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1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241466, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147252

RESUMEN

As the number of global coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases increases, the number of imported cases is gradually rising. Furthermore, there is no reduction in domestic outbreaks. To assess the risks from imported COVID-19 cases in South Korea, we suggest using the daily risk score. Confirmed COVID-19 cases reported by John Hopkins University Center, roaming data collected from Korea Telecom, and the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker index were included in calculating the risk score. The risk score was highly correlated with imported COVID-19 cases after 12 days. To forecast daily imported COVID-19 cases after 12 days in South Korea, we developed prediction models using simple linear regression and autoregressive integrated moving average, including exogenous variables (ARIMAX). In the validation set, the root mean squared error of the linear regression model using the risk score was 6.2, which was lower than that of the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA; 22.3) without the risk score as a reference. Correlation coefficient of ARIMAX using the risk score (0.925) was higher than that of ARIMA (0.899). A possible reason for this time lag of 12 days between imported cases and the risk score could be the delay that occurs before the effect of government policies such as closure of airports or lockdown of cities. Roaming data could help warn roaming users regarding their COVID-19 risk status and inform the national health agency of possible high-risk areas for domestic outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Teléfono Celular , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Predicción/métodos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Análisis de Datos , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Modelos Estadísticos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Riesgo
2.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 57, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008319

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: At the end of 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severely damaged and endangered people's lives. The public health emergency management system in China has played an essential role in handling the response to the outbreak, which has been appreciated by the World Health Organization and some countries. Hence, it is necessary to conduct an overall analysis of the development of the health emergency management system in China. This can provide a reference for scholars to aid in understanding the current situation and to reveal new research topics. METHODS: We collected 2247 international articles from the Web of Science database and 959 Chinese articles from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Bibliometric and mapping knowledge domain analysis methods were used in this study for temporal distribution analysis, cooperation network analysis, and co-word network analysis. RESULTS: The first international article in this field was published in 1991, while the first Chinese article was published in 2005. The research institutions producing these studies mainly existed in universities and health organizations. Developed countries and European countries published the most articles overall, while eastern China published the most articles within China. There were 52 burst words for international articles published from 1999-2018 and 18 burst words for Chinese articles published from 2003-2018. International top-ranked articles according to the number of citations appeared in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2014, 2015, and 2016, while the corresponding Chinese articles appeared in 2003, 2004, 2009, and 2011. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in the regional and economic distribution of international and Chinese cooperation networks. International research is often related to timely issues mainly by focusing on emergency preparedness and monitoring of public health events, while China has focused on public health emergencies and their disposition. International research began on terrorism and bioterrorism, followed by disaster planning and emergency preparedness, epidemics, and infectious diseases. China considered severe acute respiratory syndrome as the starting research background and the legal system construction as the research starting point, which was followed by the mechanism, structure, system, and training abroad for public health emergency management.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Internacionalidad
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(710): 1938-1940, 2020 Oct 14.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058581

RESUMEN

In recent years, several cases of measles have appeared on the campuses of the University of Lausanne (UNIL) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). In response to this, several medical students have mobilized in collaboration with various cantonal authorities in order to set up a free measles, mumps and rubella vaccination campaign on the UNIL/EPFL campuses, in 2019. This first edition was a success and will be repeated in the future. Such an approach having shown its feasibility, it could be applied to other public health issues. The involvement of medical students could thus be extremely valuable if a generalized vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 were to take place.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Vacuna contra el Sarampión-Parotiditis-Rubéola/administración & dosificación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Estudiantes de Medicina , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunas Virales/administración & dosificación , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Suiza/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Universidades
4.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 321, 2020 10 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032601

