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1.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48232

RESUMEN

Hábitos saudáveis têm mais chances de acompanhar a população durante a vida se começarem logo na infância. Por isso, é preciso chamar atenção para a qualidade de vida e rotina alimentar balanceada nesta quinta-feira (3), Dia da Conscientização Contra a Obesidade Mórbida Infantil


Asunto(s)
Brasil/etnología , Obesidad Pediátrica/mortalidad , Obesidad Mórbida , Niño
2.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48234

RESUMEN

O número de fumantes diminuiu no Brasil e o grupo de ex-usuários de tabaco é cada vez maior. Os dados são da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS 2019), realizada pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), com o apoio o Ministério da Saúde, e divulgada nesta segunda-feira (31), quando é celebrado o Dia Mundial sem Tabaco.


Asunto(s)
Tabaco , Brasil/etnología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar
3.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065154

RESUMEN

Since the end of 2019, the world has been facing an unpredicted COVID-19 pandemic with consequences for the economy, environment, society, and health. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the risk of death, bringing unbearable psychological pressure upon people worldwide. For celiac patients, the pandemic may represent an additional burden concerning the inherent aspects of celiac disease (CD) that compromise these individuals' quality of life (QoL). Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate Brazilian celiac patients' QoL during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by its outbreak and rapid spread and subsequent restrictive measures in addition to the dietary restrictions and other burdens caused by CD. This country-wide cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered instrument previously validated in Brazilian-Portuguese to investigate the QoL of individuals with CD. Data collected through the online self-administration of the Brazilian version of the celiac disease quality of life questionnaire (CDQ) comprised 674 CD individuals' responses. Although pandemics have historically posed a challenge for Brazilian population, this period was not associated with a negative impact on Brazilian CD individuals' QoL. During the pandemic, the QoL of Brazilian's with CD was more affected by gastrointestinal aspects than emotions and social aspects and worries. Gender, age, marital status, having (or not) children, occupation, and a positive test for COVID-19 did not affect CD individuals' QoL. However, the study revealed a larger burden and diminished QoL for individuals not following a gluten-free diet and those using antidepressants. Additional research is necessary to verify how the length of the pandemic will affect celiac individuals and then compare those outcomes compare to the COVID-19 period and after.


Asunto(s)
59585/epidemiología , Enfermedad Celíaca , Dieta Sin Gluten , Emociones , Pandemias , Calidad de Vida , 59565 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e000221, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076042

RESUMEN

Sixty-two fecal samples of capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) living in eight conservation units (CUs) across the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, were assessed for the presence of eggs of liver flukes via sedimentation. Fasciola hepatica eggs were found in 37.1% (23/62) of the samples. Positive samples were found in six CUs (75%), three CUs located in the southern region of the state and three others in the metropolitan region of the capital city of Vitória. Identification of Fasciola hepatica eggs collected from capybara fecal samples were based on morphology, and confirmed using molecular methods. Our results suggest that capybaras may serve as a wild reservoir host for F. hepatica, possibly contributing to the epidemiology and geographic range expansion of this zoonotic parasite across its vast range of distribution in South America.


Asunto(s)
Fasciola hepatica , Fascioliasis , Enfermedades de los Roedores , Animales , Brasil , Fascioliasis/diagnóstico , Fascioliasis/epidemiología , Fascioliasis/veterinaria , Heces , Roedores
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e000321, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076043

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from free-range chickens in the metropolitan area of Goiânia, Goiás, in Brazil's central-west region. The seroprevalence rate was found to be 96%, according to an indirect hemagglutination assay. Brain and heart samples were processed by peptic digestion for a mice bioassay. The tissues were homogenized and the resulting samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which revealed that 64% of them contained the parasite's DNA. The mice bioassay revealed 15 isolates, 8 of them tachyzoites isolates from the peritoneal lavage and 7 from brain cysts. T. gondii genotypes were determined through PCR-RFLP, using the following markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, alt. SAG2, Apico and CS3. Three genotypes were identified, inclued ToxoDB #65, and the other two are not yet described in the literature. Hence, we conclude that the isolates obtained from the metropolitan area of Goiânia showed relatively low genetic diversity.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Roedores , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis Animal , Animales , Brasil , Pollos , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Ratones , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmosis Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e000421, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076044

