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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3401566, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005026

RESUMEN

Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, asymptomatic transmission represented an important challenge for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 through the traditional public health strategies. Further understanding of the contribution of asymptomatic infections to SARS-CoV-2 transmission has been of crucial importance for pandemic control. We conducted a retrospective epidemiological study to characterize asymptomatic COVID-19 cases occurred in the Apulia region, Italy, during the first epidemic wave of COVID-19 outbreak (February 29-July 7, 2020). We analyzed data collected in a regional platform developed to manage surveillance activities, namely, investigation and follow-up of cases and contacts, contact tracing, and laboratory and clinical data collection. We included all asymptomatic cases that were laboratory-confirmed during the appropriate follow-up, defined as persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 who did not develop symptoms/clinical signs of the disease. Between February 29 and July 7, 2020, a total of 4,536 cases were diagnosed with COVID-19 among 193,757 tests performed. The group of persons with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection consisted of 903 cases; the asymptomatic proportion was 19.9% (95% CI: 18.8-21.1%); this decreased with increasing age (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83-0.96; p = 0.001), in individuals with underlying comorbidities (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.41-0.73; p < 0.001), and in males (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54-0.87; p = 0.002). The median asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive period was 19 days (IQR: 14-31) and the cumulative proportion of persons with resolution of infection 14 days after the first positive PCR test was 74%. As the public health community is debating the question of whether asymptomatic and late spreaders could sustain virus transmission in the communities, such cases present unique opportunities to gain insight into SARS-CoV-2 adaptation to human host. This has important implications for future COVID-19 surveillance and prevention.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Adaptación Fisiológica , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/transmisión , Trazado de Contacto , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , ARN Viral , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 63, 2022 01 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012482

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Field epidemiology training programs (FETPs) have trained field epidemiologists who strengthen global capacities for surveillance and response to public health threats. We describe how FETP residents and graduates have contributed to COVID-19 preparedness and response globally. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of FETPs between March 13 and April 15, 2020 to understand how FETP residents or graduates were contributing to COVID-19 response activities. The survey tool was structured around the eight Pillars of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan for COVID-19. We used descriptive statistics to summarize quantitative results and content analysis for qualitative data. RESULTS: Among 88 invited programs, 65 (74%) responded and indicated that FETP residents and graduates have engaged in the COVID-19 response across all six WHO regions. Response efforts focused on country-level coordination (98%), surveillance, rapid response teams, case investigations (97%), activities at points of entry (92%), and risk communication and community engagement (82%). Descriptions of FETP contributions to COVID-19 preparedness and response are categorized into seven main themes: conducting epidemiological activities, managing logistics and coordination, leading risk communication efforts, providing guidance, supporting surveillance activities, training and developing the workforce, and holding leadership positions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the value of FETPs in responding to public health threats like COVID-19. This program provides critical assistance to countries' COVID-19 response efforts but also enhances epidemiologic workforce capacity, public health emergency infrastructure and helps ensure global health security as prescribed in the WHO's International Health Regulations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 46, 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016630

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diphtheria is a contagious vaccine-preventable disease that contributes to the high morbidity and mortality among under 5 children, especially in Yemen. As a consequence of war and collapse of the health system, a fatal epidemic occurred at the end of 2017. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of diphtheria by time, place, and person and vaccination status of affected children. METHODS: A study was conducted in Sada'a governorate by using accumulative line list of diphtheria from November 2017 to September 2020 at electronic Integrated Disease Early Warning System (eIDEWS). The case definition of WHO was adopted. Data was analyzed by Microsoft Excel and Epi info- version 7.2 and multivariable logistic analysis used for identifying significant associated factors. RESULTS: 747 cases were met of WHO case definition. The annual peak of cases started during week 31 and weak 49. Males were slightly more than females (51% vs 49%) and about 35% of cases involved children aged 10 to < 15 years. The overall incidence of diphtheria and case fatality rate (CFR) were 69/ 100,000 and 6.4%, respectively. The highest CFR was among age groups under 5 years 11% (P < 0.001) and among females was 8%. Dysphagia and swollen lymph nodes were the predominant symptoms 98%, 92%, respectively. Based on the Vaccination status, the percentage of unvaccinated and unknown were 53% and 41% respectively, with CFR 11% among cases who received one dose. Furthermore, the most case were from Sahar 40% with case fatality rate 8% and the highest CFR was significantly higher among cases in border and ongoing conflict district (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight that diphtheria is still an ongoing cause of morbidity and mortality among under 5 children in Sada'a that is rising with the low diphtheria immunization coverage. Therefore, concomitant efforts should now focus on improving and monitoring routine immunization across all age groups and healthcare services, especially in borders and continuing conflict districts.


