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1.
Plant Dis ; 105(1): 96-107, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197378

RESUMEN

Epidemics of wheat blast, caused the Triticum pathotype of Magnaporthe oryzae, were studied in the Santa Cruz del la Sierra region of Bolivia to quantify and compare the temporal dynamics of the disease under different growing conditions. Six plots of a susceptible wheat cultivar were planted at Cuatro Cañadas (CC), Okinawa 1 (OK1), and Okinawa 2 (OK2) in 2015. Spike blast incidence (INC) and severity (SEV) and leaf blast severity (LEAF) were quantified in each plot at regular intervals on a 10 × 10 grid (n = 100 clusters of spikes), beginning at head emergence (Feekes growth stage 10.5), for a total of nine assessments at CC, six at OK1, and six at OK2. Spike blast increased over time for 20 to 30 days before approaching a mean INC of 100% and a mean SEV of 60 to 75%. The logistic model was the most appropriate for describing the temporal dynamics of spike blast. The highest absolute rates of disease increase occurred earliest at OK1 and latest at OK2, and in all cases it coincided with major rain events. Estimated y0 values (initial blast intensity) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher at OK1 than at CC or OK2, whereas rL values (the logistic rate parameter) were significantly higher at OK2 than at CC or OK1. It took about 10 fewer days for SEV to reach 10, 15, or 20% at OK1 compared with OK2 and CC. Based on survival analyses, the survivor functions for time to 10, 15 and 20% SEV (ts) were significantly different between OK1 and the other locations, with the probabilities of SEV reaching the thresholds being highest at OK1. LEAF at 21 days after Feekes 10.5 had a significant effect on ts at OK1. For every 5% increase in LEAF, the chance of SEV reaching the thresholds by day 21 increased by 30 to 55%.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias , Magnaporthe , Ascomicetos , Bolivia , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Triticum
2.
Waste Manag Res ; 39(1): 108-121, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615911

RESUMEN

The implementation of waste selective collection (SC) schemes in low-income countries is a challenge although it is one important way for improving environmental sustainability. The inclusion of the population is necessary for gaining effective results, and social surveys are support methods for understanding citizens' involvement and behaviour. The aim of the research is to assess the support of the citizens concerning the formal and informal recycling in a low-middle income country. The study presents a questionnaire survey conducted in 2018 in La Paz, Bolivia, where 774 citizens were interviewed for evaluating their support to the formal and informal SC systems. Two questionnaires were submitted to two different users' categories: users of the formal recyclable waste gathering points; and citizens of the neighbourhoods. Evidence of the survey shows that about 8% of the population supports the formal SC while about 48% are used to selecting their waste at home. About 79.2% of them bring the waste to the informal recycling shops or provide it to waste pickers, throwing the waste into or nearby the mixed containers in order to facilitate their collection. This research demonstrates how social inclusion is important for planning recycling systems within a developing big city, starting from the SC. Results suggest that the informal sector can be an effective means for improving the recycling behaviour of the citizens. The study can be of interest to stakeholders involved in introducing recycling policies in developing cities where the SC rate is still low, and informal waste collection exists.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Administración de Residuos , Bolivia , Ciudades , Reciclaje , Residuos Sólidos/análisis
3.
Lima; Organismo Andino de Salud Convenio Hipólito Unanue; 44; 20210000. 40 p. (Situación Actual de la Pandemia Covid-19 a Nivel Mundial y en los Países Andinos, 44, 44).
Monografía en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1145910

RESUMEN

Consolidado de la situación epidemiológica de la COVID-19 en los países de la Región Andina (Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela) y a nivel mundial al 11 de enero de 2021.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Perú , Venezuela , Bolivia , Chile , Colombia , Ecuador
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111256, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920312

