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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255055, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355865

RESUMEN

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Carbofurano/toxicidad , Aves , Bovinos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

RESUMEN

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Femenino , Infecciones por Pasteurella/veterinaria , Reproducción , Hormonas Esteroides Gonadales/sangre , Búfalos , Progesterona , Bovinos , Lipopolisacáridos , Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina , Pasteurella multocida
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

RESUMEN

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Perros , Tripanosomiasis/diagnóstico , Tripanosomiasis/veterinaria , Tripanosomiasis/epidemiología , Ciervos , Bovinos , Ovinos , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Océano Índico , Caballos
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

RESUMEN

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Femenino , Oligoquetos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Suelo , Cadmio , Bovinos , Bioacumulación
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245330, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339394

RESUMEN

Abstract Background The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.


Resumo Contexto O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Subunidad alfa del Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia/genética , Hipoxia , Encéfalo , ARN Mensajero , Bovinos , Neuroglobina
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248911, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339362

RESUMEN

Abstract The telencephalon refers to the most highly developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting mainly of the cerebral hemispheres. The study determined Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle, and compare the expression and distribution pattern of Ngb and HIF-1α in the two animals. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) were employed to investigate Ngb and Hif-1α expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle. mRNA and protein expressions of Ngb and HIF-1α showed positive in different tissues of the yak and cattle telencephalon. Ngb expression in tissues of the yak recorded higher as compare to cattle while HIF-1α expression was found higher in cattle than yak. The HIF-1α expression in some tissues of yak telencephalon was consistent with the cattle. The results documented that HIF-1α may have a direct or indirect synergistic effect on Ngb expression in the yak telencephalon to improve hypoxia adaptation. It is suggested that yak may need more Ngb expression for adaptation, but the expression of HIF-1α seems to be down-regulated during long-term adaptation, and the specific causes of this phenomenon needs to be further verified.


Resumo O telencéfalo refere-se à parte anterior e mais desenvolvida do prosencéfalo, consistindo principalmente dos hemisférios cerebrais. O estudo determinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator indutível por hipóxia (HIF-1α) no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos e comparou a expressão e o padrão de distribuição de Ngb e HIF-1α nos dois animais. Imuno-histoquímica (IHC), reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e Western blot (WB) foram empregados para investigar a expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos. As expressões de mRNA e proteínas de Ngb e HIF-1α mostraram-se positivas em diferentes tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque e bovino. A expressão de Ngb nos tecidos do iaque foi registrada mais alta em comparação com o gado, enquanto a expressão do HIF-1α foi encontrada mais alta no gado do que no iaque. A expressão de HIF-1α em alguns tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque foi consistente com o gado. Os resultados documentaram que o HIF-1α pode ter um efeito sinérgico direto ou indireto na expressão de Ngb no telencéfalo de iaque para melhorar a adaptação à hipóxia. É sugerido que o iaque pode precisar de mais expressão de Ngb para adaptação, mas a expressão de HIF-1α parece ser regulada para baixo durante a adaptação de longo prazo, e as causas específicas desse fenômeno precisam ser verificadas.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Telencéfalo , Subunidad alfa del Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia/genética , ARN Mensajero/genética , Bovinos , Adaptación Fisiológica , Neuroglobina
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13498, 2022 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931716

RESUMEN

The main objective of this study was to assess the microbiota diversity in milk samples collected from Holstein cows with different estimated breeding values for predicted feed efficiency, milk coagulation, resilience to mastitis, and consequently, to study its effects on milk quality. One hundred and twenty milk samples were collected in two seasons (summer and winter) from different commercial dairy farms in the Nord-east of Italy. For each trait, 20 animals divided into two groups of the high (10 cows) and the low (10 cows) were selected to study the microbiota profile using 16S rRNA metabarcoding sequencing. The alpha and beta diversity analysis revealed significant differences between the high and the low groups for feed efficiency and resilience to mastitis, while no significant difference was detected for milk coagulation. Moreover, remarkable differences among the taxa were detected between the two seasons, where the winter was more diverse than summer when applied the Chao1 index. Lastly, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) indicated Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Facklamia, and Psychrobacter taxa with more abundance in the high group of feed efficiency, whereas, in resilience to mastitis, only two genera of Mycoplana and Rhodococcus were more abundant in the low group. In addition, LEfSe analysis between the seasons showed significant differences in the abundance of Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Corynebacterium, Escherichia, Citrobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas. These findings indicate that the different genetic predisposition for feed efficiency and resilience to mastitis could affect the raw milk microbiota and, consequently, its quality. Moreover, we found more abundance of mastitis-associated bacteria in the milk of dairy cows with a higher feed efficiency index.