Asunto(s)
Difteria , Niño , Preescolar , Difteria/epidemiología , Difteria/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Vacunación , Cobertura de Vacunación , Yemen
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 30, 2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986786

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vaccination efforts to eradicate polio currently focus on children under 5 years of age, among whom most cases of poliomyelitis still occur. However, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), an outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 occurred in 2010-2011 in which 16% of cases occurred among adults; in a related outbreak in the neighboring Republic of Congo, 75% of cases occurred among the same adult age-group. Given that infected adults may transmit poliovirus, this study was designed to assess adult immunity against polioviruses. METHODS: We assessed poliovirus seroprevalence using dried blood spots from 5,526 adults aged 15-59 years from the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey in the DRC. RESULTS: Among adults in the DRC, 74%, 72%, and 57% were seropositive for neutralizing antibodies for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For all three serotypes, seroprevalence tended to be higher among older age groups, those living in households with more children, and among women. CONCLUSIONS: Protection against poliovirus is generally low among adults in the DRC, particularly for type 3 poliovirus. The lack of acquired immunity in adults suggests a potentially limited poliovirus circulation over the lifetime of those surveyed (spanning 1954 through 2014) and transmission of vaccine-derived poliovirus in this age group while underscoring the risk of these outbreaks among adults in the DRC.


Asunto(s)
Poliomielitis , Poliovirus , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Vacuna Antipolio Oral , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053638, 2022 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983765

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare global health, mental health impact of work stressors and psychosocial perception of healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-HCWs in a hospital after the first peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in France. METHODS: A validated version of the SATIN (Santé Au Travail Inrs université Nancy 2)questionnaire with adapted scoring was used to collect data on health and impact of work stressors. This questionnaire was sent to all workers at a hospital in July 2020 and was self-administered online. In a multinomial regression model, we included HCW status, age, gender and front-line worker status as covariates. RESULTS: Data from a total of 1405 participants were included. We found that being an HCW, male and front-line worker was a risk factor for negative perception of work demand (OR 7.35, 95% CI 4.2 to 11.47; OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.11 to 5.89; OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.06). Being an HCW was a predictive factor for stress (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.08), poor global health (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.55) and negative perception of work activity environment (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.8). CONCLUSION: We have shown that all HCWs suffered from some health impact shortly after the first peak of the COVID-19 outbreak. We underline some stressors with high impact, including work demand, work abilities and organisational context, and emphasise the need for risk management.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Personal de Salud , Hospitales , Humanos , Masculino , Personal de Hospital , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Vet Rec ; 190(1): 8, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994434
7.
Euro Surveill ; 27(1)2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991781

