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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 616, 2021 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476606

RESUMEN

Remote sensing-based observation provides an opportunity to study the spatiotemporal variations of plant phenology across the landscapes. This study aims to examine the phenological variations of different types of sal (Shorea robusta) forests in India and also to explore the relationship between phenology metrics and climatic parameters. Sal, one of the main timber-producing species of India, can be categorized into dry, moist, and very moist sal. The phenological metrics of different types of sal forests were extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time series data (2002-2015). During the study period, the average start of season (SOS) was found to be 16 May, 17 July, and 29 June for very moist, moist, and dry sal forests, respectively. The spatial distribution of mean SOS was mapped as well as the impact of climatic variables (temperature and rainfall) on SOS was investigated during the study period. In relation to the rainfall, values of the coefficient of determination (R2) for very moist, moist, and dry sal forests were 0.69, 0.68, and 0.76, respectively. However, with temperature, R2 values were found higher (R2 = 0.97, 0.81, and 0.97 for very moist, moist, and dry sal, respectively). The present study concluded that MODIS EVI is well capable of capturing the phenological metrics of different types of sal forests across different biogeographic provinces of India. SOS and length of season (LOS) were found to be the key phenology metrics to distinguish the different types of sal forests in India and temperature has a greater influence on SOS than rainfall in sal forests of India.


Asunto(s)
Dipterocarpaceae , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Bosques , India , Imágenes Satelitales , Estaciones del Año
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 621, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476631

RESUMEN

Global acreage of forested lands has increased in some countries. At least some of this increase is due to the natural conversion of abandoned agricultural lands into forests. However, little is known about how these new stands develop on abandoned agricultural lands in comparison with natural regeneration of existing forests. Specifically, knowledge of how black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) naturally establishes and develops on abandoned agricultural lands is limited. In this study, we examined the density and growth of black pine saplings as well as some morphological and anatomical characteristics on an abandoned agricultural land (AAS). These data were compared with those observed in a naturally regenerated stand (NRS), and in a forest opening (FOS). The greatest sapling density was observed in the NRS site, while sapling growth and stem biomass were higher in AAS followed by NRS and FOS. Moreover, each study site exhibited site-specific morphological and anatomical traits in their saplings. Our findings showed that site treatments and overstory openness would both play crucial role for establishment and development of black pine.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Pinus , Agricultura , Biomasa , Bosques , Árboles
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 624, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477980

RESUMEN

Monitoring and Assessment (M&A) of environmental resources aims to support the formulation of policies and follow up on outcomes of their implementation. In this study, the state of M&A is explored for Ethiopia with a focus on forests and water resources. The study is intended to serve as recommendations for future M&A applications in Ethiopia, as well as fulfillment of SDGs and other national and international commitments. Expert meetings, key informant interviews, and selected document analysis served as sources of information. The findings were summarized using qualitative grading and institutional mapping. Basic results of the study are that monitoring data on climate and streamflow are standardized in forms that can be communicated to policymakers. Scantier and less standardized are environmental data on soils, sediment transport, forests, biodiversity, and air quality. Water quality, soil moisture, groundwater level, forest biomass, and soil carbon are rarely monitored and can only be found in reports or studies for the fulfillment of academic degree requirements. Resources like nutrient fluxes have rarely been documented, not at all in some cases. There is considerable scope for tapping both technological advances and experiences of citizen science and local participation in environmental governance to rapidly expand and improve monitoring from local to regional and national scales. The study showed that there is a need for establishing a coordinated national system for monitoring and assessing the status of the environment, including the use of natural resources. Communicating such data to the scientific and wider public will support evidence-based planning and policy-making towards national development.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Política Ambiental , Etiopía , Bosques
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491893

