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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(1): 287-294, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827187

RESUMEN

This study investigated the use of a fixed-dose combination of 30 mg/ml butorphanol, 12 mg/ml azaperone, and 12 mg/ml medetomidine for the standing sedation of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). In total, seven females (mean age 19.6 yr; range 6-31 yr) and six males (mean age 33.5 yr; range 9-35 yr) were sedated. The estimated dose was 0.0005 ± 0.0001 ml/kg and 0.006 ± 0.001 ml/cm shoulder height, which resulted in a dose of 0.016 ± 0.002 mg/kg or 0.19 ± 0.04 mg/cm shoulder height butorphanol, 0.006 ± 0.0008 mg/ kg or 0.076 ± 0.015 mg/cm shoulder height azaperone, and 0.006 ± 0.0008 mg/kg or 0.076 ± 0.015 mg/cm medetomidine. First signs of sedation were observed within 3-10 min (mean 6 ± 2 min) after darting, and monitoring of the animals started on average at 24 ± 9 min after darting. No bradycardia was observed in any of the elephants (mean heart rate 40.0 ± 6.55 beats/min), although all the animals were mildly hypotensive (mean blood pressure 118.5/86 [94.5]). Rectal temperatures fell within acceptable ranges, and respiratory parameters were stable in all the animals throughout sedation and fell within the standard ranges reported for conscious, standing elephants. Only one elephant had clinically significant hypoxemia characterized by a partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) < 60 mm Hg. This elephant was also hypercapnic (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg), although pH and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation fell within acceptable ranges. None of the elephants reacted to moderately painful stimuli while sedated. The combination was reversed with intramuscular injections of naltrexone (1 mg for every 1 mg butorphanol) and atipamezole (5 mg for every 1 mg medetomidine). Recovery was smooth and calm in all the animals. Time from injection of the reversals until the first signs of recovery was 4.6 ± 2.01 min (range 1-8 min).


Asunto(s)
Azaperona/administración & dosificación , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Fármacos del Sistema Nervioso Central/administración & dosificación , Sedación Consciente/veterinaria , Elefantes/fisiología , Medetomidina/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Animales , Combinación de Medicamentos , Femenino , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Naltrexona/administración & dosificación , Antagonistas de Narcóticos/administración & dosificación
2.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 834-840, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480563

RESUMEN

Captured free-ranging North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) were immobilized for the placement of intra-abdominal radio transmitters in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Twenty-four otters were induced with dexmedetomidine (0.03 mg/kg, IM), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, IM), and midazolam (0.15 mg/kg, IM) combined in one syringe. The otters were maintained on isoflurane during the surgical procedure. Heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation were recorded every 5 min for the duration of the procedures. The otters were reversed with atipamezole (0.3-2 mg/kg, IM), naltrexone (0.6 mg/kg, IM), and flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg, IM). Rapid and smooth induction was seen, with lateral recumbency reached within 6.2 ± 5.6 min. Episodes of resedation were seen in four otters that received 0.3 mg/kg atipamezole so the dose was increased to 1 mg/kg, and no further resedation events were noted. Two fatal complications occurred secondary to suspected respiratory arrest during recovery. This drug protocol provided a smooth and rapid induction in free-ranging river otters, but further research is required to determine the safety of this protocol for river otters in both zoo and free-ranging situations.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacología , Butorfanol/farmacología , Dexmedetomidina/farmacología , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/farmacología , Midazolam/farmacología , Nutrias/fisiología , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Anestesia/veterinaria , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Dexmedetomidina/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Midazolam/administración & dosificación
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 841-847, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480564

RESUMEN

Veterinary care of ferrets often requires chemical restraint. This study hypothesized that IM alfaxalone and butorphanol would result in clinically useful sedation without clinically relevant cardiorespiratory effects. Twelve healthy 15-mo-old ferrets of equal sexes weighing 0.75 to 1.66 kg were enrolled. Using a prospective, blinded design, ferrets randomly received either IM alfaxalone 2.5 mg/kg and butorphanol 0.2 mg/kg (low dose [LD]) or IM alfaxalone 5 mg/kg and butorphanol 0.2 mg/kg (high dose [HD]) (n = 6/group). Sedation times and induction and recovery scores were recorded by a blinded observer. Anesthetic monitor placement was attempted in all recumbent ferrets, and physiologic parameters and reflexes were recorded every 5 min until return of spontaneous movement. Data were assessed for normality using a Shapiro-Wilk normality test and analyzed by two-sample t test or Mann-Whitney U test; one ferret in HD was excluded. Ferrets in LD and HD exhibited moderate and marked sedation, with one of six and four of five ferrets tolerating monitor placement, respectively. Mean ± SD time to first effects, recumbency, and recovery in LD and HD was 2.30 ± 1.13 and 2.054 ± 1.12 (P = 0.7240), 2.87 ± 1.25 and 2.72 ± 1.41 (P = 0.8529), and 65.43 ± 32.43 and 52.30 ± 13.19 (P = 0.4212), respectively. Median (range) duration of recumbency in LD and HD was 31.12 (25.58-115.72) and 35.47 (28.27-44.42) min (P = 0.3290), respectively. Among monitored ferrets, transient mild hypotension and hypoxemia were observed. Intramuscular alfaxalone 5 mg/kg with butorphanol 0.2 mg/kg provided clinically useful sedation in ferrets with mild transient cardiorespiratory derangements.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacología , Butorfanol/farmacología , Hurones , Neuroesteroides/farmacología , Pregnanodionas/farmacología , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Animales , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Sedación Consciente/veterinaria , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Masculino , Neuroesteroides/administración & dosificación , Pregnanodionas/administración & dosificación
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 290-296, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549557

