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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213736, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1253012

RESUMEN

Although Spondias mombin L. extract has an excellent antimicrobial effect against oral microorganisms, it should be clarified how it affects enamel surface properties. Aim: To evaluate the color change, wettability/contact angle, surface roughness and morphology of bovine enamel submitted to the Spondias mombin L. extract. Methods: Thirty bovine teeth were distributed into the following groups: 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 1:32 Spondias mombin L. extract and distilled water. Color change (CC) was evaluated after immerging specimens into the solutions for 14 days. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured using a roughness meter; wettability/contact angles (CA) were determined by the sessile drop method, and scanning electron microscopy images were obtained to characterize the morphology (SMA). The pH of the solutions was evaluated using a pHmeter. The Ra, CA, and CC data were parametric (Kolmogorov-Smirnov; p>0.05). Two-way ANOVA (for Ra and CA) and one-way ANOVA (for CC) with Tukey's posthoc tests at a significance level of 5% were used. SMA was analyzed descriptively. Results: The Spondias mombin L. extract revealed an acidic pH, and when in contact with the bovine teeth, it increased the wettability, but it did not cause statistically significant differences in the Ra. Spondias mombin L. extract caused the highest color change. The SEM images showed differences in the specimens' surface submitted to the extract compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Spondias mombin L. extract provided negative effects on bovine enamel's surface, including a high color change and a more wettable substrate


Asunto(s)
Animales , Bovinos , Propiedades de Superficie , Anacardiaceae , Esmalte Dental , Fitoterapia , Antisépticos Bucales
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213859, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1253923

RESUMEN

Aim: This study evaluated the effect of a desensitizer agent (DES) during bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) on enamel microshear bond strength (µSBS). Methods: Sixty bovine incisors were obtained and randomly distributed into groups (n=15): (C) Control: no desensitizing or bleaching, (DES) desensitizing gel application, (CP) bleaching with 10% CP and (CP/DES) bleaching with 10% CP combined with DES. Bleaching was performed for 6 h/day for 14 consecutive days. DES was applied for 8 h only on the 7th and 14th days of therapy. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva among the CP or DES applications and submitted to µSBS testing at three postrestoration times (n=5): 24 h, 7 days, and 14 days after bleaching using a universal testing machine. Failure modes were observed under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%). Results: Immediately after bleaching (24 h), CP promoted lower µSBS than the C and DES groups (p<0.05) but with no differences from the CP/DES. µSBS increased in the DES, CP, and CP/DES groups (p<0.05) when bonding was performed for 7 or 14 days elapsed from bleaching. CP/DES exhibited the highest µSBS among the groups 14 days after bleaching (p<0.05). Cohesive failure in enamel was predominant in the CP groups, while adhesive failure was mostly observed for the other groups. Conclusion: The use of a desensitizer during at-home bleaching maintained the enamel immediate bond strength, and its application favored bonding when the restoration was delayed for 14 days


Asunto(s)
Animales , Bovinos , Blanqueamiento de Dientes , Esmalte Dental , Resistencia al Corte
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252020

RESUMEN

Two strains of a Gram-staining-positive species were isolated from German bulk tank milk. On the basis of their 16S rRNA sequences they were affiliated to the genus Facklamia but could not be assigned to any species with a validly published name. Facklamia miroungae ATCC BAA-466T (97.3 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity), Facklamia languida CCUG 37842T (96.9 %), and Facklamia hominis CCUG 36813T (96.6 %) are the closest relatives. In the 16S rRNA phylogeny and in the core-genome phylogeny strains WS 5301T and WS 5302 form a well-supported, separate lineage. Pairwise average nucleotide identity calculated using MUMmer (ANIm) between WS 5301T and type strains of other Facklamia species is well below the species cut-off (95 %) and ranges from 83.4 to 87.7 %. The DNA G+C content of the type strain is 36.4 mol% and the assembly size of the genome is 2.2 Mb. Cells of WS 5301T are non-motile, non-endospore-forming, oxidase-negative, catalase-negative and facultatively anaerobic cocci. The fastidious species grows at 10-40 °C and with up to 7.0 % (w/v) NaCl in BHI supplemented with 5 g l-1 yeast extract. Major polar lipids are phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and two glycolipids. Predominant fatty acids are C16 : 1ω9c and C18 : 1ω9c. On the basis of their genomic, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics the strains examined in this study represent the same, hitherto unknown species. We propose the name Facklamia lactis sp. nov. for which WS 5301T (=DSM 111018T=LMG 31861T) is the type strain and WS 5302 (=DSM 111019=LMG 31862) is an additional strain of this novel species.