RESUMEN

Anaplasma marginale is a vector-borne pathogen that causes a disease known as anaplasmosis. No sequenced genomes of Brazilian strains are yet available. The aim of this work was to compare whole genomes of Brazilian strains of A. marginale (Palmeira and Jaboticabal) with genomes of strains from other regions (USA and Australia strains). Genome sequencing of Brazilian strains was performed by means of next-generation sequencing. Reads were mapped using the genome of the Florida strain of A. marginale as a reference sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (INDELs) were identified. The data showed that two Brazilian strains grouped together in one particular clade, which grouped in a larger American group together with North American strains. Moreover, some important differences in surface proteins between the two Brazilian isolates can be discerned. These results shed light on the evolutionary history of A. marginale and provide the first genome information on South American isolates. Assessing the genome sequences of strains from different regions is essential for increasing knowledge of the pan-genome of this bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Anaplasma marginale , Anaplasmosis , Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Anaplasma marginale/genética , Animales , Brasil , Bovinos , Genómica , Filogenia
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e000521, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076045

RESUMEN

A new species of Trichostrongyloidea (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae), Hassalstrongylus lauroi n. sp., is described from specimens collected from the small intestine of the rodent Hylaeamys seuanezi in the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil (Igrapiúna, state of Bahia). The genus Hassalstrongylus includes 17 species, which parasitize rodents occurring in the Neotropical and Nearctic regions. It differs from the genus Stilestrongylus through its smaller number of ridges in the synlophe and through the size of the genital cone. The main taxonomic characteristics of this new species are the subsymmetrical caudal bursa of type 2-2-1, ray 8 branching out at the base of the dorsal trunk, right lobe smaller than the left, and rays 4 and 5 of robust nature. In addition, the ornamental ray 5 and the robustness of ray 4 on the male caudal bursa, along with the modification of the ridges of the posterior end of the female, allow us to consider the specimens found to be a new species.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Roedores , Trichostrongyloidea , Tricostrongiloidiasis , Animales , Brasil , Femenino , Bosques , Masculino , Sigmodontinae , Tricostrongiloidiasis/veterinaria
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e001321, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076047

RESUMEN

Trypanosomatids are uniflagellate protozoa belonging to the Trypanosomatidae family. The genera Trypanosoma and Leishmania are of paramount importance as they contain species that cause serious diseases, such as Chagas disease and Leishmaniasis, respectively. The objective of the present study was to identify trypanosomatids present in the whole blood of free-living and captive neotropical primates in Mato Grosso State, Midwest Brazil. Between 2017 and 2019, 38 blood samples were collected from seven different neotropical primate species in seven cities in the state. Through molecular techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a fragment of the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis, nine Leishmania spp. [seven L. infantum and two L. (Leishmania) amazonensis] and two Trypanosoma spp. (T. minasense and T. rangeli) were identified. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence and epidemiology of trypanosomatids in Mato Grosso State and the importance of neotropical primates as trypanosome hosts and possible infection sources for other animals and humans. Future identification of other blood pathogens in neotropical primates will assist in disease control and prevention strategies.


Asunto(s)
Leishmaniasis , Trypanosoma , Animales , Brasil , Leishmaniasis/veterinaria , Filogenia , Primates , Trypanosoma/genética
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e001821, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076048

RESUMEN

Between December 2016 and April 2017, a spate of abortions occurred in a closed dairy herd from the central eastern region of Paraná, Brazil, in which 75 cows aborted. To identify its cause, organ fragments were collected from an aborted fetus for histopathology, and the blood samples from a stillborn, 4 aborted fetuses, and 9 farm dogs for indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT). These tests found multifocal non-suppurative encephalitis, periportal hepatitis, and multifocal lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis, and detected anti-Neospora antibodies in all aborted fetuses, and in 5 of the 9 dogs. DNA of Neospora caninum was detected in the brain tissue of an aborted fetus. Blood samples of 340 cows and 146 heifers showed 33.5% and 30.8% seropositivity, respectively. In this closed herd, the parasite was probably introduced by infected domesticated or wild carnivores inhabiting the farm, through the infective oocysts present in their stool.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Coccidiosis , Enfermedades de los Perros , Neospora , Aborto Veterinario , Animales , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios , Brasil , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Coccidiosis/diagnóstico , Coccidiosis/epidemiología , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Perros , Femenino , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente Indirecta/veterinaria , Embarazo
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e022620, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076050

