Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 40.173
Filtrar
1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1632, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488689

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Public health campaigns aim to promote awareness, increase knowledge, and encourage a target population to adopt desirable attitudes and behaviors. Assessing their reach from a multidimensional perspective through information technology can facilitate the development of more effective campaigns in public health response. METHODS: We scrutinized seven data sources from different perspectives to assess a health campaign launched in Brazil named "Syphilis No!". This campaign is part of an Agenda for strategic actions to reduce syphilis in Brazil which includes dissemination of educommunication materials to remind people of the importance of syphilis prevention, emphasizing "test, treat and cure" concept. We developed a multidimensional analysis framework and implemented an information system to process the data from a time series perspective, and assessed the effects over time, both before and after the campaign. We descriptively analyzed data related to the campaign, including e-news, search engine activity, online courses, serological tests, medication distribution and case notification rates. FINDINGS: Regarding search engine activity, we observed the highest volume of search during the first week of campaigns in 2018 (between November 25th and December 7th). Nevertheless, analyzing this data in a trend plot revealed sustained growth until the end of 2019. From March 2018, the amount of e-news posts related to syphilis in Brazil, indexed by Google, followed an increasing slope, with a record peak in October 2019. In addition, data showed that 12 new online courses related to syphilis disease were available on the AVASUS Platform Learning Management System (LMS), to support efforts to promote lifelong learning for health professionals, teachers, and students. These courses reached more than 22,000 students between February 2019 and September 2020. Serological test data showed that the number of tests carried out in 2019 were 375·18% more than in 2015, even accounting for population growth. Finally, starting from the middle of 2018, the syphilis case notification rates followed a decreasing curve. INTERPRETATION: From this perspective, the "Syphilis No!" Project was a positive influence, inducing policy to fight syphilis in Brazil by supporting the implementation of a testing, treatment, and cure agenda (#TesteTrateCure). Certainly, this inference was made by analyzing multidimensional aspects and because, prior to 2018, the country had largely neglected this disease, with no records of communication actions during that period.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias , Sífilis , Brasil/epidemiología , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Salud Pública , Sífilis/epidemiología , Sífilis/prevención & control
2.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00025321, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495086

RESUMEN

The study's objectives were to adapt the Salzburg Stress Eating Scale (SSES) to Brazilian Portuguese, estimate its psychometric properties in a sample of young adults, and verify (separately for each sex) the relationship between age and BMI and dietary intake during stress. Adaptation of the SSES to Portuguese was performed according to the consolidated protocol. The psychometric properties were estimated for each sex based on factor and convergent validities and reliability. Invariance was tested in independent subsamples for each sex. The relationship between age and bod mass index (BMI) and dietary intake during stress was investigated for each sex using structural equation modeling. Prevalence of individuals in categories that represented maintenance, reduction, or increases in dietary intake in the face of stress was calculated. Participation in the study included 1,030 individuals (61.8% women) with a mean age of 25.5 (SD = 5.3) years. The original model of the SSES presented good fit for the female sample, but for the male sample one item was excluded and a residual correlation was inserted. These models were invariant in independent subsamples. High BMI influenced dietary intake in the face of stress. Men maintained their habitual diet, while women increased their dietary intake during stress. The Portuguese version of the SSES will be useful for investigating dietary intake during stress in Brazil. Different models of SESS were adjusted for each sex. BMI was a significant variable for assessing dietary intake in the face of stress.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Ingestión de Alimentos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00073320, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495090

