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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1347-1353, 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961681

RESUMEN

A facile approach is introduced here for the synthesis of rare ketoses from glycerol and d-/l-glyceraldehyde (d-/l-GA). The reactions were carried out in a one-pot multienzyme fashion in which the only carbon source is glycerol. In the enzymatic cascade, glycerol is phosphorylated and then oxidized at C2 to afford dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), the key donor for enzymatic aldol reaction. Meanwhile, the primary alcohol of glycerol is also oxidized to give the acceptor molecule GA in situ (d- or l-isomer could be formed stereospecifically with either alditol oxidase or horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase). Different DHAP-dependent aldolases were used to generate the aldol adducts (rare ketohexose phosphates) with various stereoconfigurations and diastereomeric ratios. It is worth noting that the enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation reaction in the first step could also help recycle the phosphate in the last step to provide free rare sugar molecules. This study provides a useful method for rare ketose synthesis on a 100 mg to g scale, starting from relatively inexpensive materials which solved the problem of supplying both glycerol 3-phosphate and GA in our previous work. It also demonstrates an example of green synthesis due to highly efficient carbon usage and recycling of cofactors.


Asunto(s)
Alcohol Deshidrogenasa/química , Aldehído-Liasas/química , Glicerol/química , Cetosas/química , Animales , Biocatálisis , Dihidroxiacetona Fosfato/química , Caballos , Fosforilación
2.
Water Res ; 171: 115342, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841955

RESUMEN

Volunteer monitoring in the Hudson River watershed since 2012 has identified that the Wallkill River and Rondout Creek tributary complex have elevated concentrations of the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci. Concentrations of enterococci do not provide insight into the sources of pollution and are imperfect indicators of health risks. In 2017, the regular monthly volunteer monitoring campaign for culturable enterococci at 24 sites on the Wallkill and Rondout expanded to include: (1) culturable measurements of E. coli and quantification of E. coli and Enterococcus specific markers vis nanoscale qPCR, (2) microbial source tracking (MST) assays (avian, human, bovine, and equine) via real time PCR and nanoscale qPCR, and 3) quantification of 12 gastrointestinal pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoa via nanoscale qPCR. Three human associated MST markers (HumM2, HF183, and B. theta) corroborated that human pollution was present in Rondout Creek and widespread in the Wallkill River. The presence of B. theta was associated with increased concentrations of culturable E. coli. Genes for adenovirus 40 and 41 conserved region, rotavirus A NSP3, E. coli eae and stx1, and Giardia lamblia 18S rRNA were detected in >45% of samples. Abundance of rotavirus A NSP3 genes was significantly correlated to the bovine marker gene, CowM3, though wild bird sources cannot be ruled out. This is the first study to investigate potential fecal pollution sources and pathogen concentrations in Hudson tributaries during the months of peak recreational use.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Microbiología del Agua , Animales , Bacterias , Bovinos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Escherichia coli , Heces , Caballos , Humanos , Contaminación del Agua
6.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105222, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639325

RESUMEN

Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common zoonoses worldwide, is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Horses are an intermediate host of T. gondii, representing a potential risk for humans. To determine the T. gondii seroprevalence in horses worldwide, a global meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 35 publications were obtained by searching the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of knowledge (CNKI) and Wanfang databases. A total of 12,354 horses were assessed, of which 1580 were positive for T. gondii. The pooled overall seroprevalence of horses infected by T. gondii was 11.29%. No significant difference of T. gondii seroprevalence was observed between male and female horses. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in horses from different countries varied. Our findings suggest that toxoplasmosis is prevalent in horses worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to implement continuous monitoring of the status of T. gondii seroprevalence in horses. Moreover, powerful regulatory measures should be implemented to prevent and control the spread of toxoplasmosis.


Asunto(s)
Caballos/parasitología , Toxoplasmosis Animal/epidemiología , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1822-1826, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858597