Asunto(s)
Mastitis Bovina , Microbiota , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Humanos , Mastitis Bovina/genética , Mastitis Bovina/microbiología , Microbiota/genética , Leche/microbiología , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13469, 2022 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931741

RESUMEN

The insertion of an endogenous retroviral long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence into the bovine apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene is causal to the inherited genetic defect cholesterol deficiency (CD) observed in neonatal and young calves. Affected calves suffer from developmental abnormalities, symptoms of incurable diarrhoea and often die within weeks to a few months after birth. Neither the detailed effects of the LTR insertion on APOB expression profile nor the specific mode of inheritance nor detailed phenotypic consequences of the mutation are undisputed. In our study, we analysed German Holstein dairy heifers at the peak of hepatic metabolic load and exposed to an additional pathogen challenge for clinical, metabolic and hepatic transcriptome differences between wild type (CDF) and heterozygote carriers of the mutation (CDC). Our data revealed that a divergent allele-biased expression pattern of the APOB gene in heterozygous CDC animals leads to a tenfold higher expression of exons upstream and a decreased expression of exons downstream of the LTR insertion compared to expression levels of CDF animals. This expression pattern could be a result of enhancer activity induced by the LTR insertion, in addition to a previously reported artificial polyadenylation signal. Thus, our data support a regulatory potential of mobile element insertions. With regard to the phenotype generated by the LTR insertion, heterozygote CDC carriers display significantly differential hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and lipid metabolism. Phenotypically, CDC carriers show a significantly affected lipomobilization compared to wild type animals. These results reject a completely recessive mode of inheritance for the CD defect, which should be considered for selection decisions in the affected population. Exemplarily, our results illustrate the regulatory impact of mobile element insertions not only on specific host target gene expression but also on global transcriptome profiles with subsequent biological, functional and phenotypic consequences in a natural in-vivo model of a non-model mammalian organism.


Asunto(s)
Retroelementos , Secuencias Repetidas Terminales , Alelos , Animales , Apolipoproteínas B/genética , Bovinos , Colesterol , Femenino , Mamíferos/genética , Retroelementos/genética , Secuencias Repetidas Terminales/genética
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 302, 2022 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932057

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lumpy skin disease (LSD), a disease of cattle and buffaloes, has recently become widely prevalent in Egypt. The aim of this study was to ascertain the potential role of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus ticks in the transmission of this disease. Samples collected from suspected lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) infected cows that had previously been vaccinated with the Romanian sheep pox virus (SPPV) in various Egyptian governorates were obtained between May to November over two consecutive years, namely 2018 and 2019. Ticks were morphologically identified and the partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) were sequenced, revealing that they were closely related to R. (Boophilus) annulatus. The G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) gene of the LSDV was used to test hard ticks. RESULTS: Two positive samples from Kafr El-Sheikh province and one positive sample from Al-Behera province were reported. BLAST analysis revealed that the positive samples were closely related to the Kazakhstani Kubash/KAZ/16 strain (accession number MN642592). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the GPCR gene of the LSDV recently circulating in Egypt belongs to a global cluster of field LSDV with a nucleotide identity of 98-100%. LSDV isolation was successfully performed four days after inoculation using 9 to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs showing characteristic focal white pock lesions dispersed on the choriallantoic membrane after three blind passages. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, cell rupture, vacuoles in cells, and virus particles ovoid in shape were demonstrated by electron microscopy. CONCLUSION: In this study the role of hard ticks in the transmission of the LSDV to susceptible animals in Egypt was revealed and confirmed by various methods.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Ixodidae , Dermatosis Nodular Contagiosa , Virus de la Dermatosis Nodular Contagiosa , Rhipicephalus , Enfermedades de las Ovejas , Animales , Bovinos , Egipto , Femenino , Virus de la Dermatosis Nodular Contagiosa/genética , Filogenia , Rhipicephalus/genética , Ovinos
10.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13758, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932203

