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1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0283037, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713667

RESUMEN

COVID-19 affects children less seriously than adults; however, severe cases and deaths are documented. This study objective is to determine socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory indicators associated with severe pediatric COVID-19 and mortality at hospital entrance. A multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed in 13 tertiary hospitals in Bolivia. Clinical records were collected retrospectively from patients less than 18 years of age and positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All variables were measured at hospital entrance; outcomes of interest were ICU admission and death. A score for disease severity was developed using a logistic regression model. 209 patients were included in the analysis. By the end of the study, 43 (20.6%) of children were admitted to the Intensive care unit (ICU), and 17 (8.1%) died. Five indicators were independently predictive of COVID-19 severity: age below 10 years OR: 3.3 (CI95%: 1.1-10.4), days with symptoms to medical care OR: 2.8 (CI95%: 1.2-6.5), breathing difficulty OR: 3.4 (CI95%: 1.4-8.2), vomiting OR: 3.3 (CI95%: 1.4-7.4), cutaneous lesions OR: 5.6 (CI95%: 1.9-16.6). Presence of three or more of these risk factors at hospital entrance predicted severe disease in COVID-19 positive children. Age, presence of underlying illness, male sex, breathing difficulty, and dehydration were predictive of death in COVID-19 children. Our study identifies several predictors of severe pediatric COVID-19 and death. Incorporating these predictors, we developed a tool that clinicians can use to identify children at high risk of severe COVID-19 in limited-resource settings.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Humanos , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Niño , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Adolescente , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Transversales , Lactante , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Bolivia/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sociodemográficos
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300464, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626197

RESUMEN

Our research occurred in the Andean region, one of the eight global centers of domestication of plant species grown for agriculture. The shores of Lake Titicaca (located between Peru and Bolivia), at 3800 meters above sea level, are recognized as the center of origin of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). In this region, complex societies have emerged, thanks to the development of water and soil management technologies. They have managed to overcome high mountain territories' extreme and variable climatic conditions. These societies have traditionally protected and preserved quinoa as food for present and future generations through their long-standing knowledge and cultivation practices. The fieldwork occurred in the context of Andean family farming, and our study analyzes nature-society dynamics with a chorematic approach and interviews with local communities. The interest of this work is the transformation of the landscape at the scale of the mountain agroecosystem to understand better the impacts of rural development policies. Chorematic modeling was applied to two periods, before and after 1970, a pivotal year in Peru for agriculture, to show how socio-spatial dynamics in the Andean environment are changing, particularly concerning the evolution of quinoa cultivation. The results show that wild quinoa relatives' distribution is strongly linked to the socio-spatial organization of the agroecosystem. Different species of wild quinoa relatives are maintained by villagers for their multiple foods, medicinal and cultural uses in natural areas, grazed areas, on edge, and also within cultivated fields. However, this management is changing under the pressure of global issues related to the international quinoa market, whose requirements imply reducing the presence of wild relatives in cultivated fields.


Asunto(s)
Chenopodium quinoa , Perú , Bolivia , Domesticación , Agricultura
3.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297233, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593119

RESUMEN

Chitinozoans recovered from one section of the Middle Devonian Los Monos Formation in the TCB X-1001-Tacobo borehole, sub-Andean basin of Bolivia, have been analysed. Eleven from the eighteen processed cutting samples yielded specimens that allowed taxonomic study. Eleven genera and thirty-five chitinozoan species were identified from the Los Monos Formation with four of them recorded for the first time in Western Gondwana. Ancyrochitina biconstricta, Ancyrochitina parisi, Angochitina galarzae and Ramochitina boliviensis are among the most relevant taxa restricted to Western Gondwana that support the affinity with this paleocontinent. One new species, Lagenochitina tacobensis sp. nov. is described, and Ramochitina candelariaensis sp. nov. (n. n.) is formally erected. The chitinozoan assemblage reinforces the late Eifelian-middle Givetian age previously proposed by organic-walled phytoplankton and miospores for this section of the TCB X-1001-Tacobo borehole. A new local chitinozoan biozonation based on the chitinozoan assemblages is proposed and a revision of the current chitinozoan biozonation for Western Gondwana and Bolivia is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Fósiles , Bolivia , Animales
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9205, 2024 04 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649738