RESUMEN

Brazil has the second highest age-standardized prevalence of Alzheimer's disease worldwide. However, information about Alzheimer's disease-related hospitalizations in Brazil is scarce despite its economic and social impact. We described temporal trends in hospitalizations related to Alzheimer's disease in Brazil from 2010 to 2019. We conducted a time-series, retrospective, descriptive, national-based study using data from the DATASUS database of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Hospitalizations, mean days hospitalized, and economic costs from those hospitalizations were extracted from 2010 to 2019. Hospitalizations by Alzheimer's disease increased 87.7% from 2010 to 2019, with greater increase among men (97.4%), mixed ethnicity (224%), 80 years or older (115.1%), and in the Northeast (172.1%) and Central West (144.2%) regions. Although mean days hospitalized decreased in all subgroups, an increasing time trend in hospital admission was observed in the Central West Region. Costs per hospitalization increased for patients aged 50 years or younger and in admissions related to emergency services. Compared with other non-communicable chronic diseases, Alzheimer's disease had the highest increase in absolute number and rate of hospitalizations in Brazil from 2010 to 2019. AD is a public health problem in Brazil. Strategies to reduce its burden are necessary but only if accompanied by greater equality and awareness of this disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos
4.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00263720, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495096

RESUMEN

The objective was to characterize sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical aspects in young Brazilian military recruits according to prevalence of syphilis. This was a descriptive study based on a nationwide population-based survey in 2016 with a probabilistic sample of military recruits 17 to 22 years of age. A confidential self-applied questionnaire was used. Blood samples were drawn from participants for treponemal and non-treponemal syphilis tests. Descriptive statistical techniques were used to estimate syphilis prevalence rates and distribution of frequencies between the target variables, considering 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), after weighting the data. Of the total of 37,282 participants, 73.7% were sexually initiated. Prevalence rates for lifetime and confirmed syphilis were 1.6% and 1.1%, respectively. The following population variables showed higher prevalence of syphilis: lack of Internet access at home; initiation of sexual activity before 14 years of age; men who have sex with men; more than five sexual partners; having received presents, drugs, or other incentives in exchange for sex; and prior history of symptoms of sexually transmissible infections. An increase was observed in syphilis in Brazilian military recruits when compared to previous surveys. This increase emphasizes the importance of this sentinel population for performing active surveillance in order to support healthcare strategies for youth, including in the school system.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Personal Militar , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Sífilis , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sexual , Sífilis/epidemiología
5.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00271020, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495097

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the degree of implementation of the response to the emergency of microcephaly associated with Zika virus in Pernambuco State, Brazil. This was a normative evaluative study conducted in the initial epicenter of the public health emergency of international concern, from October 2015 to July 2017. A logical model was produced for the intervention under analysis, with the components of Management, Surveillance, and Care in the dimensions of structure, process, and result, based on technical publications and institutional guidelines, in addition to a corresponding log frame of indicators for assessment. Data were collected through a questionnaire, direct observation, and consultation of official documents. The results showed partial implementation (74.9%) of the response to the microcephaly emergency by the Pernambuco State Health Department, with the process dimension reaching 75% of the expected level and the structure dimension, 74.5%. Surveillance was the only component that was assessed as implemented (81%), although with a shortage of regional and laboratory investments, while Management (74.2%) and Care (68.8%) were partially implemented, with insufficiencies in items related to human resources and physical structure, planning, and evaluation. In conclusion, the response to the public health emergency of international concern involving microcephaly associated with the Zika virus was assessed as partially implemented, with different levels between the intervention´s components, especially surveillance when compared to management and care. The shortcomings signal the need for investments to deal with future public health emergencies, with a view towards more timely and adequate interventions.


Asunto(s)
Microcefalia , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Brasil/epidemiología , Urgencias Médicas , Humanos , Microcefalia/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Infección por el Virus Zika/diagnóstico , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
6.
Pediatr Dent ; 43(4): 270-275, 2021 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467841