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic pressure in the high altitude lakes such as Titicaca and Uru (Bolivia) may favor the production of methylmercury (MeHg) known to accumulate in trophic chains. Periphyton associated with emerged aquatic plants (totoras) from the lake shores accumulates and demethylates MeHg providing a potential cost-effective water treatment technique. In this laboratory study, we measured the MeHg uptake kinetics of a consortium of green algae isolated from Lake Titicaca totora's periphyton. The most abundant algal consortium, composed of Oedogonium spp., Chlorella spp., Scenedesmus spp., was exposed to rising MeHg concentrations (from 5 to 200 ng·L-1) to assess their maximum potential capacity for MeHg accumulation. Various algal biomass concentrations were tested to choose the optimal one. Results provided a net MeHg uptake rate by this algal consortium of 2.38 amol ng-1·h-1·nM-1 (the total uptake was 2863 ng MeHg·g-1) for an initial concentration of 200 ng MeHg·L-1 with an algal biomass concentration of 0.02 g·L-1. This initial MeHg concentration is 1000 times higher than the one measured in the eutrophic Cohana Bay of Lake Titicaca, which shows the high accumulation potential of these green algae. Our data suggest that periphyton has a high potential for the treatment of Hg contaminated waters in constructing wetlands in the Andean Altiplano.


Asunto(s)
Chlorella , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Compuestos de Metilmercurio/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo , Bolivia , Lagos/química , Mercurio/análisis , Perifiton , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0229370, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326416

RESUMEN

The present study applies a dental morphological perspective to the understanding of the complex pre-contact population history of the South Central Andes, through the detection of the underlying dynamics, and the assessment of the biological ties among groups. It presents an analysis of 1591 individuals from 66 sites that date from the Archaic to the Late Intermediate phases from Bolivia, Chile and Peru. The results suggest this area is characterized by significant movement of people and cultures and, at the same time, by long standing population continuity, and highlight the need for wider perspectives capable of taking into account both the different micro-regional realities and the region in its entirety.


Asunto(s)
Migración Humana/historia , Dinámica Poblacional/historia , Arqueología , Bolivia , Chile , Femenino , Fósiles , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos , Masculino , Perú , Diente
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1940): 20202500, 2020 12 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259763

RESUMEN

Locusts are major intermittent threats to food security and the ecological factors determining where and when these occur remain poorly understood. For many herbivores, obtaining adequate protein from plants is a key challenge. We tested how the dietary protein : non-structural carbohydrate ratio (p : c) affects the developmental and physiological performance of 4th-5th instar nymphs of the South American locust, Schistocerca cancellata, which has recently resurged in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. Field marching locusts preferred to feed on high carbohydrate foods. Field-collected juveniles transferred to the laboratory selected artificial diets or local plants with low p : c. On single artificial diets, survival rate increased as foods became more carbohydrate-biased. On single local plants, growth only occurred on the plant with the lowest p : c. Most local plants had p : c ratios substantially higher than optimal, demonstrating that field marching locusts must search for adequate carbohydrate or their survival and growth will be carbohydrate-limited. Total body lipids increased as dietary p : c decreased on both artificial and plant diets, and the low lipid contents of field-collected nymphs suggest that obtaining adequate carbohydrate may pose a strong limitation on migration for S. cancellata. Anthropogenic influences such as conversions of forests to pastures, may increase carbohydrate availability and promote outbreaks and migration of some locusts.


Asunto(s)
Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Saltamontes/fisiología , Herbivoria , Plantas , Animales , Argentina , Bolivia , Dieta , Paraguay
7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e00282020, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338103

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to study intraspecific variation in Triatoma costalimai, a potential vector of Chagas disease present in Brazil and Bolivia. METHODS: We analyzed phenotypic (connexivum color patterns, wing morphometrics) and genetic variation (16S mtDNA) of three Brazilian T. costalimai populations. We compared 16S sequences with those of putative Bolivian T. costalimai and its sister species, T. jatai. RESULTS: Brazilian populations had different connexivum color patterns and forewing shapes. A 16S mtDNA haplotype network showed a clear separation of Brazilian T. costalimai from both T. jatai and Bolivian T. costalimai. CONCLUSIONS: We report considerable variability in T. costalimai populations.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas , Triatoma , Animales , Bolivia , Brasil , Variación Genética/genética , Insectos Vectores/genética , Triatoma/genética
8.
Zootaxa ; 4890(3): zootaxa.4890.3.8, 2020 Dec 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311122

RESUMEN

The former monotypic genus Armillipora Quate, known only from Costa Rica and Panama, is redescribed, including the type species A. selvica Quate, this time collected on the Caribbean side of Nicaragua, RAAN department, and illustrated based on male morphological characters. The male of a new species, A. suapiensis sp. nov., from Bolivia, La Paz department, is described here and also figured.