RESUMEN

Fourteen lowland nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) in managed care were successfully anesthetized for a total of 17 anesthetic events using either a combination of butorphanol (0.75 ± 0.15 mg/kg), azaperone (0.25 ± 0.05 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.30 ± 0.06 mg/kg) (BAM) or medetomidine (0.17 ± 0.01 mg/kg), azaperone (0.22 ± 0.02 mg/kg), and alfaxalone (0.52 ± 0.08 mg/kg) (MAA) delivered intramuscularly via dart. Mean time to initial effect, sternal recumbency, lateral recumbency, handling, and intubation were recorded. The nyala were maintained in sternal recumbency with supplemental oxygenation until 60 min after initial injection. Cardiopulmonary effects were recorded every 5 min after handling until reversal. Arterial blood samples were collected every 15 min for analysis. Level of sedation and quality of recovery were scored. Anesthesia was antagonized with atipamezole (at 5 mg per mg of medetomidine) for both protocols and naltrexone (at 2 mg per mg of butorphanol) for the BAM protocol delivered intramuscularly via hand injection. Mean time to extubation, head control, and standing post reversal were recorded. No hyperthermia, acidemia, apnea, or tachycardia occurred; however, animals did display hypoxemia. Two animals in the BAM cohort required supplementation to facilitate handling. These drug combinations provided satisfactory levels of sedation in most cases for safe handling and minor procedures in lowland nyala under managed care.


Asunto(s)
Anestésicos/administración & dosificación , Animales de Zoológico/fisiología , Antílopes/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/efectos de los fármacos , Anestésicos/efectos adversos , Animales , Azaperona/administración & dosificación , Azaperona/efectos adversos , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Butorfanol/efectos adversos , Combinación de Medicamentos , Femenino , Masculino , Medetomidina/administración & dosificación , Medetomidina/efectos adversos , Pregnanodionas/administración & dosificación , Pregnanodionas/efectos adversos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20289, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443375

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that propofol combined butorphanol (PB) has anesthetic effect in laparoscopic surgery (LS) for ectopic pregnancy (EP). But investigations of its potential effects are inconsistent. We will explore the current literature examining PB in LS for EP. METHODS: We will perform a comprehensive search from MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from inception to the present. Other literatures, such as conference abstracts, references to the relevant reviews will also be checked. Two authors will check the titles, abstracts, and full texts independently. They will also independently carry out data collection and study quality assessment. We will conduct statistical analysis using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: This study will provide accurate results on the anesthetic effect and safety of PB in LS for EP. CONCLUSION: This study will establish high-quality evidence of the anesthetic effect and safety of PB in LS for EP to facilitate the clinical practice and guideline development. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202040044.


Asunto(s)
Butorfanol/uso terapéutico , Laparoscopía/métodos , Embarazo Ectópico/cirugía , Propofol/uso terapéutico , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Butorfanol/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Laparoscopía/efectos adversos , Embarazo , Propofol/administración & dosificación , Propofol/efectos adversos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Proyectos de Investigación
6.
Zoolog Sci ; 37(2): 159-167, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282147

RESUMEN

Kawai et al. (2011) recently introduced a mixture of three anesthetic agents (here called MMB) that has an effect similar to ketamine/xylazine in mice, which might allow more effective reaction to changes in the animal condition, as an antagonist is available, and which can be used without license for handling narcotic drugs. Using Kawai's study as a baseline, we tested whether this anesthesia and its antagonist can also be used in avian studies. In the present study, we used two species, the zebra finch and the Bengalese finch, of the avian family Estrildidae. In zebra finches, anesthesia effects similar to the use of ketamine/xylazine and to those obtained in mice can be reached by the use of MMB if a higher dose is applied. MMB leads to more variable anesthesia, but has the advantage of a longer time window of deep anesthesia. An antagonist to one component of MMB reduced the awaking time, but was not as effective as in mice. For Bengalese finches, MMB cannot be generally recommended because of difficult handling and high mortality rate when used without antagonist, but could be used for perfusions instead of pentobarbital.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacología , Anestésicos Combinados/administración & dosificación , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Imidazoles/farmacología , Medetomidina/administración & dosificación , Midazolam/administración & dosificación , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administración & dosificación , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Animales , Femenino , Pinzones , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/administración & dosificación , Imidazoles/administración & dosificación , Inyecciones Intramusculares , Ketamina/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Medetomidina/antagonistas & inhibidores , Xilazina/administración & dosificación
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 452-460, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128369