Asunto(s)
Aerococcaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Leche/microbiología , Aerococcaceae/clasificación , Aerococcaceae/genética , Aerococcaceae/metabolismo , Animales , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , Bovinos , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Glucolípidos/metabolismo , Fosfolípidos/metabolismo , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200743

RESUMEN

Mastitis is a common disease in dairy cows that is mostly caused by E. coli, and it brings massive losses to the dairy industry. N6-Methyladenosine (m6A), a methylation at the N6 position of RNA adenine, is a type of modification strongly associated with many diseases. However, the role of m6A in mastitis has not been investigated. In this study, we used MeRIP-seq to sequence the RNA of bovine mammary epithelial cells treated with inactivated E. coli for 24 h. In this in vitro infection model, there were 16,691 m6A peaks within 7066 mRNA transcripts in the Con group and 10,029 peaks within 4891 transcripts in the E. coli group. Compared with the Con group, 474 mRNAs were hypermethylated and 2101 mRNAs were hypomethylated in the E. coli group. Biological function analyses revealed differential m6A-modified genes mainly enriched in the MAPK, NF-κB, and TGF-ß signaling pathways. In order to explore the relationship between m6A and mRNA expression, combined MeRIP-seq and mRNA-seq analyses revealed 212 genes with concomitant changes in the mRNA expression and m6A modification. This study is the first to present a map of RNA m6A modification in mastitis treated with E. coli, providing a basis for future research.


Asunto(s)
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Metilación de ADN , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/metabolismo , Mastitis Bovina/genética , Adenosina/química , Animales , Bovinos , Células Epiteliales/inmunología , Células Epiteliales/microbiología , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/inmunología , Femenino , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/inmunología , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/microbiología , Mastitis Bovina/inmunología , Mastitis Bovina/microbiología
5.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 35(2 Suppl. 1): 323-329, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281328

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to compare the size and shape of bone fragments produced by the ultrasonic and drilling procedures in implant site preparation. Six pieces of rib selected as experimental animal model of 15 cm in length and at least 13 mm of thickness were used. The samples were treated and divided into 2 groups as follows: group A (GA) ultrasonic implant site preparation technique; group B (GB) traditional surgical drill technique. Ultrasonic implant site preparation (GA) was carried out using a sequence of progressive diameter (1.00 mm, 2.00 mm and 3.00 mm) conical inserts at a depth of 10 mm. Standard drill implant site procedure (GB) was carried out with a sequence of 1.00 mm, 2.00 mm, and 3.00 mm cylindrical twist drills, for preparing an implant site at a depth of 10 mm. From each group bone fragments (0.1 gr) were collected from both cortical and cancellous bone preparation and their dimensions were evaluated by optic microscope analysis. The bone debris dimensions procured by cortical bone of Group A and Group B were, respectively, 0.14×0.16 mm (±0.13) and 1.15 ×0.92 mm (±0.68). The bone debris dimensions procured by cancellous bone of Group A and Group B were, respectively, 0.15×0.10 mm (±0.10) and 1.98×1.27 mm (±0.94). Ultrasonic implant site preparation technique was able to micronize bone and to remove all debris with cooling system. Surgical drills tend to fracture bone, creating a weaker structure and fragments of larger size, which remain in considerable quantity over bone walls during site preparation. Within the limits of the present study, the ultrasonic implant preparation was able to produce reduced bone sediments and a clear bed implant favoring osseointegration.


Asunto(s)
Osteotomía , Ultrasonido , Animales , Huesos/diagnóstico por imagen , Huesos/cirugía , Bovinos , Modelos Animales , Oseointegración
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199496

RESUMEN

Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells are exposed to changes in hydrostatic pressure (HP) and osmotic pressure within the intervertebral disc. We focused on main disc matrix components, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and hyaluronan (HA) to elucidate the capability of augmented CSPG to enhance the anabolism of bovine NP (bNP) cells under repetitive changes in HP at high osmolality. Aggrecan expression with CSPG in the absence of HP was significantly upregulated compared to the no-material control (phosphate buffer saline) under no HP at 3 days, and aggrecan expression with CSPG under HP was significantly higher than the control with HA under HP at 12 days. Collagen type I expression under no HP was significantly lower with CSPG than in controls at 3 days. Although matrix metalloproteinase 13 expression under HP was downregulated compared to no HP, it was significantly greater with HA than the control and CSPG, even under HP. Immunohistology revealed the involvement of mechanoreceptor of transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 activation under HP, suggesting an HP transduction mechanism. Addition of CSPG had anabolic and anti-fibrotic effects on bNP cells during the early culture period under no HP; furthermore, it showed synergy with dynamic HP to increase bNP-cell anabolism at later time points.


