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1.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e083692, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589259

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To analyse monthly changes in public access defibrillation (PAD) incidence and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) during the 2020-2021 COVID-19 pandemic compared with those during the 2016-2019 prepandemic period with consideration of pandemic-related movement restriction. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: An extended database was created by combining and reconciling the nationwide Utstein-style OHCA and the emergency medical service (EMS) transportation databases in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: We analysed 226 182 EMS-witnessed, non-newborn and out-of-home OHCA cases in Japan. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were the PAD incidence and neurologically favourable 1-month survival rate. The secondary outcomes were bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) provision and dispatcher-assisted CPR attempts. RESULTS: The proportion of out-of-home OHCA cases slightly decreased during the pandemic (from 33.7% to 31.9%). Although the pandemic was associated with a decreased PAD incidence, 2-year trend analyses by an interaction test showed that the PAD incidence was lower during the first nationwide declaration of a state of emergency (p<0.001) and in the pandemic's second year (p<0.01). Regardless of location, delays in basic life support (BLS) actions and EMS contact with patients were more common and the rate of PAD-induced return of spontaneous circulation was lower during the pandemic. PAD incidence reduction was significant only in locations with a recommendation of automated external defibrillator placement (p<0.001). In other locations, a pronounced delay in BLS was found during the pandemic. The neurologically favourable survival rate was reduced in parallel with the reduced PAD incidence during the pandemic (r=0.612, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged and repeated movement restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic worsened the OHCA outcomes concurrently with disturbed BLS actions, including the reduced PAD incidence in out-of-home settings. Maintaining BLS training, re-arranging automated external defibrillator placement and establishing a local alert system for recruiting well-trained citizens to the scene are essential.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Reanimación Cardiopulmonar , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Paro Cardíaco Extrahospitalario , Humanos , Cardioversión Eléctrica , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Japón/epidemiología , Sistema de Registros , Paro Cardíaco Extrahospitalario/epidemiología , Paro Cardíaco Extrahospitalario/terapia , Paro Cardíaco Extrahospitalario/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/complicaciones
2.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 24(4): 221-232, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568321

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review reflects on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the field of rheumatology, emphasizing resulting insights related to the risks of viral infections in immunosuppressed patients, vaccine immunogenicity in immunocompromised patients, and immune dysregulation in the setting of viral infection. RECENT FINDINGS: During the pandemic, global patient registries provided real-time insights into the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes in rheumatology patients. Updated evidence-based recommendations from the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guided rheumatology practice during a time of considerable uncertainty. Studies on COVID-19 vaccines in immunocompromised populations enhanced our understanding of specific immunosuppressive therapies on vaccine efficacy. The immune dysregulation seen in severe COVID-19 underscored a role for immunomodulation in this and other severe infections. Furthermore, novel post-infectious conditions, namely multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and Long COVID, reshaped our understanding of post-viral syndromes and revealed novel pathological mechanisms. Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrate the power of collaborative research. The scientific revelations from this dreadful time will, nonetheless, benefit the practice of rheumatology for years to come.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicaciones , Reumatología , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica , Niño , Humanos , Estados Unidos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/uso terapéutico , Síndrome Post Agudo de COVID-19 , Terapia de Inmunosupresión , Vacunación
3.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1353012, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571960

RESUMEN

Background: Type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN autoantibodies play a crucial role in controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection. The levels of these mediators have only rarely been studied in the alveolar compartment in patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) but have not been compared across different ARDS etiologies, and the potential effect of dexamethasone (DXM) on these mediators is not known. Methods: We assessed the integrity of the alveolo-capillary membrane, interleukins, type I, II, and III IFNs, and IFN autoantibodies by studying the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) volumes, alveolar concentration of protein, and ELF-corrected concentrations of cytokines in two patient subgroups and controls. Results: A total of 16 patients with CARDS (four without and 12 with DXM treatment), eight with non-CARDS, and 15 healthy controls were included. The highest ELF volumes and protein levels were observed in CARDS. Systemic and ELF-corrected alveolar concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 appeared to be particularly low in patients with CARDS receiving DXM, whereas alveolar levels of IL-8 were high regardless of DXM treatment. Alveolar levels of IFNs were similar between CARDS and non-CARDS patients, and IFNα and IFNω autoantibody levels were higher in patients with CARDS and non-CARDS than in healthy controls. Conclusions: Patients with CARDS exhibited greater alveolo-capillary barrier disruption with compartmentalization of IL-8, regardless of DXM treatment, whereas systemic and alveolar levels of IL-6 were lower in the DXM-treated subgroup. IFN-I autoantibodies were higher in the BALF of CARDS patients, independent of DXM, whereas IFN autoantibodies in plasma were similar to those in controls.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Interferón Tipo I , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria , Humanos , Citocinas , COVID-19/complicaciones , Interleucina-8 , Autoanticuerpos , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleucina-6 , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria/etiología
4.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 35(1): 75-77, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556939