RESUMEN

Cells of bacterial strains G9T and 7MK23T, isolated from forest soil samples collected from the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, Guangdong Province, PR China, were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped. Strain G9T was motile with single polar flagellum and grew at 12-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C), pH 4.5-8.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-3.5 % NaCl (optimum, 1.5%, w/v); while strain 7MK23T was non-motile and grew at 12-42 °C (optimum, 28-33 °C), pH 2.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 4.5-6.5) and NaCl levels of 0-1.0 % (optimum, 0-0.5 %, w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that both isolates fell within the cluster of the genus Dyella. The closely related species (with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity >98.65%) of strain G9T were Dyella terrae JS14-6T (99.0 %), D. kyungheensis THG-B117T (98.8 %) and D. amyloliquefaciens DHC06T (98.7 %) while that of strain 7MK23T were D. mobilis DHON07T (99.2 %) and D. flava DHOC52T (99.1 %), but the average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between strains G9T, 7MK23T and the closely related Dyella species listed above were in the ranges of 77.5-83.8 % and 22.0-27.0 %, much lower than the species demarcation lines of 95.5 and 70 %, respectively. Phylogenomic analyses using UBCG and Phylophlan also supported that these two strains represent two novel species of Dyella. The major fatty acids of strain G9T were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 1 ω9c and iso-C17 : 0 while that of strain 7MK23T were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. Ubiquinone-8 was the only respiratory quinone detected in both strains. The polar lipids of strain G9T consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and several unknown phospholipids, aminophospholipids, aminolipids and lipid while strain 7MK23T contained phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and several unknown phospholipids and aminophospholipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains G9T and 7MK23T were 64.7 and 63.4 mol%, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses as well as phenotypic data obtained, we propose that strains G9T and 7MK23T represent two novel species of the genus Dyella, for which the names Dyella telluris sp. nov. (type strain G9T=KACC 21725T=GDMCC 1.2132T) and Dyella acidiphila sp. nov. (type strain 7MK23T=KCTC 62739T=GDMCC 1.1446T) are proposed.


Asunto(s)
Bosques , Gammaproteobacteria/clasificación , Filogenia , Microbiología del Suelo , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , China , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/química , Gammaproteobacteria/aislamiento & purificación , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolípidos/química , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246230, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495158

RESUMEN

Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x 108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Fusarium , Insecticidas , Animales , Bosques , Humanos , Insecticidas/farmacología , Larva , Mosquitos Vectores , Pakistán , Extractos Vegetales , Suelo
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20201022, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495205

RESUMEN

Studies on the exploitation of trophic resources allow to establish interactions between predators and predator-prey, and this dynamic can present fluctuations over time and space. We analysed stomach contents of 19 anuran species from tropical dry forests of Colombia, quantified the overlap between species and identified anuran trophic guilds. Most of the species were generalists in diet (89.5%), some with strong prey dominance and only two species were classified as specialists. Two anurans guilds were identified according to diet structure and habitat use: "ground foraging anurans, consuming Formicidae and Isoptera" and "arboreal 'sit-and-wait' predators, primarily consuming arachnids". A considerable number of species did not clearly group in community trophic structure analysis. The level of taxonomic resolution with that preys are worked affects analysis of trophic niches segregation when analyzing regional and local patterns. Anuran species of tropical dry forest in the Colombian Caribbean display trophic resources partitioning at the level of species and/or morphospecies, as a mechanism of coexistence.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Bosques , Animales , Anuros , Colombia , Árboles
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502867

RESUMEN

Although the combination of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data and optical imagery and machine learning algorithms were proved to improve the estimation of aboveground biomass (AGB), the synergistic approaches of different data and ensemble learning algorithms have not been fully investigated, especially for natural secondary forests (NSFs) with complex structures. This study aimed to explore the effects of the two factors on AGB estimation of NSFs based on ALS data and Landsat 8 imagery. The synergistic method of extracting novel features (i.e., COLI1 and COLI2) using optimal Landsat 8 features and the best-performing ALS feature (i.e., elevation mean) yielded higher accuracy of AGB estimation than either optical-only or ALS-only features. However, both of them failed to improve the accuracy compared to the simple combination of the untransformed features that generated them. The convolutional neural networks (CNN) model was much superior to other classic machine learning algorithms no matter of features. The stacked generalization (SG) algorithms, a kind of ensemble learning algorithms, greatly improved the accuracies compared to the corresponding base model, and the SG with the CNN meta-model performed best. This study provides technical support for a wall-to-wall AGB mapping of NSFs of northeastern China using efficient features and algorithms.