RESUMEN

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), an Andean crop, is a facultative halophyte food crop recognized globally for its high nutritional value and plasticity to adapt to harsh conditions. We conducted a genome-wide association study on a diverse set of quinoa germplasm accessions. These accessions were evaluated for the following agronomic and biochemical traits: days to 50% flowering (DTF), plant height (PH), panicle length (PL), stem diameter (SD), seed yield (SY), grain diameter (GD), and thousand-grain weight (TGW). These accessions underwent genotyping-by-sequencing using the DNBSeq-G400R platform. Among all evaluated traits, TGW represented maximum broad-sense heritability. Our study revealed average SNP density of ≈ 3.11 SNPs/10 kb for the whole genome, with the lowest and highest on chromosomes Cq1B and Cq9A, respectively. Principal component analysis clustered the quinoa population in three main clusters, one clearly representing lowland Chilean accessions, whereas the other two groups corresponded to germplasm from the highlands of Peru and Bolivia. In our germplasm set, we estimated linkage disequilibrium decay to be ≈ 118.5 kb. Marker-trait analyses revealed major and consistent effect associations for DTF on chromosomes 3A, 4B, 5B, 6A, 7A, 7B and 8B, with phenotypic variance explained (PVE) as high as 19.15%. Nine associations across eight chromosomes were also found for saponin content with 20% PVE by qSPN5A.1. More QTLs were identified for PL and TGW on multiple chromosomal locations. We identified putative candidate genes in the genomic regions associated with DTF and saponin content. The consistent and major-effect genomic associations can be used in fast-tracking quinoa breeding for wider adaptation across marginal environments.


Asunto(s)
Chenopodium quinoa , Genoma de Planta , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo , Chenopodium quinoa/genética , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Fenotipo , Perú , Genotipo , Bolivia , Cromosomas de las Plantas/genética , Carácter Cuantitativo Heredable
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(4): 663-668, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452392

RESUMEN

Bolivia has one of the highest burdens of Chagas disease in the world. Vertical transmission from mother to infant accounts for a growing number of cases. We performed a systematic review of articles assessing the prevalence of Chagas disease in pregnant women and rates of vertical transmission to infants in Bolivia. Studies were not excluded based on year of publication or language. Random-effects analyses were performed to estimate a pooled prevalence of maternal Chagas disease and pooled vertical transmission rate. Our search yielded 21 articles describing over 400,000 cases of Chagas disease among pregnant women in Bolivia. The reported prevalence of maternal Chagas disease ranged from 17.3% to 64.5%, with a pooled prevalence of 33.0% (95% CI, 27.4-38.7%). The prevalence of maternal Chagas disease trended down over time (P = 0.006), decreasing by approximately 25% to 30% over the last 40 years. Vertical transmission rates ranged from 2.0% to 13% with a pooled average of 6.2% (95% CI, 4.4-7.5%); rates did not significantly change over time. Our study is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of Chagas disease maternal prevalence and vertical transmission in Bolivia. Our findings indicate that maternal Chagas disease has fallen in prevalence but still affects 20% to 30% of pregnant women and poses a considerable risk of vertical transmission. Pregnant women and infants are an important target for public health interventions to limit the mortality and morbidity of Chagas disease and to reduce intergenerational spread.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Lactante , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Prevalencia , Bolivia/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Madres
6.
Salud Colect ; 20: e4710, 2024 Mar 19.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512123

RESUMEN

Down Syndrome is the most common genetic condition and a leading cause of intellectual disability. Individuals in rural areas, particularly those with disabilities, often face disparities in healthcare access. Analyzing clinical records of patients diagnosed with Down Syndrome between 2013 and 2022 by the Institute of Genetics at the Universidad Mayor de San Andrés in La Paz, Bolivia, this study examined the time to diagnosis for 250 patients with Down Syndrome. The findings revealed that patients from rural areas with Down Syndrome take an average of five months to receive a diagnosis, compared to two months in urban areas (p<0.001). No significant differences were found in the time to diagnosis based on gender. However, a higher proportion of males from rural areas was observed (p=0.03). The results suggest that individuals in rural areas face challenges in receiving a timely diagnosis. On the other hand, women may not be brought to cities for proper diagnosis and treatment due to gender biases in certain communities. The importance of improving access to early diagnosis and treatment in rural areas is emphasized.