RESUMEN

A presente pesquisa comparou os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios, hemogasométricos e sedativos da associação midazolam (0,41mg/kg) e butorfanol (0,31mg/kg) acrescida de detomidina (157µg/kg) (DTMB) ou dexmedetomidina (36µg/kg) (DXMB) em catetos. Catetos adultos (n=20) foram distribuídos em dois grupos, DTMB ou DXMB. As variáveis (FC, f, PAM, SpO2, EtCO2 e TR) foram avaliadas após aplicação dos fármacos. A sedação foi avaliada por meio de escala analógica visual, relaxamento muscular, postura e resposta auditiva. Foi realizada ANOVA, seguida de teste t pareado (paramétricos) e teste de Mann-Whitney rank-sum test (não paramétricos), com P<0,05. Não foi observada diferença estatística entre os grupos para o período de latência. Observou-se diferença significativa entre grupos para as variáveis f, PAM e SpO2, com maiores valores para DTMB, e EtCO2, com maiores valores para DXMB. Os dois grupos apresentaram redução da FC e da concentração de lactato, bem como aumento da concentração de bicarbonato. A SpO2 permaneceu abaixo de 90%, durante todo o período experimental, nos dois grupos estudados. Os animais dos dois grupos apresentaram sedação profunda e relaxamento muscular máximo. Conclui-se que os dois protocolos testados proporcionaram adequada sedação, podendo ser indicados para contenção química de catetos adultos.(AU)


The study compared the cardiorespiratory, hemogasometric and sedative effects of the combination of midazolam (0.41mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.31mg/kg) plus detomidine (157µg/kg) (DTMB) or dexmedetomidine (36µg/kg) (DXMB) in collared peccaries. Collared peccaries (n= 20) were divided into two groups, either DTMB or DXMB. The variables (FC, f, PAM, SpO2, EtCO2 and TR) were evaluated after application of the drugs. Sedation was assessed by visual analogue scale, muscle relaxation, posture and auditory response. ANOVA followed by paired t-test (parametric) and Mann Whitney Rank Sum Test (non-parametric) with P< 0.05 were performed. No statistical difference was observed for the latency period. A significant increase was observed between groups for the variables f, PAM and SpO2 with higher values for DTMB and EtCO2 with higher values for DXMB. The two groups presented a reduction in HR and lactate concentration, and an increase in bicarbonate concentration. SpO2 remained below 90% throughout the experiment in both groups. The animals of the two groups presented deep sedation and maximum muscle relaxation. It is concluded that the two protocols tested provided adequate sedation and could be indicated for chemical containment of collared peccaries.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Animales , Artiodáctilos/fisiología , Midazolam/administración & dosificación , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Dexmedetomidina/administración & dosificación , Capacidad Cardiovascular , Anestésicos Combinados/análisis , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 80-87, 2020 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212549

RESUMEN

Twenty-one free-ranging warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, were immobilized with a combination of medetomidine (0.07 ± 0.01 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.26 ± 0.04 mg/kg), tiletamine-zolazepam (0.69 ± 0.15 mg/kg), and ketamine (1.43 ± 0.21 mg/kg) administered intramuscularly by dart. Induction, immobilization, and recovery characteristics were evaluated using a standardized scoring system. In the immobilized warthogs, physiological variables were measured every 5 min and arterial blood gases were analyzed at 15-min intervals. At 45 min after initial drug administration, atipamezole (0.34 ± 0.050 mg/kg) and naltrexone (0.53 ± 0.079 mg/kg) were administered intravenously. Overall, induction quality after darting was scored as excellent and the mean time to safe handling was 5.9 ± 2.0 min. Based on muscle relaxation, and loss of palpebral and pedal reflexes, most subjects (17 out of 21) reached a plane of surgical anesthesia by 10 and 15 min; 20 out of 21 warthogs were in this plane for the duration of the monitoring period. In the immobilized warthogs the overall mean heart rate was 65 ± 15.3 beats per minute, mean respiratory rate was 14.7 ± 5.6 breaths per minute, and the mean rectal temperature was 37.9 ± 1.4°C during the 40 min. Arterial blood gas results showed hypoxemia (mean PaO2 62.1 ± 16.2 mmHg), hypercapnia (mean PaCO2 47.1 ± 5.1 mmHg), and acidemia (mean pH = 7.36 ± 0.04). Values for PaO2 and pH improved over the immobilization period. After antagonist administration, overall recovery quality from immobilization was scored as good, with animals standing at a mean time of 7.3 ± 4.9 min. The drug combination proved to be effective in the immobilization of free-ranging warthogs with rapid induction, good anesthesia, and limited cardiorespiratory changes. This anesthetic protocol produces effective, safe, and partially reversible immobilization in warthogs.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos/administración & dosificación , Anestesia/veterinaria , Anestésicos/administración & dosificación , Inmovilización/veterinaria , Porcinos/fisiología , Anestesia/métodos , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Combinación de Medicamentos , Femenino , Ketamina/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Medetomidina/administración & dosificación , Parques Recreativos , Sudáfrica , Tiletamina/administración & dosificación , Zolazepam/administración & dosificación
9.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 993-996, 2020 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926534