RESUMEN

Oilseed cakes can partially replace corn or soy used in the diet without losing animal performance. The objective was to carry out a meta-analysis and principal component analysis to evaluate the effects of cakes on the intake and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of dry matter (DM) and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The data set used in the meta-analysis came from 51 studies published between 2009 and 2019, which resulted in 119 studies with 18 types of cakes evaluated in 1350 cows. Cows fed with cakes increased dry matter intake (DMI) by 0.366 kg d-1 (P < 0.001) and DMI as a function of the animal's body weight by 0.103% (P < 0.0001) compared with the diet without cake. The milk protein content decreased by 0.050% (P < 0.010). The contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (26%-%) and ether extract (EE) (3%-7%) of the cake diets did not affect ADCDM. Cakes with contents between 10% and 30% can replace corn or soy in the diet without affecting milk production, components (fat, protein, and lactose), and contents (fat and lactose), but it can reduce the milk protein content of milk.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia , Rumen , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinaria , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Digestión , Femenino , Lactosa , Proteínas de la Leche/análisis , Rumen/metabolismo , Ensilaje/análisis , Zea mays
11.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(8): e658-e669, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932786

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Slowing climate change is crucial to the future wellbeing of human societies and the greater environment. Current beef production systems in the USA are a major source of negative environmental impacts and raise various animal welfare concerns. Nevertheless, beef production provides a food source high in protein and many nutrients as well as providing employment and income to millions of people. Cattle farming also contributes to individual and community identities and regional food cultures. Novel plant-based meat alternatives have been promoted as technologies that could transform the food system by reducing negative environmental, animal welfare, and health effects of meat production and consumption. Recent studies have conducted static analyses of shifts in diets globally and in the USA, but have not considered how the whole food system would respond to these changes, nor the ethical implications of these responses. We aimed to better explore these dynamics within the US food system and contribute a multiple perspective ethical assessment of plant-based alternatives to beef. METHODS: In this national modelling analysis, we explored multiple ethical perspectives and the implications of the adoption of plant-based alternatives to beef in the USA. We developed USAGE-Food, a modified version of USAGE (a detailed computable general equilibrium model of the US economy), by improving the representation of sector interactions and dependencies, and consumer behaviour to better reflect resource use across the food system and the substitutability of foods within households. We further extended USAGE, by linking estimates of the environmental footprint of US agriculture, to estimate how changes across the agriculture sector could alter the environmental impact of primary food production across the whole sector, not only the beef sector. Using USAGE-Food, we simulated four beef replacement scenarios against a baseline of current beef demand in the USA: BEEF10, in which beef expenditure is replaced by other foods and three scenarios wherein 10%, 30%, or 60% of beef expenditure is replaced by plant-based alternatives. FINDINGS: The adoption of plant-based beef alternatives is likely to reduce the carbon footprint of US food production by 2·5-13·5%, by reducing the number of animals needed for beef production by 2-12 million. Impacts on other dimensions are more ambiguous, as the agricultural workforce and natural resources, such as water and cropland, are reallocated across the food system. The shifting allocation of resources should lead to a more efficient food system, but could facilitate the expansion of other animal value chains (eg, pork and poultry) and increased exports of agricultural products. In aggregate, these changes across the food system would have a small, potentially positive, impact on national gross domestic product. However, they would lead to substantial disruptions within the agricultural economy, with the cattle and beef processing sectors decreasing by 7-45%, challenging the livelihoods of the more than 1·5 million people currently employed in beef value chains (primary production and animal processing) in the USA. INTERPRETATION: Economic modelling suggests that the adoption of plant-based beef alternatives can contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the food system. Relocation of resources across the food system, simulated by our dynamic modelling approach, might mitigate gains across other environmental dimensions (ie, water or chemical use) and might facilitate the growth of other animal value chains. Although economic consequences at the country level are small, there would be concentrated losses within the beef value chain. Reduced carbon footprint and increased resource use efficiency of the food system are reasons for policy makers to encourage the continued development of these technologies. Despite this positive outcome, policy makers should recognise the ethical assessment of these transitions will be complex, and should remain vigilant to negative outcomes and be prepared to target policies to minimise the worst effects. FUNDING: The Stavros Niarchos Foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Johns Hopkins University, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Cornell University, and Victoria University.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Animales , Huella de Carbono , Bovinos , Humanos , Carne , Estados Unidos , Agua
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1221: 340079, 2022 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934339