RESUMEN

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), which most often occurs after the use of antipsychotics, is a rare but life-threatening condition. In this article, a 56-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (BPD) who developed NMS after a COVID-19 infection will be presented. The patient had been brought to the emergency room with high fever, fatigue, and slowness of movements that had been going on for two days. The examination revealed tachycardia, tachypnea, lethargy and rigidity. Upon further investigation the COVID-19 test came out positive and the serum levels of creatine kinase were considerably high. He was admitted to the psychiatric ward with diagnoses of COVID-19 infection and NMS. COVID-19 infection might have been a risk factor for NMS in this patient. Especially in patients who are taking antipsychotic drugs, if COVID-19 is present, the risk of NMS should be taken into consideration. Keyword: COVID-19, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, Risperidone, Antipsikotik, Enfeksiyon.


Asunto(s)
Antipsicóticos , COVID-19 , Síndrome Neuroléptico Maligno , Masculino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Síndrome Neuroléptico Maligno/diagnóstico , Síndrome Neuroléptico Maligno/etiología , COVID-19/complicaciones , Antipsicóticos/efectos adversos , Risperidona/efectos adversos
5.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 52(3): 189-198, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573091

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Significant involvement of the cardiovascular system is known in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This study aimed to examine the recovery of affected cardiovascular parameters over a medium-term follow-up. METHODS: A cohort of 69 children was studied prospectively. Assessments of left ventricular (LV) function and coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) were conducted at admission, 1.5 months, and 3 months. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) antibody titers were assessed at these three time points. Echocardiographic and antibody parameters (rising/decreasing) were analyzed for correlation. Outcomes were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: At admission, among the 78.2% of patients who were tested, 88.9% tested positive for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A quarter of the patients had pericardial effusion, and half had valvulitis. Decreased ejection fraction, global circumferential strain (GCS), and global longitudinal strain (GLS) were seen in 54.4%, 68.6%, and 35.8% of patients, respectively. CAAs were observed in 27.78% of patients. Systolic dysfunction was significantly associated with older age. During follow-up, severe LV dysfunction normalized within 6-7 weeks, while mild to moderate dysfunction reached normalcy by two weeks. Both GCS and GLS reached normalcy within a median of two weeks. Diastolic parameters recovered by six weeks. Most small and moderate coronary aneurysms resolved, but a giant aneurysm in an infant remained large even after 15 months. Trends in antibodies and ejection fraction (EF) at three months were significantly correlated. Admission EF, GLS (at 6 weeks) and deceleration time (at 3 months) were significantly associated with intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The median segmental strain of the cohort remained low in certain segments at three months. CONCLUSION: Smaller CAAs resolve, whereas giant CAAs persist. EF and GLS are important predictors of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) stay. The residual impairment of median segmental strain and persistent diastolic dysfunction at three months indicate the need for long-term follow-up.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicaciones , Ecocardiografía , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica , Lactante , Humanos , Niño , Estudios de Seguimiento , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagen , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Ren Fail ; 46(1): 2316885, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561236

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) infection is well established as a systemic disease including kidney damage. The entry point into the renal cell remains the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptor and the spectrum of renal lesions is broad, with a clear predominance of structural and functional tubular lesions. The most common form of glomerular injury is collapsing glomerulopathy (CG), which is strongly associated with apolipoprotein L1(APOL-1) risk variants. These acute lesions, which are secondary to the direct or indirect effects of SARS-CoV-2, can progress to chronicity and are specific to long COVID-19 in the absence of any other cause. Residual inflammation associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, in addition to acute kidney injury (AKI) as a transitional state with or without severe histological lesions, may be responsible for greater kidney function decline in mild-to-moderate COVID-19. This review discusses the evidence for renal histological markers of chronicity in COVID-19 patients and triggers of low-grade inflammation that may explain the decline in kidney function in the post-COVID-19 period.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/complicaciones , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Post Agudo de COVID-19 , Riñón/patología , Lesión Renal Aguda/etiología , Lesión Renal Aguda/patología , Inflamación/patología
8.
Med Arch ; 78(2): 146-148, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566866

