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1.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1406133, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38894991

RESUMEN

Background: The outbreak of norovirus represents a significant public health emergency within densely populated, impoverished, and underdeveloped areas and countries. Our objective is to conduct an epidemiology study of a norovirus outbreak that occurred in a kindergarten located in rural western China. We aim to raise awareness and garner increased attention towards the prevention and control of norovirus, particularly in economically underdeveloped regions. Methods: Retrospective on-site epidemiological investigation results, including data on school layout, case symptoms, onset time, disposal methods and sample testing results, questionnaire surveys, and case-control study were conducted in a kindergarten to analyze the underlying causes of the norovirus outbreak. Results: A total of 15 cases were identified, with an attack rate of 44.12% (15/34). Among them, 10 cases were diagnosed through laboratory tests, and 5 cases were diagnosed clinically. Vomiting (100%, 15/15) and diarrhea (93.33%, 14/15) were the most common symptoms in the outbreak. Case control study revealed that cases who had close contact (<1 m) with the patient's vomitus (OR = 5.500) and those who had close contact with similar patients (OR = 8.000) had significantly higher ORs compared to the control participants. The current study demonstrated that improper handling of vomitus is positively associated with norovirus outbreak. The absence of standardized disinfection protocols heightens the risk of norovirus outbreaks. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study represents the first investigation into a norovirus outbreak in rural areas of western China. We aspire that amidst rapid economic development, a greater emphasis will be placed on the prevention and control of infectious diseases in economically underdeveloped areas and countries.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Caliciviridae , Brotes de Enfermedades , Gastroenteritis , Norovirus , Población Rural , Humanos , Infecciones por Caliciviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Caliciviridae/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Retrospectivos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/prevención & control , Gastroenteritis/virología , Gastroenteritis/economía , Preescolar , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Instituciones Académicas , Niño , Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
Rev Med Virol ; 34(4): e2559, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886173

RESUMEN

The World Organization for Animal Health defines Avian Influenza Virus as a highly infectious disease caused by diverse subtypes that continue to evolve rapidly, impacting poultry species, pet birds, wild birds, non-human mammals, and occasionally humans. The effects of Avian influenza viruses have been recognised as a precursor for serious health concerns among affected birds, poultry, and human populations in the Middle East. Furthermore, low and high pathogenic avian influenza viruses lead to respiratory illness with varying severity, depending on the virus subtype (e.g., H5, H7, H9, etc.). Possible future outbreaks and endemics of newly emerging subtypes are expected to occur, as many studies have reported the emergence of novel mutations and viral subtypes. However, proper surveillance programs and biosecurity applications should be developed, and countries with incapacitated defences against such outbreaks should be encouraged to undergo complete reinstation and reinforcement in their health and research sectors. Public education regarding biosafety and virus prevention is necessary to ensure minimal spread of avian influenza endemic.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Aviar , Gripe Humana , Animales , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , Gripe Aviar/virología , Gripe Aviar/prevención & control , Gripe Aviar/transmisión , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/virología , Región Mediterránea/epidemiología , Aves/virología , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Virus de la Influenza A/fisiología , Virus de la Influenza A/patogenicidad , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2813: 19-37, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38888768

RESUMEN

Genomics has revolutionized how we characterize and monitor infectious diseases for public health. The surveillance and characterization of Salmonella has improved drastically within the past decade. In this chapter, we discuss the prerequisites for good bacterial genomics studies and make note of advantages and disadvantages of this research approach. We discuss methods for outbreak detection and the evolutionary and epidemiological characterization of Salmonella spp. We provide an outline for determining the sequence type and serotype of isolates, building a core genome phylogenetic tree, and detecting antimicrobial resistance genes, virulence factors, and mobile genetic elements. These methods can be used to study other pathogenic bacterial species.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Bacteriano , Genómica , Epidemiología Molecular , Filogenia , Infecciones por Salmonella , Salmonella , Salmonella/genética , Humanos , Genómica/métodos , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Epidemiología Molecular/métodos , Factores de Virulencia/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Secuencias Repetitivas Esparcidas/genética
5.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1578, 2024 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867266