RESUMEN

Seven anesthesia events were performed over 6 wk on a 1.5-yr-old female okapi (Okapia johnstoni) being managed for a fetlock injury. A combination of butorphanol (B) (median; range) (0.045; 0.031-0.046 mg/kg), medetomidine (M) (0.037; 0.031-0.037 mg/kg), ketamine (K) (0.553; 0.536-1.071 mg/kg), and thiafentanil (T) (0.0045; 0.0040-0.0046 mg/kg) was administered in a padded stall. One dart containing all drugs was used for the first two anesthesias. Subsequently, BM was administered 10 min prior to KT using two darts. Time (median; range) from initial injection to first effects (6; 3-7 min) and recumbency (14; 4-20 min) were recorded. Induction quality with the one-dart protocol was poor or fair and was good or excellent with the two-dart protocol. Following recumbency, the okapi was intubated and ventilated, and physiological parameters were recorded. Anesthesia was consistently achieved with BMKT, but induction was smoother with the staged two-dart approach. Neither resedation nor renarcotization was observed post-reversal.


Asunto(s)
Antílopes/fisiología , Butorfanol/farmacología , Fentanilo/análogos & derivados , Ketamina/farmacología , Medetomidina/farmacología , Analgésicos/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos/farmacología , Anestesia/veterinaria , Animales , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Esquema de Medicación , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Femenino , Fentanilo/administración & dosificación , Fentanilo/farmacología , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/administración & dosificación , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/farmacología , Ketamina/administración & dosificación , Medetomidina/administración & dosificación
10.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(1): 65-76, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887090

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of IM administration of alfaxalone and butorphanol combined with acepromazine, midazolam, or dexmedetomidine in dogs. ANIMALS: 6 young healthy mixed-breed hounds. PROCEDURES: Dogs received each of 3 treatments (alfaxalone [2 mg/kg] and butorphanol [0.4 mg/kg] combined with acepromazine [0.02 mg/kg; AB-ace], midazolam [0.2 mg/kg; AB-mid], or dexmedetomidine [0.005 mg/kg; AB-dex], IM) in a blinded, randomized crossover-design study with a 1-week washout period between treatments. Sedation scores and cardiorespiratory variables were recorded at predetermined time points. Data were analyzed by use of mixed-model ANOVA and linear generalized estimating equations with post hoc adjustments. RESULTS: All treatments resulted in moderate to deep sedation (median score, ≥ 15/21) ≤ 5 minutes after injection. Sedation scores did not differ among treatments until the 40-minute time point, when the score was higher for AB-dex than for other treatments. Administration of AB-dex resulted in median scores reflecting deep sedation until 130 minutes, versus 80 and 60 minutes for AB-ace and AB-mid, respectively, after injection. Heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen delivery decreased significantly after AB-dex, but not AB-ace or AB-mid administration. Respiratory variables remained within clinically acceptable ranges after all treatments. Undesirable recovery characteristics were observed in 4 dogs after AB-mid treatment. Four dogs required atipamezole administration 180 minutes after AB-dex injection. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: All protocols produced reliable sedation. The results indicated that in young, healthy dogs, AB-mid may produce undesirable recovery characteristics; AB-dex treatment caused cardiovascular depression and should be used with caution.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia/veterinaria , Anestésicos/farmacología , Sistema Cardiovascular/efectos de los fármacos , Sedación Profunda/veterinaria , Inyecciones Intramusculares/veterinaria , Acepromazina/administración & dosificación , Anestesia/efectos adversos , Anestesia/normas , Anestésicos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Estudios Cruzados , Dexmedetomidina/administración & dosificación , Perros , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca/efectos de los fármacos , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/efectos adversos , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/farmacología , Masculino , Midazolam/administración & dosificación , Pregnanodionas/administración & dosificación
11.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(1): 35-42, 2020 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748444

