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1.
Spec Care Dentist ; 40(1): 49-54, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912539

RESUMEN

PURPOSE/AIM: To assess self-perception of oral health among institutionalized older adults in Taubate, Brazil. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Demographics, oral, and systemic health data were collected from a sample of 89 institutionalized older adults. The Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) was applied to assess their self-perception of oral health. A linear regression model using GOHAI scores and considering age, BMI, gender, race, dry mouth, denture status, number of teeth, number of comorbid conditions, and number of medications as independent variables was generated. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent were male, with an average age of 75.9 years (±9.1), 43.8% identified as mixed race, and 42.7% as white. The average BMI was 23.9 (±3.8), the average number of comorbid condition was 1.8 (±1.4), and the average number of daily medications was 6.2 (±3.6). The average number of teeth was 3.9 (±7.4), and 57.3% of the participants reported dry mouth sensation; 8.9% presented oral lesions, with denture stomatitis as the most common oral lesion (5.6%). The average GOHAI score was 31.1 (±3.7). Regression analysis showed a negative correlation between BMI and GOHAI scores (P = .032, R2  = 7.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Self-perception of oral health was good and negatively correlated with BMI.


Asunto(s)
Salud Bucal , Xerostomía , Anciano , Brasil , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagen
2.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103302, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500708

RESUMEN

This study dealt with the influence of the temperature on the bacterial dynamics of two spontaneously fermented wheat sourdoughs, propagated at 21 ±â€¯1 °C (SD1) and 30 ±â€¯1 °C (SD2), during nine backslopping steps (BS1 to BS9). Proteobacteria was the only phylum found in flour. Escherichia hermannii was predominant, followed by Kosakonia cowanii, besides species belonging to the genera Pantoea and Pseudomonas. After one step of propagation, Clostridium and Bacillus cereus group became predominant. Lactobacillus curvatus was found at low relative abundance. For the second backslopping step, Clostridium was flanked by L. curvatus and Lactobacillus farciminis. From BS4 (6th day) onward, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) became predominant. L. farciminis overcame L. curvatus and remained dominant until the end of propagations for both sourdoughs. At 21 °C, Bacillus, Clostridium, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteriaceae were gradually inhibited. At the end of propagation, SD1 harbored only LAB. Otherwise, the temperature of 30 °C favored the persistence of atypical bacteria in SD2, as Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, the temperature of 21 °C was more suitable for sourdough propagation in Brazil. This study enhanced the knowledge of temperature's influence on microbial assembly and contributed to the elucidation of sourdough microbial communities in Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Pan/microbiología , Fermentación , Metagenoma , Proteobacteria/clasificación , Brasil , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Harina/microbiología , Variación Genética , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Microbiota , Proteobacteria/crecimiento & desarrollo , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Temperatura Ambiental
3.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1047849

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever a mortalidade por causas externas no Estado de Rondônia no período de 1999 e 2015. Método: estudo de série temporal utilizando dados da Declaração de Óbito disponibilizados pela Agência de Vigilância em Saúde do Estado de Rondônia. Para a análise de tendência realizou-se regressão linear utilizando o pacote estatístico Stata®11. Resultados: foram registrados no Estado de Rondônia 111.651 óbitos sendo 22,2% classificados como causas externas. O coeficiente médio de óbitos por esta causa no período foi 89,7 por 100.000 habitantes e desvio padrão de 6,5. A regressão linear apresentou um aumento anual nos óbitos por acidentes de trânsito de 2,1%, os óbitos por agressões tiveram um decréscimo anual de 1,98%, suicídios e outras causas externas permaneceram estacionárias. Conclusão: os resultados evidenciaram a necessidade de fortalecimento das ações preventivas entre homens jovens e políticas públicas para redução de acidentes de trânsito no estado de Rondônia


Objective: the objective was to describe the mortality from external causes in the State of Rondônia in the period of 1999 and 2015. Method: a time series study using data from the Death Certificates provided by the Health Surveillance Agency of the State of Rondônia. Linear regression was used for the trend analysis using the statistical package Stata®11. Results: 111,651 deaths were recorded in the State of Rondônia, 22.2% of which were classified as external causes. The mean number of deaths due to this cause in the period was 89.7 per 100,000 inhabitants and the standard deviation was 6.5. The linear regression showed an annual increase in deaths due to traffic accidents of 2.1%, deaths due to aggressions had an annual decrease of 1.98%, suicides and other external causes remained stationary. Conclusion: the results evidenced the need to strengthen preventive actions among young men and public policies to reduce accidents in the state of Rondônia