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: After experiencing a sharp growth in COVID-19 cases early in the pandemic, South Korea rapidly controlled transmission while implementing less stringent national social distancing measures than countries in Europe and the USA. This has led to substantial interest in their "test, trace, isolate" strategy. However, it is important to understand the epidemiological peculiarities of South Korea's outbreak and characterise their response before attempting to emulate these measures elsewhere. METHODS: We systematically extracted numbers of suspected cases tested, PCR-confirmed cases, deaths, isolated confirmed cases, and numbers of confirmed cases with an identified epidemiological link from publicly available data. We estimated the time-varying reproduction number, Rt, using an established Bayesian framework, and reviewed the package of interventions implemented by South Korea using our extracted data, plus published literature and government sources. RESULTS: We estimated that after the initial rapid growth in cases, Rt dropped below one in early April before increasing to a maximum of 1.94 (95%CrI, 1.64-2.27) in May following outbreaks in Seoul Metropolitan Region. By mid-June, Rt was back below one where it remained until the end of our study (July 13th). Despite less stringent "lockdown" measures, strong social distancing measures were implemented in high-incidence areas and studies measured a considerable national decrease in movement in late February. Testing the capacity was swiftly increased, and protocols were in place to isolate suspected and confirmed cases quickly; however, we could not estimate the delay to isolation using our data. Accounting for just 10% of cases, individual case-based contact tracing picked up a relatively minor proportion of total cases, with cluster investigations accounting for 66%. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst early adoption of testing and contact tracing is likely to be important for South Korea's successful outbreak control, other factors including regional implementation of strong social distancing measures likely also contributed. The high volume of testing and the low number of deaths suggest that South Korea experienced a small epidemic relative to other countries. Caution is needed in attempting to replicate the South Korean response in populations with larger more geographically widespread epidemics where finding, testing, and isolating cases that are linked to clusters may be more difficult.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Trazado de Contacto/tendencias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Cuarentena/tendencias , República de Corea/epidemiología
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 745, 2020 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046011

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Workers and residents in Care Homes are considered at special risk for the acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection, due to the infectivity and high mortality rate in the case of residents, compared to other containment areas. The role of presymptomatic people in transmission has been shown to be important and the early detection of these people is critical for the control of new outbreaks. Pooling strategies have proven to preserve SARS-CoV-2 testing resources. The aims of the present study, based in our local experience, were (a) to describe SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in institutionalized people in Galicia (Spain) during the Coronavirus pandemic and (b) to evaluate the expected performance of a pooling strategy using RT-PCR for the next rounds of screening of institutionalized people. METHODS: A total of 25,386 Nasopharyngeal swab samples from the total of the residents and workers at Care Homes in Galicia (March to May 2020) were individually tested using RT-PCR. Prevalence and quantification cycle (Cq) value distribution of positives was calculated. Besides, 26 pools of 20 samples and 14 pools of 5 samples were tested using RT-PCR as well (1 positive/pool). Pooling proof of concept was performed in two populations with 1.7 and 2% prevalence. RESULTS: Distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection at Care Homes was uneven (0-60%). As the virus circulation global rate was low in our area (3.32%), the number of people at risk of acquiring the infection continues to be very high. In this work, we have successfully demonstrated that pooling of different groups of samples at low prevalence clusters, can be done with a small average delay on Cq values (5 and 2.85 cycles for pools of 20 and 5 samples, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A new screening system with guaranteed protection is required for small clusters, previously covered with individual testing. Our proposal for Care Homes, once prevalence zero is achieved, would include successive rounds of testing using a pooling solution for transmission control preserving testing resources. Scale-up of this method may be of utility to confront larger clusters to avoid the viral circulation and keeping them operative.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Casas de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , España/epidemiología
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 28, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062129

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a rapidly growing pandemic that has grown from a few cases in Wuhan, China to millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide within a few months. Sub-Saharan Africa is not spared. Radiology has a key role to play in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 as literature from Wuhan and Italy demonstrates. We therefore share some critical knowledge and practice areas for radiological suspicion and diagnosis. In addition, emphasis on how guarding against healthcare acquired infections (HAIs) by applying "red" and "green" principle is addressed. Given that pandemics such as COVID-19 can worsen the strain on the scantily available radiological resources in this region, we share some practical points that can be applied to manage these precious resources also needed for other essential services. We have noted that radiology does not feature in many main COVID-19 guidelines, regionally and internationally. This paper therefore suggests areas of collaboration for radiology with other clinical and management teams. We note from our local experience that radiology can play a role in COVID-19 surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Ubicación de la Práctica Profesional/tendencias , Radiología/organización & administración , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Infección Hospitalaria/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades/ética , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Recursos en Salud , Humanos , Conocimiento , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/virología
7.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 20(1): 266, 2020 10 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066791