Asunto(s)
Bosques , Aprendizaje Automático , Biomasa , China , Rayos Láser
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 655175, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490176

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic, affecting all countries, with millions of cases and deaths, and economic disruptions due to lockdowns, also threatens the health and conservation of endangered mountain gorillas. For example, increased poaching due to absence of tourism income, led to the killing on 1st June 2020 of a gorilla by a hungry community member hunting duiker and bush pigs. Conservation Through Public Health (CTPH), a grassroots NGO and non-profit founded in 2003 promotes biodiversity conservation by enabling people to co-exist with wildlife through integrated programs that improve animal health, community health, and livelihoods in and around Africa's protected areas and wildlife rich habitats. Through these programs, we have helped to mitigate these impacts. CTPH worked with Uganda Wildlife Authority and other NGOs to improve great ape viewing guidelines and prevent transmission of COVID-19 between people and gorillas. Park staff, Gorilla Guardians herding gorillas from community land to the park and Village Health and Conservation Teams were trained to put on protective face masks, enforce hand hygiene and a 10-meter great ape viewing distance. To reduce the communities' need to poach, CTPH found a UK-based distributor, for its Gorilla Conservation Coffee social enterprise enabling coffee farmers to earn revenue in the absence of tourism and provided fast growing seedlings to reduce hunger in vulnerable community members. Lessons learned show the need to support non-tourism dependent community livelihoods, and more responsible tourism to the great apes, which CTPH is advocating to governments, donors and tour companies through an Africa CSO Biodiversity Alliance policy brief.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Hominidae , Animales , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Bosques , Gorilla gorilla , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Porcinos , Uganda
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 547, 2021 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341861

RESUMEN

Assessing carbon storage and sequestration is key for defining effective conservation actions to mitigate climate change. Forest species changes have direct impacts on carbon stocks and may lead to undesirable climate trade-offs. In this paper, we measure aboveground biomass (AGB) and the impact of forest changes on climate regulation through three land policy scenarios by 2030 in continental Portugal. We found that a High intervention scenario, supported by an important increase in "Other coniferous trees" class, will provide 29.5% more of carbon sequestration, whereas a Low intervention scenario, in which there is a moderate increase in all forest classes, will result in an increase of 5.7%. A business as usual (BAU) scenario, supported by an increase in eucalyptus forests and a decrease in autochthonous species, will decrease carbon sequestration (-2.7%), particularly Lisboa, Algarve and North regions. Economic valuation shows that the High intervention scenario will generate the highest economic outcome for climate regulation by 2030. This study provides a spatial-based methodology for monitoring carbon sequestration and new insights about the impact of policies for Green House Gas (GHG) mitigation, supporting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals achievement.


Asunto(s)
Secuestro de Carbono , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Biomasa , Carbono/análisis , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques , Portugal , Árboles
11.
J Environ Manage ; 295: 113319, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348433

RESUMEN

Thirty-five years after the accident, large forest areas in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone still contain huge amounts of radionuclides released from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 in April 1986. An assessment of the radiological and radioecological consequences of persistent radioactive contamination and development of remediation strategies for Chernobyl forests imply acquiring comprehensive data on their contamination levels and dynamics of biomass inventories. The most accurate forest inventory data can be obtained in ground timber cruises. However, such cruises in radioactive contaminated forest ecosystems in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone result in radiation exposures of the personnel involved, which means the need for development of the remote sensing methods. The purpose of this study is to analyze the applicability and limitations of the photogrammetric method for the remote large-scale monitoring of aboveground biomass inventories. Based on field measurements, we estimated the biomass inventories in 31 Scots pine stands including both artificial plantations and natural populations. The stands differed significantly in age (from a few years in natural populations to 115 years in the oldest plantation), productivity (from 0.4 to 19.8 kg m-2), mean height (from 4.1 to 36 m), and other parameters. Photogrammetric data were obtained from the same stands using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). These data were then processed using two approaches to derive the canopy height model (CHM) parameters which were tested for correlation with the aboveground biomass inventories. In the first approach, we found that the inventories correlated well with the mean value of CHM of the site (R2 = 0.79). In the second approach, the total aboveground biomass was approximated by a function of the average height of trees detected at the site and the total crown projection area (R2 = 0.78). Among other local parameters, the total crown projection area was identified as the major factor impacting the accuracy of the aboveground biomass inventory estimates from the UAV survey data in both approaches. In the dense stands with the high total crown projections areas (more than 0.90), the average relative deviations of the UAV-based aboveground biomass estimates from the results of the field measurements were close to 0, which means the adequate accuracy of the UAV surveys data for radioecological monitoring purposes. The relative deviations of the UAV-based estimates in both approaches increased in the stands consisting of separated groups of trees, which indicates potential limitation of the approaches and need for their further development.


