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1.
Food Chem ; 371: 131116, 2022 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583181

RESUMEN

Porophyllum ruderale subsp. ruderale is a food product used for seasoning in Central and Southern America. The present research aimed to investigate the chemical composition of an extract prepared from aerial parts of P. ruderale using UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS, to isolate and identify major natural products present in the extract, and to furtherly investigate their anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Twenty-five compounds were detected and characterized using UV-Vis and MS data. All characterized compounds were quantified. Ten major phenolics were isolated and identified by NMR. One previously undescribed natural product was isolated and established as 1-O-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy)benzoyl-6-O-galloyl-ß-d-glucose (12). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated based on the influence of the extract and isolated compounds on the TLR4-dependent secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α by human primary neutrophils in vitro. Phenolic acids, and caffeic acid derivatives in particular, contributed to the extract's bioactivity.


Asunto(s)
Coriandrum , Fenoles , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Bolivia , Humanos , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Fenoles/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
2.
Zootaxa ; 5068(2): 211-239, 2021 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810712

RESUMEN

The genus Gastrotheca (Anura: Hemiphractidae) is a group of marsupial frogs particularly diverse in Andean regions. Several taxonomic studies of this genus have been conducted in the humid cloud forestsor Yungasof the Andean eastern slopes of central Bolivia (departments of Cochabamba and Santa Cruz). Yet, the distinction among three species that occur sympatrically in these forests, G. lauzuricae (proposed as a junior synonym of G. coeruleomaculatus in 2015), G. piperata, and G. splendens, remains unclear since the morphological characters that purportedly support their differentiation are variable and partly shared among them. We have carried out external morphological studies, including multivariate morphometric analyses, to assess how they support the taxonomic status of these three species. We also evaluated characters of the cranial osteology of a sample of six individuals using micro CT-scanning. Principal component and linear discriminant analyses resulted in a great overlap among the putative species. Cranial osteological comparisons did not reveal highly significant differences among them, but suggested that different degrees of hyperossification could be related to the developmental state of individuals. Our results indicate that most morphological and osteological reported differences between the three species likely represent intraspecific variation. Thus, we propose that the three nominal species belong to a single biological entity, for which the name Gastrotheca splendens (Schmidt, 1857) has priority. We also restrict the name Gastrotheca coeruleomaculatus (Werner, 1899) to externally similar congeneric populations from the Yungas forests of department of La Paz, but highlighting the need of a detailed evaluation of their taxonomic identity.


Asunto(s)
Anuros , Marsupiales , Animales , Bolivia , Bosques , Osteología , Filogenia
3.
Elife ; 102021 09 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586066

RESUMEN

In post-industrial settings, apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) is associated with increased cardiovascular and neurological disease risk. However, the majority of human evolutionary history occurred in environments with higher pathogenic diversity and low cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that in high-pathogen and energy-limited contexts, the APOE4 allele confers benefits by reducing innate inflammation when uninfected, while maintaining higher lipid levels that buffer costs of immune activation during infection. Among Tsimane forager-farmers of Bolivia (N = 1266, 50% female), APOE4 is associated with 30% lower C-reactive protein, and higher total cholesterol and oxidized LDL. Blood lipids were either not associated, or negatively associated with inflammatory biomarkers, except for associations of oxidized LDL and inflammation which were limited to obese adults. Further, APOE4 carriers maintain higher levels of total and LDL cholesterol at low body mass indices (BMIs). These results suggest that the relationship between APOE4 and lipids may be beneficial for pathogen-driven immune responses and unlikely to increase cardiovascular risk in an active subsistence population.