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Koumiss is a traditional fermented beverage made from mare's milk. The traditional backslopping method for koumiss production has shortcomings in terms of microbiological diversity and nutritional characteristics. In this study, a two-stage fermentation method was established to scale up the production of koumiss powder. The chemical composition and nutritional properties of a novel two-stage fermentation koumiss powder (TKP) were compared with backslopping koumiss powder (BKP). RESULTS: The TKP exhibited important nutritional and functional properties, including a high percentage of essential amino acids, and high polyunsaturated fatty acid, vitamin, and mineral content. The essential amino acid content of TKP was not significantly different from that of BKP. The oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and water-soluble vitamin content of TKP was higher than that of BKP. The Ca:P ratio of TKP was also close to the optimal Ca:P ratio in humans. CONCLUSION: The novel method could be applied for the scaled-up production of koumiss powder with similar nutritional properties to traditional backslopping koumiss powder. The successful production of koumiss powder could also promote the development of the koumiss industry. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Kumis/análisis , Leche/microbiología , Polvos/química , Aminoácidos/análisis , Animales , Fermentación , Caballos , Kumis/microbiología , Lactobacillaceae/metabolismo , Leche/química , Minerales/análisis , Valor Nutritivo , Vitaminas/análisis
8.
J Environ Manage ; 257: 110010, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868636

RESUMEN

Traditional orchard meadows are among the most valuable cultural and agricultural systems for nature conservation in Europe. They comprise scattered fruit trees over a highly diverse herbaceous layer and provide a wide range of ecosystem services. However, they are strongly endangered due to farmland intensification and abandonment. Livestock grazing is known to promote grassland diversity but it may also cause tree damage through debarking. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different grazers (cattle, horse and sheep) on fruit trees in 42 traditional orchards of the Rhenish uplands (Germany). Overall, we found that 70% of the study trees showed debarking damage, although most of them (40%) were slightly damaged (1-10% of the trunk debarked). Most debarked trees showed accumulated damage over time, and only 8% of the study trees were damaged during the last year. The probability of strong debarking (>50% of the trunk damaged) was higher in orchards grazed by cattle and horses than on those grazed by sheep (5.3 and 3.7-fold difference, respectively). Importantly, unsustainable levels of cumulative debarking caused a decay of crown development, which may strongly affect fruit production. Additionally, lower tree densities favored higher levels of debarking intensity but did not affect the probability of occurrence. Individual tree-protection was an effective practice in decreasing trunk debarking (95% reduction in tree damage occurrence). The impact of grazing animals on trees might represent a useful indicator to assess the sustainability of each grazing system and should be taken into account in future agriculture and conservation policies.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Ecosistema , Animales , Bovinos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Europa (Continente) , Granjas , Alemania , Caballos , Ovinos
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 185: 111785, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669851

RESUMEN

Multi-target-directed ligands seem to be an interesting approach to the treatment of complex disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present study was to find novel multifunctional compounds in a non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor ligand library. Docking-based virtual screening was applied for selection of twenty-six hits which were subsequently evaluated in Ellman's assay for the inhibitory potency toward acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). The virtual screening with high success ratio enabled to choose multi-target-directed ligands. Based on docking results, all selected ligands were able to bind both catalytic and peripheral sites of AChE and BuChE. The most promising derivatives combined the flavone moiety via a six carbon atom linker with a heterocyclic moiety, such as azepane, piperidine or 3-methylpiperidine. They showed the highest inhibitory activities toward cholinesterases as well as well-balanced potencies against H3R and both enzymes. Two derivatives were chosen - 5 (IC50 = 0.46 µM (AChE); 0.44 µM (BuChE); Ki = 159.8 nM (H3R)) and 17 (IC50 = 0.50 µM (AChE); 0.76 µM (BuChE); Ki = 228.2 nM (H3R)), and their inhibition mechanism was evaluated in kinetic studies. Both compounds displayed non-competitive mode of AChE and BuChE inhibition. Compounds 5 and 17 might serve as good lead structures for further optimization and development of novel multi-target anti-Alzheimer's agents.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/farmacología , Antagonistas de los Receptores Histamínicos H3/farmacología , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Receptores Histamínicos H3/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterasa/metabolismo , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animales , Benzopiranos/síntesis química , Benzopiranos/química , Benzopiranos/farmacología , Butirilcolinesterasa/metabolismo , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/síntesis química , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/química , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Electrophorus , Antagonistas de los Receptores Histamínicos H3/síntesis química , Antagonistas de los Receptores Histamínicos H3/química , Caballos , Humanos , Ligandos , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Estructura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/síntesis química , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/química , Piperidinas/síntesis química , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/farmacología , Relación Estructura-Actividad
10.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 330-343, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856607