RESUMEN

Recently, a mixture of medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol (MMB) has been used as an injectable general anesthetic agent for laboratory animals. The purpose of this study was to establish data to encourage practical usage of MMB, and to clarify the effects of MMB on the respiratory function in rats. To compare the anesthetic efficacy between the injection routes, the anesthetic effects of MMB by subcutaneous (s.c.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection were evaluated in rats. To assess the respiratory function, the blood gas parameters and electrolytes were assessed in serial venous blood samples collected from before s.c. injection of MMB to 270 min after the injection. Recovery from anesthesia and the respiratory changes after atipamezole injection at 30 min after MMB injection was also examined. Subcutaneous injection of MMB was associated with more rapid induction and a longer duration of anesthesia as compared to i.p. injection. The blood gas analysis findings showed MMB had effects on respiratory function, that is, elevations of the partial pressures of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate and reduction of the blood pH. Atipamezole injection resulted in recovery from the MMB-induced anesthetic effect as well as respiratory depression. In conclusion, MMB provides more effective anesthesia administered by s.c. injection compared to i.p. injection and induces respiratory change. These changes were counteracted by atipamezole. Therefore, we recommend MMB administered by s.c. injection for anesthesia, followed by injection of atipamezole after the operative procedure to allow recovery.


Asunto(s)
Anestésicos Combinados/administración & dosificación , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Medetomidina/administración & dosificación , Midazolam/administración & dosificación , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Anestesia/veterinaria , Animales , Análisis de los Gases de la Sangre , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/administración & dosificación , Imidazoles/administración & dosificación , Inyecciones Intraperitoneales , Inyecciones Subcutáneas , Masculino , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Respiración/efectos de los fármacos
12.
Vet Surg ; 49(1): 124-130, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603562

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability to evaluate laryngeal function under sedation with dexmedetomidine alone or in combination with opioids. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, crossover, blinded study. ANIMALS: Eight adult research hounds weighing 8 to 22.5 kg. METHODS: Dogs were sedated with propofol, dexmedetomidine, dexmedetomidine and butorphanol, or dexmedetomidine and hydromorphone. Digital images were collected with video laryngoscopy before and after doxapram administration. Maximal inspiratory normalized glottal gap (GGAn ) and laryngeal motion were compared between and within protocols before and after doxapram by using a difference of least squares mean. RESULTS: Normal laryngeal function was confirmed in all dogs with all protocols except propofol, which resulted in two false positive results. No difference between protocols was detected for predoxapram GGAn . Postdoxapram GGAn was greater than predoxapram GGAn for all four sedation protocols (P ≤ .0030). Compared with propofol, postdoxapram GGAn was greater for all three dexmedetomidine protocols (P ≤ .0420). CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine alone or in combination with opioids was an effective sedation protocol for laryngeal examination, producing sufficient immobilization to prevent jaw motion and without affecting arytenoid abduction. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Dexmedetomidine sedation does not inhibit normal laryngeal motion. Laryngeal examination with propofol alone can produce false positive results.


Asunto(s)
Sedación Consciente/veterinaria , Dexmedetomidina/administración & dosificación , Perros , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/administración & dosificación , Laringe/fisiología , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Animales , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Estudios Cruzados , Hidromorfona/administración & dosificación , Distribución Aleatoria
13.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(3): 497-506, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480525

RESUMEN

The efficacy, safety, physiologic effects, and reversibility of butorphanol-medetomidine-midazolam (BMM) immobilization were evaluated in black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) and compared between captive and wild animals. Nine captive and 14 wild black-footed cats were hand injected into an accessible hind limb muscle group with the BMM combination. The captive cats (captive group) received a lower dose of the combination (butorphanol, 0.25 ± 0.03 mg/kg; medetomidine, 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/kg; midazolam, 0.13 ± 0.02 mg/kg), whereas the wild cats received a higher dose (butorphanol, 0.53 ± 0.11 mg/kg, medetomidine, 0.13 ± 0.03 mg/kg, midazolam, 0.27 ± 0.05 mg/kg). Two capture methods were required to restrain the wild cats; previously collared cats were tracked and excavated out of their burrows during daylight hours (excavated group), whereas uncollared cats were randomly located using spotlights and pursued by a vehicle at night (pursued group). Inductions were rapid and no spontaneous arousals occurred. Mean arterial blood pressure in all cats was within normal limits for domestic cats. Initial rectal temperatures varied greatly among the groups, but decreased in all groups as the immobilization progressed. In the pursued animals, heart rates and respiratory rates were initially elevated. All cats had moderate hypoxemia, hypocapnia, and metabolic acidosis. Intramuscular administration of naltrexone, atipamezole, and flumazenil resulted in rapid, uncomplicated recoveries. BMM is thus a safe, effective immobilizing drug combination for both captive and wild black-footed cats, but higher doses are required in wild animals. The capture methods exerted a greater influence on the physiology of the immobilized animals than did the doses of the drugs used. Although this drug combination can be used safely to immobilize black-footed cats, supplemental oxygen should always be available for use, especially in pursued animals due to hypoxia.