Asunto(s)
Proteoglicanos Tipo Condroitín Sulfato/farmacología , Presión Hidrostática , Degeneración del Disco Intervertebral/terapia , Disco Intervertebral/efectos de los fármacos , Anabolizantes/farmacología , Animales , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Matriz Extracelular/efectos de los fármacos , Disco Intervertebral/patología , Degeneración del Disco Intervertebral/patología , Núcleo Pulposo/efectos de los fármacos , Núcleo Pulposo/patología
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206251

RESUMEN

Vacuum packaging (VP) is used to reduce exposure of retail meat samples to ambient oxygen (O2) and preserve their quality. A simple sensor system produced from commercial components is described, which allows for non-destructive monitoring of the O2 concentration in VP raw meat samples. Disposable O2 sensor inserts were produced by spotting small aliquots of the cocktail of the Pt-benzoporphyrin dye and polystyrene in ethyl acetate onto pieces of a PVDF membrane and allowing them to air-dry. These sensor dots were placed on top of the beef cuts and vacuum-packed. A handheld reader, FirestinGO2, was used to read nondestructively the sensor phase shift signals (dphi°) and relate them to the O2 levels in packs (kPa or %). The system was validated under industrial settings at a meat processing plant to monitor O2 in VP meat over nine weeks of shelf life storage. The dphi° readings from individual batch-calibrated sensors were converted into the O2 concentration by applying the following calibration equation: O2 (%) = 0.034 * dphi°2 - 3.413 * dphi° + 85.02. In the VP meat samples, the O2 levels were seen to range between 0.12% and 0.27%, with the sensor dphi signals ranging from 44.03° to 56.02°. The DIY sensor system demonstrated ease of use on-site, fast measurement time, high sample throughput, low cost and flexibility.


Asunto(s)
Embalaje de Alimentos , Carne , Animales , Bovinos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Carne/análisis , Oxígeno/análisis , Vacio
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209996

RESUMEN

Unresectable liver tumors are commonly treated with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA). However, this technique is associated with high recurrence rates due to incomplete tumor ablation. Accurate image guidance of the RFA procedure contributes to successful ablation, but currently used imaging modalities have shortcomings in device guidance and treatment monitoring. We explore the potential of using photoacoustic (PA) imaging combined with conventional ultrasound (US) imaging for real-time RFA guidance. To overcome the low penetration depth of light in tissue, we have developed an annular fiber probe (AFP), which can be inserted into tissue enabling interstitial illumination of tissue. The AFP is a cannula with 72 optical fibers that allows an RFA device to slide through its lumen, thereby enabling PA imaging for RFA device guidance and ablation monitoring. We show that the PA signal from interstitial illumination is not affected by absorber-to-surface depth compared to extracorporeal illumination. We also demonstrate successful imaging of the RFA electrodes, a blood vessel mimic, a tumor-mimicking phantom, and ablated liver tissue boundaries in ex vivo chicken and bovine liver samples. PA-assisted needle guidance revealed clear needle tip visualization, a notable improvement to current US needle guidance. Our probe shows potential for RFA device guidance and ablation detection, which potentially aids in real-time monitoring.


Asunto(s)
Ablación por Catéter , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Ablación por Radiofrecuencia , Animales , Bovinos , Iluminación
9.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021033, 2021 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212930

RESUMEN

We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who developed eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) during cow's milk oral immunotherapy (CM-OIT). In order to not completely invalidate OIT benefits, baked milk-containing foods were allowed instead of a strict CM-free diet. However, histological remission of EoE was reached only after a strict cow's milk-free diet, not associated to pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, given the limited data on real incidence of food OIT related EoE and potential beneficial treatment for this condition, we highlight the need of prospective studies aimed to evaluate if a strict CM free diet in OIT related EoE is always necessary to obtain remission of the disease or similarly to CM EoE, baked milk-containing foods" diet could be abeneficial treatment also in these patients.


