protocol for a F. nucleatum knockout mutant.


Asunto(s)
Fusobacterium nucleatum/genética , Transformación Genética/genética , Neoplasias Colorrectales/microbiología , Infecciones por Fusobacterium/microbiología , Humanos , Boca/microbiología
12.
Av. odontoestomatol ; 36(3): 143-149, sept.-dic. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-197413

RESUMEN

Los productos naturales son utilizados ancestralmente en la medicina tradicional, también llamados medicamentos herbarios, que vienen siendo utilizados por sus múltiples propiedades curativas y ante la necesidad de obtener nuevos productos que ayuden o apoyen al tratamiento de múltiples enfermedades, son en la actualidad una alternativa. La Organización Mundial de la Salud define un medicamento herbario como un preparado, producto herbario que contenga el principio activo en una parte de la planta. En la actualidad en la región amazónica de América del Sur, se vienen obteniendo una oleorresina extraída de un árbol llamado copaiba, con propiedades antimicrobianas que tiene una proyección en su uso en patologías periodontales como la periodontitis, patología cuyo mayor factor etiológico es la presencia de una biopelícula microbiana en el surco periodontal, que va degradando progresivamente los tejidos de soporte del diente, pudiendo generar la perdida de la pieza dentaria


Natural products are used anciently in traditional medicine, also called herbal medicines, which have been used for their multiple healing properties and, given the need to obtain new products that help or support the treatment of multiple diseases, are currently an alternative. The World Health Organization defines an herbal medicine as a preparation, herbal product that contains the active substance in a part of the plant. At present in the Amazon region of South America, an oleoresin extracted from a tree called copaiba is being obtained, with antimicrobial properties that has a projection in its use in periodontal pathologies such as periodontitis, pathology whose major etiological factor is the presence of a microbial biofilm in the periodontal groove, which gradually degrades the supporting tissues of the tooth, and can lead to the loss of the tooth


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Periodontitis/terapia , Productos Biológicos/uso terapéutico , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fabaceae , Periodontitis/microbiología , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Boca/efectos de los fármacos , Boca/microbiología
13.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(4): 2322, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138475

RESUMEN

Respiratory droplets emitted during speech can transmit oral bacteria and infectious viruses to others, including COVID-19. Loud speech can generate significantly higher numbers of potentially infectious respiratory droplets. This study assessed the effect of speech volume on respiratory emission of oral bacteria as an indicator of potential pathogen transmission risk. Loud speech (average 83 dBA, peak 94 dBA) caused significantly higher emission of oral bacteria (p = 0.004 compared to no speech) within 1 ft from the speaker. N99 respirators and simple cloth masks both significantly reduced emission of oral bacteria. This study demonstrates that loud speech without face coverings increases emission of respiratory droplets that carry oral bacteria and may also carry other pathogens such as COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología del Aire , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Infecciones Bacterianas/transmisión , Exposición por Inhalación , Boca/microbiología , Respiración , Acústica del Lenguaje , Aerosoles , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/prevención & control , Humanos , Exposición por Inhalación/prevención & control , Máscaras , Equipo de Protección Personal , Dispositivos de Protección Respiratoria
14.
Int J Hematol ; 112(6): 851-859, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880823

RESUMEN

The aim of this study is to investigate the association between chemotherapy-induced fever with neutropenia less than 1500/µL (FwN) and oral bacteria and/or oral immunity in patients with hematological cancer. Thirty-two patients with hematological cancer were enrolled in the study. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and the anaerobic bacteria in tongue coating of each subject were assessed before the first chemotherapy. Eleven subjects had an onset of FwN and 21 subjects did not during the observation periods. It was revealed by the Cox-proportional hazard model analysis that the levels of sIgA were low (HR 0.98, p < 0.05) and the rate of Fusobacterium nucleatum [F. nucleatum count per total bacterial count (%)] was high (HR 1.65, p < 0.05) in patients with FwN onset. Using ROC curve analysis, the optimal cutoff point based on the AUC in the F. nucleatum/sIgA ratio was 0.023, and this model had a 78.4% probability (p < 0.01). The risk of FwN onset was also significantly higher among the group of ≥ 0.023 F. nucleatum/sIgA ratio (HR 66.06, p < 0.01). These results suggest that the rate of F. nucleatum and the levels of sIgA at baseline might be related to FwN onset as risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Neutropenia Febril/etiología , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina A Secretora , Boca/inmunología , Boca/microbiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Carga Bacteriana , Femenino , Fusobacterium nucleatum/aislamiento & purificación , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicaciones , Neoplasias Hematológicas/microbiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1160-1164, 2020 Jul 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741188