Asunto(s)
Anestésicos Combinados/administración & dosificación , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Felidae/fisiología , Inmovilización/veterinaria , Medetomidina/administración & dosificación , Midazolam/administración & dosificación , Animales , Animales Salvajes/fisiología , Animales de Zoológico/fisiología , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Inmovilización/métodos , Masculino , Sudáfrica
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 23(23): 10541-10548, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841210

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of butorphanol on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The I/R model in Sprague-Dawley rats was established. The rats were randomly divided into normal group (n=20), myocardial I/R model group (model group, n=20), and butorphanol treatment group (treatment group, n=20). Next, the liver function indicators such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and the myocardial function index creatine kinase (CK) in rats were detected. ELISA was carried out to measure the relative levels of tumor necrosis factor-gamma (TNF-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1α in serum samples of rats. The cardiac function indexes were examined via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography (ECG). Besides, the pathological changes of the myocardial tissues were detected through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to measure the mRNA and protein expression levels of the relative genes in the MAPK signaling pathway in the rat myocardial tissues. RESULTS: The serum levels of ALP, ALT, and CK in I/R model group were significantly higher than those in the normal group. In I/R model group, the relative levels of TNF-γ, IL-6, and IL-1α, as well as left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd) and left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESd), were remarkably higher, while the fractional shortening (FS, %) and the ejection fraction (EF, %) were lower in comparison with those in the normal group. The HE staining results showed that the myocardial tissues in the I/R model group exhibited severe injury. The expression levels of Caspase3, MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were clearly higher in the I/R model group than those in the treatment group (p<0.05), while the expression level of extracellular regulated protein kinase 1 (ERK1) was remarkably lower (p<0.05). The protein level of MAPK in the treatment group was overtly reduced compared with that in the I/R model group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Butorphanol can modulate the recovery of the myocardial injury in the rats after the myocardial I/R by inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathway.


Asunto(s)
Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Cardiotónicos/administración & dosificación , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Infarto del Miocardio/tratamiento farmacológico , Daño por Reperfusión Miocárdica/prevención & control , Animales , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ventrículos Cardíacos/efectos de los fármacos , Ventrículos Cardíacos/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto del Miocardio/complicaciones , Infarto del Miocardio/diagnóstico , Infarto del Miocardio/fisiopatología , Daño por Reperfusión Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Daño por Reperfusión Miocárdica/patología , Daño por Reperfusión Miocárdica/fisiopatología , Miocardio/patología , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Volumen Sistólico/efectos de los fármacos , Función Ventricular Izquierda/efectos de los fármacos
15.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(12): 1089-1098, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763939

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare anesthetic effects of alfaxalone-ketamine-dexmedetomidine (AKD) and alfaxalone-butorphanol-midazolam (ABM) in naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber). ANIMALS: 20 naked mole-rats. PROCEDURES: Naked mole-rats received AKD (alfaxalone, 2 mg/kg; ketamine, 20 mg/kg; and dexmedetomidine, 0.02 mg/kg; n = 10) or ABM (alfaxalone, 2 mg/kg; butorphanol, 2 mg/kg; and midazolam, 1 mg/kg; 9) IM; 1 animal was removed from the study. Atipamezole (I mg/kg) and flumazenil (0.1 mg/kg) were administered 40 minutes after anesthetic induction (defined as loss of the righting reflex) with AKD and ABM, respectively. Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and reflexes were recorded every 5 minutes. RESULTS: The ABM group had significantly longer median times for induction and recovery than the AKD group. Administration of ABM resulted in significantly lower respiratory rates than administration of AKD from time of anesthetic induction to 10 minutes after induction. Respiratory rate significantly decreased in the AKD group from I0 minutes after induction through the end of the anesthetic period but did not change over time in the ABM group. Males had higher respiratory rates in both groups. Loss of the righting reflex was still evident 40 minutes after induction in both groups. In the AKD group, all tested reflexes were absent from I0 to 40 minutes after induction; the ABM group had variable reflexes that recovered within individual animals over time. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Both AKD and ABM provided effective immobilization in naked mole-rats, but AKD appeared to provide more consistent and deeper anesthesia, compared with administration of ABM.


Asunto(s)
Anestésicos/administración & dosificación , Anestésicos/farmacología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/efectos de los fármacos , Inyecciones Intramusculares , Ratas Topo , Frecuencia Respiratoria/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Butorfanol/farmacología , Dexmedetomidina/administración & dosificación , Dexmedetomidina/farmacología , Femenino , Ketamina/administración & dosificación , Ketamina/farmacología , Masculino , Midazolam/administración & dosificación , Midazolam/farmacología , Pregnanodionas/administración & dosificación , Pregnanodionas/farmacología
16.
Vet Surg ; 48(8): 1473-1482, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513300