RESUMEN

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle, a transboundary viral disease of cattle once restricted to Africa, has been spreading to many European and Asian countries in the past decade with huge economic losses. This emerging worldwide threat to cattle warrants the development of diagnostic methods for accurate disease screening of suspected samples to effectively control the spread of LSD. In this study, we integrated pre-amplification and three kinds of sensor systems with CRISPR and therefore established an LSD diagnosis platform with highly adaptable and ultra-sensitive advantages. It was the first CRISPR-powered platform that could identify lumpy skin disease virus from vaccine strains of goat pox virus and sheep pox virus. Its limit of detection (LOD) was one copy/reaction after introducing PCR or recombinase-aided amplification (RAA). Moreover, this platform achieved a satisfactory overall agreement in clinical diagnoses of 50 samples and its reproducibility and accuracy were superior to other qPCR methods we tested. The whole diagnostic procedure, from DNA extraction to the results, could complete in 5 h with a total cost of 1.7-9.6 $/test. Overall, this CRISPR-powered platform provided a novel diagnostic tool for portable, ultra-sensitive, rapid, and highly adaptable disease screening of LSD and may be an effective method to control this transboundary disease's spread.


Asunto(s)
Capripoxvirus , Dermatosis Nodular Contagiosa , Animales , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Capripoxvirus/genética , Bovinos , Dermatosis Nodular Contagiosa/diagnóstico , Dermatosis Nodular Contagiosa/genética , Dermatosis Nodular Contagiosa/prevención & control , Dietilamida del Ácido Lisérgico , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Ovinos/genética
14.
Biol Lett ; 18(8): 20220148, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920028

RESUMEN

Zoonoses represent a global public health threat. Understanding lay perceptions of risk associated with these diseases can better inform proportionate policy interventions that mitigate their current and future impacts. While individual zoonoses (e.g. bovine spongiform encephalopathy) have received scientific and public attention, we know little about how multiple zoonotic diseases vary relative to each other in lay risk perceptions. To this end, we examined public perceptions of 11 zoonoses across 12 qualitative attributes of risk among the UK public (n = 727, volunteer sample), using an online survey. We found that attribute ratings were predominantly explained via two basic dimensions of risk related to public knowledge and dread. We also show that, despite participants reporting low familiarity with most of the diseases presented, zoonoses were perceived as essentially avoidable. These findings imply that infection is viewed as dependent upon actions under personal control which has significant implications for policy development.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Zoonosis , Animales , Bovinos , Humanos , Percepción , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 30: e20210698, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920506

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: A new sugarcane-derived cystatin (CaneCPI-5) showed anti-erosive properties when included in solutions and strong binding force to enamel, but the performance of this protein when added to gel formulations and its effect on surface free energy (SFE) requires further studies. 1) to evaluate the protective effect of gels containing different concentrations of CaneCPI-5 against initial enamel erosion (Experiment 1); and 2) to analyze the SFE (γS) after treating the enamel surface with CaneCPI-5 solution (Experiment 2). METHODOLOGY: In Experiment 1, 75 bovine enamel specimens were divided into five groups according to the gel treatments: placebo (negative control); 0.27%mucin+0.5%casein (positive control); 0.1 mg/mL CaneCPI-5; 1.0 mg/mL CaneCPI-5; or 2.0 mg/mL CaneCPI-5. Specimens were treated with the gels for 1 min, the AP was formed (human saliva) for 2 h and the specimens were incubated in 0.65% citric acid (pH=3.4) for 1 min. The percentage of surface hardness change (%SHC) was estimated. In Experiment 2, measurements were performed by an automatic goniometer using three probing liquids: diiodomethane, water and ethylene glycol. Specimens (n=10/group) remained untreated (control) or were treated with solution containing 0.1 mg/mL CaneCPI-5, air-dried for 45 min, and 0.5 µL of each liquid was dispensed on the surface to measure contact angles. RESULTS: Gels containing 0.1 and 1.0 mg/mL CaneCPI-5 significantly reduced %SHC compared to the other treatments (p<0.05). Treated enamel showed significantly lower γS than control, without changes in the apolar component (γSLW), but the polar component (γSAB=Lewis acid-base) became more negative (p<0.01). Moreover, CaneCPI-5 treatment showed higher γS - (electron-donor) values compared to control (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Gels containing 0.1 mg/mL or 1.0 mg/mL CaneCPI-5 protected enamel against initial dental erosion. CaneCPI-5 increased the number of electron donor sites on the enamel surface, which may affect AP formation and could be a potential mechanism of action to protect from erosion.