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An effective approach to containing epidemic outbreaks (e.g., COVID-19) is targeted immunization, which involves identifying "super spreaders" who play a key role in spreading disease over human contact networks. The ultimate goal of targeted immunization and other disease control strategies is to minimize the impact of outbreaks. It shares similarity with the famous influence maximization problem studied in the field of social network analysis, whose objective is to identify a group of influential individuals to maximize the influence spread over social networks. This study aims to establish the equivalence of the two problems and develop an effective methodology for targeted immunization through the use of influence maximization. METHODS: We present a concise formulation of the targeted immunization problem and show its equivalence to the influence maximization problem under the framework of the Linear Threshold diffusion model. Thus the influence maximization problem, as well as the targeted immunization problem, can be solved by an optimization approach. A Benders' decomposition algorithm is developed to solve the optimization problem for effective solutions. RESULTS: A comprehensive computational study is conducted to evaluate the performance and scalability of the optimization approach on real-world large-scale networks. Computational results show that our proposed approaches achieve more effective solutions compared to existing methods. CONCLUSIONS: We show the equivalence of the outbreak minimization and influence maximization problems and present a concise formulation for the influence maximization problem under the Linear Threshold diffusion model. A tradeoff between computational effectiveness and computational efficiency is illustrated. Our results suggest that the capability of determining the optimal group of individuals for immunization is particularly crucial for the containment of infectious disease outbreaks within a small network. Finally, our proposed methodology not only determines the optimal solutions for target immunization, but can also aid policymakers in determining the right level of immunization coverage.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1483, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004011

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Behavioural science can play a critical role in combatting the effects of an infectious disease outbreak or public health emergency, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The current paper presents a synthesis of review literature discussing the application of behaviour change theories within an infectious disease and emergency response context, with a view to informing infectious disease modelling, research and public health practice. METHODS: A scoping review procedure was adopted for the searches. Searches were run on PubMed, PsychInfo and Medline with search terms covering four major categories: behaviour, emergency response (e.g., infectious disease, preparedness, mass emergency), theoretical models, and reviews. Three further top-up reviews was also conducted using Google Scholar. Papers were included if they presented a review of theoretical models as applied to understanding preventative health behaviours in the context of emergency preparedness and response, and/or infectious disease outbreaks. RESULTS: Thirteen papers were included in the final synthesis. Across the reviews, several theories of behaviour change were identified as more commonly cited within this context, specifically, Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, and Protection Motivation Theory, with support (although not universal) for their effectiveness in this context. Furthermore, the application of these theories in previous primary research within this context was found to be patchy, and so further work is required to systematically incorporate and test behaviour change models within public health emergency research and interventions. CONCLUSION: Overall, this review identifies a range of more commonly applied theories with broad support for their use within an infectious disease and emergency response context. The Discussion section details several key recommendations to help researchers, practitioners, and infectious disease modellers to incorporate these theories into their work. Specifically, researchers and practitioners should base future research and practice on a systematic application of theories, beginning with those reported herein. Furthermore, infectious disease modellers should consult the theories reported herein to ensure that the full range of relevant constructs (cognitive, emotional and social) are incorporated into their models. In all cases, consultation with behavioural scientists throughout these processes is strongly recommended to ensure the appropriate application of theory.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Teoría Psicológica , Humanos , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto
9.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 9(1): 54, 2020 10 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081833