RESUMEN

Efforts to control a zoonotic disease such as visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum can be successful if they rely on comprehensive data on animal infection. In Bahia state, Brazil, human VL is endemic, yet some areas have no epidemiological data on canine L. infantum infection and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) to date. We aimed to perform an epidemiological study describing the spatial distribution and characterizing canine L. infantum infection in two districts of the municipality of Muritiba, where human cases have occurred. Brazilian official serodiagnostic protocol (ELISA and immunochromatographic tests), PCR and clinical examination were performed in 351 owned dogs. A seroprevalence of 15.7% (55/351) was found, and L. infantum identified in 88.8% (32/36) of PCR tested samples. Spatial distribution of positive dogs indicated infection in both urban and rural districts. There was no association between seropositivity and sex or breed, but dogs older than 2 years were 3.8 times more likely to be seropositive (95% CI 1.57 - 9.18) than younger dogs. Among seropositive dogs, 80% (44/55) had clinical manifestations of CanL: 75% (33/44) presented dermatopathy, 50% (22/44) emaciation, and 29.5% (13/44) ophthalmopathy. This is the first report on canine seroprevalence and natural L. infantum infection in Muritiba, Bahia.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniasis Visceral , Leishmaniasis , Animales , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Humanos , Leishmaniasis/veterinaria , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Leishmaniasis Visceral/veterinaria , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e023620, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076051

RESUMEN

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution that has a major impact on public health. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of canine infection by Leishmania infantum, the factors associated with the infection and its spatial distribution in the municipality of Mãe D'Água, in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 150 dogs for diagnosis by the DPP®, ELISA-S7®, ELISA-EIE® and qPCR assays. The prevalence was calculated considering the positivity in at least two tests. SaTScan® was used for spatial analysis. The prevalence of canine infection with Leishmania was 18.6% (28/150), with the rural area being identified as a risk factor (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.93). The permanence of the dog loose during the night (OR = 0.33) and deworming (OR = 0.30) were identified as protective factors. A risk cluster was formed in the northern region of the urban area. Mãe D'Água showed a pattern of active transmission in the rural area, but VL control measures also need to be carried out in the urban area to prevent human cases and the spread of the disease in the risk zone.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniasis Visceral , Leishmaniasis , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Leishmaniasis/veterinaria , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Leishmaniasis Visceral/veterinaria
12.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e026020, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076054

RESUMEN

Platynosomum illiciens is a liver trematode encountered infecting mainly felids although it has also been reported in birds and in additional mammalian species, including non-human primates. The current study reports a natural P. illiciens infection primate of the genus Callithrix. The diagnosis was made using a combination of copro-parasitological techniques, morphological evaluation of adult specimens recovered from the liver during necropsy, and molecular analyses. Eggs were brown in color, oval, operculated, and contained a miracidium. Adult specimens recovered during necropsy were measured and showed dimensions compatible with P. illiciens. Molecular characterization of the trematode involved amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in combination with nucleotide sequencing, of an approximately 900 base pairs fragment corresponding to 18S-ITS1-5.8S ribosomal DNA. Sequenced amplicons showed 100% nucleotide identity with sequences deposited in the GenBank database as derived from specimens of P. illiciens recovered from cats in Malaysia and Brazil. It was concluded that the morphological and molecular analyses presented herein, confirmed the identification of the trematode recovered as P. illiciens.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos , Dicrocoeliidae , Trematodos , Infecciones por Trematodos , Animales , Brasil , Callithrix , Gatos , Dicrocoeliidae/genética , Trematodos/genética , Infecciones por Trematodos/veterinaria
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e026620, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076056

RESUMEN

Bioverm® (Duddingtonia flagrans) is a fungal formulation indicated for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants and horses, which has recently been authorized for commercialization in Brazil. The objective was to determine the efficiency of Bioverm® against larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of cattle. Twelve animals were used, divided into two groups. In the treated group, a single dose of 1 g of Bioverm® per 10 kg of live weight (containing 105 chlamydospores of D. flagrans) was provided for each animal. Fecal samples were obtained from the animals in each group at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours after administration. In assay A, 2 g of feces were added to Petri dishes containing 2% agar-water medium. In assay B, coprocultures were performed. In both assays, the peak of larval predation occurred within 48 hours after administration of Bioverm®. In assay A, a significant larval reduction (P < 0.05) was seen at 48 h (88.2%). In assay B, significant reductions (P < 0.05) were seen at 36 h (43.7%) and 48 h (82.3%). Bioverm® showed high predatory capacity after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of cattle and was effective for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes.