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine synovial butorphanol concentrations and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) changes after butorphanol intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP). STUDY DESIGN: Experimental ANIMALS: Six adult horses. METHODS: Cephalic IVRLP was performed with 10 mg butorphanol in sedated horses with a wide rubber tourniquet and a total volume of 30 mL. Radiocarpal synovial fluid and serum concentrations along with MNT were evaluated prior to and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after IVRLP. Butorphanol concentrations were determined with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry positive electrospray ionization. RESULTS: Butorphanol concentrations reached mean (SD) peak concentrations of 9.47 ng/mL (±12.00) in synovial fluid and 3.89 ng/mL (3.29) in serum 30 minutes after IVRLP. Concentrations remained above baseline for 4 hours in synovial fluid (P ≤ .017) and for 2 hours in serum (P ≤ .016). The only difference in MNT was detected 1 hour after IVRLP, when MNT were higher in controls than in treated horses (P = .047). CONCLUSION: Butorphanol IVRLP seemed well tolerated and resulted in measurable levels of butorphanol in the radiocarpal synovial fluid of five of six horses. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Intravenous regional limb perfusion appears to be a viable alternative to administer butorphanol, but additional investigation is required to evaluate the dose and local concentrations required for analgesia.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacocinética , Butorfanol/farmacocinética , Caballos/metabolismo , Administración Intravenosa , Amicacina/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Animales , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Miembro Anterior , Dolor/veterinaria , Perfusión/veterinaria , Postura , Flujo Sanguíneo Regional , Líquido Sinovial/química , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Vasculares
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 23(3 Suppl): 161-170, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389587

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effect of butorphanol on brain tissue injury in rats with sepsis through the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control group (n=20), sepsis model group [cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) group, n=20], and butorphanol treatment group (n=20). After successful modeling, the blood and brain tissues were collected from rats at 24 h. The content of serum brain injury indexes was detected. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were separately carried out to observe the pathological changes and measure the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The neurological function was scored in rats. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100, and NF-κB signaling pathway genes and proteins in brain tissues were detected via quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. RESULTS: CLP group showed remarkably increased levels of serum glucosuria (GLU), creatinine (CR), and Na+ but an evidently reduced level of K+ in comparison with the control group (p<0.05), while the treatment group displayed contrary trends. Histopathological observations showed that the rats in the CLP group suffered a brain injury, while those in the treatment group had mild pathological changes. The MPO in the CLP group was significantly increased compared with that in the control group (p<0.05). The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were overtly higher in the CLP group than those in the control group, and these indexes in the treatment group were close to those in the control group. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of S100, GFAP, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and NF-κB in CLP group were evidently higher than those in the control group and treatment group (p<0.05). The results of Western blotting revealed that the protein expression of NF-κB was significantly higher in CLP group than that in the control group, and it declined in the treatment group, which was close to that in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Butorphanol can reduce the content of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 through the NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby relieving the brain injury caused by sepsis.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Lesiones Encefálicas/complicaciones , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Sepsis/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Lesiones Encefálicas/genética , Lesiones Encefálicas/metabolismo , Butorfanol/farmacología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribución Aleatoria , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis/genética , Sepsis/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal
18.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(4): 466-475, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176572

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare immobilization efficacy of a nonpotent opioid drug combination, ketamine-butorphanol-medetomidine (KBM) to the preferred etorphine-azaperone (EA) combination in zebras. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized crossover trial. ANIMALS: A group of ten adult zebra (six females and four male). METHODS: KBM and EA were administered once to the zebras in random order by dart, 3 weeks apart. Once a zebra was recumbent and instrumented, physiological parameters were measured and recorded at 5-minute intervals until 20 minutes. Antagonist drugs were administered at 25 minutes. KBM was antagonised using atipamezole (7.5 mg mg-1 medetomidine dose) and naltrexone (2 mg mg-1 butorphanol dose). EA was antagonized using naltrexone (20 mg mg-1 etorphine dose). Induction and recovery (following antagonist administration) times were recorded. Physiological parameters, including invasive blood pressure and blood gas analysis, were compared between combinations using a general linear mixed model. Data are reported as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). RESULTS: The doses of KBM and EA administered were 3.30 ± 0.18, 0.40 ± 0.02 and 0.16 ± 0.01 mg kg-1; and 0.02 ± 0.001 and 0.20 ± 0.01 mg kg-1, respectively. KBM and EA induction times were 420 (282-564) and 240 (204-294) seconds, respectively (p = 0.03). Zebras remained recumbent throughout the study procedures. Systolic blood pressure (226 ± 42 and 167 ± 42 mmHg) and oxygen partial pressure (64 ± 12 and 47 ± 13 mmHg) were higher for KBM compared to EA (p < 0.01). Recovery time, after administering antagonists, was 92 (34-1337) and 26 (22-32) seconds for KBM and EA, respectively (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Compared to EA, KBM also immobilized zebras effectively. Systemic hypertension and moderate hypoxaemia are clinical concerns of KBM and severe hypoxaemia is a concern of EA. This occurrence of hypoxaemia highlights the importance of oxygen administration during immobilization.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacología , Anestésicos Disociativos/farmacología , Equidae , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/farmacología , Inmovilización/veterinaria , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos Opioides/efectos adversos , Anestésicos Disociativos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Azaperona/administración & dosificación , Azaperona/efectos adversos , Azaperona/farmacología , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Butorfanol/farmacología , Estudios Cruzados , Combinación de Medicamentos , Etorfina/administración & dosificación , Etorfina/efectos adversos , Etorfina/farmacología , Femenino , Hipertensión/inducido químicamente , Hipertensión/veterinaria , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/administración & dosificación , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/efectos adversos , Hipoxia/inducido químicamente , Hipoxia/veterinaria , Ketamina/administración & dosificación , Ketamina/efectos adversos , Ketamina/farmacología , Masculino , Medetomidina/administración & dosificación , Medetomidina/efectos adversos , Medetomidina/farmacología , Oxígeno/administración & dosificación , Distribución Aleatoria
19.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(4): 538-547, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171446