Asunto(s)
Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Inmunidad Innata , Indios Sudamericanos , Lípidos/sangre , Clima Tropical , Biomarcadores/sangre , Índice de Masa Corporal , Bolivia , Dieta , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/sangre , Factores de Riesgo
4.
Toxicon ; 202: 53-59, 2021 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562494

RESUMEN

Although snakebite incidence is underestimated in Bolivia, the Amazon region presents the highest incidence of these accidents. The local effects of bites by some non-front-fanged colubroid (NFFC) snakes are usually confused with that of viperids, resulting in the improper use of antivenoms and medications. Since there is scarce information on clinical treatment and management of NFFC bites from Bolivian Amazon, we conducted a prospective study of NFFC snakebites by reviewing the records of patients admitted with a snakebite diagnosis at Hospital Central Ivirgarzama, Bolivia. Snakebites were recorded for 12 months (December 2019-November 2020), including information about the sex and age of the patient, snakebite date, and treatment. Eight (5.7 %) of 152 patients were bitten by NFFC Helicops angulatus, Hydrops triangularis, and Erythrolamprus sp. Our results showed that 5/7 patients had prolonged clotting time and INR, as well as local edema and mild pain, suggesting systemic envenoming. Previously non-documented mild coagulopathy was observed for H. angulatus and H. triangularis bites. In some cases, incorrect first-aid measures, and inappropriate use of bothropic/lachesic antivenom were administrated. All the patients received supportive therapy and antihistamine drugs. Unsupported use of non-evidence-based treatments for snakebites such as corticoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and prophylactic antibiotic prescription were recorded. In conclusion, we describe the first formally documented snakebite cases produced by NFFC from Bolivia, highlighting the urgent need for training of the medical team in the snake identification, clinical management of snakebite, and the existence of a human-snake conflict involving NFFC species.


Asunto(s)
Colubridae , Mordeduras de Serpientes , Animales , Bolivia , Edema , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Mordeduras de Serpientes/tratamiento farmacológico , Mordeduras de Serpientes/epidemiología
5.
La Paz; OPS; 2021-09-02. (OPS/BOL/21-0001).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-54783

RESUMEN

Establecida en 1902 como el organismo independiente especializado en salud del sistema interamericano, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) ha desarrollado competencias y experiencia ampliamente reconocidas al brindar cooperación técnica a sus Estados Miembros para combatir las enfermedades transmisibles y no transmisibles y sus causas, fortalecer los sistemas de salud y responder a situaciones de emergencia y desastres en toda la Región de las Américas. Asimismo, en su calidad de oficina regional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la OPS participa activamente en los equipos de las Naciones Unidas en los países, colaborando con otros organismos, fondos y programas del sistema de las Naciones Unidas para contribuir al logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) a nivel de país. En este informe anual se presenta la cooperación técnica de la OPS a nivel de país en el 2020, mediante la aplicación de la estrategia de cooperación con el país, la respuesta a las necesidades y prioridades nacionales, y el desarrollo de las actividades en el marco de los mandatos regionales y mundiales de la Organización y los ODS. En consonancia con el tema general de "la salud universal y la pandemia: sistemas de salud resilientes", se pone de relieve la respuesta de la OPS a la pandemia de COVID-19, así como sus esfuerzos continuos en esferas prioritarias como las enfermedades transmisibles, las enfermedades no transmisibles, la salud mental, la salud a lo largo del curso de vida y las emergencias de salud. También se presenta un resumen financiero del ejercicio examinado.


Asunto(s)
Cooperación Técnica , Sistemas de Salud , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Políticas, Planificación y Administración en Salud , Cobertura de los Servicios de Salud , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Salud Mental , Administración Financiera , Administración en Salud Pública , América del Sur , Bolivia
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(3): 643-650, 2021 08 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398818