RESUMEN

Background: Patients with COVID-19 are at greater risk of pulmonary embolism. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the monthly prevalence of pulmonary embolism diagnosed by angiotomography and mortality between March 2020 and May 2021 in more than 6000 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at a single institution. Methods: A clinical trial was conducted with evaluated medical records the patients hospitalized at the institution who developed pulmonary embolism determined by angiotomography. Monthly and overall mortality rates between March 2020 and May 2021 in this population were evaluated. Results: A total of 6040 patients were hospitalized in this period, 203 of whom (3.36%) had an angiotomographic diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and 119 of these patients (58.62%) died. The largest number of patients with pulmonary embolism occurred in the periods from July to September 2020 and March to May 2021. No significant difference was found between mortality and the two peaks of the pandemic (p = 0.9, Fisher's exact test). Conclusion: Pulmonary embolism is associated a higher mortality rate among patients with COVID-19. Therefore, one of the strategies is an emphasis on the prevention of thrombotic and embolic events.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Embolia Pulmonar , Trombosis , Humanos , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiología , Embolia Pulmonar/etiología , Hospitales , Estudios Retrospectivos
9.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e078485, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569707

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In recent decades, all-cause mortality has increased among individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), influenced by factors such as aetiology, standards of care and access to kidney replacement therapies (dialysis and transplantation). The recent COVID-19 pandemic also affected mortality over the past few years. Here, we outline the protocol for a systematic review to investigate global temporal trends in all-cause mortality among patients with CKD at any stage from 1990 to current. We also aim to assess temporal trends in the mortality rate associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic review of studies reporting mortality for patients with CKD following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We will search electronic databases, national and multiregional kidney registries and grey literature to identify observational studies that reported on mortality associated with any cause for patients with CKD of all ages with any stage of the disease. We will collect data between April and August 2023 to include all studies published from 1990 to August 2023. There will be no language restriction, and clinical trials will be excluded. Primary outcome will be temporal trends in CKD-related mortality. Secondary outcomes include assessing mortality differences before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, exploring causes of death and examining trends across CKD stages, country classifications, income levels and demographics. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: A systematic review will analyse existing data from previously published studies and have no direct involvement with patient data. Thus, ethical approval is not required. Our findings will be published in an open-access peer-reviewed journal and presented at scientific conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42023416084.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Humanos , Pandemias , Diálisis Renal/efectos adversos , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/terapia , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/etiología , COVID-19/complicaciones , Proyectos de Investigación
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(4)2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569736

RESUMEN

A healthy man in his late 20s was admitted to the emergency department due to a flare-up in his severe chronic stomatitis, along with flu-like symptoms. CXR showed multiple bilateral consolidations and subsequent CT revealed thrombosis of the left facial and internal jugular vein, together with septic embolism in both lungs. Blood cultures showed penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus The patient was diagnosed with Lemierre's syndrome, despite atypical bacteria and clinical presentation. During hospitalisation, he developed pulmonary empyema as a complication and was admitted for 4 weeks. During hospitalisation and after discharge, the patient was examined for multiple rheumatic, immunological and dermatological diseases, but no underlying cause for Lemierre's syndrome has been found. We present this case due to the rarity of its nature, with atypical clinical presentation and pathogen for Lemierre's syndrome, but with classic radiological findings.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Síndrome de Lemierre , Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Masculino , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Síndrome de Lemierre/complicaciones , Síndrome de Lemierre/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Lemierre/diagnóstico , Penicilinas/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/complicaciones , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/complicaciones , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico
11.
Trials ; 25(1): 232, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570805