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate thermal antinociception from intravenous (IV) administration of hydromorphone alone or followed by butorphanol or naloxone in cats. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, masked, crossover design. ANIMALS: A group of eight adult female cats. METHODS: Cats were administered six treatments of two IV injections 30 minutes apart: treatments S-S, two 0.9% saline; H-S, hydromorphone (0.1 mg kg-1) and saline; H-LB, hydromorphone and butorphanol (0.02 mg kg-1); H-MB, hydromorphone and butorphanol (0.1 mg kg-1); H-HB, hydromorphone and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1); H-N, hydromorphone and naloxone (0.04 mg kg-1). Skin temperature (ST), thermal threshold (TT) and sedation score (SS) were recorded before (baseline) and for 8 hours after the first injection. Percentage maximum possible effect (%MPE), thermal excursion (TE), TT, SS and ST were compared using two-way repeated measures anova or Friedman test followed by Tukey's or Dunn's multiple comparisons test when appropriate. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Data from seven cats were analyzed. There were no significant differences among treatments in baseline values, SS and within S-S over time. Compared with respective 0.5 hour values following hydromorphone administration, %MPE was significantly lower at 4-8 hours for H-S; at 3-8 hours for H-LB; at 4-8 hours for H-MB; at 6-8 hours for H-HB and at 1-8 hours for H-N. Compared with respective 0.5 hour values, TE was significantly lower at 4-8 hours for H-S; at 3-8 hours for H-LB; at 2 and 4-8 hours for H-MB; at 6 and 8 hours for H-HB and at 1-8 hours for H-N. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Butorphanol and naloxone reduced hydromorphone-induced thermal antinociception. Butorphanol preserved hydromorphone antinociceptive properties better than naloxone. Butorphanol is recommended during non-life-threatening scenarios as a partial reversal agent for hydromorphone in cats.


Asunto(s)
Butorfanol/farmacología , Gatos , Hidromorfona/farmacología , Naloxona/farmacología , Dolor/veterinaria , Administración Intravenosa , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Animales , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Estudios Cruzados , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Hidromorfona/administración & dosificación , Naloxona/administración & dosificación , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Dimensión del Dolor/veterinaria , Distribución Aleatoria , Temperatura Cutánea/efectos de los fármacos
20.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(6): 937-945, 2019 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080189

RESUMEN

The anesthetic effects of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol were investigated for ICR, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. Mice were administered a combination of 0.5 or 0.75 mg/kg medetomidine and 5 mg/kg butorphanol with 30 or 40 mg/kg alfaxalone (0.5MBA30, 0.75MBA30 and 0.75MBA40, respectively). The drug combinations were administered subcutaneously and were compared with a widely used combination of 0.3 mg/kg medetomidine, 4 mg/kg midazolam, and 5 mg/kg butorphanol (MMB). All three MBA combinations achieved surgical anesthesia, although the recovery time was longer with 0.75MBA30 and 0.75MBA40 compared with 0.5MBA30. Furthermore, several mice exhibited a considerable jumping reaction immediately after injection with 0.75MBA30 and 0.75MBA40. Therefore, 0.5MBA30 may be suitable for inducing surgical anesthesia in the mouse strains tested. The anesthetic scores for 0.5MBA30 were improved compared with those of MMB in all three mouse strains; however, the body temperature drop in C57BL/6 mice was greater with 0.5MBA30. Our results show that the alfaxalone combination, 0.5MBA30, should allow surgical operations that are more stable in more strains of mice than MMB, although the combination may cause hypothermia, especially in C57BL/6 mice.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia/veterinaria , Anestésicos/farmacología , Butorfanol/farmacología , Medetomidina/farmacología , Pregnanodionas/farmacología , Analgésicos Opioides/administración & dosificación , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacología , Anestésicos/administración & dosificación , Anestésicos Combinados , Animales , Temperatura Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Butorfanol/administración & dosificación , Inyecciones Subcutáneas/veterinaria , Medetomidina/administración & dosificación , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Pregnanodionas/administración & dosificación , Organismos Libres de Patógenos Específicos
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