El síndrome de Down es la condición genética más común y una causa principal de discapacidad intelectual. Las personas en áreas rurales, especialmente aquellas con discapacidades, a menudo enfrentan desigualdades en el acceso a la salud. A partir de los registros clínicos de pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de síndrome de Down entre 2013 y 2022, por el Instituto de Genética de la Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia, se analizó, analizó el tiempo hasta el diagnóstico de 250 pacientes con síndrome de Down, mostró que los pacientes procedentes de áreas rurales con síndrome de Down tardan cinco meses en promedio en recibir un diagnóstico, comparado a los dos meses en zonas urbanas (p<0,001). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en el tiempo hasta el diagnostico según el sexo. Sin embargo, se evidenció una mayor proporción de varones provenientes de áreas rurales (p=0,03). Los hallazgos sugieren que los individuos de áreas rurales enfrentan dificultades para recibir el diagnóstico. Por otro lado, las mujeres quizás no sean llevadas a ciudades para un diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuado debido a sesgos de género en ciertas comunidades. Se subraya la importancia de mejorar el acceso a diagnósticos y tratamientos tempranos en áreas rurales.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Down , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Bolivia , Academias e Institutos , Ciudades , Instituciones de Salud
7.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0292605, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451956

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a major health problem in Latin America. In 2019, the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation (La Paz regional site) conducted a pilot study to estimate the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and the feasibility of HPV screening in Bolivia through self-sampling and portable and transportable laboratory instruments for HPV testing in urban and rural areas. METHODS: Women aged 20-65 years from La Paz (urban area), Toro Toro (rural area), and Acasio (rural area) were enrolled in local public health centers between Dec 1, 2019, and June 30, 2021. Self-sampling was carried out with the Viba-Brush system (Rovers, Oss, Netherlands) and samples were preserved in ThinPrep containers (Hologic Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA). The GeneXpert system (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) for high-risk HPV testing detects HPV E6 and E7 DNA via real-time PCR in a mobile system of easy execution requiring minimal manual intervention. The system provides results in about 1 h. The hr- HPV prevalence data, overall and partial genotyping, were analyzed considering the following age groups: 20-34, 35-44, and 45-65 years old. FINDINGS: 2168 women were enrolled: 614 (28.3%) in La Paz, 743 (34.3%) in Toro Toro, and 811 (37.4%) in Acasio. Only one sample was collected from each participant. 2043 (94.2%) of 2168 samples were adequate for HPV testing. 255 (12.5%) samples were positive for high-risk HPV. Comparing the urban area (La Paz) versus rural combined areas (Acasio+Toro Toro), using a logistic model, the HPV total rate was statistically significantly higher in the city of La Paz (15.0% vs 11.4%; OR:1.37;95% CI: 1.04-1.80). Furthermore, the HPV prevalence was declining by age, and the urban/rural odds ratio was 1.50; (95% IC 1.13-19). The overall HPV 16 positivity was 2.7% (55/2043) and for HPV 18/45 was 1.8% (37/2043) without any statistically significant differences between the three BHU enrolling centers. Only the prevalence of HPV group '39/56/66/68' was significantly higher in La Paz (p<0,001) in comparison to Acasio and Toro Toro. INTERPRETATION: The total and age-adjusted prevalence of high-risk HPV infection in rural and urban areas in Bolivia, as measured with a validated test for screening, is similar to that observed in Europe and the USA. Our study shows that a screening protocol for HPV testing with self-sampling would be feasible in urban and rural areas in Bolivia, and that the reported high occurrence of cervical cancer in Bolivia is not related to a higher rate of high-risk HPV infections. Carrying out HPV tests locally avoids the issues associated with transportation and storage of the collected material and allows the participant to wait in the clinic for the test result, overcoming the very long response time for screening test in Bolivia.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Bolivia/epidemiología , Detección Precoz del Cáncer/métodos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Tamizaje Masivo , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/complicaciones , Proyectos Piloto , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0012016, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437237