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Psychodidae , Animales , Bolivia , Masculino
9.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 16(1): 75, 2020 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298108

RESUMEN

Household responses to COVID-19 in different corners of the world represent the primary health care that communities have relied on for preventing and mitigating symptoms. During a very complex and confusing time, in which public health services in multiple countries have been completely overwhelmed, and in some cases even collapsed, these first-line household responses have been quintessential for building physical, mental, and social resilience, and for improving individual and community health. This editorial discusses the outcomes of a rapid-response preliminary survey during the first phase of the pandemic among social and community contacts in five metropolises heavily affected by the COVID-19 health crisis (Wuhan, Milan, Madrid, New York, and Rio de Janeiro), and in twelve rural areas or countries initially less affected by the pandemic (Appalachia, Jamaica, Bolivia, Romania, Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Georgia, Turkey, Pakistan, Cambodia, and South Africa). We summarized our perspectives as 17 case studies, observing that people have relied primarily on teas and spices ("food-medicines") and that there exist clear international plant favorites, popularized by various new media. Urban diasporas and rural households seem to have repurposed homemade plant-based remedies that they use in normal times for treating the flu and other respiratory symptoms or that they simply consider healthy foods. The most remarkable shift in many areas has been the increased consumption of ginger and garlic, followed by onion, turmeric, and lemon. Our preliminary inventory of food medicines serves as a baseline for future systematic ethnobotanical studies and aims to inspire in-depth research on how use patterns of plant-based foods and beverages, both "traditional" and "new", are changing during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Our reflections in this editorial call attention to the importance of ethnobiology, ethnomedicine, and ethnogastronomy research into domestic health care strategies for improving community health.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Medicinales , Bebidas/provisión & distribución , Bolivia , Brasil , /prevención & control , Cambodia , China , Alimentos , Salud Global , Humanos , Italia , Jamaica , Lituania , Ciudad de Nueva York , Pakistán , Polonia , Rumanía , Población Rural , Sudáfrica , España , Turquia , Población Urbana
10.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242202, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175890

RESUMEN

Zinc deficiency is a major public health problem in vulnerable populations of Latin America and the Caribbean. Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L.) with zinc has the potential to alleviate zinc deficiencies. However, as plant breeding processes can alter grain culinary quality and favorable sensory attributes, grain quality and consumer acceptability need to be assessed prior to releasing a variety to the public. A grain quality characterization and a sensory acceptability analysis were carried out with two varieties of zinc biofortified rice and a local control both in Bolivia and Colombia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical parameters that are significant in consumer acceptance and to determine the acceptability of zinc biofortified rice by consumers. Results of physicochemical parameters were analyzed using ANOVA. The sensory acceptability was evaluated in 243 adults utilizing a 7-point hedonic scale and a Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used to determine the overall acceptability of the varieties. Biofortified rice variety T2-11 and MAC-18 -control 1- were equally accepted by consumers in Bolivia with no significant differences (p<0.05). The grain quality analysis reported that both presented long and slender rice grains (L>7.5 mm and L/B>3), an intermediate to high amylose content (>25%) and a similar level of chalkiness. In Colombia, the biofortified variety 035 presented a higher score in overall acceptance in comparison to biofortified variety 021 and the local variety CICA4 -control 2-. However, no significant differences were observed (p<0.05). Conversely to the other two varieties, the biofortified variety 035 presented the largest size grain (L/B = 2.97), a lower chalkiness and an amylose content above 25%. This study shows that the grain quality properties of rice have an influence on acceptability and that zinc biofortified rice varieties are accepted by consumers.