RESUMEN

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, severity, and distribution of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) and its association with socioeconomic characteristics among eight-year-old students from public schools in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 450 eight-year-old Brazilian children. A questionnaire was used to assess socioeconomic factors (family income, maternal education, and person per household). MIH was diagnosed based on European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry criteria. The severity of MIH was evaluated at patient and tooth levels. The examinations were conducted in school environments. Descriptive analysis, chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed. Results: The prevalence of MIH was 28.7 percent. The average of affected molars and incisors was 2.25 (standard deviation [SD] equals 1.03) and 0.84 (1.22 SD). The maxillary molars were the most affected, but mandibular molars showed greater severity. The majority of MIH-children had white-creamy opacities (51.9 percent). There was no association between MIH and socioeconomic factors. MIH was more prevalent in boys (P=0.025). The number of incisors with MIH rose with the increasing number of affected molars (P=0.02). A significant association between severity and the mean number of affected molars was observed (P=0.004). Conclusions: The prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization was 28.7 percent. MIH severity at the individual level was significantly associated with the number of affected teeth and the occurrence of affected incisors.


Asunto(s)
Hipoplasia del Esmalte Dental , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Hipoplasia del Esmalte Dental/epidemiología , Humanos , Incisivo , Masculino , Prevalencia
7.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(3): 366-372, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468599

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with professional recommendation and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in Brazilian individuals diagnosed with hypertension (HBP), diabetes, and/or hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional population-based study with a representative sample of the Brazilian population (aged ≥20 years) in 2013, with self-reported HBP (n=11.098), diabetes (n=3.176), and/or hypercholesterolemia (n=7.252). Prevalence and gross odds ratios were estimated and adjusted for both outcomes. RESULTS: Professional recommendation and LTPA were more prevalent in individuals who received recommendation and presented with hypercholesterolemia (85.9 and 23.4%, respectively). Adjusted analysis showed an association in people 40 to 59 years of age and public programs in most diseases. Higher educational level was associated with receiving recommendations in all non-communicable diseases (NCDs). LTPA was associated in people 40 to 59 years of age for HBP and diabetes and in all investigated NCDs, higher educational level, positive perception of health, and a favorable environment in those who received recommendation. CONCLUSIONS: Education presented the greatest magnitude in the associations, clearly showing the need for equitable methods to increase recommendation and LTPA levels for the most vulnerable population. Further studies analyzing other variables and NCD are needed, corroborating the Ministry of Health.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Hipertensión , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Actividades Recreativas
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3493-3504, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468645

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Brazil has shown a considerable decline in fertility rates in recent decades. However, sociodemographic differences still have a direct impact on access to family planning in the country. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of contraceptive use according to sociodemographic variables among Brazilian women in reproductive age. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted with 17,809 women who have responded to the National Health Survey. We estimated the prevalence as well as the 95% confidence intervals and we used Pearson's chi-square test at a significance level of 5% to analyze differences between groups. RESULTS: More than 80% of the women reported to use some contraception method, the most used method was oral contraceptive (34.2%), followed by surgical (25.9%) and condoms (14.5%). Black/Brown, northerly, and low-educated women are more frequently sterilized, while white women, with higher schooling and those living in the south and southeast are the ones who use oral contraception and double protection the most. CONCLUSION: Despite the observed improvements, there was no decrease in the prevalence for not using any CM and there are inequalities in access to contraception in the country.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Anticonceptiva , Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Brasil/epidemiología , Anticoncepción , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3505-3515, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468646

RESUMEN

This study analyzed the delay in the primary surgical treatment of patients with cleft lip and palate in Brazil performed under the Unified Health System (SUS), and the effect of the sociodemographic context and municipal socioeconomic indicators on access to this treatment (2009-2013). Data from the Decentralized Hospital Information System relating to all hospital authorization forms paid for primary cleft lip and/or palate surgeries and socioeconomic data (2010) was used. The ages recommended by the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association (12 months for lip surgeries and 18 months for palate surgeries) were used as parameters. The prevalence of delay observed in primary lip surgeries was 66.4% and in palate surgeries was 71.2%. The North and Northeast regions had the worst percentages of delay. Non-whites had a greater prevalence of delay in cleft lip surgeries with PR = 1.40 (1.30-1.50) and cleft palate surgeries with PR = 1.27 (1.21-1.33). The multilevel analysis identified the influence of self-reported skin color and Human Development Index (HDI) on the delay of primary lip surgery, and of HDI on the delay of palate surgery. The importance of social determination on the access to primary cleft lip and palate surgeries was evident.


