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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134138, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505345

RESUMEN

Plague synchronously swept across separated regions in Europe throughout history. However, the spatio-temporal synchrony of plague and its driving mechanism have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we transformed the historical European plague database spanned 1347-1800 CE into country-level time-series that differentiated large-scale plague outbreak from counted data. We found that there are 74 years in which two or more countries in our study region (UK, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy) experienced large-scale plague outbreak in the same year. Our Multivariate Ripley's K-function results showed that the onset year and the cessation year of large-scale plague outbreak are synchronized at the 0-23-year and 0-20-year windows, respectively. The temporal association between such synchrony and climatic forcing was further investigated using the Superposed Epoch Analysis, and drought was found to be responsible for the synchrony. Integrating our results with a literature survey, we suggested that prior to the peak of plague, the occurrence of drought and the subsequent reintroduced rainfall dampened both the rodent community and human society and boosted the number of fleas that carried plague. Such a synthesis facilitated the outbreak of plague. At the same time, high temperature associated with such drought also confined the geographic diffusion of the plague. Hence, although continental mega-drought could initiate the synchrony of plague outbreak, the synchrony actually consisted of a number of localized plague outbreak events scattering across different regions in Europe. According to the projected rising trend of drought in terms of its magnitude, duration, and geographic extent, the risk of synchrony of rodent-borne diseases in Europe will be significantly elevated, especially in France, Italy, and Spain.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Sequías , Peste/epidemiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia Medieval , Humanos
2.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 09 13.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556496

RESUMEN

Mary Mallon (1869-1938) was an Irish immigrant who worked as a cook for rich families in New York. She was responsible for several outbreaks of typhoid fever since she was an asymptomatic carrier of Salmonella typhi. Because of the danger and fear for new outbreaks, she was held in quarantine for years, against her will. What factors contributed to this decision? Was it necessary to keep her isolated? And what was the role of public opinion and media? The history of Mary Mallon is a sad and tragic chapter in medical history, from which we can still draw important lessons.


Asunto(s)
Portador Sano , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Fiebre Tifoidea/historia , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , New York , Cuarentena , Salmonella typhi
4.
Biomed J ; 42(1): 8-18, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987709

RESUMEN

One of the distinguishing features of the 1918 pandemic is the occurrence of massive, potentially detrimental, activation of the innate immune system in critically ill patients. Whether this reflects an intrinsic capacity of the virus to induce an exaggerated inflammatory responses or its remarkable ability to reproduce in vivo is still open to debate. Tremendous progress has recently been made in our understanding of innate immune responses to influenza infection and it is now time to translate this knowledge into therapeutic strategies, particularly in view of the possible occurrence of future outbreaks caused by virulent strains.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Inmunidad Innata/inmunología , Gripe Humana/inmunología , Gripe Humana/terapia , Animales , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Inflamasomas/inmunología , Gripe Humana/historia , Transducción de Señal/inmunología
6.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 68(2): 82-88, 16 ene., 2019. ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-177237

RESUMEN

La encefalitis letárgica es un cuadro neurológico con una variada gama de manifestaciones clínicas en el ámbito neurológico y también en el psiquiátrico. El cuadro se ha presentado de manera epidémica en brotes que han seguido a los de la gripe. El último brote acaecido a comienzos del siglo XX lo describió en profundidad Constantin von Economo. La epidemia notificada inicialmente en Europa y luego en Norteamérica se presentó también en otras latitudes, incluyendo Chile. Así, las descripciones de Lea-Plaza, Tello, Iturra, Cienfuegos y otros médicos chilenos dieron cuenta del cuadro en Chile con toda la complejidad que también tuvo en Europa. El origen sigue siendo un misterio, aunque la evidencia creciente de que fuera autoinmune gana fuerza con los hallazgos de la tecnología médica actual. En este trabajo presentamos el cuadro, privilegiando la riqueza clínica y la belleza de las descripciones realizada por los médicos de la época en que esta enfermedad se presentó


Lethargic encephalitis is a neurological illness that shows a wide range of symptoms and signs, including neurological and psychiatric spectrum. It presented in an epidemic way, following influaenza relapses. The last relapse started at the beginning of 20th century and it was deeply described by Constantin von Economo. The illness described first in Europe and North America, was described in many others countries including Chile. There were beautiful descriptions by Chilean physicians like Lea-Plaza, Tello, Iturra and Cienfuegos. Their works showed the complexity of the illness like European physicians did too. The etiology is still unknown; however growing evidence about autoinmune aetiology is gaining force with the use of actual medical technology. In this work, we show encephalitis lethargica, focusing in clinical picture, the beauty of medical descriptions that physicians did at this date