RESUMEN

This cross-sectional study evaluated epidemiologic characteristics of persons living with HIV (PWH) coinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi in Cochabamba, Bolivia, and estimated T. cruzi parasitemia by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in patients with and without evidence of reactivation by direct microscopy. Thirty-two of the 116 HIV patients evaluated had positive serology for T. cruzi indicative of chronic Chagas disease (27.6%). Sixteen of the 32 (50%) patients with positive serology were positive by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and four of the 32 (12.5%) were positive by direct microscopy. The median parasite load by qPCR in those with CD4+ < 200 was 168 parasites/mL (73-9951) compared with 28.5 parasites/mL (15-1,528) in those with CD4+ ≥ 200 (P = 0.89). There was a significant inverse relationship between the degree of parasitemia estimated by qPCR from blood clot and CD4+ count on the logarithmic scale (rsBC= -0.70, P = 0.007). The correlation between T. cruzi estimated by qPCR+ blood clot and HIV viral load was statistically significant with rsBC = 0.61, P = 0.047. Given the significant mortality of PWH and Chagas reactivation and that 57% of our patients with CD4+ counts < 200 cells/mm3 showed evidence of reactivation, we propose that screening for chronic Chagas disease be considered in PWH in regions endemic for Chagas disease and in the immigrant populations in nonendemic regions. Additionally, our study showed that PWH with advancing immunosuppression have higher levels of estimated parasitemia measured by qPCR and suggests a role for active surveillance for Chagas reactivation with consideration of treatment with antitrypanosomal therapy until immune reconstitution can be achieved.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/sangre , Infección Latente/sangre , Parasitemia/sangre , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios/inmunología , Bolivia , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Enfermedad de Chagas/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Chagas/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Chagas/tratamiento farmacológico , Coinfección , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Humanos , Infección Latente/complicaciones , Infección Latente/diagnóstico , Infección Latente/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Microscopía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nitroimidazoles/uso terapéutico , Carga de Parásitos , Parasitemia/complicaciones , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Parasitemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Tripanocidas/uso terapéutico , Trypanosoma cruzi , Carga Viral
7.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(11): 3577-3594, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365519

RESUMEN

KEY MESSAGE: We propose to use the natural variation between individuals of a population for genome assembly scaffolding. In today's genome projects, multiple accessions get sequenced, leading to variant catalogs. Using such information to improve genome assemblies is attractive both cost-wise as well as scientifically, because the value of an assembly increases with its contiguity. We conclude that haplotype information is a valuable resource to group and order contigs toward the generation of pseudomolecules. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) has been under cultivation in Latin America for more than 7500 years. Recently, quinoa has gained increasing attention due to its stress resistance and its nutritional value. We generated a novel quinoa genome assembly for the Bolivian accession CHEN125 using PacBio long-read sequencing data (assembly size 1.32 Gbp, initial N50 size 608 kbp). Next, we re-sequenced 50 quinoa accessions from Peru and Bolivia. This set of accessions differed at 4.4 million single-nucleotide variant (SNV) positions compared to CHEN125 (1.4 million SNV positions on average per accession). We show how to exploit variation in accessions that are distantly related to establish a genome-wide ordered set of contigs for guided scaffolding of a reference assembly. The method is based on detecting shared haplotypes and their expected continuity throughout the genome (i.e., the effect of linkage disequilibrium), as an extension of what is expected in mapping populations where only a few haplotypes are present. We test the approach using Arabidopsis thaliana data from different populations. After applying the method on our CHEN125 quinoa assembly we validated the results with mate-pairs, genetic markers, and another quinoa assembly originating from a Chilean cultivar. We show consistency between these information sources and the haplotype-based relations as determined by us and obtain an improved assembly with an N50 size of 1079 kbp and ordered contig groups of up to 39.7 Mbp. We conclude that haplotype information in distantly related individuals of the same species is a valuable resource to group and order contigs according to their adjacency in the genome toward the generation of pseudomolecules.


Asunto(s)
Chenopodium quinoa/genética , Variación Genética , Genoma de Planta , Arabidopsis/genética , Bolivia , Chile , Mapeo Contig , Marcadores Genéticos , Genética de Población , Haplotipos , Perú
8.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-08-16.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54670

RESUMEN

The main purpose of this publication is to advocate for the need to understand the gendered nature of vulnerabilities to poor health. Gender equality in health is an integral dimension of sustainable development, and it is critical to apply a “gender lens” to all aspects of the health system, including financing mechanisms in health. The impact of health-related out-of-pocket expenditure (OPE) on household poverty has been a significant factor driving the move toward universal health coverage across much of Latin America and beyond. However, not only do health care users still face a broad range of health-related OPEs that can contribute to the impoverishment of households, but the gender dimensions of OPEs have received very little attention. Drawing primarily on data from Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Peru, this report offers an in-depth analysis of the gender dimensions of health-related OPEs in Latin America. It highlights the limitations of survey data in determining levels of household spending on health as well as the potential failure of indicators to capture the impacts of coping strategies that households adopt to pay for OPEs. This publication calls for the application of an intersectional analysis to ensure a more nuanced understanding of the ways in which other social identity markers, such as race and ethnicity, alongside gender shape the ability of individuals and households to respond to the different OPEs they may encounter. Until policymakers consider the issue through a gender lens, OPE will continue to limit the potential of universal health care coverage to effectively address health inequalities.