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of a new Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) poses dramatic challenges to public health authorities worldwide. One measure put in place to contain the spread of the disease is self-quarantine of individuals who may have been exposed to the disease. While officials expect the public to comply with such regulation, studies suggest that a major obstacle to compliance for self-quarantine is concern over loss of income or employment due to the prolonged absence from work. METHODS: A cohort study of the adult population of Israel was conducted in two time points during the COVID-19 outbreak, the last week of February and the third week of March 2020, in order to assess public attitudes. In particular, public compliance rates to self-quarantine with and without State-sponsored compensation for lost wages were assessed. RESULTS: The results suggest that public attitudes changed as the threat increased, making people more compliant with regulations. In February 2020, compliance rate for self-quarantine dropped from 94% to less than 57% when monetary compensation for lost wages was removed; however, in March 2020 this drop became more moderate (from 96 to 71%). The multivariate logistic regression revealed that older, non-Jewish, worried over COVID-19, and trusting the Ministry of Health were more likely than their counterparts to comply with self-isolation, even when monetary compensation was not assumed. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the effects of threat on people's obedience with regulations, this study demonstrates that providing people with assurances about their livelihood during absence from work remains an important component in compliance with public health regulations.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Asistencia Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1542-1546, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090983

RESUMEN

Mass gatherings have been implicated in higher rates of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and many sporting events have been restricted or canceled to limit disease spread (1). Based on current CDC COVID-19 mitigation recommendations related to events and gatherings (2), Major League Baseball (MLB) developed new health and safety protocols before the July 24 start of the 2020 season. In addition, MLB made the decision that games would be played without spectators. Before a three-game series between teams A and B, the Philadelphia Department of Public Health was notified of a team A player with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19; the player was isolated as recommended (2). During the series and the week after, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 was diagnosed among 19 additional team A players and staff members and one team B staff member. Throughout their potentially infectious periods, some asymptomatic team A players and coaches, who subsequently received positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, engaged in on-field play with teams B and C. No on-field team B or team C players or staff members subsequently received a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19. Certain MLB health and safety protocols, which include frequent diagnostic testing for rapid case identification, isolation of persons with positive test results, quarantine for close contacts, mask wearing, and social distancing, might have limited COVID-19 transmission between teams.


Asunto(s)
Béisbol , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Trazado de Contacto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Práctica de Salud Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(9): 987-993, 2020 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031086

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Since the first reports of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, the disease has spread worldwide. Different social isolation strategies have been adopted to reduce community transmission, but few studies have evaluated the pattern of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection in a family cluster during periods of isolation. We report an outbreak in 24 members of a family cluster during a period of social distancing. METHODOLOGY: We carried out an observational descriptive study of a family cluster infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. Laboratory confirmation included RT-PCR of nasopharyngeal samples or IgM or IgG serology. RESULTS: The attack rates were 75% (19/24) based on laboratory-confirmed cases and 87.5% (21/24) including probable cases. The time of spread was 17 days from the first case. All patients had mild symptoms, requiring no hospitalization, and none of them died. The frequency of symptomatic, laboratory-confirmed patients was higher among adults (94%) than among children (50%); the paediatric age group also had a higher frequency of exposed individuals who remained negative for infection. Ground-glass opacities on chest computed tomography were present in all patients with reported dyspnoea. CONCLUSION: This study highlights a high risk of intrahousehold transmission from an index case, suggesting the need for (I) specific guidelines during periods of social distancing, (II) minimization of external exposures and, above all, (III) adoption of strict quarantine measures for suspected cases and family members to prevent outbreaks from spreading.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Familia , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Cuarentena , Aislamiento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
12.
Codas ; 32(4): e20200222, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053075

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: to describe de functional development of swallowing in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19, who were submitted to a swallowing intervention. METHODS: participants of the study were 77 patients (both gender, mean age 53.4±15.9; score on the Glasgow Coma Scale ≥14 and stable respiratory condition). The functional scale of swallowing used for assessment was the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS). RESULTS: the results indicate that there was a significant recovery of the functional swallowing patterns when comparing the measurements pre and post swallowing intervention. CONCLUSION: 83% of the patients needed up to 3 swallowing interventions to recover a safe swallowing pattern.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Deglución/fisiología , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(9): 632-637, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012863