Asunto(s)
Labio Leporino , Fisura del Paladar , Brasil/epidemiología , Labio Leporino/epidemiología , Labio Leporino/cirugía , Fisura del Paladar/epidemiología , Fisura del Paladar/cirugía , Humanos , Lactante , Análisis Multinivel , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3527-3534, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468648

RESUMEN

The scope of this article is to address the relationship between mandatory restraint devices and hospitalizations and deaths of zero- to four-year-old age children in traffic accidents in Brazil. Based on the mandatory use of child restraint devices for children up to 4 years of age under Brazilian traffic legislation in 2010, the authors apply data from the DataSUS and Denatran databases to analyze the time series of hospitalizations and deaths of zero- to four-year-old age children in traffic accidents between September 2005 and August 2015. Two cut-off sample periods were examined, the first consisting of an analysis from 2005 to 2015, which was subsequently subdivided into two samples, namely before and after the requirement. The results of both cut-off sample periods suggest that demands concerning the use of restraint devices led to decreased hospitalizations and deaths of children due to traffic accidents in the zero- to four-year-old age group, with a prevalence of decreased rates of hospitalization over deaths.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Hospitalización , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Bases de Datos Factuales , Familia , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3543-3554, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468650

RESUMEN

This study aimed to evaluate the risk of HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) by developing an index that considers sex partner networks. The index variables were age, ethnicity/skin color, schooling, relationship type, condom use in receptive and insertive relationships, self-perception of the possibility of HIV infection, sexually transmitted infections, and rapid HIV testing results. We used data from a cross-sectional MSM egocentric network survey conducted in Rio de Janeiro between 2014 and 2015. The initial research volunteer is called ego, each partner is called alter, and each pair of people in a relationship is called the dyad. Multiple logistic regression was used to define the coefficients of the equations for the elaboration of the indices. The index ranged from 0 to 1; the closer to 1, the higher the risk of HIV infection. HIV prevalence was 13.9% among egos. The mean egos index with an HIV-reactive test was 57% higher than non-reactive, and the same profile was observed in the index values of dyads. The index allowed the incorporation of network data through the dyads and contributed to the identification of individuals with a higher likelihood of acquiring HIV.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Medición de Riesgo , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3725-3732, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468666

RESUMEN

Hearing impairment (HI) is one of the most impacting handicaps related to social life, and 21% have intense limitation compromising daily activities. However, few studies have investigated SRH in HI. This article aims to verify the association between HI and SRH and factors related to hearing characteristics. Cross-sectional study data from National Health Survey (NHS, 2013) conducted with 1,100 hearing impaired adults (≥18 years old). The outcome was SHR, categorized as good or poor. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to calculate Prevalence Ratios. Sociodemographic variables and characteristics of HI, such as congenital or acquired HI, type of HI, wear hearing aids, and limitation were used in adjusted analysis. Poor SRH was more prevalent in acquired HI, limitation of daily activities, sociodemographic characteristics such as aging, female, black or other skin color, and lower schooling. Poor SRH is related to acquired HI, limitation of daily activities and sociodemographic conditions.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida Auditiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Audición , Trastornos de la Audición , Pérdida Auditiva/epidemiología , Humanos
13.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3825-3837, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468676

RESUMEN

The study aims to describe the consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages according to sociodemographic, health and location variables. Cross-sectional study with ELSA-Brasil data (2008-2010). A questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, food, health data and anthropometry. Descriptive analysis and association with variables of interest were carried out. In the sample, 8% of the total caloric value comes from non-alcoholic beverages (5.6%: sugary drinks), and 4% from alcoholic beverages (2.7%: beer). Consumers of unsweetened and artificially sweetened beverages reported moderate/strong physical activity, former smokers and higher education. The opposite was true for sugary drinks. Eutrophic people reported higher consumption of sugary drinks and those obese, artificially sweetened and beer. Alcohol consumption varied with age (young: beer; elderly: wine/spirits) and education (low education: beer/spirits; higher education: wine). Coffee, natural juice and soda were the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and beer was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage. Consumption variation was observed according to geographic location. The consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages is high in Brazil and public health strategies are required.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas , Edulcorantes , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Bebidas , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3917-3925, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468684