Asunto(s)
Género y Salud , Análisis de Género en Salud , Gastos en Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Bolivia , Guatemala , Nicaragua , Perú
9.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-08-16.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54668

RESUMEN

El objetivo principal de esta publicación es defender la necesidad de comprender la naturaleza de género de las vulnerabilidades a la mala salud. La igualdad de género en la salud es una dimensión integral del desarrollo sostenible, por lo que es fundamental aplicar una perspectiva de género a todos los aspectos del sistema de salud, incluidos los mecanismos de financiamiento de la salud. El impacto de los gastos directos de bolsillo relacionados con la salud en la pobreza de los hogares ha sido un factor importante que ha impulsado el avance hacia la cobertura universal de salud en gran parte de América Latina y en otros países. Sin embargo, no solo los usuarios de la atención de salud siguen enfrentándose a una amplia gama de gastos directos de bolsillo relacionados con la salud que pueden contribuir al empobrecimiento de los hogares, sino que las dimensiones de género de estos gastos han recibido muy poca atención. Basándose principalmente en datos de Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de), Guatemala, Nicaragua y Perú, en este informe se ofrece un análisis en profundidad de las dimensiones de género que tienen los gastos directos de bolsillo relacionados con la salud en América Latina. Se destacan las limitaciones de los datos de las encuestas a la hora de determinar los niveles de gasto de los hogares en salud, así como la posible imposibilidad de que los indicadores capten los efectos de las estrategias de afrontamiento que adoptan los hogares para pagar por los gastos directos de bolsillo. En esta publicación se hace un llamamiento a aplicar un análisis interseccional para comprender con más matices las formas en que otros marcadores de identidad social, como la raza y la etnia, junto con el género, determinan la capacidad de las personas y los hogares para responder a los diferentes gastos directos de bolsillo que puedan encontrar. Hasta que los responsables de las políticas no consideren la cuestión desde una perspectiva de género, los gastos directos de bolsillo seguirán limitando el potencial de la cobertura universal de salud para abordar eficazmente las desigualdades de salud.


Asunto(s)
Género y Salud , Análisis de Género en Salud , Gastos en Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Bolivia , Guatemala , Nicaragua , Perú
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 535, 2021 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327557

RESUMEN

Birds are widely used as bioindicators in monitoring programs in wetlands. We compare concentrations of seven trace metals and metalloids (TMM) As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Znin both feathers and blood in two flamingo species in two high-altitude wetlands in Bolivia, with different levels of anthropogenic point source pollution. Lake Uru Uru (LUU) receives discharges from mining operations, and also effluents from the nearby city of Oruro, while Laguna Colorada (LCo) does not receive contaminants from anthropogenic sources. We sampled water and sediments at each site, as well as flamingos in three age classes in an effort to establish a benchmark for long-term monitoring. Metal concentrations in water did not differ between sites, whereas Zn and Pb concentrations of TMM in sediments were higher at LUU, and Hg higher at LCo. TMM concentrations were highly specific for all separate elements, but results point to differences between Andean flamingo (Phoenicoparrus andinus) chicks and the rest of the classes considered. As flamingo chicks did not molt before sampling, we pose that TMM concentrations in their blood and feathers may respond mainly to local conditions. Eggshells provide additional information, since adults transfer some TMM during egg development. Long-term monitoring in these species should include different age classes and sample both feathers and eggshells to monitor the environmental conditions and bioaccumulation of TMM in these species. Future studies should include sites devoid of natural sources of TMM to help distinguish sources of contamination, since some TMM (As and Pb) may be naturally in high concentrations in remote areas, like Laguna Colorada.