Asunto(s)
Duddingtonia , Nematodos , Animales , Ascomicetos , Brasil , Bovinos , Heces , Tracto Gastrointestinal , Larva , Control Biológico de Vectores
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e026920, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076057

RESUMEN

The objective of this research was to evaluate the control of coccidiosis in the litter of commercial poultry housing in the Western region of Paraná, Brazil, which adopts sanitary management to control Salmonellosis. Three litter treatments were selected, proposed by an integrating company in the region: fermentation associated with liming (FL); liming (L) and fermentation (F). Stool samples were collected from 18 poultry housing, in a completely randomized experimental design, testing different collection areas in the sheds, from the 5th day of the birds' housing, repeated weekly until the 40th day, during five successive flocks. The incidence of coccidiosis was determined by oocysts count in feces (OoPG), testing the interactions between treatment, age of birds and the number of flocks housed. Samples were selected to identify, through the Multiplex PCR, species of the genus Eimeria. circulating in the shed. The results showed that in litter where fermentation was adopted, the efficiency to control the sporulation of Eimeria spp. was significantly (p <0.05) higher than in the other treatments. The use of the Multiplex PCR technique requires improvements in the preparation of samples for the extraction of genetic material.


Asunto(s)
Coccidiosis , Coccidiostáticos , Eimeria , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Animales , Brasil , Pollos , Coccidiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Coccidiosis/prevención & control , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapéutico , Vivienda , Aves de Corral , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/prevención & control
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e028720, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076060

RESUMEN

In this study, whole blood samples and ticks were collected from 57 capybaras in recreational areas in the Federal District, Brazil, aiming to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFAT) assays. None of the capybara blood samples yielded rickettsial DNA by PCR. Among 55 capybara serum samples tested by IFAT, 53 (96.3%) reacted to Rickettsia spp. Among these, 21 (39.6%) identified the R. bellii antigen as the probable antigen involved in a homologous reaction (PAIHR), whereas 2 (3.8%) identified the R. parkeri antigen. Ticks collected from capybaras were identified as 173 Amblyomma sculptum and 410 A. dubitatum, in addition to nine Amblyomma spp. larvae. A sample of 231 ticks was subjected to DNA extraction and PCR for Rickettsia species. None of 122 A. sculptum yielded rickettsial DNA. Molecular evidence of R. bellii was found in 25/108 (23.1%) and of Rickettsia sp. strain Cooperi (R. parkeri-like agent) in 2/108 (1.9%) of the A. dubitatum samples. These results suggest a greater exposure to R. bellii in these capybara populations, in addition to a more significant number of A. dubitatum, which might characterize the Federal District region as not endemic for Brazilian spotted fever.


Asunto(s)
Ixodidae , Rickettsia , Fiebre Maculosa de las Montañas Rocosas , Enfermedades de los Roedores , Garrapatas , Animales , Brasil , Rickettsia/genética , Fiebre Maculosa de las Montañas Rocosas/veterinaria , Roedores
16.
Braz Oral Res ; 35: e070, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076066

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been prioritized in relation to other illnesses considered critical, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases/stroke, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. The management of patients with these diseases involves dental care to reduce systemic complications caused by odontogenic infections, and/or to treat oral manifestations of systemic comorbidities. In this regard, the dental care of these individuals must be guaranteed during the pandemic. Although a high risk of exposure to and catching of COVID-19 is expected to befall dental professionals, biosafety guidelines reduce the likelihood of infection. Thus, the current scenario poses challenges, and offers decision-making approaches and tools that facilitate the management of individuals with oral manifestations of chronic and/or critical diseases, using hospital-based services. This article presents an overview for hospital service providers who are at the forefront of COVID-19 care, including a secure protocol, and clinical guidelines based on the experience of the Hospital das Clínicas in Belo Horizonte, a public referral service, supported by the Brazilian National Health System.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiología , Atención Odontológica , Hospitales , Humanos
17.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200584, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076074

RESUMEN

In the present study, we investigated the genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax metacaspase 1 (PvMCA1) catalytic domain in two municipalities of the main malaria hotspot in Brazil, i.e., the Juruá Valley, and observed complete sequence identity among all P. vivax field isolates and the Sal-1 reference strain. Analysis of PvMCA1 catalytic domain in different P. vivax genomic sequences publicly available also revealed a high degree of conservation worldwide, with very few amino acid substitutions that were not related to putative histidine and cysteine catalytic residues, whose involvement with the active site of protease was herein predicted by molecular modeling. The genetic conservation presented by PvMCA1 may contribute to its eligibility as a druggable target candidate in vivax malaria.