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The treatment of persistent fatigue after COVID-19 infection is complex. On the one hand, it involves maintaining a sufficient level of physical and mental activity to counteract possible degenerative processes of the body and nervous system. On the other hand, physical and mental activities can also lead to worsening of symptoms. Therefore, the challenge in treating Post-COVID fatigue is to stimulate the body and central nervous system in a way that stimulates growth and improvement, but does not overtax individual physical and mental limits. Special training programs try to take these characteristics into account, but often reach their limits. A promising approach is offered by new fitness technologies based on immersive virtual realities that stimulate both body and brain while minimizing physical and psychological stress. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of supervised immersive Virtual Reality (VR)-based activity training compared to conventional activity training for patients with Post-COVID-associated fatigue. METHODS: In a single centre, individually randomised, prospective, double-blind two-arm exploratory superiority trial with parallel group design, N = 100 patients with persistent fatigue after COVID-19 infection will be recruited. The intervention includes a supervised immersive neuromuscular training (12 sessions of 30 min over 6 weeks) based on a novel VR-exercise device. We will systematically compare the effects of this intervention on Post-COVID-associated fatigue with a supervised conventional activation program of comparable scope without an immersive environment. The primary outcome is the difference between groups in absolute change in the mean fatigue symptom severity measured on the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) from baseline to posttreatment assessment. Posttreatment assessment in both groups will be conducted by blinded outcome assessors. At three and six months afterwards, patients are sent self-report questionnaires for follow up. The main analysis will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first exploratory study on a supervised immersive neuromuscular training for the treatment of persistent fatigue after COVID-19 infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German register for clinical studies (ID: DRKS00032059) Prospectively registered on June 16th 2023. URL of trial registration.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Síndrome de Fatiga Crónica , Realidad Virtual , Humanos , COVID-19/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Encéfalo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
12.
Acta Med Indones ; 56(1): 63-68, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561876

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies explored the association between anemia and mortality in patients with severe pneumonia due to COVID-19. However, the findings were inconsistent. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the association between anemia at HCU admission and in-hospital mortality in severe pneumonia COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study obtained data on 110 COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia who were admitted to the HCU between January, 1st 2021, and May 31st, 2021. Patients were categorized as anemic and non-anemic based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were described. The Chi-squared test was carried out followed by a logistic regression test to determine the association of anemia and mortality. RESULTS: Anemia was observed in 31% of 110 patients with severe pneumonia COVID-19. The source population consisted of 60.9% men and 39.1% women with a median age of 58 years. The most prevalent comorbidity was hypertension (38.2%), followed by diabetes mellitus (27.2%), renal diseases (19.1%) and heart diseases (10%). TAnemia on HCU admission was associated with in-hospital mortality in patients with severe pneumonia COVID-19 (RR: 2.794, 95% CI 1.470-5.312). After adjusting comorbidities as confounding factors, anemia was independently associated with mortality (RR: 2.204, 95% CI: 1.124-4.323, P < 0.021). The result also showed anemic patients had longer lengths of stay and higher levels of D-dimer than non-anemic patients. The median duration length of stay among the anemic and non-anemic was 16 (11-22) and 13 (9-17) days, respectively. The median D-dimer among the anemic and non-anemic was 2220 µg/ml and 1010 µg/ml, respectively. CONCLUSION: There is a significant association between anemia at HCU admission and mortality in patients with severe pneumonia COVID-19 during hospitalization.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , COVID-19 , Neumonía , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , COVID-19/complicaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Anemia/epidemiología , Anemia/complicaciones , Neumonía/complicaciones , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 67(2): 28-31, 2024.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587155

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine morphological alterations in lung tissues in the case of novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in the aspect of process staging with consideration to disease duration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The number of COVID-19-related deaths of patients aged 55-65 years equal 17 were investigated. Serial cuts of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin, obtained from several lung fragments of each corpse, were analyzed. Morphological features previously described in literature sources were taken into account. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: It has been established, that processes in lungs have a phasic character, furthermore they are not clearly delimited in time. In addition, there were no morphological features specific to COVID-19. Obtained results may allow forensic medical experts-histologists to predict the COVID-19 duration.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/complicaciones , Pulmón , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Med Virol ; 96(4): e29587, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587204