Asunto(s)
Cistatinas , Saccharum , Erosión de los Dientes , Animales , Bovinos , Cistatinas/farmacología , Cistatinas/uso terapéutico , Esmalte Dental , Geles , Erosión de los Dientes/prevención & control
16.
New Microbiol ; 45(3): 193-198, 2022 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920874

RESUMEN

Gastrointestinal (GI) microbial populations are important in maintaining normal functioning of the GI by preventing disorders. Dysbiotic microbiota may increase the likelihood of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), a syndrome associated with significant morbidity. We aimed to inves- tigate the microbiota populations of patients with SIBO. Patients with symptoms of SIBO were consecutively enrolled; they underwent a SIBO hydrogen breath test and stool was collected for microbiome analysis by sequencing of the 16S rRNA. Of the 55 patients recruited, 42 (76.4%) were positive for SIBO. When visualizing the bacterial ß-di- versity, a sub-cluster of patients was identified. Further examination of these patients' records re- vealed previous treatment for Helicobacter pylori (HP). Microbiome analysis of these patients demonstrated a significant decrease in ß-diversity (p-value<0.001) compared to patients without previous HP therapy. Furthermore, ß-diversity was significantly different in this subgroup, and sev- eral bacterial taxa were differentially expressed, including one from the genus Methanobrevibacter, which was reduced in patients that previously underwent HP treatment. Our findings suggest that while symptoms associated with SIBO may cause dysbiosis, there was no differentiation in fecal microbiome composition based on SIBO diagnosis. Furthermore, our results support previous observations regarding antibiotic-altered microbiota with effects extending two and three years post-treatment.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Síndrome del Colon Irritable , Microbiota , Animales , Bovinos , Disbiosis/complicaciones , Disbiosis/microbiología , Infecciones por Helicobacter/complicaciones , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/microbiología , Síndrome del Colon Irritable/etiología , Síndrome del Colon Irritable/microbiología , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13394, 2022 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927460

RESUMEN

The liquid diet composition can affect dairy calves' performance and diarrhea incidence. The effect of three liquid diets on performance, incidence of diarrhea, and microbial community during diarrhea occurrence in dairy calves were evaluated. At birth, 35 dairy calves (20 male and 15 female) were randomly assigned to one of three treatments-refrigerated whole milk (WM), acidified whole milk (AWM), and milk replacer (MR). Intake, fecal score, and rectal temperature were evaluated daily, and performance and blood parameters were evaluated weekly during the preweaning period. Fecal samples from diarrheic calves were collected, and one initial and one final sample for each episode were selected. The bacterial community was assessed by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform and analyzed using the DADA2 pipeline. Calves fed WM had higher body weight at weaning, average daily gain, body measurements, and concentration of blood metabolites. The AWM-fed calves had a lower rectal temperature and fever days. Moreover, the MR-fed calves had lower beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration and a higher incidence of diarrhea. The fecal bacterial community of diarrheic calves showed dissimilarity among the AWM and the other treatments. At the compositional level, we observed a higher abundance of Fusobacterium and Ruminococcus genera (AWM), Prevotella (WM), and Lactobacillus (MR). In the AWM and MR diarrheic calves' feces, we also observed some beneficial bacterial genera. The performance and incidence of diarrhea of dairy calves were influenced by the liquid diet consumed and the bacterial composition of diarrhea.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Leche , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bacterias/genética , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Diarrea/microbiología , Diarrea/veterinaria , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Masculino , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Destete
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(3): e20210302, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920487