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: . Splash pads for recreational purposes are widespread. Using these pads can pose a health risk if they lack installation regulation and water quality supervision. Our aim was to describe a waterborne disease outbreak caused by Clostridium perfringens and Cryptosporidium spp. in a Barcelona district and the measures taken for its control. METHODS: . On August 2018, 71 cases of acute gastroenteritis were detected, affecting people who used a splash pad or were in contact with a user. Microbiological and environmental investigations were carried out. A descriptive analysis of the sample and Poisson regression models adjusted for age and sex were performed, obtaining frequencies, median values, and adjusted prevalence ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The median age of the cases was 6.7 years, 27 (38%) required medical care, and three (4.2%) were hospitalized. The greater the number of times a person entered the area, the greater the number of symptoms and their severity. Nineteen (76%) of the 25 stool samples collected from cases showed the presence of one or both pathogens. Environmental investigations showed deficiencies in the facilities and identified the presence of both species in the splash pad. Health education and hygiene measures were carried out, and 14 days after the closure of the facilities, no more cases related to the pad were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: . Specific regulations are needed on the use of splash pads for recreational purposes. Until these regulations are in place, these types of facility should comply with the regulations that apply to swimming pools and spas, including those related to the design of the tanks, water recirculation systems, and adequate disinfection systems.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Clostridium , Criptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , España/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Clostridium/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Adulto , Niño , Adolescente , Preescolar , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Clostridium perfringens/aislamiento & purificación , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por el Agua/epidemiología , Lactante , Microbiología del Agua
6.
Food Res Int ; 189: 114554, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876592

RESUMEN

Listeria monocytogenes, a widespread food-borne pathogen, utilizes diverse growth substrates including mono- and di-saccharides via PEP-phosphotransferase (PTS) systems. We evaluated a collection of L. monocytogenes isolates of different origins for their ability to utilize lactose, a disaccharide composed of galactose and glucose and the main carbon source in milk and dairy products. Notably, the dairy-associated outbreak strain F2365 could not utilize lactose efficiently, conceivably due to a frameshift mutation (lacR887del) resulting in a truncated LacR. Transcriptional activator LacR is involved in the expression of two PTS systems, encoded by the lpo operon lmo1718-1720 in combination with lmo2708 and the lmo2683-2685 operon, and linked to lactose and/or cellobiose metabolism in L. monocytogenes. Via experimental evolution of the ancestral strain F2365, an evolved isolate F2365 EV was obtained which showed enhanced growth and metabolism of lactose. Using the lactose-positive model strain L. monocytogenes EGDe as a control, HPLC experiments showed that EGDe and F2365 EV could consume lactose and utilize the glucose moiety, while the galactose moiety was exported from the cells. Genome sequencing of F2365 EV found the original lacR887del mutation was still present but an additional point mutation lmo2766C415T had occurred, resulting in an amino acid substitution in the putative regulator Lmo2766. The lmo2766 gene is located next to operon lmo2761-2765 with putative PTS genes in the genome. Notably, comparative RNAseq analysis confirmed that the lmo2761-2765 operon was strongly upregulated in F2365 EV in the presence of lactose but not in EGDe and F2365. Conversely, the LacR-regulated lpo operon, lmo2708, and lmo2683-2685 operon were only upregulated in EGDe. Additional growth and HPLC experiments, using mutants constructed in lactose-positive L. monocytogenes EGDe, showed reduced growth of the EGDe lacR887del mutant with no utilization of lactose, while the double mutant EGDe lacR887dellmo2766C415T showed enhanced growth and lactose utilization. Hence, these results demonstrate that an amino acid substitution in the Lmo2766 regulator activates a previously silent lactose utilization pathway encoded by PTS operon lmo2761-2765, facilitating the growth and metabolism of L. monocytogenes with lactose as a substrate. This finding enhances our understanding of the metabolic capabilities and adaptability of L. monocytogenes, offering a broader view of the lactose utilization capacity of this pathogen.


Asunto(s)
Lactosa , Listeria monocytogenes , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolismo , Listeria monocytogenes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Lactosa/metabolismo , Operón , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Brotes de Enfermedades , Regulación Bacteriana de la Expresión Génica , Microbiología de Alimentos , Leche/microbiología , Animales , Productos Lácteos/microbiología
7.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304867, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861526