Asunto(s)
Biofortificación , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Grano Comestible/normas , Oryza/química , Percepción del Gusto , Zinc/análisis , Adolescente , Adulto , Actitud , Bolivia , Colombia , Grano Comestible/química , Femenino , Alimentos Fortificados/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20191428, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146262

RESUMEN

We describe a new dipsadine snake species, of the genus Oxyrhopus Wagler, 1830, from the highlands of Bolivia. Oxyrhopus emberti sp. n. is diagnosed from its congeners based on external and hemipenial morphology. The new species inhabits the humid forests of Yungas and Tucumano-Bolivian Forest highlands, between 1.200 - 1.800 meters above sea level, and is likely to be a Bolivian endemic. We also discuss the relationships of the new species with Andean congeners and provide a key to the identification of the Oxyrhopus species from the Central Andes of Bolivia and Peru.


Asunto(s)
Bosques , Serpientes , Animales , Bolivia , Perú
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15972, 2020 10 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009436

RESUMEN

Wheat blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae pathotype Triticum (MoT) is an emerging threat to wheat production. To identify genomic regions associated with blast resistance against MoT isolates in Bolivia and Bangladesh, we performed a large genome-wide association mapping study using 8607 observations on 1106 lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre's International Bread Wheat Screening Nurseries (IBWSNs) and Semi-Arid Wheat Screening Nurseries (SAWSNs). We identified 36 significant markers on chromosomes 2AS, 3BL, 4AL and 7BL with consistent effects across panels or site-years, including 20 markers that were significant in all the 49 datasets and tagged the 2NS translocation from Aegilops ventricosa. The mean blast index of lines with and without the 2NS translocation was 2.7 ± 4.5 and 53.3 ± 15.9, respectively, that substantiates its strong effect on blast resistance. Furthermore, we fingerprinted a large panel of 4143 lines for the 2NS translocation that provided excellent insights into its frequency over years and indicated its presence in 94.1 and 93.7% of lines in the 2019 IBWSN and SAWSN, respectively. Overall, this study reinforces the effectiveness of the 2NS translocation for blast resistance and emphasizes the urgent need to identify novel non-2NS sources of blast resistance.


Asunto(s)
Cromosomas de las Plantas/genética , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Magnaporthe/fisiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Bangladesh , Bolivia , Mapeo Cromosómico , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Triticum/crecimiento & desarrollo
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(44): 27292-27299, 2020 11 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067395

RESUMEN

Strong local institutions are important for the successful governance of common-pool resources (CPRs), but why do such institutions emerge in the first place and why do they sometimes not emerge at all? We argue that voluntary local leaders play an important role in the initiation of self-governance institutions because such leaders can directly affect local users' perceived costs and benefits associated with self-rule. Drawing on recent work on leadership in organizational behavior, we propose that voluntary leaders can facilitate a cooperative process of local rule creation by exhibiting unselfish behavior and leading by example. We posit that such forms of leadership are particularly important when resource users are weakly motivated to act collectively, such as when confronted with "creeping" environmental problems. We test these ideas by using observations from a laboratory-in-the-field experiment with 128 users of forest commons in Bolivia and Uganda. We find that participants' agreement to create new rules was significantly stronger in group rounds where voluntary, unselfish leaders were present. We show that unselfish leadership actions make the biggest difference for rule creation under high levels of uncertainty, such as when the resource is in subtle decline and intragroup communication sparse.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Gobierno , Liderazgo , Bolivia , Humanos , Participación de los Interesados/psicología , Uganda , Voluntarios/psicología
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008752, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119632