Asunto(s)
Malaria Vivax , Plasmodium vivax , Brasil , Dominio Catalítico , Variación Genética/genética , Humanos , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Proteínas Protozoarias/genética
18.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210015, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076075

RESUMEN

Chagas disease persists as one of the most important, and yet most neglected, diseases in the world, and several changes in its epidemiological aspects have been recorded since its discovery. Currently, some of the most relevant changes are related to: (i) the reduction in the incidence of the endemic due to the control of the most important vectors, Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius prolixus, in many countries; (ii) the migration of human populations spreading cases of the disease throughout the world, from endemic to non-endemic areas, transforming Chagas disease into a global threat; and (iii) new acute cases and deaths caused by oral transmission, especially in the north of Brazil. Despite the reduction in the number of cases, new challenges need to be responded to, including monitoring and control activities aiming to prevent house infestation by the secondary vectors from occurring. In 1979, Lent & Wygodzinsky(1) published the most complete review of the subfamily Triatominae, encompassing 111 recognised species in the taxon. Forty-two years later, 46 new species and one subspecies have been described or revalidated. Here we summarise the new species and contextualise them regarding their ecology, epidemiologic importance, and the obstacles they pose to the control of Chagas disease around the world.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas , Triatoma , Triatominae , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Chagas/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Chagas/prevención & control , Humanos , Insectos Vectores
19.
Braz Oral Res ; 35(suppl 01): e054, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076078

RESUMEN

Dental caries remains highly prevalent in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LACC). However, this disease can be controlled through interventions that implement evidence-based strategies in an affordable manner and that target all population groups instead of the most affluent only. Therefore, the aim of this report was to summarize the main scientifically documented community interventions and strategies based on restriction of sugars consumption, use of fluoride, and the use of occlusal sealants for caries control in LACC. A critical literature review was carried out in a systematic manner that included defined search strategies, independent review of the identified publications, and compilation of results in this report. Three systematic searches were conducted using the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases to identify studies related to community interventions and strategies for caries control in LACC. Of the 37 publications identified, twenty-six focused on fluoride use, eight on occlusal sealant use, and three on the restriction of sugar consumption. Documented community interventions for sugars restriction were scarce in the region and were based on food supplementation, sugar replacement, and education. Thus, local and/or national policies should prioritize investment in upstream, coherent, and integrated population-wide policies such as taxes on sugary drinks and stronger regulation of advertising and promotion of sugary foods and drinks mainly targeting children. The main fluoride-based strategies used drinking water, refined domestic salt, cow milk, toothpaste and, to a lesser extent, mouth-rinses, acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gels, and varnishes to deliver fluoride to the population. Evidence of fluoride use was seen in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Studies reporting the use of occlusal sealants were mainly located in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Mexico, and Venezuela. Community interventions restricting sugar consumption should be implemented at the individual level and through public policies. The use of fluoride must be monitored at the local, regional, and national levels so as to achieve maximum anti-caries effect while also minimizing the risk of dental fluorosis. Moreover, fluoridated water and salt programs, used as a mutually exclusive community level strategy for caries control, should expand their benefits to reach non-covered areas of the LACC while also simultaneously providing adequate surveillance of the fluoride concentration delivered to the population. Regulating the concentration of soluble fluoride (for anti-caries effect) in dentifrice formulations is also necessary in order to provide the population with an effective strategy for disease control. Targeting culturally appropriate, economically sustainable caries control interventions to rural populations and native ethnic groups such as indigenous people, quilombolas (African-origin), and riverside Amazonian people remains a crucial challenge.


Asunto(s)
Cariostáticos , Caries Dental , Argentina , Brasil , Región del Caribe , Cariostáticos/uso terapéutico , Niño , Chile , Colombia , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Susceptibilidad a Caries Dentarias , Guatemala , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , México , Nicaragua , Panamá , Perú , Uruguay
20.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210013, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076088

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Primary Health Care in Brazil. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective ecological study was carried out using Brazilian municipality data obtained from the information systems of the National Public Health System. The outcomes were medical appointments, prenatal procedures and diabetes care. The exposure variable was the occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, based on the first case reported in Brazil. Multilevel mixed-effects negative binomial regression was used to analyze the association between the number of procedures per 10,000 inhabitants and COVID-19. RESULTS: Data from 5,564 Brazilian municipalities were included in the present study. Regarding medical appointments, the largest reduction occasioned by the pandemic occurred in May (IRR = 0.27, 95%CI 0.24 - 0.30). Prenatal procedures were reduced by 65% (IRR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.32 - 0.38), also in May. In addition, diabetes care saw the biggest reductions in April 2020 (IRR = 0.24, 95%CI 0.11 - 0.53) and May 2020 (IRR = 0.19, 95%CI 0.09 - 0.43). From February to December 2020, the pandemic had a significant effect on the total number of procedures evaluated. CONCLUSION: The findings showed a reduction in prenatal procedures, diabetes and medical consultations performed in Brazil's Primary Health Care, following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos
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