Asunto(s)
Esofagitis Eosinofílica , Hipersensibilidad a la Leche , Adolescente , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta , Esofagitis Eosinofílica/etiología , Esofagitis Eosinofílica/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoterapia/efectos adversos , Masculino , Leche , Hipersensibilidad a la Leche/terapia , Estudios Prospectivos
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 480, 2021 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240260

RESUMEN

The study evaluates Hermetia illucens larvae's ability to decrease direct methane emissions and nutrients from cattle and swine manure. Hermetia illucens larvae were put into fresh cattle and swine manure, and the same conditions, without larvae, for the control treatment were established. The methane emissions were measured until the first prepupae appeared. The methane emissions from the bioconversion of animal manure by Hermetia illucens larvae were up to 86% lower than in the control treatments (conventional storage). The cumulative methane emissions from cattle and swine manure bioconversion were 41.4 ± 10.5 mg CH4 kg-1 and 134.2 ± 17.3 mg CH4 kg-1, respectively. Moreover, Hermetia illucens larvae could reduce 32% of dry matter, 53% nitrogen, 14% phosphorus, and 42% carbon in swine manure. Meanwhile, in cattle manure, reductions of 17% of dry matter, 5% of nitrogen, 11% of phosphorus, and 15% of carbon and pH reductions in both swine and cattle manure were found. Thus, the production of larvae was higher in swine manure than cattle manure. Furthermore, the larvae frass from swine manure was appropriate for agricultural use, unlike the larvae frass from cattle manure requiring further processing. These results reveal the ability of Hermetia illucens larvae to mitigate methane emissions from animal manure and show it to be a promising technology for manure treatment, with great potential to promote a circular economy in the livestock sector.


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Estiércol , Animales , Bovinos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Larva , Metano , Porcinos
11.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203276

RESUMEN

Regioisomers (or positional isomers) of triacylglycerols (TAGs) of milk are known to show differential outcome in relation to human absorption. Quantitation of TAG regioisomers remains a big challenge due to the lack of facile chromatographic separation technique. The feasibility of using fragment ion intensity ratio to determine the ratio of co-eluting AAB/ABA-type regioisomer pairs was confirmed in this study. The ability of C30 stationary phase in resolving interfering TAG isomers was demonstrated for the first time. This allowed us to reveal the complexity of using fragment ion intensity to quantify 1,2-olein-3-palmitin (OOP), 1,3-olein-2-palmitin (OPO), 1,2-olein-3-stearin (OOS), and 1,3-olein-2-stearin (OSO) regioisomers in milk samples. A novel algorithm was proposed to consider the contribution of OPO/OOP and OSO/OOS double bond (DB)-isomers and to eliminate the interference of isobaric ions from other isomers, an aspect overlooked in previous studies. This liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method that requires no pre-fractioning and a moderate chromatographic separation time of 36 min is simple and, thus, suitable for screening a large number of samples for genetic analysis of this trait. Preliminary results using a small cohort of animals showed that OPO/OOP ratio differs significantly between Jersey and Holstein cows, and a large variation was also observed across individual Holstein cows.


Asunto(s)
Cruzamiento , Leche/metabolismo , Triglicéridos/metabolismo , Animales , Bovinos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Femenino , Estereoisomerismo , Triglicéridos/química , Triglicéridos/aislamiento & purificación
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 399, 2021 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254207