RESUMEN

We aimed to characterize the change in the incidence of stillbirth (IS) in Japanese Black cattle during and after animal movement restrictions and suspended insemination because of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in Miyazaki Prefecture in 2010. Calving data from 2006 to 2018 were collected from approximately 900 farms. Post-FMD period was divided into three based on the median IS per month (1.80%): period 1 (May 2011 to February 2013), period 2 (March 2013 to August 2015), and period 3 (September 2015 to December 2018). The ISs were similar during the Pre-FMD period and Post-FMD period 1, then substantially decreased during Post-FMD period 2 (p < .05), before returning to the value before the FMD outbreak period during Post-FMD period 3. Compared with the Pre-FMD period, Post-FMD period 1 was associated with a higher proportion of calvings by primiparous cows and Post-FMD period 2 was associated with a smaller number of calvings per month (p < .05). There were high ISs in primiparous cows during the Pre-FMD period, Post-FMD period 1, and Post-FMD period 3 (p < .05), but not during Post-FMD period 2. In summary, after the animal movement restrictions and suspended insemination introduced because of the FMD outbreak, the IS temporarily decreased and consequently returned to the pre-FMD level.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Fiebre Aftosa , Mortinato , Animales , Bovinos , Mortinato/epidemiología , Fiebre Aftosa/epidemiología , Incidencia , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Femenino , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Japón/epidemiología , Embarazo , Inseminación
8.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 13(1): 43, 2024 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863070

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The strong invasiveness and rapid expansion of dengue virus (DENV) pose a great challenge to global public health. However, dengue epidemic patterns and mechanisms at a genetic scale, particularly in term of cross-border transmissions, remain poorly understood. Importation is considered as the primary driver of dengue outbreaks in China, and since 1990 a frequent occurrence of large outbreaks has been triggered by the imported cases and subsequently spread to the western and northern parts of China. Therefore, this study aims to systematically reveal the invasion and diffusion patterns of DENV-1 in Guangdong, China from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: These analyses were performed on 179 newly assembled genomes from indigenous dengue cases in Guangdong, China and 5152 E gene complete sequences recorded in Chinese mainland. The genetic population structure and epidemic patterns of DENV-1 circulating in Chinese mainland were characterized by phylogenetics, phylogeography, phylodynamics based on DENV-1 E-gene-based globally unified genotyping framework. RESULTS: Multiple serotypes of DENV were co-circulating in Chinese mainland, particularly in Guangdong and Yunnan provinces. A total of 189 transmission clusters in 38 clades belonging to 22 subgenotypes of genotype I, IV and V of DENV-1 were identified, with 7 Clades of Concern (COCs) responsible for the large outbreaks since 1990. The epidemic periodicity was inferred from the data to be approximately 3 years. Dengue transmission events mainly occurred from Great Mekong Subregion-China (GMS-China), Southeast Asia (SEA), South Asia Subcontinent (SASC), and Oceania (OCE) to coastal and land border cities respectively in southeastern and southwestern China. Specially, Guangzhou was found to be the most dominant receipting hub, where DENV-1 diffused to other cities within the province and even other parts of the country. Genome phylogeny combined with epidemiological investigation demonstrated a clear local consecutive transmission process of a 5C1 transmission cluster (5C1-CN4) of DENV-1 in Guangzhou from 2013 to 2015, while the two provinces of Guangdong and Yunnan played key roles in ongoing transition of dengue epidemic patterns. In contextualizing within Invasion Biology theories, we have proposed a derived three-stage model encompassing the stages of invasion, colonization, and dissemination, which is supposed to enhance our understanding of dengue spreading patterns. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the invasion and diffusion process of DENV-1 in Chinese mainland within a global genotyping framework, characterizing the genetic diversities of viral populations, multiple sources of importation, and periodic dynamics of the epidemic. These findings highlight the potential ongoing transition trends from epidemic to endemic status offering a valuable insight into early warning, prevention and control of rapid spreading of dengue both in China and worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Dengue , Dengue , Genotipo , Filogenia , Serogrupo , Virus del Dengue/genética , Virus del Dengue/clasificación , Virus del Dengue/fisiología , China/epidemiología , Dengue/epidemiología , Dengue/virología , Dengue/transmisión , Humanos , Brotes de Enfermedades , Filogeografía , Genoma Viral
9.
Arch Virol ; 169(7): 145, 2024 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864875