RESUMEN

BackgroundCruise ships provide an ideal setting for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, given the socially dense exposure environment.AimTo provide a comprehensive review of COVID-19 outbreaks on cruise ships.MethodsPubMed was searched for COVID-19 cases associated with cruise ships between January and October 2020. A list of cruise ships with COVID-19 was cross-referenced with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's list of cruise ships associated with a COVID-19 case within 14 days of disembarkation. News articles were also searched for epidemiological information. Narratives of COVID-19 outbreaks on ships with over 100 cases are presented.ResultsSeventy-nine ships and 104 unique voyages were associated with COVID-19 cases before 1 October 2020. Nineteen ships had more than one voyage with a case of COVID-19. The median number of cases per ship was three (interquartile range (IQR): 1-17.8), with two notable outliers: the Diamond Princess and the Ruby Princess, which had 712 and 907 cases, respectively. The median attack rate for COVID-19 was 0.2% (IQR: 0.03-1.5), although this distribution was right-skewed with a mean attack rate of 3.7%; 25.9% (27/104) of voyages had at least one COVID-19-associated death. Outbreaks involving only crew occurred later than outbreaks involving guests and crew.ConclusionsIn the absence of mitigation measures, COVID-19 can spread easily on cruise ships in a susceptible population because of the confined space and high-density contact networks. This environment can create superspreader events and facilitate international spread.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Navíos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e047753, 2022 01 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017231

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of peritraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs), perceived threat, social support and factors contributing to clinically significant PTSS among frontline COVID-19 healthcare workers (HCWs) in China. DESIGN AND SETTING: An online survey through self-administered questionnaires was conducted from 18 February to 4 March 2020, during the outbreak of COVID-19. OUTCOMES MEASURES: PTSS was assessed using the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) self-rating scale. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, self-reported health, physical/psychological symptoms, perceived threat from frontline work and perceived social support were investigated. Multivariable line regression analysis distinguished factors associated with HCWs' PTSS scores. RESULTS: A total of 676 (58.1%) HCWs have shown clinically significant high levels of PTSS. Only 441 (37.9%) self-reported good health. Most had physical symptom(s) (915 (78.7%)), psychological symptom(s) (906 (77.9%)), inability to vent emotions (284 (24.4%)), emotional exhaustion (666 (57.3%)) and 1037 (89.2%) needed professional respect. Moreover, social support received was less than expected, and the receipt of psychological services/help scored the lowest (3.11±1.73). Combined psychological and physical symptoms, difficulty in releasing tension and venting emotions timely, fear of infection, emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation are significantly associated with PTSS scores among frontline HCWs. Working ≥8 hours, having the senior professional title, self-reported health, enjoying perfect protection and control measures, economic subsidy and control policy on reducing discriminatory practices are negatively correlated with PTSS scores. CONCLUSIONS: During the outbreak of COVID-19, frontline HCWs experienced clinically significant high levels of PTSS and heavy workload, and the emergency resulted in their inadequate psychosocial support. If this is left unchecked, HCWs have a higher risk of developing PTSD. Early detection, identification and person-directed, targeted multidisciplinary interventions should be undertaken to address various influencing factors. Comprehensive measures, including setting up emotional release channels, as well as providing psychological and social support intervention for HCWs globally, are highly recommended.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Personal de Salud , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología
9.
Psychol Health Med ; 27(1): 178-185, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903125