Asunto(s)
Accidente Nuclear de Chernóbil , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Biomasa , Ecosistema , Bosques
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246002, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378665

RESUMEN

Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Carbono/análisis , Bosques , Pakistán
13.
Biol Lett ; 17(8): 20210188, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343441

RESUMEN

Landscape changes can alter pollinator movement and foraging patterns which can in turn influence the demographic processes of plant populations. We leveraged social network models and four fixed arrays of five hummingbird feeders equipped with radio frequency identification (RFID) data loggers to study rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus) foraging patterns in a heterogeneous landscape. Using a space-for-time approach, we asked whether forest encroachment on alpine meadows could restrict hummingbird foraging movements and impede resource discovery. We fit social network models to data on 2221 movements between feeders made by 29 hummingbirds. Movements were made primarily by females, likely due to male territoriality and early migration dates. Distance was the driving factor in determining the rate of movements among feeders. The posterior mean effects of forest landscape variables (local canopy cover and intervening forest cover) were negative, but with considerable uncertainty. Finally, we found strong reciprocity in hummingbird movements, indicative of frequent out and back movements between resources. Together, these findings suggest that reciprocal movements by female hummingbirds could help maintain bidirectional gene flow among nearby subpopulations of ornithophilous plants; however, if the distance among meadows increases with further forest encroachment, this may limit foraging among progressively isolated meadows.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Flores , Animales , Aves , Femenino , Bosques , Masculino , Red Social
14.
Chemosphere ; 277: 130371, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384195

RESUMEN

Little is known about the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) via food webs in terrestrial ecosystems, especially in subtropical forest ecosystems. In the present study, THg and MeHg were determined as well as the carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope composition in samples of soils, plants, invertebrates, and songbird feathers to construct food webs in a remote subtropical montane forest in Mt. Ailao, southwest China and assess the bioaccumulation, biomagnification, and trophic transfer of Hg. Results showed that the trophic levels (TLs) of all consumers ranged from 0.8 to 3.3 and followed the order of songbirds > spiders > omnivorous insects > herbivorous insects > plants, and THg and MeHg exhibited a clear biomagnification up the food chain from plants-herbivorous/omnivorous insects-spiders-songbirds. The lowest MeHg concentration was observed in pine needles ranged from 0.104 to 0.949 ng g-1 with only a 1.6% ratio of MeHg to THg (MeHg%), while the highest MeHg concentrations ranged from 425 to 5272 ng g-1 in songbirds with MeHg% values of up to 96%. High values of trophic magnification slope (TMS) for THg (0.22) and MeHg (0.38) were observed in plant-invertebrate-songbird food chain, verifying the significant bioaccumulation of Hg, particularly MeHg, in the remote subtropical forest ecosystem. This study confirmed the production and efficient biomagnification of MeHg in remote subtropical montane forest and the significant bioaccumulation of MeHg in terrestrial top predators.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Compuestos de Metilmercurio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Bioacumulación , China , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Peces , Cadena Alimentaria , Bosques , Mercurio/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20190726, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431861

RESUMEN

Fire risk mapping is a basic planning and protection element. This study presents the application of fuzzy logic in a geographic information system (GIS) as an alternative multi-criteria analysis for determining the areas of highest risk of forest fire in natural forest remnants in the Brazil. In the decision-making process, a set of factors that are relevant to fire safety were identified in the study area. For each input variable chosen for the model, a pertinence function was defined that best described its influence on fire risk. Subsequently, the variables were combined for the presentation of the final fire risk map. Concluded in the study that an increased risk of fire occurs at the wildland - urban interface. A strong relationship was observed between the fire ignition points and proximity to roads and urban areas. The proposed model was efficient to integrate the variables and determine areas of greatest risk.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Incendios Forestales , Brasil , Bosques , Lógica Difusa
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20200729, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431863

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study was to conduct a survey of mites of the family Phytoseiidae associated with plants of the natural vegetation and cultivated forests in sites of three biomes (Amazon Forest, Cerrado and Pantanal) in the Mato Grosso State. Twenty-one species of 11 genera, of the three phytoseiid subfamilies were registered. Amblyseius Berlese was the most diverse genus, with five species. Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma was the most common species, collected from 12 plant species in five collection sites. Eleven phytoseiid species were reported for the first time in the Mato Grosso State.