Objetivo: el objetive fue describir la mortalidad por causas externas en el Estado de Rondônia en el período de 1999 y 2015. Método: estudio de serie temporal utilizando datos de la Declaración de Óbito disponibilizados por la Agencia de Vigilancia en Salud del Estado de Rondônia. Para el análisis de tendencia se realizó regresión lineal utilizando el paquete estadístico Stata®11. Resultados: se registraron en el Estado de Rondônia 111.651 óbitos siendo 22,2% clasificados como causas externas. El coeficiente medio de muertes por esta causa en el período fue 89,7 por 100.000 habitantes y desviación estándar de 6,5. La regresión lineal presentó un aumento anual en las muertes por accidentes de tránsito del 2,1%, las muertes por agresiones tuvieron un descenso anual del 1,98% y los suicídios y otras causas externas permanecieron estacionarias. Conslusión: los resultados evidenciaron la necesidad de fortalecimiento de las acciones preventivas entre hombres jóvenes y políticas públicas para reducción de accidentes en el estado de Rondônia


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Registros de Mortalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Series Temporales , Mortalidad , Brasil , Causas Externas
4.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 257-262, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1047911

RESUMEN

Objetivo: identificar o perfil epidemiológico dos usuários atendidos em ação de saúde na Baixada Litorânea do Rio de Janeiro. Método: trata-se de um estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, exploratório de natureza quantitativa que utilizou como delineamento a pesquisa documental por meio da análise de dados secundários. Resultados: foram avaliados 746 registros, com prevalência do sexo feminino (69,7%), idade entre 20 e 29 anos (41,6%), ensino superior incompleto (63,9%) e estado civil solteiro (69,4%). O sexo masculino apresentou uma média mais elevada de níveis pressóricos quando comparado com as mulheres. Evidenciou-se que com o avançar da idade e baixa escolaridade, maiores são os níveis de pressão arterial e glicêmicos. Conclusão: estudos que ampliam o conhecimento sobre o perfil epidemiológico de uma população representam uma ferramenta importante para subsidiar o cuidado em saúde


Objective: to reveal the epidemiological profile of the users met in health action in the Coastal Lowlands of Rio de Janeiro. Method: this is a descriptive study, retrospective, exploratory quantitative in nature used as documentary research design through the analysis of secondary data. Results: 746 records were evaluated, with female prevalence (69.7%), age between 20 and 29 years (41.6%), incomplete higher education (63.9%) and marital status single (69.4%). Males showed an average blood pressure higher when compared with the female. It was evidenced that with advancing age and lower educational level, the greater the blood pressure and blood glucose levels. Conclusion: it is considered that studies about the knowledge of the epidemiological profile of a population becomes an important tool to support health actions


Objetivo: identificar el perfil epidemiológico de los usuarios se reunieron en la acción sanitaria en las tierras bajas costeras de Río de Janeiro. Método: se trata de un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, utilizado cuantitativo en naturaleza exploratoria como diseño de investigación documental a través del análisis de datos secundarios. Resultados: se evaluaron registros de 746, con predominio femenino (69.7%), edad entre 20 y 29 años (41.6%), educación superior incompleta (63.9%) y el estado civil solo (69,4%). Los varones mostraron mayor los niveles de presión arterial media en comparación con las mujeres. Se evidenció que con el avance de edad y menor nivel educativo, mayor será los niveles de glucosa en sangre y presión arterial. Conclusión: estudios que amplían el conocimiento sobre el perfil epidemiológico de una población representan una herramienta importante para apoyar la atención de la salud


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Perfil de Salud , Brasil/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensión
5.
Quintessence Int ; 51(1): 18-26, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781689