RESUMEN

Diets have an important effect on the fatty acid (FA) content in milk from dairy cows so that feeding strategies may modify the FA profile. There is little information on the fatty acid contents of whole-crop barley (BLY) and black oat (BKO) silages and on milk from cows fed these silages that are an alternative forage for small-scale dairy systems (SSDS). Given the growing interest in foods with favourable health attributes, the objective was to identify the FA content of milk from dairy cows fed whole-crop BLY and BKO silages in small-scale systems. Three inclusion levels of BLY and BKO silage were assessed in nine lactating cows at pasture for 8 h/day and supplemented with 4.6 kg/DM/cow/day commercial concentrate. Treatments were BLY: 10 kg DM/cow/day BLY silage; BKO: 10 kg DM/cow/d BKO silage; and BLY/BKO: 5 kg BLY and 5 kg DM/cow/d BKO silages (50:50). A 3 × 3 Latin square design repeated three times with nine cows and 14-day periods was utilised. Variables evaluated were the content of fatty acids present in feeds and milk. Contents of linoleic (C18:2n-6) and linolenic (C18:3n-3) acids, as precursors of polyunsaturated fatty acids, were 46 in BLY and 50 BKO g/100 g, lower than for multispecies pasture (61 g/100 g). There were statistical differences in the content of short-chain fatty acids in milk (P < 0.05), being lower for BLY (18.9 g/100 g) compared with BKO (20.4 g/100 g) and BLY/BKO (20.6 g/100 g), the saturated fatty acids and linoleic acid (C18:2n-6c) were higher in BLY/BKO in relation to BLY and BKO. Content of health-promoting polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk was higher in BLY/BKO (P < 0.05). There were no differences (P < 0.05) in the atherogenic index, with values within reports. Small-grain cereal forages may produce milk with a favourable fatty acid content for human health.


Asunto(s)
Hordeum , Ensilaje , Afroamericanos , Animales , Avena , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Ácidos Grasos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactancia , México , Leche , Ensilaje/análisis , Zea mays
13.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202801

RESUMEN

In this research, the selected drugs commonly used in diabetes and its comorbidities (gliclazide, cilazapril, atorvastatin, and acetylsalicylic acid) were studied for their interactions with bovine serum albumin-native and glycated. Two different spectroscopic methods, fluorescence quenching and circular dichroism, were utilized to elucidate the binding interactions of the investigational drugs. The glycation process was induced in BSA by glucose and was confirmed by the presence of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs). The interaction between albumin and gliclazide, with the presence of another drug, was confirmed by calculation of association constants (0.11-1.07 × 104 M-1). The nature of changes in the secondary structure of a protein depends on the drug used and the degree of glycation. Therefore, these interactions may have an influence on pharmacokinetic parameters.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipoglucemiantes/química , Albúmina Sérica Bovina/química , Animales , Bovinos , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Unión Proteica , Estructura Secundaria de Proteína
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204008

RESUMEN

Assisted reproductive technologies impact transcriptome and epigenome of embryos and can result in long-term phenotypic consequences. Whole-genome DNA methylation profiles from individual bovine blastocysts in vivo- and in vitro-derived (using three sources of protein: reproductive fluids, blood serum and bovine serum albumin) were generated. The impact of in vitro culture on DNA methylation was analyzed, and sex-specific methylation differences at blastocyst stage were uncovered. In vivo embryos showed the highest levels of methylation (29.5%), close to those produced in vitro with serum, whilst embryos produced in vitro with reproductive fluids or albumin showed less global methylation (25-25.4%). During repetitive element analysis, the serum group was the most affected. DNA methylation differences between in vivo and in vitro groups were more frequent in the first intron than in CpGi in promoters. Moreover, hierarchical cluster analysis showed that sex produced a stronger bias in the results than embryo origin. For each group, distance between male and female embryos varied, with in vivo blastocyst showing a lesser distance. Between the sexually dimorphic methylated tiles, which were biased to X-chromosome, critical factors for reproduction, developmental process, cell proliferation and DNA methylation machinery were included. These results support the idea that blastocysts show sexually-dimorphic DNA methylation patterns, and the known picture about the blastocyst methylome should be reconsidered.


Asunto(s)
Blastocisto/metabolismo , Reprogramación Celular/genética , Medios de Cultivo/farmacología , Epigénesis Genética/efectos de los fármacos , Caracteres Sexuales , Animales , Blastocisto/efectos de los fármacos , Bovinos , Cromosomas de los Mamíferos/genética , Islas de CpG/genética , Metilación de ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Metilación de ADN/genética , Femenino , Fertilización In Vitro , Ontología de Genes , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Anotación de Secuencia Molecular , Análisis de Componente Principal
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20190677, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231753

RESUMEN

The profile of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cheeses obtained through fermentation by lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus helveticus and Streptococcus thermophilus were evaluated. The milk used to make the cheeses came from cows fed with flaxseed oil and annato. The cheeses presented microbiological and physic-chemical quality with in the standards established by the legislation for Staphylococci and Listeria. With maturation, there was a reduction in the coliform values ​​for both treatments. Regarding the counts of lactic acid bacteria, these remained viable until the 30th day of maturation and the proteolytic bacteria decreased. For antioxidant capacity, the treatment containing the combination of the strains obtained high ABTS values. There was no significant difference between the treatments with respect to the color of the samples. For texture, there was a significant difference for the parameters cohesion and elasticity. No increase in CLA content was observed in the form of its two main isomers, however, the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids were increased.