RESUMEN

Bolivia has the highest incidence of Chagas disease (CD) worldwide. Caused by the parasite Trypanasoma cruzi, CD is generally a chronic condition. Diagnosis is logistically and financially challenging, requiring at least two different laboratory-based serological tests. Many CD cases are missed; in Bolivia it is estimated just 6% of individuals chronically infected with T. cruzi get diagnosed. Achieving control on the way to elimination of CD requires a radical simplification of the current CD testing pathways, to overcome the barriers to accessing CD treatment. We aimed to generate unbiased performance data of lateral flow assays (LFAs) for T. cruzi infection in Bolivia, to evaluate their usefulness for improving T. cruzi diagnosis rates in a precise and efficient manner. This retrospective, laboratory-based, diagnostic evaluation study sought to estimate the sensitivity/specificity of 10 commercially available LFAs for T. cruzi, using the current CD diagnostic algorithm employed in Bolivia as the reference test method. All tests were blinded at the study site and performed by three operators. In total, 470 serum samples were tested, including 221 and 249 characterized as CD-positive/-negative, respectively. The LFAs were scored according to their relative importance using a decision-tree-based algorithm, with the mean decrease in Gini index as the scoring metric. The estimates of sensitivities ranged from 62.2-97.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) lower bound 55.0-94.7%); for specificities the range was 78.6-100% (95% CI lower bound 72.0-97.5%); 5/10 and 6/10 tests had sensitivity >90% and specificity >95%, respectively. Four LFAs showed high values of both sensitivity (93-95%) and specificity (97-99%). The agreement between 6 LFAs and the reference tests was almost perfect (Kappa 0.83-0.94). Most LFAs evaluated thus showed performances comparable with current laboratory-based diagnostic methods.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humanos , Bolivia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedad de Chagas/parasitología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541304

RESUMEN

Numerous studies have shown that pesticide exposure is linked to adverse health outcomes. Nevertheless, in Bolivia, where there is an increasing use of pesticides, the literature is sparse. To address knowledge gaps and guide future research in Bolivia, we conducted a scoping review spanning 22 years (January 2000 to December 2022). Our search identified 39 peer-reviewed articles, 27 reports/documents on Bolivian regulations, and 12 other documents. Most studies focused on farmers and revealed high pesticide exposure levels, assessed through biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility, and effect. The literature explored a range of health effects due to pesticide exposure, spanning from acute to chronic conditions. Many studies highlighted the correlation between pesticide exposure and genotoxic damage, measured as DNA strand breaks and/or micronuclei formation. This was particularly observed in farmers without personal protection equipment (PPE), which increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, including cancer. Recent findings also showed the alarming use of banned or restricted pesticides in Bolivian crops. Despite existing Bolivian regulations, the uncontrolled use of pesticides persists, leading to harmful health effects on the population and increasing land and water pollution. This review underscores the need for the stringent enforcement of regulations and continued research efforts, and it provides a scientific foundation for decision-making by relevant authorities.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Profesional , Plaguicidas , Humanos , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Agricultura , Bolivia , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Agricultores
10.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 65(3-4): 121-128, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385761