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) prevalence and viral load in subgingival sites of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) positive (HIV+) individuals, correlating subgingival EBV load to the clinical periodontal condition, HIV systemic load, EBV systemic load, and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHOD AND MATERIALS: Ninety individuals were recruited and divided into three categories: those without periodontal disease (G1), with gingivitis (G2), and with periodontitis (G3). Subgingival biofilm and blood samples were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR). A questionnaire was administered to collect general information about patients, and data regarding HIV and use of ART were accessed from their medical records. RESULTS: EBV was detected in 85.6% of the samples. Comparing subgingival and systemic load of EBV in G1, G2, and G3, there was a statistical difference only in G3 (3.93 log10 copies/mL and 5.47 log10 copies/mL, respectively; P = .014), where EBV load was higher in periodontal pockets than in the blood. All groups had high EBV loads in subgingival sites (> 2,000 copies/mL). A positive linear correlation between systemic HIV load and EBV subgingival load was found in G1 and G2 (r = 0.647; P < .001), but not in G3. Only G1 individuals using ART had lower subgingival EBV loads than those not using it (5.03 log10 copies/mL, and 7.14 log10 copies/mL, respectively; P = .0348). CONCLUSIONS: Subgingival sites, especially the periodontal pockets, are suggested to act as a reservoir of EBV in HIV+ individuals. Therefore, the identification of latent EBV infections in this easily accessible site might help to improve quality of life in patients with HIV by maintaining oral/periodontal health. In addition it might encourage new approaches in investigating EBV-associated disorders in HIV+ patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , ADN Viral , VIH , Humanos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Calidad de Vida
6.
Ambio ; 49(1): 1-16, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903512

RESUMEN

Cooperative management of pest susceptibility to transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops is pursued worldwide in a variety of forms and to varying degrees of success depending on context. We examine this context using a comparative socioecological analysis of resistance management in Australia, Brazil, India, and the United States. We find that a shared understanding of resistance risks among government regulators, growers, and other actors is critical for effective governance. Furthermore, monitoring of grower compliance with resistance management requirements, surveillance of resistance, and mechanisms to support rapid implementation of remedial actions are essential to achieve desirable outcomes. Mandated resistance management measures, strong coordination between actors, and direct linkages between the group that appraises resistance risks and growers also appear to enhance prospects for effective governance. Our analysis highlights factors that could improve current governance systems and inform other initiatives to conserve susceptibility as a contribution to the cause of public good.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus thuringiensis , Australia , Brasil , India , Resistencia a los Insecticidas , Control Biológico de Vectores , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente , Estados Unidos
7.
Ambio ; 49(1): 165-172, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030418

RESUMEN

Construction of water diversions is a common response to the increasing demands for freshwater, often resulting in benefits to communities but with the risk of multiple environmental, economic, and social impacts. Water-diversion projects can favor massive introductions and accelerate biotic homogenization. This study provides empirical evidence on the consequences of a proposed law intended to divert water from two large and historically isolated river basins in Brazil: Tocantins to São Francisco. Compositional similarity (CS) and ß-diversity were quantified encompassing aquatic organisms: mollusks, zooplankton, crustaceans, insects, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and plants. For CS we (i) considered only native species, and (ii) simulated the introduction of non-natives and assumed the extinction of threatened species due to this water-diversion project. We highlight the environmental risks of such large-scale projects, which are expected to cause impacts on biodiversity linked to bioinvasion and homogenization, and we recommend alternatives in order to solve water-demand conflicts.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Agua , Animales , Brasil , Peces , Agua Dulce , Ríos
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 721-731, 2020 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602648

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important economic food crop highly appreciated worldwide. Although peanut cultivation has been expanding to dry regions, with water stress during growth stages, current genotypes are not adapted to drought. This study aimed to identify and quantify the full range of polyphenols in five peanut genotypes with different degrees of drought tolerance developed by Embrapa (Brazil) using ultra-high-definition accurate-mass liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-LTQ-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Fifty-eight polyphenols of the classes hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanols, flavonols and flavanones were identified and quantified using high mass accuracy data and confirmed by tandem mass spectrometric experiments. High-definition mass spectrometric analyses revealed nine phenolic compounds that have never been reported in peanuts before. Polyphenol assessment using multivariate analysis allowed identification of the level of similarities among the five peanut genotypes studied. CONCLUSION: Higher drought-tolerant genotypes exhibited higher content of flavonoids, which suggests a relationship between these compounds and drought tolerance traits. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Arachis/química , Polifenoles/química , Arachis/genética , Arachis/metabolismo , Brasil , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Ácidos Cumáricos , Sequías , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Genotipo , Polifenoles/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray/métodos , Agua/análisis , Agua/metabolismo
9.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 133-142, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740981