RESUMEN

Cholinesterase inhibitor plays an important role in the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, we report the medicinal chemistry efforts leading to a new series of 1,3-dimethylbenzimidazolinone derivatives. Among the synthesised compounds, 15b and 15j showed submicromolar IC50 values (15b, eeAChE IC50 = 0.39 ± 0.11 µM; 15j, eqBChE IC50 = 0.16 ± 0.04 µM) towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Kinetic and molecular modelling studies revealed that 15b and 15j act in a competitive manner. 15b and 15j showed neuroprotective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative damage on PC12 cells. This effect was further supported by their antioxidant activity determined in a DPPH assay in vitro. Morris water maze test confirmed the memory amelioration effect of the two compounds in a scopolamine-induced mouse model. Moreover, the hepatotoxicity of 15b and 15j was lower than tacrine. In summary, these data suggest 15b and 15j are promising multifunctional agents against AD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/tratamiento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Bencimidazoles/farmacología , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/farmacología , Diseño de Drogas , Acetilcolinesterasa/metabolismo , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/antagonistas & inhibidores , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animales , Antioxidantes/síntesis química , Antioxidantes/química , Bencimidazoles/síntesis química , Bencimidazoles/química , Butirilcolinesterasa/metabolismo , Muerte Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/síntesis química , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/química , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Electrophorus , Células Hep G2 , Caballos , Humanos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Modelos Moleculares , Estructura Molecular , Células PC12 , Fragmentos de Péptidos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Fragmentos de Péptidos/metabolismo , Agregado de Proteínas/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas , Relación Estructura-Actividad
11.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 377-385, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853643

RESUMEN

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a synthetic peptide for the E2 glycoprotein was developed for the serodiagnosis of Getah virus infection in horses. To identify an immunogenic epitope, a series of 20-mer peptides (n = 22) for the E2 protein was screened with pooled sera from horses infected with Getah virus. Peptide P11 (PTEEEIDMHTPPDIPDITLL) showed the strongest reaction. ELISA using P11 (E2-P11-ELISA) detected increased antibody levels in all seven experimentally infected horses and in five out of nine vaccinated horses. Out of 28 naturally infected horses, 25 were seronegative in their acute sera but turned seropositive in their convalescent sera. For the remaining three horses whose acute sera were seropositive, an endpoint method with serial dilutions detected a ≥ 4-fold increase in titer between paired sera. The concordance between E2-P11-ELISA and a virus-neutralization test in terms of seropositivity was assessed using a series of 220 horse sera, resulting in almost perfect agreement, with a kappa coefficient value of 0.865. E2-P11-ELISA had a sensitivity of 93.3% (95% CI 86.6-97.1%) and a specificity of 95.0% (95% CI 92.5-96.4%). This highly sensitive and specific E2-P11-ELISA should be useful for serodiagnosis of Getah virus infection in horses.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Alphavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Alphavirus/veterinaria , Alphavirus/genética , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Glicoproteínas/genética , Caballos/virología , Péptidos/genética , Infecciones por Alphavirus/virología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/genética , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Antígenos Virales/genética , Antígenos Virales/inmunología , Glicoproteínas/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/virología , Péptidos/inmunología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos
12.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 152-157, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032989

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In horses, osteoarthritis (OA) mostly affects metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal (fetlock) joints. The current modalities used for diagnosis of equine limb disorders lack ability to detect early OA. Here, we propose a new alternative approach to assess experimental cartilage damage in fetlock joint using Acoustic Emissions (AE). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential of AE technique in diagnosing OA and see how AE signals changes with increasing severity of OA. STUDY DESIGN: An in vitro experimental study. METHODS: A total of 16 distal limbs (8 forelimbs and 8 hindlimbs) from six Finn horses were collected from an abattoir and fitted in a custom-made frame allowing fetlock joint bending. Eight fetlock joints were opened, and cartilage surface was progressively damaged mechanically three times using sandpaper to mimic mild, moderate and severe OA. The remaining eight fetlock joints were opened and closed without any mechanical procedure, serving as controls. Before cartilage alteration, synovial fluid was aspirated, mixed with phosphate-buffered saline solution, and then reinjected before suturing for constant joint lubrication. For each simulated condition of OA severity, a force was applied to the frame and then released to mimic joint flexion and extension. AE signals were acquired using air microphones. RESULTS: A strong association was found between the joint condition and the power of AE signals analysed in 1.5-6 kHz range. The signal from both forelimb and hindlimb joints followed a similar pattern for increased cartilage damage. There were statistically significant differences between each joint condition progressively (generalised linear mixed model, P<0.001) in limbs with in vitro cartilage damage of varying severity while the control limbs did not show any changes. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Small sample size using in vitro, mechanically induced cartilage damage. CONCLUSION: The AE technique presented here could differentiate the severity of fetlock joint cartilage damage. The consistent results for each simulated condition suggest there is potential for this method in the diagnosis of OA.