RESUMEN

Elevated concentrations of arsenic, lithium and boron in drinking water have already been reported in Bolivia. Arsenic is known to cause genotoxicity but that caused by lithium and boron is less well known. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential genotoxic effects of exposure to arsenic, while considering exposure to lithium and boron and genetic susceptibility. Women (n = 230) were recruited in villages located around Lake Poopó. Exposure to arsenic was determined as the sum of concentrations of arsenic metabolites inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine. Exposure to lithium and boron was determined based on their concentrations in urine. Genetic susceptibility was determined by GSTM1 (glutathione S-transferase-mu-1) and GSTT1 (glutathione S-transferase-theta-1) null genotypes and AS3MT (Arsenite Methyltransferase) rs3740393. Genotoxicity was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes using the comet assay. The geometric means of arsenic, lithium, and boron concentrations were 68, 897, and 3972 µg/L, respectively. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null carriers had more DNA strand breaks than gene carriers (p = .008, p = .005). We found no correlation between urinary arsenic and DNA strand breaks (rS = .03, p = .64), and only a weak non-significant positive association in the adjusted multivariate analysis (ß = .09 [-.03; .22], p = .14). Surprisingly, increasing concentrations of lithium in urine were negatively correlated with DNA strand breaks (rS = -.24, p = .0006), and the association persisted in multivariate analysis after adjusting for arsenic (ß = -.22 [-.36; -.08], p = .003). We found no association between boron and DNA strand breaks. The apparent protective effect of lithium merits further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Boro , Agua Potable , Glutatión Transferasa , Litio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Arsénico/orina , Arsénico/toxicidad , Bolivia , Glutatión Transferasa/genética , Adulto , Litio/orina , Boro/orina , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Daño del ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayo Cometa , Metiltransferasas/genética , Adulto Joven
11.
Public Underst Sci ; 33(4): 466-482, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305243

RESUMEN

Research about science and publics in the COVID-19 pandemic often focuses on public trust and on identifying and correcting public attitudes. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 209 residents in six countries-Austria, Bolivia, Germany, Italy, Mexico, and Portugal-this article uses the concept of performativity to explore how participants understand, and relate to science, in the COVID-19 context. By performativity, we mean the ways by which participants understand themselves as particular sorts of publics through identification with, and differentiation from, various other actors in matters that are perceived as controversies surrounding science: COVID-19 vaccination, media communication of science, and the interactions between governments and scientists. The criteria used to construct the similarities and differences among publics were heterogeneous and fluid, showing how epistemic beliefs about the nature of, and trust in, scientific knowledge are intermingled with social and cultural memberships embedded in specific contexts and across disparate places.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Opinión Pública , Ciencia , COVID-19/psicología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Portugal , Humanos , Bolivia , México , Adulto , Confianza , Italia , Masculino , Femenino , Pandemias , Persona de Mediana Edad , Austria , SARS-CoV-2 , Alemania , Investigación Cualitativa , Anciano , Comunicación
12.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 129, 2024 01 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195478

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Cultural adaptation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-PHQ-9 to Bolivian Quechua and analysis of the internal structure validity, reliability, and measurement invariance by sociodemographic variables. METHODS: The PHQ-9 was translated and back-translated (English-Quechua-English) to optimise translation. For the cultural adaptation, experts, and people from the target population (e.g., in focus groups) verified the suitability of the translated PHQ-9. For the psychometric analysis, we performed a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to evaluate internal validity, calculated α and ω indices to assess reliability, and performed a Multiple Indicator, Multiple Cause (MIMIC) model for evaluating measurement invariance by sex, age, marital status, educational level and residence. We used standard goodness-of-fit indices to interpret both CFA results. RESULTS: The experts and focus groups improved the translated PHQ-9, making it clear and culturally equivalent. For the psychometric analysis, we included data from 397 participants, from which 73.3% were female, 33.0% were 18-30 years old, 56.7% reported primary school studies, 63.2% were single, and 62.0% resided in urban areas. In the CFA, the single-factor model showed adequate fit (Comparative Fit Index = 0.983; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.977; Standardized Root Mean Squared Residual = 0.046; Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation = 0.069), while the reliability was optimal (α = 0.869-0.877; ω = 0.874-0.885). The invariance was confirmed across all sociodemographic variables (Change in Comparative Fit Index (delta) or Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (delta) < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The PHQ-9 adapted to Bolivian Quechua offers a valid, reliable and invariant unidimensional measurement across groups by sex, age, marital status, educational level and residence.