RESUMEN

Over 50 genera of bees release pollen from flower anthers using thoracic vibrations, a phenomenon known as buzz-pollination. The efficiency of this process is directly affected by the mechanical properties of the buzzes, namely the duration, amplitude, and frequency. Nonetheless, although the effects of the former two properties are well described, the role of buzz frequency on pollen release remains unclear. Furthermore, nearly all of the existing studies describing vibrational properties of natural buzz-pollination are limited to bumblebees (Bombus) and carpenter bees (Xylocopa) constraining our current understanding of this behavior and its evolution. Therefore, we attempted to minimize this shortcoming by testing whether flower anthers exhibit optimal frequency for pollen release and whether bees tune their buzzes to match these (optimal) frequencies. If true, certain frequencies will trigger more pollen release and lighter bees will reach buzz frequencies closer to this optimum to compensate their smaller buzz amplitudes. Two strategies were used to test these hypotheses: (i) the use of (artificial) vibrational playbacks in a broad range of buzz frequencies and amplitudes to assess pollen release by tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and (ii) the recording of natural buzzes of Neotropical bees visiting tomato plants during pollination. The playback experiment indicates that although buzz frequency does affect pollen release, no optimal frequency exists for that. In addition, the recorded results of natural buzz-pollination reveal that buzz frequencies vary with bee genera and are not correlated with body size. Therefore, neither bees nor plants are tuned to optimal pollen release frequencies. Bee frequency of buzz-pollination is a likely consequence of the insect flight machinery adapted to reach higher accelerations, while flower plant response to buzz-pollination is the likely result of its pollen granular properties.


Asunto(s)
Abejas/fisiología , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiología , Polinización , Animales , Brasil , Polen , Especificidad de la Especie , Vibración
10.
Int J Prosthodont ; 33(1): 9-13, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860908

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To verify the prevalence of sleep disorders in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) subjects in a Brazilian population-based, cross-sectional survey (N = 1,643). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were assessed with the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Axes I and II and the Sleep Assessment Questionnaire. Student t test and Pearson chi-square test were used for continuous and categorical data analyses, respectively. RESULTS: TMD subjects had significantly worse sleep disorders than controls (Graded Chronic Pain Severity categories I through IV vs 0, respectively) in RDC/TMD Axis II variables. Sleep disorders were also worse in the Axis I TMD groups (myofascial pain and arthralgia/osteoarthritis/osteoarthrosis), with the exception of disc displacements. CONCLUSION: TMD subjects had worse sleep disorders, mainly in Axis I TMD groups, with higher pain/disability levels.


Asunto(s)
Luxaciones Articulares , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia , Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular , Síndrome de la Disfunción de Articulación Temporomandibular , Adulto , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Dolor Facial , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 25(1): e89-e95, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880286

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is considered a public health problem worldwide. Dental schools may play an important role in educating patients about oral cancer. This study aimed at evaluating the knowledge of patients attending clinics at two dental schools in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March 2017 to April 2017, 251 patients who were attending clinics at two dental schools in Recife, Brazil, were included in the study. Patients were contacted in the waiting rooms of the clinic. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire, which consists of 21 questions, including socio-demographic and specific information on the disease. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and a chi-square test (with a 5% significance level) was used to assess the correlation between the variables, education and family income and other variables. RESULTS: Most participants were women (64.9%) with a mean age of 42.72 years. Most participants were knowledgeable about oral cancer and identified tobacco use (48.6%), alcohol consumption (25.1%), and solar radiation (12%) as the primary risk factors for the disease. Only 36.7% of the participants reported having received counselling on oral cancer, of which 18.3% received the information from a dentist. All patients with an income higher than six minimum wages were aware about oral cancer (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of educational programs in dental schools as well providing integrated services for patients seeking care at school clinics, including population's awareness on oral cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Boca , Facultades de Odontología , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 25(1): e56-e60, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880290

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is an odontogenic developmental cyst that presents distinct clinical behavior. This lesion has been described as dental cysts with keratinization since the 1930s, however the term OKC was established in 1956. This study aims to determine the frequency and features of OKC in children aged 0 to 14 years in an oral pathology service in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed to review cases of OKC in children diagnosed between 1986 and 2017. Clinical data were evaluated from medical records (gender, race, age, anatomical location, treatment, radiographic findings and follow-up). RESULTS: Ninety-seven cases of OKC were diagnosed in a 31-year-period in all age groups and 10 were found in children (10.3%). Age ranged from 2 to 14 years (mean age=10.5±3.5), with 8 males and 2 females. The most frequent location was the anterior region of the mandible (n=4). Patients were predominantly asymptomatic. Moreover, in two children, clinical findings of Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome were observed. The most commonly used treatment was enucleation followed by curettage. In all cases of Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome were observed recurrences and occurrence of new keratocysts. CONCLUSION: Although uncommon in pediatric patients, OKC should be considered a differential diagnosis in cases of osteolytic lesions in gnathic bones. Thus, the periodic assessment of children by dentists and pediatricians is essential to get a correct diagnosis and early treatment to avoid greater mutilation of these patients.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome del Nevo Basocelular , Quistes Odontogénicos , Adolescente , Brasil , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Recurrencia , Estudios Retrospectivos
13.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4739, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553355