RESUMEN

Since 2020, African swine fever (ASF) has affected all pig breeds in Northeast India except Doom pigs, a unique indigenous breed from Assam and the closest relatives of Indian wild pigs. ASF outbreaks result in significant economic losses for pig farmers in the region. Based on sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the B646L (p72) gene, it has been determined that ASFV genotype II is responsible for outbreaks in this region. Recent studies have shown that MYD88, LDHB, and IFIT1, which are important genes of the immune system, are involved in the pathogenesis of ASFV. The differential expression patterns of these genes in surviving ASFV-infected and healthy Doom breed pigs were compared to healthy controls at different stages of infection. The ability of Doom pigs to withstand common pig diseases, along with their genetic resemblance to wild pigs, make them ideal candidates for studying tolerance to ASFV infection. In the present study, we investigated the natural resistance to ASF in Doom pigs from an endemic area in Northeast India. The results of this study provide important molecular insights into the regulation of ASFV tolerance genes.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Africana , Fiebre Porcina Africana , Brotes de Enfermedades , Filogenia , Animales , Fiebre Porcina Africana/virología , Fiebre Porcina Africana/epidemiología , Fiebre Porcina Africana/inmunología , Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Africana/genética , Virus de la Fiebre Porcina Africana/inmunología , India/epidemiología , Porcinos , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Genotipo , Factor 88 de Diferenciación Mieloide/genética , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/genética
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 18(5): 726-731, 2024 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865389

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen found ubiquitously in the environment and associated with a wide range of nosocomial infections. This multidrug-resistant bacterium has been a cause of concern for hospitals and healthcare facilities due to its ability to spread rapidly and cause outbreaks. Next generation sequencing genotyping of bacterial isolates has proven to be a valuable tool for tracking the spread and transmission of nosocomial infections. This has allowed for the identification of outbreaks and transmission chains, as well as determining whether cases are due to endogenous or exogenous sources. Evidence of nosocomial transmission has been gathered through genotyping methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of carbapenemase-producing S. marcescens in an outbreak at a public hospital in Cuiaba, MT, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Ten isolates of S. marcenses were sequenced and antibiotic resistance profiles analyzed over 12 days. RESULTS: The isolates were clonal and multidrug resistant. Gentamycin and tigecycline had sensitivity in 90% and 80% isolates, respectively. Genomic analysis identified several genes that encode ß-lactamases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, efflux pumps, and other virulence factors. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic surveillance is crucial in monitoring the evolution of S. marcescens genotypes, as it can lead to early detection and prevention of outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Infección Hospitalaria , Brotes de Enfermedades , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Infecciones por Serratia , Serratia marcescens , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Serratia marcescens/genética , Serratia marcescens/efectos de los fármacos , Serratia marcescens/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Infecciones por Serratia/microbiología , Infecciones por Serratia/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Genotipo , Genoma Bacteriano , beta-Lactamasas/genética , Variación Genética
11.
Clin Lab ; 70(6)2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868873

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: From June 2021 to July 2021, our hospital confirmed 3 cases of Mycobacterium infection in skin abscesses. All 3 patients underwent thread embedding and weight loss surgery at the same informal beauty institution, with a history of silk protein injection. None of the patients had any other underlying diseases or surgical history. Symptoms and signs show that the disease is acute and the course of the disease is short. All patients have found subcutaneous masses in different parts of the body. In most cases, the masses show redness and swelling, and some of the masses are accompanied by tenderness, wave sensation, and rupture. After some of the masses rupture, purulent secretions can be seen. METHODS: The pus secreted by the skin lesions of the three patients were cultured to a single bacterium, which was identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed using three specific genes (hsp65, rpoB, and secA1) and seven housekeeping genes (argH, cya, glpK, gnd, murC, pta, and purH). The results were queried through the MLST database of Mycobacterium abscess. RESULTS: All three strains of bacteria were Mycobacterium abscess type ST279 massiliense subtype. Three antibacterial drugs including cefmetazole, amikacin, and clarithromycin were administered in combination with 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT). After 3 - 6 months, there was no obvious redness or swelling in the surrounding tissues of the wound, and no obvious purulent secretions were observed. All patients were cured and discharged from the hospital. After a follow-up of six months, there was no recurrence of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Medical institutions must strictly follow infection control guidelines and take preventive measures to prevent such incidents from happening again. ALA-PDT as a combination therapy for nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) skin infections can improve treatment efficacy and shorten antibiotic usage time.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Brotes de Enfermedades , Infecciones por Mycobacterium no Tuberculosas , Humanos , Femenino , Infecciones por Mycobacterium no Tuberculosas/epidemiología , Infecciones por Mycobacterium no Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycobacterium no Tuberculosas/microbiología , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Cutáneas Bacterianas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Bacterianas/microbiología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cutáneas Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Absceso/microbiología , Absceso/epidemiología , Absceso/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium abscessus/aislamiento & purificación , Mycobacterium abscessus/genética , Micobacterias no Tuberculosas/aislamiento & purificación , Micobacterias no Tuberculosas/genética , Micobacterias no Tuberculosas/efectos de los fármacos
12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1355613, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38859897