Asunto(s)
Queso , Animales , Bovinos , Queso/análisis , Femenino , Fermentación , Microbiología de Alimentos , Leche , Streptococcus thermophilus
16.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(8): 728-735, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236033

RESUMEN

Objective To investigate the role of the exosomes (EX) derived from polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (PMN-MDSCs) preconditioned by hypoxia in the treatment of the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. Methods CIA mouse model was induced by bovine type II collagen(Col2) and Freund's adjuvant. PMN-MDSCs were isolated from CIA mouse spleen by magnetic beads. PMN-MDSC-derived exosomes (PMN-MDSC-EXs) were extracted from the supernatant of PMN-MDSCs under normal (210 mL/L O2) and hypoxia (10 mL/L O2) conditions. PMN-MDSC-EXs were identified by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The surface-specific markers of PMN-MDSC-EXs were detected by Western blotting, including CD9, CD63, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and calnexin. PMN-MDSC-EXs were added to the CD4+ T cell proliferation system in vitro to detect immunosuppressive ability. PMN-MDSC-EXs were injected into the CIA mouse model through the tail vein. The clinic scores of joints were recorded every three days, and the joint structures were observed by HE staining. The levels of total IgG, Col2 antibody, interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 17 (IL-17) in the serum were detected by ELISA. The content of miR-29a-3p and miR-93-5p in PMN-MDSC-EXs under normal and hypoxia conditions was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Results PMN-MDSCs were successfully isolated from the spleens of CIA mice and PMN-MDSC-EXs was prepared under normal and hypoxia conditions. Compared with normal PMN-MDSC-EXs, hypoxia-treated PMN-MDSC-EXs could inhibit the proliferation of CD4+ T cells more effectively. The swelling degree of toes, clinical scores, and joint damage in the group of hypoxia-treated PMN-MDSC-EXs were significantly reduced. The levels of total IgG, Col2 antibody, IFN-γ and IL-17 in the serum decreased after the treatment with hypoxia-treated PMN-MDSC-EXs. The content of miR-29a-3p and miR-93-5p in hypoxia-treated PMN-MDSC-EXs was much higher than that in normal PMN-MDSC-EXs. Conclusion Under hypoxia condition, the immunosuppressive ability of PMN-MDSC-EXs is stronger, which can alleviate the arthropathy of CIA mice more effectively.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Experimental , Exosomas , Células Supresoras de Origen Mieloide , Animales , Bovinos , Proliferación Celular , Hipoxia , Ratones
17.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e249745, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231666

RESUMEN

Today, most of the world's population faces water scarcity, while global warming, urbanization, industrialization and population increases continue to increase the severity of the pressure on water resources. Management of water resources plays a key role in the sustainability of agricultural production. The water footprint (WF) is different in comparison to other water statistics because it takes direct and indirect water consumption into account, and helps in the management of water resources. Within this context, the WF of Van province, which is Turkey's most easterly located arid region, was calculated from 2004 to 2019. The study area covers lake Van, which is Turkey's largest lake, and the Van basin with an area of 23.334 km2 and a population of 1.136.757 (2019). In the calculations, crop (WFcrop), livestock (WFlivestock), and domestic and industrial water footprints (WFdomestic+industrial) were evaluated separately, and blue and green water footprints (WFblue and WFgreen) were analyzed in detail. According to the results, the average WF of Van province was found to be 8.73 billion m3 year-1. Throughout the province, 87.6% of the WF is composed of WFcrop, 4.9% is WFlivestock and 7.5% is WFdomestic+industrial. Of the WFcrop, 62.5% depends on WFblue, i.e., freshwater. Most of the WFlivestock consisted of dairy cattle (49%) and sheep (38%). The average WFdomestic+industrial for 2004 to 2019 was 0.64 billion m3 year-1. The average per capita water footprint of Van province was found to be 889.9 m3 year-1 capita-1. In addition, the province is classified as severe water scarcity (257%). This study is one of the first province-based calculations of WF in Turkey and is the first study to bring a different aspect to published literature by including residual soil moisture from the winter months. As a result of this study, the WFblue of the WFcrop is above the worldwide average and should be reduced by changing the crop pattern or synchronizing the planting and harvest dates of the crops to a period that benefits from precipitation. In addition, this study is expected to contribute to new studies for calculating the provincial scale WF and will have positive effects on agricultural planning, water allocation and the sustainability of water resources.