RESUMEN

A prevalence study was conducted to compare quality of life and food insecurity in men and women living with HIV/AIDS. The sample comprised 481 HIV-infected individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy at a referral hospital in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. Food insecurity and quality of life were assessed using the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Scale and WHOQOL-HIV Bref, respectively. The results were presented as absolute and relative frequencies and gender differences were tested using the chi-squared test adopting a significance level of 0.05. The findings showed that 40.1% of the sample were women. A higher percentage of women than men had a low income and low education level (65.8% and 72.5%, respectively). Prevalence of food security was lower in women than in men (29.0% compared to 42.7%), and a higher percentage of women than men reported below average quality of life (54.9% compared to 44.4%). The findings reveal that, besides the usual difficulties faced by HIV-infected patients, this group showed a significant level of gender inequality. The management of HIV patient care should consider these important findings, promoting access to care and support services and gender equality so that women can live fairer and more equal lives.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Calidad de Vida , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Inseguridad Alimentaria , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e050724, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489291

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To analyse how previous comorbidities, ethnicity, regionality and socioeconomic development are associated with COVID-19 mortality in hospitalised children and adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study using publicly available data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health. SETTING: Nationwide. PARTICIPANTS: 5857 patients younger than 20 years old, all of them hospitalised with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, from 1 January 2020 to 7 December 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We used multilevel mixed-effects generalised linear models to study in-hospital mortality, stratifying the analysis by age, region of the country, presence of non-communicable diseases, ethnicity and socioeconomic development. RESULTS: Individually, most of the included comorbidities were risk factors for mortality. Notably, asthma was a protective factor (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.67). Having more than one comorbidity increased almost tenfold the odds of death (OR 9.67, 95% CI 6.89 to 13.57). Compared with white children, Indigenous, Pardo (mixed) and East Asian had significantly higher odds of mortality (OR 5.83, 95% CI 2.43 to 14.02; OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.51; OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.02 to 8.71, respectively). We also found a regional influence (higher mortality in the North-OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.48 to 4.65) and a socioeconomic association (lower mortality among children from more socioeconomically developed municipalities-OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.38) CONCLUSIONS: Besides the association with comorbidities, we found ethnic, regional and socioeconomic factors shaping the mortality of children hospitalised with COVID-19 in Brazil. Our findings identify risk groups among children that should be prioritised for public health measures, such as vaccination.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Niño Hospitalizado , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Hospitalización , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
16.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(4): 529-535, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495056

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the motor development (MD) and growth of infants born with low birth weight (LBW) versus adequate birth weight (ABW) by using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). METHODS: The cross-sectional study including LBW infants (aged 6-12 months) followed at an outpatient clinic from a University Hospital in Brazil and a group of infants of the same age with ABW. The variables were recorded as maternal, birth, and infant conditions. The infants were assessed for MD using the AIMS. RESULTS: In total, 98 infants (38 LBW versus 60 ABW) were evaluated and no statistically significant differences were found in demographic characteristics and in the AIMS results. The AIMS results of the total sample were suspicious or abnormal MD in 44 (45%) of total infants. Higher frequency of suspected or abnormal motor behavior was found in the age group between 9 and 12 (54.6%) months. CONCLUSIONS: A frequency of 45% of suspected or abnormal behavior was observed in the evaluated infants, with a higher frequency of occurrence in those aged 9-12 months (54.6%).