RESUMEN

Introduction: In Ethiopia, despite major improvements seen in health service delivery system, the country continues to be significantly affected by cholera outbreaks. Cholera remains a significant public health problem among the vulnerable populations living in many resource-limited settings with poor access to safe and clean water and hygiene practices. Recurring cholera outbreaks are an indication of deprived water and sanitation conditions as well as weak health systems, contributing to the transmission and spread of the cholera infection. Objective: To assess the cholera outbreak, its challenges, and the way forward on public health interventions to solve the knowledge and health service delivery gaps related to cholera control in Guraghe Zone, Ethiopia, 2023. Methods: Active surveillance of the cholera outbreak was conducted in all kebeles and town administrative of Guraghe zone from 7/8/2023 to 30/10/2023. A total of 224 cholera cases were detected during the active surveillance method. Data obtained from Guraghe zone offices were exported to SPSS version 25 for additional analysis. The case fatality rate, incidence of the cases, and other descriptive variables were presented and described using figures and tables. Result: A total of 224 cholera cases were detected through an active surveillance system. In this study, the case fatality rate of cholera outbreak was 2.6%. To tackle the cholera outbreak, the Guraghe zone health office collaborated with other stakeholders to prepare four cholera treatment centers. The absence of OCV, inaccessible safe water, low latrine coverage, inappropriate utilization of latrines, and absence of cholera laboratory rapid diagnostics test in Guraghe Zone are barriers to tackling the outbreak. Conclusion: Ethiopia National Cholera Plan targeted eradicating cholera by 2030, 222 cholera outbreak occurred in Guraghe Zone, Ethiopia. To minimize and control cholera mortality rate oral cholera vaccinations should be employed in all areas of the region. Sustainable WASH measures should be guaranteed for the use of safe water and good hygiene practices. Early diagnosis and treatment should be initiated appropriately for those who are infected.


Asunto(s)
Cólera , Brotes de Enfermedades , Cólera/epidemiología , Cólera/prevención & control , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Adolescente , Femenino , Masculino , Saneamiento , Salud Pública , Adulto , Niño , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Preescolar , Incidencia
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e50653, 2024 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861711

RESUMEN

Staff at public health departments have few training materials to learn how to design and fine-tune systems to quickly detect acute, localized, community-acquired outbreaks of infectious diseases. Since 2014, the Bureau of Communicable Disease at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has analyzed reportable communicable diseases daily using SaTScan. SaTScan is a free software that analyzes data using scan statistics, which can detect increasing disease activity without a priori specification of temporal period, geographic location, or size. The Bureau of Communicable Disease's systems have quickly detected outbreaks of salmonellosis, legionellosis, shigellosis, and COVID-19. This tutorial details system design considerations, including geographic and temporal data aggregation, study period length, inclusion criteria, whether to account for population size, network location file setup to account for natural boundaries, probability model (eg, space-time permutation), day-of-week effects, minimum and maximum spatial and temporal cluster sizes, secondary cluster reporting criteria, signaling criteria, and distinguishing new clusters versus ongoing clusters with additional events. We illustrate how to support health equity by minimizing analytic exclusions of patients with reportable diseases (eg, persons experiencing homelessness who are unsheltered) and accounting for purely spatial patterns, such as adjusting nonparametrically for areas with lower access to care and testing for reportable diseases. We describe how to fine-tune the system when the detected clusters are too large to be of interest or when signals of clusters are delayed, missed, too numerous, or false. We demonstrate low-code techniques for automating analyses and interpreting results through built-in features on the user interface (eg, patient line lists, temporal graphs, and dynamic maps), which became newly available with the July 2022 release of SaTScan version 10.1. This tutorial is the first comprehensive resource for health department staff to design and maintain a reportable communicable disease outbreak detection system using SaTScan to catalyze field investigations as well as develop intuition for interpreting results and fine-tuning the system. While our practical experience is limited to monitoring certain reportable diseases in a dense, urban area, we believe that most recommendations are generalizable to other jurisdictions in the United States and internationally. Additional analytic technical support for detecting outbreaks would benefit state, tribal, local, and territorial public health departments and the populations they serve.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Humanos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles/diagnóstico , Programas Informáticos , Estudios Prospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Análisis por Conglomerados
14.
J Med Virol ; 96(6): e29727, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864343