RESUMEN

The composition of human oral microorganism is numerous and complex and is easily affected by many factors. With the development of metagenomic technology, the important role of oral microbiome in the development of tumor has attracted extensive attention. A literature retrieval was conducted through PubMed, Embase, CNKI and WanFang database for an analysis on the characteristics of oral bacteria and its association with oral cancer, esophageal cancer and gastric cancer. The results indicated that oral microbiome can be influenced by age, gender, race, and lifestyle. Specific oral bacteria were associated with high risk of upper gastrointestinal cancer, indicating a potential role of oral microbiota to be the biomarker for upper gastrointestinal cancer. This paper summarizes the progress in the research of the association between oral microbiome and upper gastrointestinal cancer, showing a new direction for the exploration of microbiological etiology of upper gastrointestinal cancer and providing scientific evidence for the optimization of early detection and treatment of upper gastrointestinal cancer.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , Neoplasias Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Microbiota , Boca/microbiología , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
16.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(10): 2825-2840, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747998

RESUMEN

M18 strain of Streptococcus salivarius is a bacterial replacement probiotic that has been suggested for use in the oral cavity. Here, we have shown that S. salivarius M18 cell-free supernatant reduced the growth of the two most common human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia and sensitized the pathogenic bacteria to antibiotic. Besides, the supernatant inhibited biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa drastically. For pinpointing the biomolecular changes that occurred in P. aeruginosa incubated with the probiotic supernatant, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used. Unsupervised learning algorithms, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and intensity analyses of individual spectral bands exhibited comprehensive alterations in the polysaccharide and lipid contents and compositions of P. aeruginosa cultivated with S. salivarius M18 cell-free supernatant. These results indicate that S. salivarius M18 has the potential for the prevention or alleviation of different pathogen-induced infections along with the infections of oral pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Antibiosis/fisiología , Klebsiella pneumoniae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Probióticos/farmacología , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Streptococcus salivarius/química , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/patogenicidad , Boca/microbiología , Análisis de Componente Principal , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidad , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1113-1121, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131513

RESUMEN

A proximidade dos primatas não humanos (PNH) com o ser humano pode ser considerada um fator de risco para transmissão de bactérias entre essas duas populações. Neste estudo, foi investigada a microbiota anfibiôntica aeróbica oral e retal de calitriquídeos em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica localizado no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e foram realizados testes fenotípicos para detecção de bactérias multirresistentes nos isolados encontrados. Foram capturados 14 calitriquídeos e coletadas 21 amostras (14 de cavidade oral e sete de cavidade retal) em dois pontos da mata próximos às habitações humanas. As espécies mais frequentes, na cavidade oral, foram Klebsiella oxytoca (50,0%), K. pneumoniae (28,6%), Kluyvera ascorbata (21,4%) e Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (21,4%) e, na cavidade retal, K. pneumoniae (85,7%), Escherichia coli (28,6%) e Enterobacter spp. (42,9%). Todos os 48 isolados da família Enterobacteriaceae foram negativos para ESBL (betalactamase de espectro ampliado), mostrando-se não produtores da enzima nos dois métodos utilizados: disco-aproximação e método de detecção automatizado. Na pesquisa de ERC (enterobactérias resistentes a carbapenêmicos), esses mesmos isolados não apresentaram resistência aos antibióticos imipenem, meropenem e ertapenem. Todas as bactérias isoladas apresentam um potencial zoonótico, o que representa um risco à saúde pública e à conservação das espécies.(AU)


Proximity of nonhuman primates (NHP) to humans can be considered a risk factor for transmission of pathogens between these two populations. This study investigated the oral and rectal aerobic bacterial microbiota of marmosets in an anthropized area of the Atlantic Forest located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and performed phenotypic tests for detection of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Twenty-one samples (14 from the oral cavity and seven from the rectum) were collected from 14 Callithrix sp. captured in two sites of the forest near human dwellings. The most frequent species identified from the oral cavity swabs were Klebsiella oxytoca (50.0%), K. pneumoniae (28.6%), Kluyvera ascorbata (21.4%) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (21.4%), whereas the species most commonly identified from the rectum swabs were K. pneumoniae (85.7%), Enterobacter spp. (42.9%) and Escherichia coli (28.6%). All isolates of family Enterobacteriaceae showed no extended spectrum ß-lactamase production by disk-diffusion and automated detection tests. In the search for carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae these isolates presented no resistance to the imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem antibiotics. The isolate of Staphylococcus aureus was susceptible to oxacillin and the isolate of Enterococcus was susceptible to vancomycin. All isolated bacteria showed zoonotic potential, thus posing a risk to species conservation and public health.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Recto/microbiología , Callithrix/microbiología , Microbiota , Boca/microbiología , Staphylococcus aureus , Brasil , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Riesgo a la Salud , Klebsiella oxytoca , Escherichia coli
18.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 101009, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620497