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is highly endemic in the Bolivian Chaco. The municipality of Monteagudo has been targeted by national interventions as well as by Médecins Sans Frontières to reduce infection rates, and to decentralize early diagnosis and treatment. This study seeks to determine the knowledge and attitudes of a population with increased awareness and to identify remaining factors and barriers for sustained vector control, health care seeking behaviour, and access, in order to improve future interventions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among approximately 10% (n = 669) of the municipality of Monteagudo's households that were randomly selected. Additionally, a total of 14 in-depth interviews and 2 focus group discussions were conducted with patients and key informants. Several attitudes and practices were identified that could undermine effective control against (re-)infection. Knowledge of clinical symptoms and secondary prevention was limited, and revealed specific misconceptions. Although 76% of the participants had been tested for CD, only 18% of those who tested positive concluded treatment with benznidazole (BNZ). Sustained positive serologies after treatment led to perceived ineffectiveness of BNZ. Moreover, access barriers such as direct as well as indirect costs, BNZ stock-outs and a fear of adverse reactions triggered by other community members made patients opt for alternative treatments against CD such as veterinary ivermectin, used by 28% of infected participants in our study. The lack of accessible care for chronic complications as well as socioeconomic consequences, such as the exclusion from both job opportunities and bank loans contributed to the ongoing burden of CD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Large scale interventions should be accompanied by operational research in order to identify misconceptions and unintended consequences early on, to generate accessible data for future interventions, and for rigorous evaluation. An integrated, community-based approach tackling social determinants and including both traditional and animal health sectors might help to overcome current barriers and advocate for patients' rights.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/tratamiento farmacológico , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Nitroimidazoles/uso terapéutico , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Bolivia/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Chagas/economía , Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Chagas/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nitroimidazoles/economía , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240831, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064748

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Chagas Disease (CD) is endemic in many Latin-American countries, Bolivia in particular. It is now spreading in Italy as a host country for transcontinental migrants and becoming an emerging health problem. This anthropological action-research, as part of a wider medical project on Neglected Tropical Diseases, has the purpose of analyzing the sociocultural construction of CD and its representation in Bolivian people living in Rome as well as barriers, such as the stigma about the illness, to access the National Health Service for those potentially affected. METHODS: The ethnographic study was carried out from 2016 to 2018 by a medical anthropologist at the National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (INMP) on 72 Bolivian migrants (47 women and 25 men) living in Rome. The study was carried out through: a territorial mapping of Bolivian networks and communities aimed at recruiting people, participant observation, and application of semi-structured and unstructured interviews. The interviews were hold in Spanish and proposed to all participants before or during medical examination, or during events organized by the Bolivian community in Rome. The interview consisted of 16 items and covered four macro areas: personal and migration history, health status, access to the Italian National Health Service and knowledge about CD; plus 5 items for those who received a diagnosis of Chagas Disease in Italy. RESULTS: The sociocultural construction and the deep stigma about the illness built by participants and their families could hinder both diagnosis and treatment. Institutional barriers also contributed to reduce adherence to screening tests: often, opening hours of the outpatient clinic were incompatible with participants' precarious employments. To guarantee participant's access to public health services and their adherence to the diagnostic protocol, we implemented a profound revision of our cultural and institutional approach to them. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis evidenced the limitations of the conventional approach applied by the Italian National Health Service to this migrant community, such as the absence of socio-cultural and linguistics competences that can help understanding patients' perception and representation of the illness. The multidisciplinary approach instead-with clinicians using the ethnographic results to adjust their work to the participants' needs-was a successful attempt to ensure therapeutic alliance.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/patología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Estigma Social , Migrantes/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Bolivia , Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , Barreras de Comunicación , Carencia Cultural , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza , Adulto Joven
16.
Zootaxa ; 4830(2): zootaxa.4830.2.10, 2020 Aug 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056159

RESUMEN

Bufonidae is a cosmopolite and speciose clade that is currently hypothesized to have originated in Gondwana around 78-99 Ma (Pramuk et al. 2008). The systematics of the family was assessed using morphological and molecular data, alone or in a total evidence analysis (Pramuk 2006; Pramuk et al. 2008; Bocxlaer et al. 2010; Pyron Wiens 2011). Due to taxonomic changes, most of the South American species of Bufo Garsault were relocated to the genus Rhinella Fitzinger, currently the second most speciose genus with 92 scientifically named and valid species (Frost 2020). The species in the genus are arranged in six taxonomic groups (crucifer, granulosa, margaritifera, marina, spinulosa, veraguensis species groups [Frost 2020]); the Rhinella marina group is characterized by specimens with well-ossified and exostosed skull, ornamented with deep striations, pits, and rugosities (Maciel et al. 2010). The Rhinella marina group includes eleven living species, distributed in two main clades named after their geographical distribution: the north-central clade and south-central clade. The south-central clade bears the species: R. achavali (Maneyro, Arrieta de Sá), R. arenarum (Hensel), R. icterica (Spix), and R. rubescens (Lutz). The north-central clade bears the species: R. cerradensis Maciel, Brandão, Campos Sebben, R. horribilis (Wiegmann), R. jimi (Stevaux), R. marina (Linnaeus), R. poeppigii (Tschudi), R. schneideri (Werner), and R. veredas (Brandão, Maciel Sebben).