RESUMEN

Obesity has been identified as an independent risk factor for severe outcomes in humans with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other infectious diseases. Here, we established a mouse model of COVID-19 using the murine betacoronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus 1 (MHV-1). C57BL/6 and C3H/HeJ mice exposed to MHV-1 developed mild and severe disease, respectively. Obese C57BL/6 mice developed clinical manifestations similar to those of lean controls. In contrast, all obese C3H/HeJ mice succumbed by 8 days postinfection, compared to a 50% mortality rate in lean controls. Notably, both lean and obese C3H/HeJ mice exposed to MHV-1 developed lung lesions consistent with severe human COVID-19, with marked evidence of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). To identify early predictive biomarkers of worsened disease outcomes in obese C3H/HeJ mice, we sequenced RNA from whole blood 2 days postinfection and assessed changes in gene and pathway expression. Many pathways uniquely altered in obese C3H/HeJ mice postinfection aligned with those found in humans with severe COVID-19. Furthermore, we observed altered gene expression related to the unfolded protein response and lipid metabolism in infected obese mice compared to their lean counterparts, suggesting a role in the severity of disease outcomes. This study presents a novel model for studying COVID-19 and elucidating the mechanisms underlying severe disease outcomes in obese and other hosts.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Virus de la Hepatitis Murina , Humanos , Ratones , Animales , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Endogámicos C3H , Virus de la Hepatitis Murina/genética , COVID-19/complicaciones , Obesidad/complicaciones , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica
16.
PLoS Med ; 21(4): e1004263, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573873

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute neurological manifestation is a common complication of acute Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. This retrospective cohort study investigated the 3-year outcomes of patients with and without significant neurological manifestations during initial COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Patients hospitalized for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection between 03/01/2020 and 4/16/2020 in the Montefiore Health System in the Bronx, an epicenter of the early pandemic, were included. Follow-up data was captured up to 01/23/2023 (3 years post-COVID-19). This cohort consisted of 414 patients with COVID-19 with significant neurological manifestations and 1,199 propensity-matched patients (for age and COVID-19 severity score) with COVID-19 without neurological manifestations. Neurological involvement during the acute phase included acute stroke, new or recrudescent seizures, anatomic brain lesions, presence of altered mentation with evidence for impaired cognition or arousal, and neuro-COVID-19 complex (headache, anosmia, ageusia, chemesthesis, vertigo, presyncope, paresthesias, cranial nerve abnormalities, ataxia, dysautonomia, and skeletal muscle injury with normal orientation and arousal signs). There were no significant group differences in female sex composition (44.93% versus 48.21%, p = 0.249), ICU and IMV status, white, not Hispanic (6.52% versus 7.84%, p = 0.380), and Hispanic (33.57% versus 38.20%, p = 0.093), except black non-Hispanic (42.51% versus 36.03%, p = 0.019). Primary outcomes were mortality, stroke, heart attack, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), reinfection, and hospital readmission post-discharge. Secondary outcomes were neuroimaging findings (hemorrhage, active and prior stroke, mass effect, microhemorrhages, white matter changes, microvascular disease (MVD), and volume loss). More patients in the neurological cohort were discharged to acute rehabilitation (10.39% versus 3.34%, p < 0.001) or skilled nursing facilities (35.75% versus 25.35%, p < 0.001) and fewer to home (50.24% versus 66.64%, p < 0.001) than matched controls. Incidence of readmission for any reason (65.70% versus 60.72%, p = 0.036), stroke (6.28% versus 2.34%, p < 0.001), and MACE (20.53% versus 16.51%, p = 0.032) was higher in the neurological cohort post-discharge. Per Kaplan-Meier univariate survival curve analysis, such patients in the neurological cohort were more likely to die post-discharge compared to controls (hazard ratio: 2.346, (95% confidence interval (CI) [1.586, 3.470]; p < 0.001)). Across both cohorts, the major causes of death post-discharge were heart disease (13.79% neurological, 15.38% control), sepsis (8.63%, 17.58%), influenza and pneumonia (13.79%, 9.89%), COVID-19 (10.34%, 7.69%), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (10.34%, 6.59%). Factors associated with mortality after leaving the hospital involved the neurological cohort (odds ratio (OR): 1.802 (95% CI [1.237, 2.608]; p = 0.002)), discharge disposition (OR: 1.508 (95% CI [1.276, 1.775]; p < 0.001)), congestive heart failure (OR: 2.281 (95% CI [1.429, 3.593]; p < 0.001)), higher COVID-19 severity score (OR: 1.177 (95% CI [1.062, 1.304]; p = 0.002)), and older age (OR: 1.027 (95% CI [1.010, 1.044]; p = 0.002)). There were no group differences in radiological findings, except that the neurological cohort showed significantly more age-adjusted brain volume loss (p = 0.045) than controls. The study's patient cohort was limited to patients infected with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic, when hospitals were overburdened, vaccines were not yet available, and treatments were limited. Patient profiles might differ when interrogating subsequent waves. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 with neurological manifestations had worse long-term outcomes compared to matched controls. These findings raise awareness and the need for closer monitoring and timely interventions for patients with COVID-19 with neurological manifestations, as their disease course involving initial neurological manifestations is associated with enhanced morbidity and mortality.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Femenino , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Seguimiento , Cuidados Posteriores , Alta del Paciente , Convulsiones , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e245362, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578638