RESUMEN

Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, poses a significant public health challenge in Pakistan, with a significant outbreak in 2023, prompting our investigation into the serotype and genomic diversity of the dengue virus (DENV). NS-1 positive blood samples from 153 patients were referred to the National Institute of Health, Pakistan, between July and October 2023. Among these, 98 (64.1%) tested positive using multiplex real-time PCR, with higher prevalence among males (65.8%) and individuals aged 31-40. Serotyping revealed DENV-1 as the predominant serotype (84.7%), followed by DENV-2 (15.3%). Whole-genome sequencing of 18 samples (DENV-1 = 17, DENV-2 = 01) showed that DENV-1 (genotype III) samples were closely related (>99%) to Pakistan outbreak samples (2022), and approx. > 98% with USA (2022), Singapore and China (2016), Bangladesh (2017), and Pakistan (2019). The DENV-2 sequence (cosmopolitan genotype; clade IVA) shared genetic similarity with Pakistan outbreak sequences (2022), approx. > 99% with China and Singapore (2018-2019) and showed divergence from Pakistan sequences (2008-2013). No coinfection with dengue serotypes or other viruses were observed. Comparisons with previous DENV-1 sequences highlighted genetic variations affecting viral replication efficiency (NS2B:K55R) and infectivity (E:M272T). These findings contribute to dengue epidemiology understanding and underscore the importance of ongoing genomic surveillance for future outbreak responses in Pakistan.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Dengue , Dengue , Brotes de Enfermedades , Variación Genética , Genoma Viral , Genotipo , Filogenia , Serogrupo , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Humanos , Pakistán/epidemiología , Virus del Dengue/genética , Virus del Dengue/clasificación , Virus del Dengue/aislamiento & purificación , Dengue/epidemiología , Dengue/virología , Masculino , Adulto , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , Niño , Genoma Viral/genética , Preescolar , Anciano , Lactante , Serotipificación , ARN Viral/genética
16.
Geospat Health ; 19(1)2024 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872388

RESUMEN

Mpox is an emerging, infectious disease that has caused outbreaks in at least 91 countries from May to August 2022. We assessed the link between international air travel patterns and Mpox transmission risk, and the relationship between the translocation of Mpox and human mobility dynamics after travel restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic had been lifted. Our three novel observations were that: i) more people traveled internationally after the removal of travel restrictions in the summer of 2022 compared to pre-pandemic levels; ii) countries with a high concentration of global air travel have the most recorded Mpox cases; and iii) Mpox transmission includes a number of previously nonendemic regions. These results suggest that international airports should be a primary location for monitoring the risk of emerging communicable diseases. Findings highlight the need for global collaboration concerning proactive measures emphasizing realtime surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Viaje en Avión , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , Mpox/epidemiología , Mpox/transmisión , Salud Global , Pandemias , Aeropuertos , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Viaje , Brotes de Enfermedades
17.
Math Biosci Eng ; 21(4): 4835-4852, 2024 Feb 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872516

RESUMEN

Since the global outbreak of COVID-19, the virus has continuously mutated and can survive in the air for long periods of time. This paper establishes and analyzes a model of COVID-19 with self-protection and quarantine measures affected by viruses in the environment to investigate the influence of viruses in the environment on the spread of the outbreak, as well as to develop a rational prevention and control measure to control the spread of the outbreak. The basic reproduction number was calculated and Lyapunov functions were constructed to discuss the stability of the model equilibrium points. The disease-free equilibrium point was proven to be globally asymptotically stable when $ R_0 < 1 $, and the endemic equilibrium point was globally asymptotically stable when $ R_0 > 1 $. The model was fitted using data from COVID-19 cases in Chongqing between November 1 to November 25, 2022. Based on the numerical analysis, the following conclusion was obtained: clearing the virus in the environment and strengthening the isolation measures for infected people can control the epidemic to a certain extent, but enhancing the self-protection of individuals can be more effective in reducing the risk of being infected and controlling the transmission of the epidemic, which is more conducive to the practical application.