Asunto(s)
Metaloides , Metales Pesados , Animales , Aves , Bolivia , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados/análisis , Humedales
11.
Chemosphere ; 284: 131335, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328081

RESUMEN

The processes controlling antibiotics fate in ecosystems are poorly understood, yet their presence can inhibit bacterial growth and induce the development of bacterial resistance. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is one of the most frequently detected sulfonamides in natural environments due to its low metabolism and molecular properties. This work presents pioneering results on SMX biodegradation and impact in high altitude soils (Bolivian Altiplano), allowing a better understanding of the persistence, spread and impact of this antibiotic at the global watershed scale. Our results showed significant dissipation of SMX in relation to its adsorption, hydrolysis and biotransformation. However, biodegradation appears to be lower in these mountain soils than in lowland soils as widely described in the literature. The half-life of SMX ranges from 12 to 346 days in non-sterile soils. In one soil, no biotic degradation was observed, indicating a likely high persistence. Biodegradation was related to OC content and to proximity to urban activities. Regarding the study of the impacts of SMX, the DGGE results were less sensitive than the sequencing. In general, SMX strongly changes the structure and composition of the studied soils at high altitudes, which is comparable to the observations of other authors in lowland soils. The phylum Actinobacter showed high sensitivity to SMX. In contrast, the abundance of ɣ-proteobacteria remained almost unchanged. Soil contamination with SMX did not lead to the development of the studied resistance genes (sul1 and sul2) in soils where they were absent at the beginning of the experiment. Thus, the presence of SMX resistance genes seems to be related to irrigation with wastewater carrying the studied resistance genes.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Sulfametoxazol , Altitud , Antibacterianos , Bolivia , Suelo
12.
Zootaxa ; 4966(5): 535549, 2021 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186594

RESUMEN

The spider genus Euryopis Menge, 1868 (Theridiidae) currently comprises 76 described species worldwide and only two described species from Brazil and none for Bolivia. In this paper four new species of Euryopis from Brazil and Bolivia are described and illustrated: Euryopis candiota n. sp.; Euryopis nasuta n. sp.; Euryopis catarinensis n. sp. all from Brazil and Euryopis boliviensis n. sp. from Bolivia. New records from Brazil are provided for E. camis Levi, 1963 and E. spinifera O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1895.


Asunto(s)
Arañas/clasificación , Animales , Bolivia , Brasil
13.
Zootaxa ; 4994(1): 1-93, 2021 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186820

RESUMEN

The taxonomy of Bolivian, Brazilian and Paraguayan water beetles in the genus Hydrochus Leach, 1817 is presented. The known fauna now consists of 77 species, 37 of which are described as new species. The new species are diagnosed, and high-resolution images of the habitus and male genitalia of each species are given, as are distribution maps. The following new species of Hydrochus are described: H. accinctus n. sp., H. amazonicus n. sp., H. ampliarmus n. sp., H. argutulus n. sp., H. artus n. sp., H. austrinus n. sp., H. canalis n. sp., H. casuarius n. sp., H. clandestinus n. sp., H. colossus n. sp., H. compactus n. sp., H. constrictus n. sp., H. curvus n. sp., H. diffusus n. sp., H. distinctulus n. sp., H. distinctus n. sp., H. diversus n. sp., H. forcipuloides n. sp., H. forcipulus n. sp., H. fritillus n. sp., H. irregularis n. sp., H. liquidus n. sp., H. longissimus n. sp., H. membraneus n. sp., H. personatus n. sp., H. potenspiculatus n. sp., H. pronotulus n. sp., H. quinarius n. sp., H. rectus n. sp., H. reticulatus n. sp., H. robustus n. sp., H. sculptissimus n. sp., H. triangularis n. sp., H. trituberculatus n. sp., H. usualis n. sp., H. velatus n. sp., H. xingu n. sp. New locality data are provided for the following species: H. alternatus Perkins, H. argutus Knisch, H. astrictus Perkins, H. baloghi Makhan, H. basilaris Perkins, H. bicarinatus Perkins, H. bisinuatus Perkins, H. bituberculatus Perkins, H. choennii Makhan, H. coeneni Makhan, H. collaris Perkins, H. cracentis Perkins, H. denarius Perkins, H. drakei Knisch, H. drechseli Makhan, H. ducalis Knisch, H. elsjeae Makhan, H. formosus Perkins, H. hellmani Perkins, H. iduae Makhan, H. jenniferiduae Makhan, H. kellymilleri Perkins, H. leei Perkins, H. lobatus Perkins, H. lobissimus Perkins, H. merkli Makhan, H. obscurus Sharp, H. pietersenae Makhan, H. piroei Makhan, H. pumilio Knisch, H. pupillus Orchymont, H. purpureus Knisch, H. radhakishunae Makhan, H. richteri Bruch, H. secretus Knisch, H. shorti Perkins, H. soekhnandanae Makhan, H. spanglerorum Perkins, H. tarsalis Chevrolet, H. variabilis Knisch, H. zicsii Makhan.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos/clasificación , Distribución Animal , Animales , Bolivia , Brasil , Escarabajos/anatomía & histología , Genitales Masculinos , Masculino , Paraguay , Agua
14.
Zootaxa ; 4969(1): 135148, 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186938