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To use magnetic resonance imaging to assess the prevalence of foot and ankle ligament injuries and fractures associated with ankle sprain and not diagnosed by x-ray. METHODS: We included 180 consecutive patients with a history of ankle sprain, assessed at a primary care service in a 12-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were recorded and described. RESULTS: Approximately 92% of patients had some type of injury shown on the magnetic resonance imaging. We found 379 ligament injuries, 9 osteochondral injuries, 19 tendinous injuries and 51 fractures. Only 14 magnetic resonance imaging tests (7.8%) did not show any sort of injury. We observed a positive relation between injuries of the lateral complex, syndesmosis and medial ligaments. However, there was a negative correlation between ankle ligament injuries and midfoot injuries. CONCLUSION: There was a high rate of injuries secondary to ankle sprains. We found correlation between lateral ligament injuries and syndesmosis and deltoid injuries. We did not observe a relation between deltoid and syndesmosis injuries or between lateral ligamentous and subtalar injuries. Similarly, no relation was found between ankle and midfoot injuries.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos del Tobillo/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Traumatismos del Tobillo/diagnóstico por imagen , Brasil/epidemiología , Cartílago Articular/lesiones , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Ligamentos Laterales del Tobillo/lesiones , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
14.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eGS4442, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576910

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the legal demands of tiotropium bromide to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We included secondary data from the pharmaceutical care management systems made available by the Paraná State Drug Center. RESULTS: Public interest civil action and ordinary procedures, among others, were the most common used by the patients to obtain the medicine. Two Health Centers in Paraná (Londrina and Umuarama) concentrated more than 50% of the actions. The most common specialty of physicians who prescribed (33.8%) was pulmonology. There is a small financial impact of tiotropium bromide on general costs with medicines of the Paraná State Drug Center. However, a significant individual financial impact was observed because one unit of the medicine represents 38% of the Brazilian minimum wage. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the need of incorporating this medicine in the class of long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator in the Brazilian public health system.


Asunto(s)
Broncodilatadores/economía , Medicamentos Esenciales/provisión & distribución , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Rol Judicial , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/economía , Bromuro de Tiotropio/economía , Brasil , Medicamentos Esenciales/economía , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/economía , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/economía , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 25(1): e84-e88, 2020 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880285

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The frequency and distribution of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) may vary among different populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical-pathological characteristics of OPMD diagnosed in a Brazilian oral pathology laboratory over a period of 11 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cases diagnosed as leukoplakia, speckled leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and actinic cheilitis from 2005 to 2015 were analyzed. Clinical information was obtained from laboratory forms and histological information was obtained from histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosin. RESULTS: the final sample was comprised of 684 cases, of which 292 were males and 392 were females. The mean age was 58 years. The anatomical site most often involved was the lateral border of the tongue (23%), followed by the lower lip (20%), and by the buccal mucosa/vestibule (18%). Leukoplakia accounted for 82% of the sample (564 cases). The mean size of the leukoplakia and speckled leukoplakia lesions was 13 mm (ranging from 1 to 100 mm) and 15 mm (ranging from 5 to 30 mm), respectively (p=0.460). Males reported smoking and drinking alcohol more frequently than females (p=0.001 and p<0.0001, respectively). In half of the cases, dysplasia was not histologically detected, while slight dysplasia was detected in 28% of the cases. The lesions from patients aged from 41 to 80 years presented moderate and severe dysplasia more often than lesions from patients in other age groups. CONCLUSIONS: OPMD were more common in females in their sixties. Females were more frequently affected in all anatomical sites, except for the lips. Leukoplakia lesions were the most common OPMD, followed by actinic cheilitis. The lateral border of the tongue was the most affected anatomical site. OPMD located in the floor of the mouth/sublingual mucosa and lesions from older patients presented severe epithelial dysplasia with greater frequency.