RESUMEN

Problem: On 21 January 2020, the city of Taizhou, China, reported its first imported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case and subsequently the number of cases rapidly increased. Approach: To organize the emergency responses, the government of Taizhou established on 23 January 2020 novel headquarters for prevention and control of the COVID-19 outbreak, by coordinating different governmental agencies. People at high risk of acquiring COVID-19, as well as probable and confirmed cases, were identified and quarantined. The government closed public venues and limited gatherings. The Taizhou Health Commission shared information about identified COVID-19 patients and probable cases with affected agencies. To timely track and manage close contacts of confirmed cases, Taizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention did epidemiological investigations. Medical institutions or local centers for disease control and prevention reported confirmed cases to the national Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Local setting: Taizhou, a city in Zhejiang province with about 6 million residents, reported 18 confirmed COVID-2019 cases by 23 January 2020, which ranked it third globally in number of cases after Wuhan and Xiaogan cities in the Hubei province. Relevant changes: In total, 146 confirmed cases (85 cases imported and 61 cases through community transmission) and no deaths due to COVID-19 had been reported in Taizhou by 1 June 2020. Between 16 February and 1 June 2020, no confirmed case had been reported. Lesson learnt: Identifying and managing imported cases and people at risk for infection, timely information sharing, limiting gatherings and ensuring collaborations between different agencies were important in controlling COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998303

RESUMEN

Some years inspire more hindsight reflection and future-gazing than others. This is even more so in 2020 with its evocation of perfect vision and the landmark ring to it. However, no futurist can reliably predict what the world will look like the next time that a year's first two digits will match the second two digits-a numerical pattern that only occurs once in a century. As we leap into a new decade, amid uncertainties triggered by unforeseen global events-such as the outbreak of a worldwide pandemic, the accompanying economic hardship, and intensifying geopolitical tensions-it is important to note the blistering pace of 21st century technological developments indicate that while hindsight might be 20/20, foresight is 50/50. The history of science shows us that imaginative ideas, research excellence, and collaborative innovation can, for example, significantly contribute to the economic, cultural, social, and environmental recovery of a post-COVID-19 world. This article reflects on a history of yeast research to indicate the potential that arises from advances in science, and how this can contribute to the ongoing recovery and development of human society. Future breakthroughs in synthetic genomics are likely to unlock new avenues of impactful discoveries and solutions to some of the world's greatest challenges.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Ingeniería Genética/métodos , Genoma Fúngico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Biología Sintética/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/clasificación
15.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 579-590, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046918

RESUMEN

All-hazards preparedness and response planning requires ongoing individual, organisational and multi-jurisdictional learning. Disaster after-action reviews are an established emergency management practice to acquire knowledge through a process of analysing what happened and why, to improve the emergency response before the next crisis. After-action reviews help individuals and organisations learn, and are an essential step in the preparedness cycle. Human and animal health authorities have begun to employ after-action reviews for disaster preparedness and response among public health and Veterinary Services. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) encourages Members to establish after-action reviews and share best practice. The adoption of afteraction review is an essential step for all provincial, national and multinational emergency management authorities to mitigate the impact of disasters on human and animal health. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases with pandemic potential pose unique preparedness challenges, requiring high-level policy attention to close long-standing gaps. A review of after-action reports from the 2001 anthrax bioterror attacks and of naturally occurring infectious disease crises, from the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) to the 2014 Ebola epidemic, reveal a similar pattern of repeated weakness and failures. These phenomena are described as 'lessons observed but not lessons learned'. Most infectious disease outbreaks with pandemic potential are zoonotic and require a One Health approach to prevent, prepare for and respond to global health security crises. After-action reviews in a One Health security context are essential to improve the pandemic preparedness of public health and Veterinary Services. After-action reviews can also provide the evidence-based 'feedback loop' needed to galvanise public policy and political will to translate lessons observed into sustained and applied lessons learned.