Asunto(s)
Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Masculino , Bolivia , Perú , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
13.
Neotrop Entomol ; 53(1): 154-161, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38095829

RESUMEN

This work adds a new eyeless species of the genus Micranops Cameron, 1913 (Staphylinidae, Paederinae, Scopaeina) to the endogean Coleoptera of the Bolivian fauna. The loss of eyes is usually associated with adaptations to subterranean habitats, although M. bolivianus Guzman & Zyla sp. nov. was collected from leaf litter. We also report new occurrences for the genus west of the Andes mountain range. Our work increases the number of known Neotropical Micranops species to seven and extends the known distribution range for the genus in South America.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , Bolivia , Distribución Animal , América del Sur , Ecosistema
14.
Acta Trop ; 250: 107092, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38065375

RESUMEN

Leishmaniases are zoonotic diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. In Bolivia, leishmaniasis occurs mainly in the cutaneous form (CL) followed by the mucosal or mucocutaneous form (ML or MCL), grouped as tegumentary leishmaniosis (TL), while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are rare. The cases of TL are routinely diagnosed by parasitological methods: Direct Parasitological Exam (DPE) and axenic culture, the latter being performed only by specialized laboratories. The aim of the present study was to optimize the parasitological diagnosis of TL in Bolivia, using two sampling methods. Samples from 117 patients with suspected TL, obtained by aspiration (n = 121) and scraping (n = 121) of the edge of the lesion were tested by: direct parasitological exam, culture in TSTB medium, and miniculture and microculture in Schneider's medium. A positive laboratory result by any of the four techniques evaluated using either of the two sampling methods was considered the gold standard. Of the 117 suspected patients included, TL was confirmed in 96 (82 %), corresponding 79 of the confirmed cases (82.3 %) to CL and 16 (16.7 %) to ML. Parasitological techniques specificity was 100 % and their analytical sensitivity was greater with scraping samples in TSTB culture (98 %). Scraping samples in TSTB and miniculture correlated well with the reference (Cohen's kappa coefficient=0.88) and showed good reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient ≥0.91). Microculture provided positive results earlier than the other culture methods (mean day 4.5). By day 14, 98 % of positive cultures had been detected. Scraping sampling and miniculture were associated with higher culture contamination (6 % and 17 %, respectively). Bacterial contamination predominated, regardless of the sampling and culture method, while filamentous fungi and mixed contamination were more frequently observed in cultures from scraping samples. In conclusion: (i) scraping samples proved more suitable for the diagnosis of TL as they increased analytical sensitivity, are less traumatic for the patient and are safer for laboratory personnel than aspirates; (ii) culture, mainly in TSBT medium, should be used for the diagnosis of TL due to its high sensitivity (doubling the number of cases diagnosed by DPE) and its low cost compared to other culture media.


Asunto(s)
Leishmania , Leishmaniasis Cutánea , Leishmaniasis Visceral , Leishmaniasis , Humanos , Bolivia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Leishmaniasis/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/parasitología , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/parasitología
15.
Epilepsia Open ; 9(2): 513-521, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38016915

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is considered the major cause of epilepsy in endemic regions. In the rural areas of the Bolivian Chaco prevalence of NCC among people with epilepsy (PWE) was 27.4%, according to a population-based survey carried out in 1994. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of Epilepsy Associated with Tonic-Clonic Seizures (EATCS) and to evaluate the prevalence of NCC among PWE in the rural communities of the Bolivian Chaco after 30 years. METHODS: Twenty-two rural communities (total population 12 852) were involved in the study. PWE in the study area were ascertained by multiple sources and the diagnosis was confirmed by a neurologist. All PWE identified were invited to undergo brain CT scan examination and diagnosis of NCC was sought according to the revised Del Brutto criteria. RESULTS: Seventy-eight PWE (30 men, 38.4%; mean age at onset was 12.7 ± 13.2 years) with EATCS were identified giving a crude prevalence of 6.1/1000 (95% CI: 4.7-7.3). Due to the COVID-19 lockdown, the study was interrupted in 2020 and only 36 PWE (46%) of the whole sample underwent CT scan examination. Of these, 8 (22.2%) fulfilled the criteria for NCC of whom 6 (75%) presented only single or multiple calcifications. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study reassessing the prevalence of NCC among PWE after 30 years, in the same rural area and using a population-based design. T. solium is still endemic in the Bolivian Chaco where more than 20% of EATCS may be attributable to NCC. Our findings show a substantially unchanged prevalence of NCC over the past 30 years despite improved knowledge, underlining the need for active intervention programs to control T. solium transmission in this area. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: Neurocysticercosis is still endemic in the Bolivian Chaco. The proportion of epilepsy attributable to neurocysticercosis is about 22%. Systematic efforts towards elimination of neurocysticercosis in these areas should be implemented.