Asunto(s)
Eritroplasia , Neoplasias de la Boca , Lesiones Precancerosas , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Leucoplasia Bucal , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mucosa Bucal
16.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1047752

RESUMEN

Objetivo: realizar um mapeamento na literatura sobre os estudos que abordam a saúde das mulheres quilombolas. Método: revisão integrativa de literatura de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em três bases de dados, com a utilização da combinação dos descritores: Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano, Mulheres, Saúde, num intervalo temporal de 10 anos. Resultados: emergiram 66 artigos, sendo incluídos 58 para análise e discussão. Formou-se eixos temáticos, onde 25 estavam relacionadas às doenças das mulheres quilombolas e com limitada discussão da promoção da saúde e dos determinantes sociais. Os outros 33 artigos relacionavam-se à contextualização histórica e social dos quilombos, Atenção Primária à Saúde, iniquidade social e violência, racismo e discriminação e acesso das mulheres quilombolas aos serviços de saúde. Conclusão: identificou-se limitações frente a determinação social com foco em pesquisas de cunho biológico e com ênfase na doença, destacando a necessidade imperiosa de estudos voltados a promoção da saúde desta população


Objective: to carry out a mapping in the literature on studies addressing the health of quilombolas women. Method: integrative review of literature of qualitative approach, held in three databases, using the combination of the descriptors: african continental ancestry group, women, health, in a time interval of 10 years. Results: 66 articles emerged, being included 58 for analysis and discussion. It formed themes, and from these 25 were related diseases of the quilombo women and limited discussion of health promotion and social determinants. The other 33 articles were related to the historical and social context of the quilombos, Primary Health Care, social inequity and violence, racism and discrimination and access of quilombos women to health services. Conclusion: we identified limitations front the social determination with focus on research of biological nature and an emphasis on disease, highlighting the necessity of studies regarding at promoting the health of this population


Objetivo: realizar un levantamiento en la literatura sobre los estudios que abordan la salud de las mujeres quilombolas. Método: revisión integrativa de literatura de abordaje cualitativo, realizada en tres bases de datos, con la utilización de combinación de las siguientes palabras clave: Grupo con Ancestrales del Continente Africano, Mujeres, Salud, en un intervalo temporal de 10 años. Resultados: han surgido 66 artículos, de los cuales 58 se ha analizado y discutido. A partir de esto, se ha formado ejes temáticos, de los cuales 25 artículos presentan relación con enfermedades de las mujeres quilombolas y con limitada discusión de la Promoción de la Salud y de los Determinantes Sociales. Los otros 33 artículos presentan relación con la contextualización histórica y social de los quilombos, Atención Primaria a la Salud, iniquidad social y violencia, racismo y discriminación y acceso de las mujeres quilombolas a los servicios de salud. Conclusión: se identificó limitaciones frente a la determinación social con foco en investigaciones de carácter biológico y con énfasis en la enfermedad, destacando la necesidad imperiosa de estudios volcados a la Promoción de la Salud de esta población


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Salud de la Mujer , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Brasil , Servicios de Salud para Mujeres
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 70, 2019 Dec 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883033

RESUMEN

Tropical wet-dry climate seasonality is widely recognized as an important condition to phytoplankton communities' structure in freshwater ecosystems; however, there are few studies in that field in northeast Brazilian rivers. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of water quality seasonal variability over the phytoplankton dynamics and identify seasonality in eutrophication phenomena in a poorly studied neotropical river. Water quality variables and phytoplankton were examined within the Jequitinhonha River lower course, Bahia (Brazil) from 2010 to 2012. A 3-year time series was analyzed for both rainy and dry seasons. Descriptive, inferential, and multivariate analyses (CCA) were performed. Results indicated that chemical oxygen demand, dissolved aluminum, and turbidity were the main factors which influenced phytoplankton community structure and composition. Dry season was favorable for diatoms and Chlorophyceae (chlorophylls) while rainy season was favorable for cyanobacteria. Still, it was revealed that, in dry season, lower values for turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved aluminum, and dissolved iron were related with an eutrophication phenomenon.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Eutrofización , Fitoplancton , Calidad del Agua , Brasil , Clorofila , Cianobacterias , Diatomeas , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Agua Dulce , Lluvia , Ríos/química , Estaciones del Año , Clima Tropical
18.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1106-1117, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-994977

RESUMEN

O presente artigo se propõe a apresentar as práticas psicoterapêuticas utilizadas pela psiquiatria brasileira no Hospício Nacional de Alienados, instituição psiquiátrica situada no Rio de Janeiro e fundada no ano de 1852. A pesquisa se debruçou sobre artigos, livros autorais e manuais médicos do Hospital Nacional de Alienados e professores da cátedra de Psiquiatria e Moléstias Mentais da Faculdade de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro. Como referencial teórico, o artigo se apoia em Chartier (1990) para indicar que, ao circular no Brasil do início do século XX, as diferentes psicoterapias tiveram que se acomodar ao contexto para poderem circular. Em especial, demonstra-se como a psicanálise foi apropriada e negociada de acordo com os repertórios disponíveis no contexto psiquiátrico local, bem como frente aos diversos interesses individuais e profissionais presentes, tendo que se adaptar para ganhar credibilidade e aceitação no ambiente da medicina mental brasileira da primeira metade do século XX. Apenas no final da década de 1950 é que se constituiria como uma disciplina independente e autônoma frente aos outros saberes psi com os quais teve que se mesclar ao longo do século.(AU)