RESUMEN

A new species of Loneura named as Loneura willineri n. sp. is described from Bolivia, and and variation in the venation of the fore and hindwings discussed. Both sexes of Loneura meridionalis García Aldrete are described, inclulding variation in the fore and hindwing venation, and this species is withdrawn from synonymy with Loneura boliviana, a species now considered a nomen dubium.


Asunto(s)
Neoptera/anatomía & histología , Neoptera/clasificación , Animales , Bolivia , Femenino , Masculino
15.
Zootaxa ; 4969(1): 5460, 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186943

RESUMEN

A new species of ant resembling sac spider of the subfamily Castianeirinae, Myrmecotypus haddadi sp. nov. is described from the Sub-Andean area at the Bolivian orocline. The species was collected from low herbaceous vegetation along the edges of the Chiquitano and Cerradao forest.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas/clasificación , Arañas , Animales , Bolivia , Bosques
16.
Zootaxa ; 4980(3): 575582, 2021 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186963

RESUMEN

Cylindera (Cylindera) julietae sp. nov. (Cicindelidae: Cicindelini) is described as new for science from southern Bolivia. The new species is compared to a similar species Cylindera (Cylindera) confluentesignata (W. Horn, 1915). Colour photographs of habitus, habitat and diagnostic characters of the two similar species are presented. The behaviour of adults of the new species, imitating that of co-occurring ants, is discussed.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Escarabajos , Animales , Hormigas/fisiología , Bolivia , Escarabajos/clasificación , Escarabajos/fisiología , Ecosistema , Especificidad de la Especie
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009426, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138855

RESUMEN

Viable eggs of the canine intestinal tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) infect various intermediate hosts causing cystic echinococcosis (CE). Furthermore, CE represents a serious zoonosis causing a significant global burden of disease. CE is highly endemic in South America, including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, and Peru. For Bolivia, no official data concerning the incidence in humans or the number of livestock and dogs infected are available. However, it is well known that CE occurs in Bolivia. We aim here to fill the gap in the current knowledge of the epidemiological situation of CE in Bolivia, providing a historical overview of documents published within the country, which have never been comprehensively reviewed. The very first documentation of E. granulosus infection in animals dates in 1910, while the first human case was reported in 1913. In total, 876 human CE cases have been reported in the scientific literature, with an apparent increase since the 1970s. In the absence of other epidemiological studies, the highest prevalence in human comes from Tupiza, Potosí Department, where 4.1% (51/1,268) of the population showed signs of CE at mass ultrasound screening in 2011. In the same report, 24% of dog faecal samples were positive for coproantigens of E. granulosus s.l. in ELISA. The highest prevalence in intermediate hosts reported at abattoir reached 37.5% in cattle from Potosí, followed by 26.9% in llamas from Oruro, 2.4% in pigs and 1.4% in sheep from La Paz. Finally, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5), and Echinococcus intermedius (G7) have been identified in Bolivia. Data reviewed here confirm that E. granulosus s.l. is circulating in Bolivia and that a proper prospective nationwide epidemiological study of CE is urgently needed to define transmission patterns as a basis for the planning and implementation of future control measurements.