RESUMEN

Although continuing to utilize health services remains a key determinant of health, the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and engagement with health services among people with diabetes (PWD) remains unknown. This cross-sectional online survey examined factors associated with PWD's engagement with health services among 205 Israeli PWD during the subsiding of the first COVID-19 wave in Israel. Participants completed measures of perceived diabetes status, perceived risk, emotional reactions toward COVID-19, sense of mastery, engagement with health services (fear of contracting the virus in health services, canceling a medical appointment), and socio-demographic questionnaires. Most participants were women, their mean age was 40.18 years, and mean years since diagnosis was 15.70. Participants were recruited mainly via diabetes internet forums. Logistic and multiple hierarchical regressions were calculated. The odds of canceling appointment were higher for younger participants and for participants experiencing greater negative emotional reactions. Higher fear of contracting the virus in health services was related to higher perceived risk and experiencing greater negative emotional reactions. Findings suggest that in order to encourage PWD to utilize health services during a virus outbreak, clinical interventions should address PWD's perceived risk of contracting the virus and their emotional reactions toward COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 156-168, 2022 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hospital workers have been under intense psychological pressure since the COVID-19 outbreak. We analyzed the psychological status of hospital staff in the late period of the COVID-19 to provide a basis for the construction of global health care after the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: We used online surveys to assess participants' self-reported symptoms at the late stage of the outbreak. This study collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, epidemic-related factors, psychological status (PHQ-9, GAD-7, and PHQ-15), psychological assistance needs, perceived stress and support, PTSD symptoms (PCL-C) and suicidal and self-injurious ideation (SSI). Participants were hospital workers in all positions from 46 hospitals. Chi-square tests to compare the scales and logistic regression analysis were used to identify risk factors for PTSD and SSI. RESULTS: Among the 33,706 participants, the prevalences of depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and SSI were 35.8%, 24.4%, 49.7%, 5.0%, and 1.3%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that work in a general ward, attention to the epidemic, high education, work in non-first-line departments, insufficient social support, and anxiety and somatization symptoms were influencing factors of PTSD (P<0.05). The independent risk factors for SSI were female gender; psychological assistance needs; contact with severe COVID-19 patients; high stress at work; single or divorced marital status; insufficient social support; and depression, anxiety or PTSD symptoms (P<0.05). LIMITATIONS: This cross-sectional study could not reveal causality, and voluntary participation may have led to selection bias. The longer longitudinal studies are needed to determine the long-term psychological impact. CONCLUSION: This COVID-19 pandemic had a sustained, strong psychological impact on hospital workers, and hospital workers with PTSD symptoms were a high-risk group for SSI in the later period of the epidemic. Continuous attention and positive psychological intervention are of great significance for specific populations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Ansiedad , China , Estudios Transversales , Depresión , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Hospitales , Humanos , Pandemias , Personal de Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 348-352, 2022 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710499

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore whether aiding Wuhan experience of nurses was associated with adverse mental health outcome one year after the COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: In this study, 100 nurses with and 100 nurses without aiding Wuhan experience a year ago were enrolled from February 1, 2021 to March 31, 2021 in Zhejiang Province, China. Depression, anxiety, insomnia, distress and psychological resilience of participants was assessed and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 100 participants from 112 aiding Wuhan nurses completed the survey, with a response rate of 89.3%. Another 100 nurses from the same hospitals without aiding Wuhan experience were enrolled as controls. In both groups, a considerable proportion of participants reported symptoms of depression (46.0% for the aiding Wuhan group vs. 49.0% for the controls, similarly hereinafter), anxiety (40.0% vs. 38.0%), and PTSD (61.0% vs. 56.0%). Aiding Wuhan nurses were more likely to suffer from insomnia (41.0% vs. 29.0%, P = 0.041). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that aiding Wuhan experience was not associated with depression (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.22; 95%CI, 0.05-1.01), anxiety (AOR 0.53; 95%CI, 0.12-2.43), insomnia (AOR 1.52; 95%CI, 0.76-3.02), PTSD (AOR 0.50; 95%CI, 0.19-1.34), or resilience (AOR 1.59; 95%CI, 0.78-3.26). Resilience was negatively correlated with depression, anxiety, insomnia, and PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicated that aiding Wuhan experience a year ago did not cause additional adverse mental health outcomes in nurses, expect for insomnia. The psychological status of nurses in general calls for more attention.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Mental , Ansiedad/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 65-68, 2022 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715190

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is serious concern over the increase in mental health problems during the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. METHODS: Based on data from two Mexican National Health and Nutrition Surveys conducted in 2018-2019 and 2020 (n = 17,925 and 4,913, respectively), we estimated the prevalence of suicide attempts among adolescents 10-19 years old in the previous year. We constructed a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted by sociodemographic characteristics and contextual variables for the Covid-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The prevalence of suicide attempts in the previous year was similar in both surveys. We found that women, youth in urban localities and individuals living in households where a family member had lost her/his job as a result of the Covid-19 contingency were more likely to attempt suicide compared to their counterparts. On the other hand, attending classes online proved to be a protective factor (aOR=0.3, 95% CI=0.1, 0.8, p = 0.022). LIMITATIONS: The principal limitation of our study concerned the restricted size of our sample for the 2020 survey wave. CONCLUSIONS: Population-level policies aimed at providing economic protection and helping youth to return to school would exert a favorable impact on the mental health and suicidal behavior of youths.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Intento de Suicidio , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Ideación Suicida , Adulto Joven
13.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 486-494, 2022 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715194