This article proposes to present the psychotherapeutic practices used by the Brazilian psychiatry in the Hospício Nacional de Alienados, a psychiatric institution located in Rio de Janeiro and founded in the year 1852. The research focused on articles, books and medical manuals of the Hospital Nacional de Alienados and professors of the chair of Psychiatry and Mental Disorders of the Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro. As a theoretical reference, the article is based on Chartier (1990) to indicate that, when circulating in Brazil in the early twentieth century, different psychotherapies had to be accommodated to the context to be able to circulate. In particular, it is shown how psychoanalysis was appropriated and negotiated according to the repertoires available in the local psychiatric context, as well as to the various individual and professional interests present, having to adapt to gain credibility and acceptance in the Brazilian mental medicine environment of the first half of the twentieth century. Only in the late 1950s would it be constituted as an independent and autonomous discipline against the other psychological knowledge with which it had to blend throughout the century.(AU)


El presente artículo se propone presentar las prácticas psicoterapéuticas utilizadas por la psiquiatría brasileña en el Hospicio Nacional de Alienados, institución psiquiátrica situada en Rio de Janeiro y fundada en el año 1852. La investigación se centró en artículos, libros de autor y manuales de médicos del Hospital Nacional de Alienados y de profesores de la cátedra de Psiquiatría y Molestias Mentales de la Facultad de Medicina de Rio de Janeiro. Como referente teórico, el artículo se apoya en Chartier (1990) para indicar que, al circular en Brasil desde el inicio del siglo XX, las diferentes psicoterapias tuvieron que acomodarse al contexto local para poder circular. En particular, se demuestra cómo el psicoanálisis fue apropiado y negociado de acuerdo a los repertorios disponibles en el contexto psiquiátrico local, así como frente a los diversos intereses individuales y profesionales presentes, teniendo que adaptarse para ganar credibilidad y aceptación en el ambiente de la medicina mental brasileña de la primera mitad del siglo XX. Sólo a finales de la década de 1950 se constituiría como una disciplina independiente y autónoma frente a los otros saberes psi con los que tuvo que mezclarse a lo largo del siglo.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Psicoterapia/historia , Psicoanálisis , Brasil , Metodología , Historia
19.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1118-1136, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-994978

RESUMEN

O presente artigo objetivou realizar uma análise sobre como a temática da pobreza tem historicamente comparecido nos estudos e parâmetros de atuação profissional do psicólogo brasileiro. Foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica acerca do objeto de estudo, o resgate de produções pertinentes sobre a relação da Psicologia brasileira com a pobreza ao longo de seu desenvolvimento, bem como de documentos e parametrizações do Conselho Federal de Psicologia. Observamos um crescimento do envolvimento da Psicologia com a pobreza e demais expressões da "questão social", atrelado com a maior vinculação da profissão com as políticas públicas e sociais. O debate entre "questão social", pobreza e Psicologia, contextualizado em diferentes fases do capitalismo, face às particularidades brasileiras e atual conjuntura, evidencia as contradições: autocrítica acerca do distanciamento com a realidade brasileira e insuficiências teórico-práticas, mas com a hegemonia na Psicologia ainda se fazendo valer por meio de leituras e práticas individualizantes, psicologizantes, perpetradoras da ordem. Dessa forma, uma Psicologia compromissada com a compreensão e superação da pobreza, assim como do sistema que a forja e nela se sustenta, requer a identificação e libertação de sua própria pobreza.(AU)


The present article aims to analyze how the issue of poverty has historically appeared in studies and parameters of the professional work of Brazilian psychologists. A bibliographic review about the object of the study was elaborated, with the retrieval of relevant works about the relationship between Brazilian Psychology and poverty throughout its development, as well as documents and parametrizations of the Federal Council of Psychology. We see an increase in the involvement of Psychology with poverty and other expressions of the "social issue", linked to the greater bondage of the profession with public and social policies. The debate between "social issue", poverty and Psychology, contextualized in different phases of capitalism, in view of the Brazilian characteristics and current situation, shows the following contradictions: self-criticism about distancing from Brazilian reality and theoretical-practical insufficiencies, but with the hegemony in Psychology still being enforced through individualizing, psychologizing readings and practices, perpetrating the order. In this way, a Psychology committed to understanding and overcoming poverty, as well as the system that forges and sustains it, requires the identification and liberation of its own poverty.(AU)