RESUMEN

Importance: Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common type of vasculitis in children. The factors that trigger the disease are poorly understood. Although several viruses and seasonal bacterial infections have been associated with HSP, differentiating the specific associations of these pathogens with the onset of HSP remains a challenge due to their overlapping seasonal patterns. Objective: To analyze the role of seasonal pathogens in the epidemiology of HSP. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study comprised an interrupted time-series analysis of patient records from a comprehensive national hospital-based surveillance system. Children younger than 18 years hospitalized for HSP in France between January 1, 2015, and March 31, 2023, were included. Exposure: Implementation and relaxation of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) for the COVID-19 pandemic, such as social distancing and mask wearing. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were the monthly incidence of HSP per 100 000 children, analyzed via a quasi-Poisson regression model, and the estimated percentage of HSP incidence potentially associated with 14 selected common seasonal pathogens over the same period. Results: The study included 9790 children with HSP (median age, 5 years [IQR, 4-8 years]; 5538 boys [56.4%]) and 757 110 children with the infectious diseases included in the study (median age, 0.7 years [IQR, 0.2-2 years]; 393 697 boys [52.0%]). The incidence of HSP decreased significantly after implementation of NPIs in March 2020 (-53.6%; 95% CI, -66.6% to -40.6%; P < .001) and increased significantly after the relaxation of NPIs in April 2021 (37.2%; 95% CI, 28.0%-46.3%; P < .001). The percentage of HSP incidence potentially associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae was 37.3% (95% CI, 22.3%-52.3%; P < .001), the percentage of cases associated with Streptococcus pyogenes was 25.6% (95% CI, 16.7%-34.4%; P < .001), and the percentage of cases associated with human rhino enterovirus was 17.1% (95% CI, 3.8%-30.4%; P = .01). Three sensitivity analyses found similar results. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that significant changes in the incidence of HSP simultaneously with major shifts in circulating pathogens after NPIs for the COVID-19 pandemic indicated that approximately 60% of HSP incidence was potentially associated with pneumococcus and group A streptococcus. This finding suggests that preventive measures against these pathogens could reduce the incidence of pediatric HSP.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vasculitis por IgA , Masculino , Niño , Humanos , Preescolar , Lactante , Estaciones del Año , Vasculitis por IgA/epidemiología , Vasculitis por IgA/complicaciones , Estudios de Cohortes , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/complicaciones
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300877, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578794

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the epidemiology of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has continually changed, making it difficult to predict. Our study aimed to evaluate epidemiological changes and clinical outcomes of ARIs in pediatric patients in the post-lockdown period. METHODS: A single-center retrospective cross-sectional study was performed in one of the largest pediatric emergency departments in Lithuania during two cold seasons-from October 1, 2021, to April 30, 2022 (Season I) and in the same period in 2022-2023 (Season II). Patients under 18 years of age who had been tested for COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. Additional data about other respiratory pathogens in the study group (specifically influenza A/B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and group A Streptococcus (GAS)), were included. RESULTS: During both seasons of our study, 19,366 children were screened for COVID-19. Positive tests for COVID-19 decreased from 14.5% in Season I to 5.9% in Season II, while at the same time, the rates of other infections increased significantly: influenza from 17.5% to 27.1%, RSV from 8.8% to 27.6%, and GAS from 8.4% to 44%, respectively. In Season II, COVID-19 infection presented in fewer admissions to pediatric intensive care (0.8% vs. 3.7%, p<0.01) and there were no deaths, while influenza presented in a higher proportion of hospitalizations (10.5% vs. 6.1%, p<0.01) and there was one death. The proportion of RSV hospitalizations also increased in Season II (34.6% vs. 44.0%, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The early post-lockdown period saw a decline of COVID-19 and re-emergence of influenza, RSV and GAS infections in children. In Season II, COVID-19 cases became milder contrary to influenza. RSV infection contributed significantly to hospitalizations for respiratory infections in children in both seasons, particularly in Season II. Coinfections were not associated with a more severe course of the disease.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Gripe Humana , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Humanos , Niño , Adolescente , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/complicaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/complicaciones , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Estaciones del Año
19.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 122, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580977