Asunto(s)
Inseguridad Hídrica , Agua , Agricultura , Animales , Bovinos , Ovinos , Turquia , Recursos Hídricos
18.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198955

RESUMEN

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is one of the most used biopolymers in the development of drug delivery systems, due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-immunogenicity and intrinsic-targeting properties. HA specifically binds to CD44; this property combined to the EPR effect could provide an option for reinforced active tumor targeting by nanocarriers, improving drug uptake by the cancer cells via the HA-CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. Moreover, HA can be easily chemically modified to tailor its physico-chemical properties in view of specific applications. The derivatization with cholesterol confers to HA an amphiphilic character, and then the ability of anchoring to niosomes. HA-Chol was then used to coat Span® or Tween® niosomes providing them with an intrinsic targeting shell. The nanocarrier physico-chemical properties were analyzed in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, ζ-potential, and bilayer structural features to evaluate the difference between naked and HA-coated niosomes. Niosomes stability was evaluated over time and in bovine serum. Moreover, interaction properties of HA-coated nanovesicles with model membranes, namely liposomes, were studied, to obtain insights on their interaction behavior with biological membranes in future experiments. The obtained coated systems showed good chemical physical features and represent a good opportunity to carry out active targeting strategies.


Asunto(s)
Materiales Biomiméticos/química , Colesterol/química , Receptores de Hialuranos/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurónico/farmacología , Animales , Bovinos , Membrana Celular , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Ácido Hialurónico/síntesis química , Ácido Hialurónico/química , Liposomas , Nanoestructuras , Tamaño de la Partícula , Suero/química
19.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205445

RESUMEN

In the last decade, the role of nutritional management in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases has gained increasing popularity. Disease-specific diets have been introduced as conventional treatments by international guidelines. Patients tend to more willingly accept food-based therapies than drugs because of their relatively "harmless" nature. Apart from a diet's therapeutic role, nutritional support is crucial in maintaining growth and improving clinical outcomes in pediatric patients. Despite the absence of classical "side effects", however, it should be emphasized that any dietary modification might have negative consequences on children's growth and development. Hence, expert supervision is always advised, in order to support adequate nutritional requirements. Unfortunately, the media provide an inaccurate perception of the role of diet for gastrointestinal diseases, leading to misconceptions by patients or their caregivers that tends to overestimate the beneficial role of diets and underestimate the potential adverse effects. Moreover, not only patients, but also healthcare professionals, have a number of misconceptions about the nutritional benefits of diet modification on gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this review is to highlight the role of diet in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases, to detect misconceptions and to give a practical guide for physicians on the basis of current scientific evidence.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/dietoterapia , Terapia Nutricional , Dolor Abdominal , Animales , Bovinos , Niño , Preescolar , Dieta , Enteritis/dietoterapia , Enteritis/fisiopatología , Eosinofilia/dietoterapia , Eosinofilia/fisiopatología , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos , Gastritis/dietoterapia , Gastritis/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/fisiopatología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/dietoterapia , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/fisiopatología , Leche/efectos adversos , Leche/inmunología , Necesidades Nutricionales , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Probióticos
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 387, 2021 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218348

RESUMEN

The research aimed at identifying livestock performance indicators used by farmers in Malipati community, Zimbabwe, and use them in developing a monitoring and evaluation framework for livestock interventions. Mixed methods research was used in the study. A questionnaire was administered to identify performance indicators of preference by farmers. Focus group discussions were done to rank performance indicators. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 25, and data were analysed using the ranking matrix. Scientific validity of performance indicators was determined through literature review. The study concluded that performance indicators of importance in poultry, cattle, goats/sheep, and donkeys were egg production, milk yield, kidding/lambing interval, and animal power, respectively. All performance indicators identified by farmers in Malipati are scientifically valid and were used in the development of the monitoring and evaluation framework.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Cabras , Enfermedades de las Ovejas , Animales , Bovinos , Agricultores , Cabras , Ganado , Ovinos , Zimbabwe
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