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sudden and unpredictable changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have profoundly threatened the psychological well-being and increased insecurity among adolescents worldwide. At a critical developmental stage, the well-being of the youth is more vulnerable to adverse environments. This study constructed a moderated mediation model to explore the buffering factors between insecurity and subjective well-being of the youth during the pandemic. METHODS: During the COVID-19 outbreak in June 2020, data of 5,503 Chinese youth (15-29 years old) were collected via an online questionnaire. Subjective well-being, insecurity, self-control, and hope were measured, and the moderated mediation model was analyzed. RESULTS: Findings from this study showed that with the mediating effect of self-control, insecurity negatively predicted subjective well-being, and hope moderated the association between insecurity and self-control. Specifically, the link between insecurity and self-control was stronger when hope was low but weaker when hope was high. LIMITATIONS: Since this study was mainly conducted in China, and considering the continuous change of the pandemic on a global scale, it is of great significance to conduct cross-cultural and cross-time studies in the future. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that self-control and hope play important roles in buffering the negative effects of insecurity on the subjective well-being of adolescents and young adults. The findings provide implications for reducing the negative impact of insecurity from a positive psychology perspective and for youth mental health interventions during public health crises.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Salud Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Joven
14.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 60-69, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081669

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify potential strategies to mitigate COVID-19 transmission in a Utah meat-processing facility and surrounding community. DESIGN/SETTING: During March-June 2020, 502 workers at a Utah meat-processing facility (facility A) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Using merged data from the state disease surveillance system and facility A, we analyzed the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 positivity and worker demographics, work section, and geospatial data on worker residence. We analyzed worker survey responses to questions regarding COVID-19 knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors at work and home. PARTICIPANTS: (1) Facility A workers (n = 1373) with specimen collection dates and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results; (2) residential addresses of all persons (workers and nonworkers) with a SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test (n = 1036), living within the 3 counties included in the health department catchment area; and (3) facility A workers (n = 64) who agreed to participate in the knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: New cases over time, COVID-19 attack rates, worker characteristics by SARS-CoV-2 test results, geospatially clustered cases, space-time proximity of cases among workers and nonworkers; frequency of quantitative responses, crude prevalence ratios, and counts and frequency of coded responses to open-ended questions from the COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in race (P = .01), linguistic group (P < .001), and work section (P < .001) were found between workers with positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Geographically, only 6% of cases were within statistically significant spatiotemporal case clusters. Workers reported using handwashing (57%) and social distancing (21%) as mitigation strategies outside work but reported apprehension with taking COVID-19-associated sick leave. CONCLUSIONS: Mitigating COVID-19 outbreaks among workers in congregate settings requires a multifaceted public health response that is tailored to the workforce. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE: Tailored, multifaceted mitigation strategies are crucial for reducing COVID-19-associated health disparities among disproportionately affected populations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Carne , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Utah/epidemiología
15.
Toxicon ; 206: 21-27, 2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921844