Asunto(s)
Epilepsia , Neurocisticercosis , Masculino , Humanos , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Neurocisticercosis/epidemiología , Neurocisticercosis/complicaciones , Neurocisticercosis/diagnóstico , Bolivia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/epidemiología , Epilepsia/complicaciones , Convulsiones , Prevalencia
16.
Mycologia ; 116(1): 17-30, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37955982

RESUMEN

Acrospermales represent one of the least studied lineages of Dothideomycetes and are characterized by diverse ecological strategies, including saprotrophic, epiphytic, fungicolous, lichenicolous, and bryophilous lifestyles. The order is composed of two teleomorphic genera, Acrospermum and Oomyces, and five anamorphic genera of unclear relationships. The objectives of the study were to establish the phylogenetic position of Acrospermum species collected from lichens in the tropical forest of Bolivia and to infer the evolution of the lichenicolous lifestyle in Acrospermales. Our results reveal that the examined specimens from Bolivia represent a new species, A. bolivianum, which is well characterized by its phylogenetic distinctness, morphological characteristics, and host selection. The new species is the first lichenicolous member of Acrospermum and forms a well-supported clade sister to the bryophilous Acrospermum adeanum. The evolution of lifestyles, concluded by phylogenetic analyses and ancestral state reconstructions, indicated that the saprotrophic lifestyle is ancestral to Acrospermales. This corresponds to their close relationship to other saprotrophic lineages of Dothideomycetes and indicates that the wide spectrum of nutritional strategies, currently observed in Acrospermales, may be a result of more recent shifts in their ecology. Our results also suggest that the lichenicolous lifestyle in Acrospermales appeared independently at least two times. Lichenicolous species are represented in our data set by Acrospermum bolivianum and Gonatophragmium physciae, which evolved from lichenicolous and plant-parasite ancestors, respectively. The genus Oomyces, represented by O. carneoalbus, was included for the first time in the phylogenetic analysis and showed a sister relationship to the remaining taxa of Acrospermales.


Asunto(s)
Líquenes , Líquenes/genética , Filogenia , ADN Ribosómico , Plantas , Bolivia
17.
Recurso de Internet en Español | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-49526

RESUMEN

Información y recursos relevantes según líneas estratégicas en salud andina (componentes) y producción científica prioritariamente de los 06 países andinos (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Perú, Venezuela), cuya colección es integrada por documentos bibliográficos, informes técnicos, memorias, material multimedia, entre otros.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema Andino , Bolivia , Perú , Chile , Ecuador , Colombia , Venezuela
18.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2023-12-18. (OPS/NMH/RF/23-0041).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-58951

RESUMEN

Esta hoja informativa expone los resultados del estudio aleatorizado controlado llevado a cabo en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia para identificar el mejor sistema de etiquetado en la parte frontal de los envases alimentarios. En el estudio participaron 3609 personas entrevistadas en 32 supermercados, en las ciudades de Cochabamba, El Alto, La Paz y Santa Cruz de la Sierra. La investigación comparó la eficacia de los sellos octagonales de advertencia, adoptados en la mayoría de los países de las Américas y propuesto en proyectos de ley en el Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, y el sistema de semáforo textual con barras horizontales de colores rojo, amarillo o verde, con un grupo de control sin etiquetado en la parte frontal de los envases. Los sellos de advertencia en productos alimentarios procesados y ultraprocesados preenvasados son los que más ayudan a los consumidores a tomar decisiones alimentarias más saludables. Los consumidores expuestos al sistema de sellos octagonales de advertencia tomaron las mejores decisiones: eligieron con mayor frecuencia no comprar productos nocivos para la salud e identificaron correctamente la presencia de nutrientes críticos en exceso en los productos. Este estudio del Ministerio de Salud y Deportes del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud constituye una contribución más al cuerpo de evidencia y experiencias acumuladas en la Región de las Américas en la materia.