Asunto(s)
Bufo marinus , Animales , Bolivia , Fósiles
17.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190421, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111904

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In Bolivia, before 1982 there were no records of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases that would allow us to review and describe the temporospatial occurrence of VL by ecoregions in provinces and departments of Bolivia to evaluate its impact on public health, risk of outbreaks, or dispersion. METHODS: This update on VL in Bolivia is based on research, reviews, and retrospective literature analyses of online data and libraries and institutional reports, from 1939 to the present. RESULTS: In Bolivia, 56 cases of VL have been reported. Until 2014, only three endemic departments had been identified (La Paz, Santa Cruz, and Tarija). Since then, further cases have been recorded in Pando, Cochabamba, and Beni, and in Chuquisaca in 2015. In Yungas, a VL focus was confirmed by isolating and comparing parasites from human and dog cases, and from the Lu. longipalpis vector. VL cases from seven departments, involving 12 different ecoregions were located within the Amazon and Plata basins. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that dogs are its primary reservoir, and Lutzomyia longipalpis is its main vector (currently dispersed in six departments). The primary vectors in areas where Lutzomyia longipalpis is absent are Migonemyia migonei and Lutzomyia cruzi.


Asunto(s)
Leishmaniasis Visceral , Psychodidae , Adolescente , Animales , Bolivia/epidemiología , Brasil , Niño , Preescolar , Perros , Femenino , Humanos , Insectos Vectores , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Leishmaniasis Visceral/veterinaria , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
18.
Zootaxa ; 4819(2): zootaxa.4819.2.1, 2020 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055657

RESUMEN

The new genus Borgesminthurinus gen. nov. from Bolivia shares with Sminthurinus the presence of antennal segment IV undivided, antennal segment III with one papilla; sacs of ventral tube smooth; each tenacular rami with 3 teeth and a basal appendix. They also have dens with ventral chaetotaxy reduced and lack mucronal seta; but new genus clearly differs in having thick and barbulate setae on head and body, lacking neosminthuroid setae on abdomen and the presence of seta a0 on Abd. VI acuminate. The new genus differs from Katianna which has divided antennal segment IV, vertex of head with spine-like setae and setae of the body long and smooth.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , Animales , Bolivia , Cabeza
19.
Am J Primatol ; 82(12): e23190, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944998

RESUMEN

Among non-human primates, alloparental infant care is most extensive in callitrichines, and is thought to be particularly costly for tamarins whose helpers may suffer increased energy expenditure, weight loss, and reduced feeding time and mobility. The costs and benefits of infant care likely vary among group members yet very few wild studies have investigated variable infant care contributions. We studied infant care over an 8-month period in four wild groups of saddleback tamarins in Bolivia to evaluate: (a) what forms of infant care are provided, by whom, and when, (b) how individuals adjust their behavior (activity, vigilance, height) while caring for infants, and (c) whether individuals differ in their infant care contributions. We found that infant carrying, food sharing, and grooming varied among groups, and immigrant males-those who joined the group after infants were conceived-participated less in infant care compared to resident males. Adult tamarins fed less, rested more, and increased vigilance while carrying infants. Although we did not detect changes in overall activity budgets between prepartum and postpartum periods, tamarins spent more time scanning their environments postpartum, potentially reflecting increased predation risk to both carriers and infants during this period. Our study provides the first quantitative data on the timing and amount of infant carrying, grooming, and food transfer contributed by all individuals within and among multiple wild groups, filling a critical knowledge gap about the factors affecting infant care, and highlighting evolutionary hypotheses for cooperative breeding in tamarins.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Materna , Conducta Paterna , Saguinus/psicología , Animales , Bolivia , Femenino , Masculino , Conducta Social
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