RESUMEN

An outbreak of a disease characterized by emaciation, dermatitis with erythema, alopecia, foul-smelling exudation, crusting, hyperpigmentation, lichenification, and edema of fore- and hindlimbs, chest and dewlap is described affecting cattle in the State of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil. Microscopically, the main lesions were characterized by diffuse dermatitis with infiltration of lymphocytes, histiocytes, parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and acanthosis. The plant Tephrosia noctiflora, which exhibited signs of consumption, infested the grazing areas of cattle. To test its toxicity, T. noctiflora was harvested, dried in the shade, crushed and sourced at a concentration of 50% mixed with commercial food for three guinea pigs. The main clinical signs in guinea pigs included weight loss and multifocal, moderate to severe areas of alopecia, diffuse erythema of the skin, vaginal edema and hematuria. Microscopically, lymphocytic and histiocytic dermatitis, parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and acanthosis were noted in guinea pigs. This experiment confirms that T. noctiflora is the cause of outbreaks of dermatitis observed in cattle grazing in areas infested by this plant.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Tephrosia , Animales , Brasil , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Eritema , Femenino , Cobayas , Piel
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 238-241, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932458

RESUMEN

We report a multistate Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg outbreak in Australia during 2018-2019. Laboratory investigation of cases reported across 5 jurisdictions over a 7-month period could not identify a source of infection but detected indicators of severity and invasiveness. The hospitalization rate of 36% suggested a moderately severe clinical picture.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación Alimentaria por Salmonella , Salmonella enterica , Australia/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Intoxicación Alimentaria por Salmonella/epidemiología , Serogrupo
18.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 34(1): 152-157, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870640

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the United States, New York State's health care system experienced unprecedented stress as an early epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aims to assess the level of hopelessness in New York State physicians working on the frontlines during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A confidential online survey sent to New York State health care workers by the state health commissioner's office was used to gather demographic and hopelessness data as captured by a brief Hopelessness Scale. Adjusted linear regression models were used to assess the associations of physician age, sex, and number of triage decisions made, with level of hopelessness. RESULTS: In total, 1330 physicians were included, of whom 684 were male (51.4%). Their average age was 52.4 years (SD=12.7), with the majority of respondents aged 50 years and older (55.2%). Almost half of the physician respondents (46.3%) worked directly with COVID-19 patients, and 163 (12.3%) were involved in COVID-19-related triage decisions. On adjusted analysis, physicians aged 40 to 49 years had significantly higher levels of hopelessness compared with those aged 50 years or more (µ=0.441, SD=0.152, P=0.004). Those involved in 1 to 5 COVID-19-related triage decisions had a significantly lower mean hopelessness score (µ=-0.572, SD=0.208, P=0.006) compared with physicians involved in none of these decisions. CONCLUSION: Self-reported hopelessness was significantly higher among physicians aged 40 to 49 years and those who had not yet been involved in a life or death triage decision. Further work is needed to identify strategies to support physicians at high risk for adverse mental health outcomes during public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Médicos , Anciano , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , New York/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
19.
J Fish Dis ; 45(1): 59-68, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536027

RESUMEN

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogenic and threatening virus in shrimp culture for which there is no effective control strategy. Finding antiviral lead compounds for the development of anti-WSSV drugs is urgent and necessary; in this study, esculin from 12 monomeric compounds exhibited an excellent anti-WSSV activity. The results showed that esculin increased the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimps by 59% and reduced the virus copy number in vivo over 90% at 100 µM. In the pre-treatment and post-treatment experiments, esculin could prevent and treat WSSV infection. Compared with the control group, the virus copy number decreased by 30% after 6 h of esculin pre-incubation with WSSV particles and inhibited horizontal transmission of WSSV to a certain extent. Considering that the antiviral activity of esculin was stable in the aquacultural water for 2 days, we evaluated the dosing pattern of continuous medication changes. Obviously, the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimps was 0% at 108 h when no esculin exchange was made, while at 120 h the survival rate was over 40% at continuous medicine changes. In addition, esculin significantly increased the expression of antimicrobial peptides and thus improved the ability of shrimp to resist WSSV. Overall, our findings suggest that esculin has the potential to be developed into an anti-WSSV medicine.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Esculina/farmacología , Enfermedades de los Peces , Penaeidae , Virus del Síndrome de la Mancha Blanca 1 , Animales , Acuicultura , Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades de los Peces/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Peces/virología , Penaeidae/virología , Virus del Síndrome de la Mancha Blanca 1/efectos de los fármacos
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