Asunto(s)
Equinococosis/veterinaria , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Zoonosis/parasitología , Animales , Bolivia/epidemiología , Equinococosis/epidemiología , Humanos , Vigilancia de la Población , Zoonosis/epidemiología
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 327, 2021 Jun 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134775

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is a key method to reduce vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, causing Chagas disease in a large part of South America. However, the successes of IRS in the Gran Chaco region straddling Bolivia, Argentina, and Paraguay, have not equalled those in other Southern Cone countries. AIMS: This study evaluated routine IRS practices and insecticide quality control in a typical endemic community in the Bolivian Chaco. METHODS: Alpha-cypermethrin active ingredient (a.i.) captured onto filter papers fitted to sprayed wall surfaces, and in prepared spray tank solutions, were measured using an adapted Insecticide Quantification Kit (IQK™) validated against HPLC quantification methods. The data were analysed by mixed-effects negative binomial regression models to examine the delivered insecticide a.i. concentrations on filter papers in relation to the sprayed wall heights, spray coverage rates (surface area / spray time [m2/min]), and observed/expected spray rate ratios. Variations between health workers and householders' compliance to empty houses for IRS delivery were also evaluated. Sedimentation rates of alpha-cypermethrin a.i. post-mixing of prepared spray tanks were quantified in the laboratory. RESULTS: Substantial variations were observed in the alpha-cypermethrin a.i. concentrations delivered; only 10.4% (50/480) of filter papers and 8.8% (5/57) of houses received the target concentration of 50 mg ± 20% a.i./m2. The delivered concentrations were not related to those in the matched spray tank solutions. The sedimentation of alpha-cypermethrin a.i. in the surface solution of prepared spray tanks was rapid post-mixing, resulting in a linear 3.3% loss of a.i. content per minute and 49% loss after 15 min. Only 7.5% (6/80) of houses were sprayed at the WHO recommended rate of 19 m2/min (± 10%), whereas 77.5% (62/80) were sprayed at a lower than expected rate. The median a.i. concentration delivered to houses was not significantly associated with the observed spray coverage rate. Householder compliance did not significantly influence either the spray coverage rates or the median alpha-cypermethrin a.i. concentrations delivered to houses. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal delivery of IRS is partially attributable to the insecticide physical characteristics and the need for revision of insecticide delivery methods, which includes training of IRS teams and community education to encourage compliance. The IQK™ is a necessary field-friendly tool to improve IRS quality and to facilitate health worker training and decision-making by Chagas disease vector control managers.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/transmisión , Insecticidas/farmacología , Control de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vectores/efectos de los fármacos , Triatoma/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Bolivia , Enfermedad de Chagas/parasitología , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Control de Mosquitos/instrumentación , Mosquitos Vectores/fisiología , Piretrinas/farmacología , Triatoma/fisiología , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiología
20.
Soc Sci Med ; 281: 114040, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144481

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Stress process theory considers that actual and perceived isolation, caused by mobility restrictions from attempted containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, deteriorates mental health. OBJECTIVE: We examine the relationship between the COVID-19 lockdowns and mental health-related Google searches in 11 Latin American countries. We include the following countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. We also explore how changes in search patterns relate to income support policies and to COVID-19 death rates. METHOD: Using Google Trends data and an event-study design, as well as a difference-in-differences analysis, we investigate the association between country specific stay-at-home orders and internet searches including the following words: insomnia, stress, anxiety, sadness, depression, and suicide. RESULTS: We find three main patterns. First, searches for insomnia peak but then decline. Second, searches for stress, anxiety, and sadness increase and remain high throughout the lockdown. Third, there is no substantial change in depression-related or suicide-related searches after the lockdown. In terms of potential mechanisms, our results suggest that searches declined for suicide and insomnia following the passage of each country's income support, while in countries with higher COVID-19-related death rates, searches for insomnia, stress, and anxiety increased by more. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that, in Latin America, Google searches for words associated with mild mental health disorders increased during the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. Nonetheless, these conclusions should not be construed as a general population mental health deterioration, as we cannot verify that search indicators are accurately related to the users' current feelings and behaviors, and as internet users may not be representative of the population in this region.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Mental , Motor de Búsqueda , Argentina , Bolivia , Chile , Colombia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ecuador , Guatemala , Honduras , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , México , Pandemias , Perú , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguay
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