RESUMEN

The aim was to identify the predominant variables in the differentiation of meat quality of cattle submitted to surgical castration, immunocastration, or non-castration and finished in a tropical pasture. Thirty-nine crossbred cattle were used and distributed in three treatments: i) surgical castration; ii) immunocastration; and iii) non-castration, with an initial mean age of 14.06±0.72 months and a mean weight of 284.10±31.40 kg. We used the principal component analysis to differentiate the qualitative meat characteristics between the treatments. Based on that analysis, we found that the first three principal components explained 71.44% of the total variation in the meat quality data, which ensures that the variation found is associated with the effect of the treatments. The characteristics correlated with the first three principal components and responsible for the discrimination between sexual conditions were subcutaneous fat thickness, instrumental meat color, cooking loss and shear force. These characteristics were similar among castrated animals, regardless of the methods. Therefore, immunological castration preserves the attributes of the meat and prevents possible damage to the physical and mental integrity of the animals. Finally, principal component analysis is an important methodology in the objective investigation of beef meat attributes.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Suplementos Dietéticos , Carne , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Carne/análisis
19.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0268411, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921278

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to investigate the abundance and distribution of psychrophilic microorganisms associated with spoilage in beef slaughterhouse environments after cleaning. The processing lines and equipment used in slaughtering and boning were swabbed, and the microbial count was determined using a TSA and MRS medium and Chromocult® Coliform agar incubated at 15ºC and 37ºC, respectively. As a result, the brisket saw (handle side) and trolley hook were the most heavily contaminated with microorganisms, with each having a microbial adhesion rate of 66.7%. The microbial adhesion rates of the apron and milling cutter (edge side) were 50%, respectively, and those of the foot cutter (edge and handle side), splitting saw (edge side), and knife (handle side) were 33.3%, respectively. Next, four colonies were randomly isolated from the petri dish used for the bacterial count measurement to identify the predominant microbial species of the microorganisms attached to each equipment. As a result of Sanger sequencing analysis, yeasts such as Candida zeylanoides and Rhodotorula sp. and bacteria including Pseudomonas sp. and Rhodococcus sp. were identified from the equipment used in the slaughtering line, and it was assumed that these microorganisms were of environmental origin. In contrast, only Pseudomonas sp. and Candida zeylanoides were isolated from the boning line. Despite the use of cleaning operations, this study identified some equipment was contaminated with microorganisms. Since this equipment frequently comes into direct contact with the carcass, it is critical to thoroughly remove the microorganisms through accurate cleaning to prevent the spread of microbial contamination on the carcasses.


Asunto(s)
Mataderos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Animales , Bovinos , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Manipulación de Alimentos , Japón , Carne/microbiología , Saccharomycetales , Levaduras
20.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271337, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921355

RESUMEN

Cattle have a complex social organization, with negative (agonistic) and positive (affiliative) interactions that affect access to environmental resources. Thus, the social behaviour has a major impact on animal production, and it is an important factor to improve the farm animal welfare. The use of data from electronic bins to determine social competition has already been validated; however, the studies used non-free software or did not make the code available. With data from electronic bins is possible to identify when one animal takes the place of another animal, i.e. a replacement occurs, at the feeders or drinkers. However, there is no package for the R environment to detect competitive replacements from electronic bins data. Our general approach consisted in creating a user-friendly R package for social behaviour analysis. The workflow of the socialh package comprises several steps that can be used sequentially or separately, allowing data input from electronic systems, or obtained from the animals' observation. We provide an overview of all functions of the socialh package and demonstrate how this package can be applied using data from electronic feed bins of beef cattle. The socialh package provides support for researchers to determine the social hierarchy of gregarious animals through the synthesis of agonistic interactions (or replacement) in a friendly, versatile, and open-access system, thus contributing to scientific research.


Asunto(s)
Jerarquia Social , Conducta Social , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Bovinos , Electrónica , Granjas
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