RESUMEN

Chronic renal disease patients under chronic dialysis (CRDD) have a multifactorial immunological deterioration with an increased risk of Candida infections. Incidence of Candida infections is increasing. Choice of suitable antifungal agents is limited due to the resistance of some species to several antifungals. Aim of the present study was to identify the distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of oral isolated Candida species from infected and colonized patients, as well as to investigate the risk factors for oral infection in patients on dialysis. Cross-sectional study, approved by the institutional bioethics committees was performed in CRDD patients. Demographic, clinic data, and oral mucosa samples were obtained. Infection diagnosis was established clinically and confirmed with exfoliative cytology, each sample was plated on CHROMagar Candida and incubated at 36°C for 2 days. Yeast species were identified by carbohydrate assimilation ID 32C AUX system and the apiweb database. For the antifungal susceptibility test, the M44 A-3 method (CLSI) using fluconazole (FCZ), miconazole (MCZ), nystatin (NYS), and voriconazole (VCZ). Study included 119 participants, the main cause of CRD was nephropathy due to DM2 (58%), and three-fourths of the patients were under hemodialysis. Candida prevalence was 56.3% of 67 colonized or infected patients, 88 isolates were obtained. Principal identified species were C. albicans (51.1%), C. glabrata (25%), and C. tropicalis (14.8%). C. glabrata showed a reduced response to FCZ in 50% of isolates and C. albicans had a reduced response in 16% of the isolates. Antifungal agent with the least efficacious response or with the lowest susceptibility in the isolates of these patients was MCZ, followed by VCZ and FCZ, whereas NYS induced the best antifungal response.


Asunto(s)
Antifúngicos/farmacología , Candida/efectos de los fármacos , Candida/aislamiento & purificación , Candidiasis Bucal/microbiología , Boca/microbiología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/microbiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Candida/clasificación , Candidiasis Bucal/complicaciones , Candidiasis Bucal/diagnóstico , Candidiasis Bucal/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Nefropatías Diabéticas/epidemiología , Nefropatías Diabéticas/microbiología , Nefropatías Diabéticas/terapia , Farmacorresistencia Fúngica/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Persona de Mediana Edad , Diálisis Renal/efectos adversos , Diálisis Renal/estadística & datos numéricos , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/terapia , Adulto Joven
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491142

RESUMEN

Oral problems are common in patients diagnosed with Eating Disorders (ED) and still require better elucidation. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of oral Candida spp in individuals with ED. The sample of the study was comprised of 30 women with purgative habits and 15 without purgative habits. Samples of the oral cavity were collected by sterile cotton swab rubbed on soft tissues and teeth. Yeasts were isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Yeasts were isolated from the oral cavity of 53% of the patients yielding 75 yeast isolates; of these, 43 were identified by conventional mycological methods: C. parapsilosis (n=19), C. glabrata (n=16), Rhodotorula sp (n= 6), C. famata (n=2). The remaining 32 isolates were presumptively identified as C. albicans or C. dubliniensis and required mass spectrometry for the final differentiation: 28 isolates were confirmed as C. albicans and four as C. dubliniensis. Among the control group, only four subjects (26.7%) were found to harbor C. albicans. The four C. dubliniensis isolates were from two patients, one that was only colonized and the other, with severe ED, was diagnosed with an oral candidiasis as demonstrated by the presence of pseudohyphae on the direct mycological exam from different sites. The increased rate of isolation of non-albicans species, such as C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. dubliniensis in the oral cavity from ED patients with nutritional deficiency may suggest that purgative habits of these patients can lead to changes in normal flora and predispose to oral candidiasis.


Asunto(s)
Anorexia Nerviosa/complicaciones , Bulimia Nerviosa/complicaciones , Candidiasis Bucal/complicaciones , Boca/microbiología , Adulto , Candida/clasificación , Candida/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Espectrometría de Masas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4098-4104, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539911

RESUMEN

A new α-haemolytic streptococcal strain has been isolated from the dental plaque of a teenager with Down syndrome. Genetic and taxonomic analyses place this Streptococcus within the oralis group. It is a Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming spherical alpha-haemolytic coccus arranged in chains, and it ferments a large number of monosaccharides and disaccharides, as well as polymeric carbohydrates. It differs biochemically from closely related species of Streptococcus due to its production of α-galactosidase, ß-galactosidase and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosaminidase and by the absence of arginine dihydrolase deiminase and IgA1-protease. It grows in a temperature range of 25 to 40 °C (optimal growth temperature at 37 °C) and in a pH range of 4.5 to 8 (optimal pH at 7.0). A phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences placed it close to Streptococcus dentisani CECT 7747T. The ANIb and ANIm values were 93.19 and 93.61 %, respectively, both below the accepted threshold to designate it as a new species of bacteria. A phylogenetic tree based on its core genome placed it close to Streptococcus oralis subsp. dentisani strain CECT 7747T with a distance in the expanded core phylogeny of 0.1298. The in silico DNA-DNA hybridization value was 52.2 % with respect to the closest species, S. oralis subsp. dentisani CECT 7747T. Based on these data, a new species of bacteria within the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae and order Lactobacillales is described, for which the name of Streptococcus downii sp. nov. is proposed (type strain CECT 9732T=CCUG 73139T).


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental/microbiología , Síndrome de Down , Boca/microbiología , Filogenia , Streptococcus/clasificación , Adolescente , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/química , Humanos , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 23S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación
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