Asunto(s)
Ácaros , Animales , Brasil , Ecosistema , Bosques
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20190983, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431867

RESUMEN

Anthracology is the identification of charcoal remains through wood anatomy. Paleoecological and paleoethnobotanical evidence from anthracological studies provides information on past environments as well as the fuel economy and use of plants by those living in ancient societies. Historical ecology and forest conservation can also accrue from findings in anthracological studies. Charcoal identification must rely on adequate reference material, in particular reference collections and descriptions of charcoal anatomy. This paper presents charcoal anatomy descriptions of fifteen Brazilian native species that occur in the Atlantic Forest and the Amazon Rainforest. The charcoal anatomy of six of these species is here described for the first time. Samples were analyzed under a reflected light microscope; the descriptions followed the procedures and terminology recommended by the International Association of Wood Anatomists. Increased knowledge of the charcoal and wood anatomy of native tropical species may improve taxonomic identification, thereby increasing accordingly the amount and quality of data for sociocultural inferences about past societies. In addition, it contributes to a better knowledge of the native flora, which helps to prevent deforestation and to drive more sustainable charcoal production chains.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico , Bosque Lluvioso , Ecología , Bosques , Madera/química
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 598, 2021 Aug 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432158

RESUMEN

The main aim of this research was to quantify the parameters related to forest situation (according to DPSIR framework) using decision-making processes and fuzzy methods in the Zagros forests of Iran. In this study, the situation factors (e.g., socioeconomic, biophysical, and environmental factors) were evaluated by fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) using [Formula: see text]-cuts in addition to the Chang method for fuzzy pairwise comparisons. The results of the study clearly illustrate that the decision-making process is the most important input in forest management planning in the Zagros forests, Iran. In such situations, decision-making techniques can be of great help in differentiating the factors influencing decision-making and policy-making for these forests. We found that [Formula: see text]-cuts could improve the quality of the decision-making process, but only after secondary analysis. Initially, we did not find any significant difference in the results between [Formula: see text]-cuts and research results, but using the differences in rankings, we could identify a significant difference. We propose that this method, which requires lengthy calculations to get the answer, should only be used by forest managers when the quality of the results and the difference between the parameters are very important to them; otherwise, they may be able to achieve the same desired results in a much easier way.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Bosques , Irán , Formulación de Políticas
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444133

RESUMEN

Researchers and managers of natural resource conservation have increasingly emphasized the importance of maintaining a connected network of important ecological patches to mitigate landscape fragmentation, reduce the decline of biodiversity, and sustain ecological services. This research aimed to guide landscape management and decision-making by developing an evaluation framework to construct ecological security patterns. Taking the Jianghan Plain as the study area, we identified key ecological sources by overlaying the spatial patterns of ecological quality (biodiversity, carbon storage, and water yield) and ecological sensitivity (habitat sensitivity, soil erosion sensitivity, and water sensitivity) using the Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model and the Chinese Soil Loss Equation Function. Ecological corridors were obtained by the least-cost path analysis method and circuit theory. A total of 48 ecological sources (3812.95 km2), primarily consisting of water area, forestland, and cropland, were identified. Ninety-one ecological corridors were derived, with a total length of 2036.28 km. Forty barriers and 40 pinch points with the highest improvement coefficient scores or priority scores were selected. There were 11 priority corridors with very high levels of connectivity improvement potential and conservation priority, occupying 16.15% of the total length of corridors. The overall potential for ecological connectivity is high on the Jianghan Plain. Our framework offers a valuable reference for constructing ecological security patterns and identifying sites for ecological restoration at the regional scale.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecología , China , Ecosistema , Bosques
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