Asunto(s)
Cartílago Articular/patología , Caballos , Animales , Cadáver
13.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 41-45, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895637

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infection and dehiscence of simple lacerations is common in horses, and consistently effective methods of prevention are yet to be found. Honey has been shown to promote wound healing when applied topically; however, intralesional application prior to wound closure has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether intralesional application of medical grade honey (MGH) would reduce the incidence of infection and dehiscence following wound closure. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, open-label randomised block design clinical study. METHODS: Lacerations, treated by field practitioners, were divided into treatment and control groups using block randomisation. Horses in the treatment group received a single intralesional treatment with l-mesitran gel (MGH). Data were collected at the time of wound closure and at suture removal. RESULTS: Data from 127 horses were included, 69 MGH-treated and 58 control cases. No adverse effects of the MGH were recorded. MGH-treated horses were more likely to completely heal (P = 0.006, odds ratio [OR] 3.40 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-8.20), to have no signs of infection (P = 0.007, OR 3.64, CI 1.42-9.26) and for the veterinarians to report some degree of satisfaction (P = 0.04, OR 2.72, CI 1.05-7.09) compared to control cases. Numbers needed to treat for complete healing was 5.1 (CI 2.8-40). MAIN LIMITATIONS: Clinical studies have inherent flaws compared to wound healing models, because of variability between wounds. There were more horses with limb injuries in the control group, although not statistically significant, this may have biased the results. Clinical satisfaction and signs of infection were subjective evaluations and evaluators were not blinded to the treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: Intralesional application of MGH to lacerations prior to wound closure may be beneficial in preventing infection and dehiscence. Larger, blinded studies focusing on wounds at a specific location with more objective assessment should be pursued.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Miel , Enfermedades de los Caballos/prevención & control , Laceraciones/veterinaria , Cicatrización de Heridas , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/prevención & control , Femenino , Caballos , Masculino
14.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 120-125, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900298

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are no published studies on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen at the dosage used clinically (20 mg/kg), nor has the safety of multiple doses in horses been investigated. OBJECTIVE: Define the pharmacokinetic parameters of oral acetaminophen at 20 mg/kg in adult horses as a single dose, and twice daily for 14 days to assess the safety of multiple dosing. STUDY DESIGN: Pharmacokinetic study, multiple dose safety study. METHODS: Eight healthy Thoroughbred geldings were given acetaminophen (20 mg/kg; 500 mg tablets) orally as a single dose followed by doses every 12 h for 14 days. Serial blood samples were collected for determination of plasma acetaminophen concentrations using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Serum biochemical analysis, gastroscopy and liver biopsy were examined during the safety study. RESULTS: Following a single dose, mean maximum concentration (Cmax ) was 16.61 µg/mL at 1.35 h (Tmax ), and drug concentration was below the lower limit of detection in most horses by 24 h. Elimination half-life (T1/2 ) was 2.78 h. No significant accumulation was noted following multiple doses. Average Cmax of acetaminophen following multiple oral dosing was 15.85 µg/mL, with a Tmax of 0.99 h and T1/2 of 4 h. Serum activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase were significantly decreased and total bilirubin concentrations were significantly increased following the last dose. No statistically significant changes were noted in gastroscopy scores. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Only one dose level (20 mg/kg) was studied, sample size was small and only a single breed and sex was used, with no pretreatment liver biopsies. CONCLUSION: This study described the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen following single and multiple 20 mg/kg oral doses in adult horses and demonstrated the safety of acetaminophen with multiple oral dosing over 14 days. The summary is available in Portuguese - see Supporting information.