Asunto(s)
Número Básico de Reproducción , COVID-19 , Cuarentena , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/transmisión , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Número Básico de Reproducción/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , China/epidemiología , Simulación por Computador , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Algoritmos
18.
Math Biosci Eng ; 21(5): 6150-6166, 2024 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872573

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which has produced variants and increasing concerns about a potential resurgence since the pandemic outbreak in 2019. Predicting infectious disease outbreaks is crucial for effective prevention and control. This study aims to predict the transmission patterns of COVID-19 using machine learning, such as support vector machine, random forest, and XGBoost, using confirmed cases, death cases, and imported cases, respectively. The study categorizes the transmission trends into the three groups: L0 (decrease), L1 (maintain), and L2 (increase). We develop the risk index function to quantify changes in the transmission trends, which is applied to the classification of machine learning. A high accuracy is achieved when estimating the transmission trends for the confirmed cases (91.5-95.5%), death cases (85.6-91.8%), and imported cases (77.7-89.4%). Notably, the confirmed cases exhibit a higher level of accuracy compared to the data on the deaths and imported cases. L2 predictions outperformed L0 and L1 in all cases. Predicting L2 is important because it can lead to new outbreaks. Thus, this robust L2 prediction is crucial for the timely implementation of control policies for the management of transmission dynamics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Aprendizaje Automático , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte , Humanos , COVID-19/transmisión , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/mortalidad , Algoritmos , Brotes de Enfermedades
19.
J Med Virol ; 96(6): e29744, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874258

RESUMEN

Ebolavirus disease (EVD) is an often-lethal disease caused by the genus Ebolavirus (EBOV). Although vaccines are being developed and recently used, outbreak control still relies on a combination of various factors, including rapid identification of EVD cases. This allows rapid patient isolation and control measure implementation. Ebolavirus diagnosis is performed in treatment centers or reference laboratories, which usually takes a few hours to days to confirm the outbreak or deliver a clear result. A fast and field-deployable molecular detection method, such as the isothermal amplification recombinase-aided amplification (RAA), could significantly reduce sample-to-result time. In this study, a RT-RAA assay was evaluated for EBOV detection. Various primer and probe combinations were screened; analytical sensitivity and cross-specificity were tested. A total of 40 archived samples from the 2014 to 2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa were tested with both the reference method real-time RT-PCR and the established RT-RAA assay. The assay could detect down to 22.6 molecular copies per microliter. No other pathogens were detected with the Ebolavirus RT-RAA assay. Testing 40 samples yield clinical sensitivity and specificity of 100% each. This rapid isothermal RT-RAA assay can replace the previous RT-RPA and continue to offer rapid EBOV diagnostics.


Asunto(s)
Ebolavirus , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico , Recombinasas , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Ebolavirus/genética , Ebolavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/diagnóstico , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/virología , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Humanos , Recombinasas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , África Occidental/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , ARN Viral/genética , Cartilla de ADN/genética
20.
East Mediterr Health J ; 30(5): 350-355, 2024 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874294

RESUMEN

Background: Meningitis is still a major public health challenge globally. Both the viral and bacterial forms of the disease have been reported worldwide. In 2023, around 200 children with suspected meningitis were admitted to hospital in Halabja Governorate, Iraq. No outbreak of meningitis had been reported previously in that region. Aims: To investigate the aetiology and epidemiology of meningitis among children in Halabja Governorate, Iraq, and expedite clinical management and prevention. Methodology: Blood and cerebrospinal fluid specimens were collected from 197 children admitted to Halabja Paediatric and Maternity Teaching Hospital from 1 March to 1 July 2023 and analysed. The sample t-test was used to compare the haematological, serological and biochemical characteristics of the samples. Results: The majority (76.6%) of the children were aged 2-9 years and 54% were males. The clinical manifestations of the disease were fever (100.0%), headache (89.0%), vomiting (85.7%), and photophobia (72.4%); none of the children had convulsions. The mean values for both neutrophil count and C-reactive protein were statistically significantly raised (P < 0.05) and the red blood cells, white blood cells and neutrophil counts, and lactate dehydrogenase values were statistically significantly raised (P < 0.05). The causative organism was enterovirus (98.5%), with sporadic cases of streptococcal meningitis (1.5%). All the patients recovered fully. Conclusion: The rapid diagnosis of the disease was crucial to the therapeutic and prevention control measures for the outbreak. Although it is still unclear how and where this outbreak started, contaminated drinking water and transmission among children in nurseries and schools are suspected. Further investigations are recommended to determine the source of the enterovirus and identify the virus species and serotypes.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Irak/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Masculino , Femenino , Meningitis Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Lactante , Meningitis Bacterianas/epidemiología
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