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The commonest indication for hospitalization in COVID-19 patients is hypoxemia or severe respiratory symptoms. However, COVID-19 disease may result in extrapulmonary complications including kidney-related pathology. The reported incidence of renal involvement related to COVID infection varies based on geographical location. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the incidence rate of AKI in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and identify risk factors and prognostic predictors. METHOD: In this retrospective study, we recruited hospitalized COVID-19 patients from January 2021 until June 2021 at the University Malaya Medical Center. The inclusion criteria were hospitalized for ≥ 48 h with confirmed COVID-19 infection and at least 18 years old. Patient demographic and clinical data were collected from electronic medical records. The staging of AKI was based on criteria as per KDIGO guidelines. RESULTS: One thousand five hundred twenty-nine COVID patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria with a male-to-female ratio of 759 (49.6%) to 770 (50.3%). The median age was 55 (IQR: 36-66). 500 patients (32.7%) had diabetes, 621 (40.6%) had hypertension, and 5.6% (n = 85) had pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD). The incidence rate of AKI was 21.1% (n = 323). The percentage of COVID patients in different AKI stages of 1,2 and 3 were 16.3%, 2.1%, and 2.7%, respectively. Fifteen hospitalized patients (0.98%) required renal replacement therapy. 58.8% (n = 190) of AKI group had complete recovery of kidney function. Demographic factors included age (p < 0.001), diabetes (p < 0.001), hypertension (p < 0.012), CKD (p < 0.001), and vaccination status (p = 0.042) were associated with an increased risk of developing AKI. We found that the AKI cohort had statistically significant lower platelet counts and higher ferritin levels than the non-AKI cohort. AKI is a risk predictor of prolonged hospitalization (p < 0.001) and higher mortality rates (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: AKI is a common clinical complication among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The etiology of AKI is multifactorial and may have an adverse impact on patient morbidity and mortality.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensión , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/complicaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Países en Desarrollo , Lesión Renal Aguda/epidemiología , Lesión Renal Aguda/terapia , Lesión Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Factores de Riesgo , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Mortalidad Hospitalaria
20.
J Int Med Res ; 52(4): 3000605241234555, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587813

RESUMEN

Among the various manifestations of COVID-19, the neurological implications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are of significant concern. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD), a neurodegenerative disorder, exhibits a clinical spectrum ranging from mild progressive dementia in its chronic form to states of acute coma and varied mortality rates. Acute MBD primarily occurs in chronic alcoholics and malnourished individuals and is characterized by sudden loss of consciousness, seizures, confusion, and psychosis. We herein report a case of MBD presenting as acute loss of consciousness after the development of COVID-19. The patient presented with a history of fever and upper respiratory infection and was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. He developed a neurological syndrome characterized by altered consciousness and convulsions, and brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormal signals in the corpus callosum and frontoparietal lobes. Considering his alcohol intake history and the absence of other differential diagnoses, we diagnosed him with acute MBD triggered by COVID-19. After high-dose vitamin B1 and corticosteroid therapy, his clinical symptoms improved. In this case, we observed a temporal sequence between the development of COVID-19 and acute exacerbation of MBD. This case adds to the mounting evidence suggesting the potential effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the neurological system.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Demencia , Enfermedad de Marchiafava-Bignami , Humanos , Masculino , Estado de Conciencia , Enfermedad de Marchiafava-Bignami/diagnóstico , Enfermedad de Marchiafava-Bignami/diagnóstico por imagen , COVID-19/complicaciones , SARS-CoV-2 , Coma
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