Asunto(s)
Desastres , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Salud Global , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/epidemiología , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/veterinaria , Humanos , Salud Pública
16.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 491-501, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046926

RESUMEN

Disasters and disease outbreaks have long been a catalyst for innovative applications of emerging technologies. The urgent need to respond to an emergency leads to resourceful uses of the technologies at hand. However, the best and most cost-effective use of new technologies is to prevent disease and improve resilience. In this paper, the authors present a range of approaches through which both opportunities can be grasped. Global connectedness enables more data to be collected and processed in emergencies, especially with the rise of open-source data, including social media. In general, the poorest and most remote populations are most vulnerable to disaster. However, with smaller, faster, smarter, cheaper and more connected technology, reliable, efficient, and targeted response and recovery can be provided. Initially, crowdsourcing was used to find people, map affected areas, and determine resource allocation. This led to the generation of an overwhelming amount of data, and the need to extract valuable information from that data in a timely manner. As technology evolved, organisations started outsourcing many tasks, first to other people, then to machines. Since the volume of data generated outpaces human capacity, data analysis is being automated using artificial intelligence and machine learning, which furthers our abilities in predictive analytics. As we move towards prevention rather than remediation, information collection and processing must become faster and more efficient while maintaining accuracy. Moreover, these new strategies and technologies can help us to move forwards, by integrating layers of human, veterinary, public, and environmental health data for a One Health approach.


Asunto(s)
Desastres , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Animales , Inteligencia Artificial , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Urgencias Médicas/veterinaria , Humanos
17.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 435-443, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046932

RESUMEN

Complex emergencies, also known as major humanitarian emergencies, differ from emergencies related to natural disasters or major disease outbreaks, in that they are essentially political in nature and will, in most cases, erode the cultural, civil, political and economic stability of societies. They can be exacerbated by natural disasters and eventually require external interventions. National Veterinary Services are usually weakened or partially or totally disrupted. Interventions to support livestock-dependent communities should build on local capacity. Multisector, integrated disaster management plans should be in place and should include not only preparedness and response, but also mitigation, prevention and recovery strategies. National Veterinary Services and their partners should work in close collaboration and are encouraged to look beyond animal-health-related interventions, also addressing access to feed and water, and keeping marketing chains for livestock open. This paper also touches on the specific needs of displaced people, host communities, and pastoralists, as well as addressing disease eradication programmes in the context of complex emergencies.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres , Desastres , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Urgencias Médicas/veterinaria
19.
Clin Lab Med ; 40(4): 459-472, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121615

RESUMEN

Endemic species of coronavirus (HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1) are frequent causes of upper respiratory tract infections. Three highly pathogenic coronaviruses have been associated with outbreaks and epidemics and have challenged clinical microbiology laboratories to quickly develop assays for diagnosis. Their initial characterization was achieved by molecular methods. With the great advance in metagenomic whole-genome sequencing directly from clinical specimens, diagnosis of novel coronaviruses could be quickly implemented into the workflow of managing cases of pneumonia of unknown cause, which will markedly affect the time of the initial characterization and accelerate the initiation of outbreak control measures.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Coronavirus , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Servicios de Laboratorio Clínico , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Humanos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241473, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120402

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Until a vaccine is developed, a test, trace and isolate strategy is the most effective method of controlling the COVID-19 outbreak. Contact tracing and case isolation are common methods for controlling infectious disease outbreaks. However, the effectiveness of any contact tracing system rests on public engagement. Numerous factors may influence an individual's willingness to engage with a contact tracing system. Understanding these factors has become urgent during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To identify facilitators and barriers to uptake of, and engagement with, contact tracing during infectious disease outbreaks. METHOD: A rapid systematic review was conducted to identify papers based on primary research, written in English, and that assessed facilitators, barriers, and other factors associated with the uptake of, and engagement with, a contact tracing system. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four themes were identified as facilitators to the uptake of, and engagement with, contact tracing: collective responsibility; personal benefit; co-production of contact tracing systems; and the perception of the system as efficient, rigorous and reliable. Five themes were identified as barriers to the uptake of, and engagement with, contact tracing: privacy concerns; mistrust and/or apprehension; unmet need for more information and support; fear of stigmatization; and mode-specific challenges. CONCLUSIONS: By focusing on the factors that have been identified, contact tracing services are more likely to get people to engage with them, identify more potentially ill contacts, and reduce transmission.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Pandemias , Participación del Paciente , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Privacidad , Responsabilidad Social , Estereotipo , Confianza
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