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Encefalitis/historia , Letargia/historia , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Encefalitis/epidemiología , Letargia/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología
8.
Hawaii J Med Public Health ; 77(12): 315-318, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533283

RESUMEN

The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) cause the most important and common arthropod-borne viral diseases in humans. There have been three major dengue outbreaks in Hawai'i since 1946. The most recent and largest outbreak occurred on Hawai'i Island in 2015-2016. This article reviews the public health response to dengue outbreaks over the period 2001-2016, as well as scientific literature on dengue outbreaks in Hawai'i. As summarized in the assessment by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2015, Hawaii's response to the dengue outbreak was timely, appropriate, and well-coordinated. All facets of a public health response to the outbreak were adequately addressed, but communications and medical entomologic capacities could be improved. The observations of Aedes aegypti on Hawai'i Island and of its co-localization with confirmed human cases highlight the importance of continuous vector surveillance and entomologic research. In-depth studies on the molecular epidemiology, entomology, and epidemiological investigation would provide new insights into the latest outbreak and into strategies to combat DENV and other arboviruses in the future.


Asunto(s)
Dengue/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Aedes/patogenicidad , Animales , Dengue/fisiopatología , Virus del Dengue/efectos de los fármacos , Virus del Dengue/patogenicidad , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Hawaii/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Zoonosis/complicaciones , Zoonosis/prevención & control
9.
Med Anthropol ; 37(6): 442-457, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427733

RESUMEN

Often described as "masks" face-worn devices are employed as personal protection equipment by health workers and the general public and considered to be an indispensable technology against epidemics. Simultaneously, they are potent symbols of existential risk. Could these material and visual aspects be more than simply indexically connected? In this article, I examine these apparatuses through a historical anthropological approach of their invention during the 1910-11 Manchurian plague outbreak. Arguing that they should be taken seriously as masks, I demonstrate that their emergence was rooted in their configuration as transformative agents of medical reason.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Máscaras/historia , Peste , Antropología Médica , China , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Peste/etnología , Peste/historia , Peste/prevención & control
10.
J Emerg Manag ; 16(5): 311-319, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387851

RESUMEN

The impact of the Commissioned Corps of the US Public Health Service (Commissioned Corps) on the health and safety of the nation spans more than two centuries. The public health efforts of the highly qualified health professionals of this often-underreported uniformed service include fighting threats like the great flu pandemic of 1918, the anthrax attacks, Ebola, and natural disasters such as Hurricanes Maria, Irma, and Katrina. As we near the first quarter of the twenty-first century, it is important to take a snapshot of the critical contributions and response efforts the Commissioned Corps has made in the first 18 years of the twenty-first century. Today, the Commissioned Corps faces new challenges in the form of emerging diseases and a rapidly growing opioid epidemic, but under the guidance of the US Surgeon General, it remains vigilant and fully capable of minimizing any public health threat it encounters.


Asunto(s)
Desastres/historia , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Terrorismo/historia , United States Public Health Service/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos
11.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 16(2): 239-252, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488703

RESUMEN

For centuries, the marine quarantine system was the major protection of the public health against serious infectious diseases around the world. The present study reconstructs the history of the Quarantine Station of Piraeus, one of the largest Mediterranean ports, known as the "Lazaretto of Saint George", as a vital element in the maritime sanitary protection of Greece. Our research will investigate the impact left by this institution on public health, as well as on the economic life of the port of Piraeus and the adjacent capital city of Athens. With regard to the first issue, we will seek to evaluate its role in relation to major outbreaks in the capital, as well as the arrival of 1.3 million Greek refugees after the Greco-Turkish War of 1922. The opening of Suez Canal (1865) was a great challenge and the institution was problematic at administrative and sanitary levels. During 20th century, the station complied with the national public health legislation and the international sanitary conventions. Until the Second World War, the Lazaretto of Saint George played a key role in both the protection of public health in general, but also in the economic and industrial progress of Piraeus and Athens.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/historia , Enfermedades Transmisibles/historia , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Cuarentena/historia , Refugiados/historia , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Grecia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Cuarentena/métodos , Cuarentena/normas
12.
APMIS ; 126(11): 831-837, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357961

RESUMEN

During World War I, a mysterious new disease affected soldiers on both sides of battle field. The first reports described a relapsing fever of unknown origin with body lice being suggested as the vector. The outbreak affected >1 000 000 people, mostly soldiers fighting in front-line trenches. Shortly afterward, the illness was known as Trench fever, of which the causal infectious agent is currently classified as Bartonella quintana.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Endocarditis/epidemiología , Fiebre/epidemiología , Infestaciones por Piojos/epidemiología , Fiebre de las Trincheras/epidemiología , Animales , Bartonella quintana/patogenicidad , Bartonella quintana/fisiología , Endocarditis/historia , Endocarditis/fisiopatología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Fiebre/historia , Fiebre/fisiopatología , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Insectos Vectores/microbiología , Infestaciones por Piojos/historia , Pediculus/microbiología , Recurrencia , Fiebre de las Trincheras/historia , Fiebre de las Trincheras/fisiopatología , Primera Guerra Mundial
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(6): 1366-1368, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298813