El presente artículo apuntó a realizar un análisis sobre cómo la temática de la pobreza ha formado parte históricamente en los estudios y parámetros de actuación profesional del psicólogo brasileño. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica acerca del objeto de estudio y un rescate de producciones pertinentes sobre la relación de la Psicología brasileña con la pobreza a lo largo de su desarrollo, así como de documentos del Consejo Federal de Psicología. Observamos un crecimiento de la implicación de la Psicología con la pobreza y demás expresiones de la cuestión social, vinculada con la mayor ligazón de la profesión con las políticas públicas y sociales. El debate entre "cuestión social", pobreza y Psicología, contextualizado en diferentes fases del capitalismo, frente a las particularidades brasileñas y la coyuntura actual, evidencia las siguientes contradicciones: autocrítica acerca del distanciamiento con la realidad brasileña y las insuficiencias teórico-prácticas, empero existe una hegemonía en la Psicología que todavía se hace valer por medio de lecturas y prácticas individualizantes, psicologizantes, perpetradoras del orden. Así, una Psicología comprometida con la comprensión y superación de la pobreza y con el sistema que la forja y en ella se sustenta, requiere de la identificación y liberación de su propia pobreza.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Pobreza/psicología , Sociología/historia , Capitalismo , Psicología , Política Pública , Brasil , Historia
20.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1137-1154, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-994979

RESUMEN

Apresenta-se um panorama da Neuropsicologia brasileira, enfocando sua inserção no país, caracterizando o momento atual e desafios à sua consolidação. Aborda-se a trajetória da Neuropsicologia, traçando-se cinco períodos que a caracterizam, bem como sua trajetória nacional. A Neuropsicologia brasileira assiste à sofisticação da neuroimagem e ao avanço da pesquisa e interesse na área, à criação de entidades representativas, ao crescente número de publicações, grupos de pesquisa e de cursos de pós-graduação, ao desenvolvimento de instrumentos brasileiros e à ampliação da normatização e validação de instrumentos estrangeiros. Apesar desses avanços, ressalta-se a necessidade de constituir uma Neuropsicologia brasileira, sintonizada com os desafios de um país diverso, que contribua com políticas públicas, produza conhecimentos que atinjam diferentes populações e contribua para a diminuição das desigualdades sociais.(AU)


This paper aims to present an overview of Brazilian neuropsychology, focusing on the way the discipline was brought to Brazil, the present panorama of the discipline, and the challenges related to its consolidation. This article addresses the historical course of Neuropsychology, mapping the five distinct periods that characterized its history, as well as its national course. Brazilian neuropsychology is currently aided by the sophistication of neuroimaging techniques, the advancement in research and the interest in the area, as well as the creation of representative professional associations, the growing number of publications, research groups and graduate courses, the development of Brazilian instruments and the increase in standardization and validation of foreign instruments. Despite these advances, it is necessary to emphasize the need to make a Brazilian Neuropsychology, in tune with the challenges that come from a diverse country, one which contributes with public policies, produces knowledge that reaches different peoples and contributes towards reducing social inequalities.(AU)


Este artículo presenta un panorama de la Neuropsicología en Brasil, enfocándose en su inserción en el país, caracterizando el momento actual y los desafíos a su consolidación. Aborda la historia de la Neuropsicología, trazando los cinco períodos que la caracterizan y su trayectoria nacional. La Neuropsicología brasileña presencia la sofisticación de las técnicas de neuroimagen y el avance de la investigación y el interés de los estudiantes y profesionales, así como la creación de órganos representativos, el creciente número de grupos de investigación, cursos postgrado y publicaciones, el desarrollo de instrumentos brasileños de evaluación neuropsicológica y la estandarización de los procesos y validación de instrumentos extranjeros. A pesar de esos avances, se destaca la necesidad de establecer una Neuropsicología brasileña, en sintonía con desafíos y urgencias de un país diverso, que contribuya con políticas públicas, produzca y ponga en práctica conocimientos que alcancen diferentes poblaciones y contribuya con la reducción de las desigualdades sociales.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Psicología Aplicada , Neuropsicología , Investigación , Brasil , Neuroimagen/psicología , Historia
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