Asunto(s)
Ciencias de la Nutrición , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Alimentos Procesados , Alimentos Procesados , Bolivia
19.
PeerJ ; 11: e16533, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38099301

RESUMEN

The avifauna of South America is one of the most widely studied groups of vertebrates. However, certain species, such as the Andean Ibis (Theristicus branickii), have received limited attention regarding their ecological patterns, biology, current distribution, and environmental requirements. This study analyzed observation data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) on the Andean Ibis in four countries to identify and understand critical variables that determine the species' presence, assess the proportion of its habitat within protected areas and identify possible threats to the species. Additionally, this study considered environmental and ecological variables to model ecological niches using the maximum entropy approach in MaxEnt to map the suitable habitat of the species. The findings revealed the extent of suitable Andean Ibis habitats in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. The variables that most determined the presence of the species were: altitude (36.57%), distance to lakes (23.29%) and ecological isothermality (13.34%). The distribution area of the Andean Ibis totaled 300,095.00 km2, spanning both sides of the Andean mountains range. Human activities have left a significant impact on the Andean Ibis habitat, with 48% of this area impacted by the human footprint and only 10% of the territory falling within protected areas designated by the respective countries. The results of this study show that the Andean Ibis presents characteristics of a specialist species due to its adaptation to the climate conditions of the plateau and highlands, including low temperatures, herbaceous vegetation and the presence of water bodies. The species is distributed in disconnected Andean landscape areas, whose functionality could be compromised by increased human activities. Complementary studies will be necessary to understand the ecological role and effectiveness of protected areas for conserving the species.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Animales , Humanos , Perú , Ecuador , Bolivia , Chile
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(6): e202202928, dic. 2023. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1516358

RESUMEN

Introducción. Este estudio pretende caracterizar las lesiones provocadas por perros en niños de un hospital pediátrico de Bolivia. Población y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional, retrospectivo, en pacientes atendidos del 2017 al 2021. Resultados. Se estudiaron 769 pacientes. Las lesiones representaron el 5,6 % de las emergencias y el 0,8 % de las internaciones. Fueron más frecuentes en niños de hasta 5 años (55,1 %), en quienes se observó mayor gravedad de las lesiones (p = 0,008), antecedente de provocación al animal (p = 0,048), un animal agresor conocido (p <0,036), el contexto doméstico del accidente (p = 0,021), mayor frecuencia de profilaxis con suero luego de la exposición (p = 0,005) y regiones afectadas principalmente maxilofaciales (p <0,001). Observamos 3 casos de mortalidad por rabia humana y 1 por shock hipovolémico. Conclusión. Las lesiones producidas por perros son causas frecuentes de visita a emergencia y hospitalización en pediatría, y tienen características particulares en niños de hasta 5 años de edad.


Introduction. The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics of dog bite injuries in children seen at a children's hospital in Bolivia. Population and methods. This was an observational, retrospective study in patients seen between 2017 and 2021. Results. A total of 769 patients were studied. Dog bite injuries accounted for 5.6% of emergency visits and 0.8% of hospitalizations. They were more frequent in children younger than 5 years (55.1%), in whom the following were observed: greater injury severity (p = 0.008), history of animal provocation (p = 0.048), known attacking animal (p < 0.036), domestic accident (p = 0.021), greater frequency of post-exposure prophylaxis with anti-rabies serum (p = 0.005), and maxillofacial area as the main region involved (p < 0.001). There were 3 deaths due to human rabies and 1 due to hypovolemic shock. Conclusion. Dog bite injuries are a frequent cause of visit to the emergency department and hospitalization in pediatrics and have specific characteristics in children younger than 5 years.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Preescolar , Niño , Mordeduras y Picaduras/terapia , Mordeduras y Picaduras/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Bolivia/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Perros , Centros de Atención Terciaria
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