RESUMEN

Early names for leptospirosis often indicate occupational or environmental exposure. Leptospirosis is hard to identify in the tropical setting because of co-circulating diseases. This is not the case in the temperate setting, such as Europe, where the few historical differential diagnoses were malaria, typhoid, and viral hepatitis. Leptospirosis presumably caused community epidemics in Europe before 1900 and military epidemiologists carefully documented outbreaks in "constrained settings." Achille Kelsch (1841-1911) synthesized available military data and epidemiological perspectives to define "epidemic jaundice" as a nosological continuum, caused by an infectious agent found in muds and water. He viewed Weil's disease as being only one form of that now well-identified disease continuum. The causative pathogen and epidemiological determinants were identified years later. The role of soils and muds as intermediate reservoirs, as suggested by Kelsch, deserves further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Ictericia/diagnóstico , Leptospira/patogenicidad , Leptospirosis/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Weil/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Ictericia/epidemiología , Ictericia/historia , Ictericia/microbiología , Leptospira/aislamiento & purificación , Leptospirosis/epidemiología , Leptospirosis/historia , Leptospirosis/microbiología , Microbiología del Suelo , Enfermedad de Weil/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Weil/historia , Enfermedad de Weil/microbiología
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(8): 1028-1031, 2018 Aug 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180422

RESUMEN

Five influenza pandemics had occurred during the past century (1918 "Spanish flu" , 1957 "Asian flu" , 1968 "Hong Kong flu" , 1977 "Russian flu" and 2009 H1N1 Pandemic), accounting for hundreds of millions of people infected and tens of millions dead. China was influenced by all the five pandemics, and three of them (1957 "Asian flu" , 1968 "Hong Kong flu" and 1977 "Russian flu" ) were originated from China. The pandemics triggered the establishment of public health agencies and influenza surveillance capacities. In addition, more resources were allocated to influenza-related research, prevention and control. As a leader in the field of influenza, China should further strengthen its pandemic preparedness and response to contribute to global health.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Pandemias/historia , Salud Pública , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , China/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Hong Kong , Humanos , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana/historia
17.
Am J Public Health ; 108(11): 1465-1468, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252520

RESUMEN

This commentary argues that 100 years after the deadly Spanish flu, the public health emergency community's responses to much more limited pandemics and outbreaks demonstrate a critical shortage of personnel and resources. Rather than relying on nonpharmaceutical interventions, such as quarantine, the United States must reorder its health priorities to ensure adequate preparation for a large-scale pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/historia , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Salud Global/historia , Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919/historia , Práctica de Salud Pública/historia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Miedo , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/historia , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/prevención & control , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Práctica de Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cuarentena/historia , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(9): e0006770, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226890

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human brucellosis (HB) is a bacterial zoonosis that is more frequent in low income and middle-income countries; it is sometimes associated with outbreaks. The aim of this study was to describe the largest outbreak of HB in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients suspected of having contracted HB in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil from January 2009 to January 2017. Following an outbreak of 51 cases of HB in a slaughterhouse at Paiçandu in 2014, HB was defined as an obligatory reportable disease in the State. Diagnostic tests for HB included serum agglutination, ELISA (IgG or IgM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical, laboratorial and epidemiological data were analyzed. A P value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Out of a total of 3,941 patients, 754 presented with a positive test result for HB. After 2014, there was a significant increase in the number of cases, exceeding 100 cases per trimester. In the beginning of 2015, the workgroup of HB started several actions for prevention and treatment, and the number of cases progressively diminished to fewer than 20 cases per trimester. Of 191 reported cases, an occupational risk was found in 84.7%; most cases occurred in farmers (60.0%), veterinarians (17.6%) and slaughterhouse workers (14.7%). Manipulation of animals and unpasteurized milk consumption were associated with positive Brucella IgM ELISA with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.42 (1.09-1.84) and 1.48 (1.01-2.15), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HB outbreaks can occur in low to middle-income countries and are associated with slaughterhouse work, handling of unpasteurized milk and animal manipulation. Intensive programs for control of HB are important to reduce the number of cases.


Asunto(s)
Brucelosis/epidemiología , Brucelosis/historia , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/historia , Mataderos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Brucelosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Brucelosis/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/historia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Estudios Retrospectivos
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