Asunto(s)
Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Peso al Nacer , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido
17.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5622, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495085

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of leprosy cases using as parameters the number of diagnosed cases, age group, sex, clinical form of the disease, degree of physical disability, affected nerves, and therapeutic methods. METHODS: This was a descriptive study. Data were collected in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação) from 2014 to 2017 in the state of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil. RESULTS: In the studied period, 11,388 cases were notified in the state, with a higher prevalence in the year 2017. Most cases were diagnosed in individuals older than 15 years with a slight predominance of men. During diagnosis, there was prevalence of zero degree of physical disability and among individuals with affected nerves, mostly had less than five nerves affected. CONCLUSION: Analyzing the prevalence and epidemiological profile of leprosy cases in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) turns to be essential for coping with the disease, as it helps in its management and treatment, with an emphasis on multidisciplinary approach for the recovery of existing cases and prevention of new cases, especially at hyperendemic states.


Asunto(s)
Sordera , Lepra , Adaptación Psicológica , Brasil/epidemiología , Humanos , Lepra/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(3): e009921, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495125

RESUMEN

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected and endemic zoonosis that occurs throughout Brazil; nevertheless, few studies have focused on the early detection of the disease. The municipality of Ourinhos is a non-receptive, silent and vulnerable area for VL, where the seroprevalence of this disease has so far not been investigated. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of canine VL in Ourinhos-SP, and to identify the presence of risk factors. Blood samples were obtained from 604 dogs during a rabies vaccination campaign together with application of a socioeconomic questionnaire, environmental and animal characteristics and tutor's knowledge about the disease. The samples were subjected to indirect ELISA and new samples were collected from reactive and suspect animals, including whole blood and lymph node aspiration evaluated by parasitological method, complete blood count and PCR. No animal was diagnosed as positive based on the combination of direct and indirect tests and the tutors' answers indicated little knowledge about leishmaniasis, being often confused with other diseases transmitted by arthropods; hence, according to the proposed methods, the presence of canine leishmaniasis in the city of Ourinhos was not confirmed and health education campaigns about the disease should be carried out.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Leishmaniasis Visceral , Leishmaniasis , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Leishmaniasis/veterinaria , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Leishmaniasis Visceral/veterinaria , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
19.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75(1): e20201161, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495130

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the health conducts for combating the Spanish flu and its relationship with the COVID-19 pandemic in Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: study from the perspective of microhistory, with analysis of articles published in Revista da Semana on the Spanish flu, having as criteria publications with the term "epidemic" referring to the Spanish flu or influenza in the period of the epidemic outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Federal District. RESULTS: 18 records, organized in three thematic axes: political, 4; social, 11; care, 3, were found. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the lessons left by the Spanish flu epidemic in coronavirus times will be changes in the political, social and care field as marks of major epidemics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919 , Gripe Humana , Brasil/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210040, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495193

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively describe severe cases of hospitalized patients and deaths related to the COVID-19 epidemic in the state of São Paulo, starting from the date of the first record, with symptoms onset on 02/10/2020 up to 05/20/2021. METHODS: This is a descriptive study carried out using the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance System (Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Gripe - SIVEP-Gripe) database. The rates of incidence, mortality, and accumulated incidence in the period were calculated, stratified by age group and Regional Health Department (RHD). In addition, severe cases were geocoded to analyze their spread across the state; and the Effective R, which determines the spread potential of a virus within a population, was calculated. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in severe cases and deaths recorded in the period of one year, with incidence and mortality rates being heterogeneous within the state. The most critical periods regarding the incidence of severe cases occurred between May and July 2020 and between March and April 2021. The RHD in São José do Rio Preto, Expanded São Paulo, and Araçatuba concentrated the highest incidence and mortality rates. Severe cases and deaths were more frequent in men and in the population over 60 years, while the main risk conditions related to deaths were heart disease (59%) and diabetes (42,8%). CONCLUSIONS: These results not only provide a detailed profile for more efficient control action plan, but will also allow the historical understanding of the COVID-19 evolution within the state of São Paulo.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...