Asunto(s)
Acetaminofén/farmacocinética , Caballos/metabolismo , Acetaminofén/administración & dosificación , Acetaminofén/efectos adversos , Acetaminofén/sangre , Administración Oral , Animales , Esquema de Medicación , Semivida , Caballos/sangre , Masculino , Estadística como Asunto
15.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 46-51, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900769

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Reliable and validated biomarkers for osteoarthritis (OA) are currently lacking. OBJECTIVES: To develop an accurate and minimally invasive method to assess OA-affected horses and provide potential spectral markers indicative of disease. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of 15 horses with OA and 48 without clinical signs of the disease, which were used as controls. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to investigate serum samples (50 µL) collected from these horses. Spectral processing and multivariate analysis revealed differences and similarities, allowing for detection of spectral biomarkers that discriminated between the two cohorts. A supervised classification algorithm, namely principal component analysis coupled with quadratic discriminant analysis (PCA-QDA), was applied to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. RESULTS: Segregation between the two different cohorts, OA-affected and controls, was achieved with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The six most discriminatory peaks were attributed to proteins and lipids. Four of the spectral peaks were elevated in OA horses, which could be potentially due to an increase in lipids, protein expression levels and collagen, all of which have been previously reported in OA. Two peaks were found decreased and were tentatively assigned to the reduction of proteoglycan content that is observed during OA. MAIN LIMITATIONS: The control group had a wide range of ages and breeds. Presymptomatic OA cases were not included. Therefore, it remains unknown whether this test could also be used as an early diagnostic tool. CONCLUSIONS: This spectrochemical approach could provide an accurate and cost-effective blood test, facilitating point-of-care diagnosis of equine OA.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Caballos/diagnóstico , Osteoartritis/veterinaria , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier/veterinaria , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Enfermedades de los Caballos/sangre , Caballos , Osteoartritis/sangre , Osteoartritis/diagnóstico , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier/métodos
16.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 34-40, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903710

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Belgian horses are commonly affected with ocular squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the most common cancer of the equine eye. A missense mutation in damage-specific DNA binding protein 2 (DDB2 c.1013C>T, p.Thr338Met) has been established as a recessive genetic risk factor for ocular SCC in the Haflinger breed. A sample of Belgian horses with unknown SCC phenotype was shown to possess this variant at a similar frequency to the Haflinger breed. Retrospective studies indicate that chestnut coat colour may predispose to the development of SCC. OBJECTIVES: To determine if DDB2 c.1013C>T is a risk factor for ocular SCC in a strictly phenotyped sample of Belgian horses. To investigate associations between coat colour loci genotypes and ocular SCC. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective and prospective case identification, genetic investigation. METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood, hair or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from 25 Belgian horses with histologically confirmed ocular SCC and 18 unaffected Belgian horses. Association testing of 34 single nucleotide variants from 11 genomic loci and genotyping for DDB2 c.1013C>T and coat colour alleles were performed. Exons of DDB2 were sequenced in four cases and two controls. Associations were analysed by Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests and relative risk was calculated. RESULTS: Homozygosity for DDB2 c.1013C>T was significantly associated with ocular SCC (P = 7.4 × 10-7 ). Seventy-six per cent of affected horses were homozygous for the variant. Relative risk for homozygous horses developing SCC was 4.0 (P = 1.0 × 10-4 ). Sequencing DDB2 did not identify a variant more concordant with disease phenotype. An association between disease and coat colour loci was not identified. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Phenotyping was determined at a single timepoint. Each included horse genotyped as chestnut, so association with this MC1R variant could not be investigated. CONCLUSIONS: A missense variant, DDB2 c.1013C>T, p.Thr338Met, is a risk factor for ocular SCC in Belgian horses. A genetic risk test is commercially available.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/veterinaria , Proteínas de Unión al ADN/genética , Neoplasias del Ojo/veterinaria , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Enfermedades de los Caballos/genética , Mutación Missense , Animales , Caballos
17.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 59-66, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912857

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute-phase proteins may help assess the nature and severity of lesions and outcome in horses undergoing colic surgery. OBJECTIVES: To compare serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations ([SAA] and [fibrinogen]) in the immediate post-operative period after exploratory celiotomy and determine their value in assessment of post-operative complications and survival to discharge. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: This study included horses over 1 year of age undergoing exploratory celiotomy. Surgical procedures, lesions, post-operative care, complications and survival to discharge were recorded. [SAA] and [fibrinogen] were measured prior to surgery and 5 days post-operatively. Statistical analyses included Yate's Chi-square test, linear mixed effects model, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 300 horses, 52.0% developed post-operative complications and 83.7% survived to discharge, with significantly reduced chance of survival in horses that developed post-operative complications (P<0.01). Median [SAA] at days 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and median [fibrinogen] at days 3, 4 and 5 were significantly different between horses that did and did not develop post-operative complications (P<0.05). Median [SAA] at days 1, 4 and 5 were significantly different between horses that did and did not survive to discharge (P<0.05). Logistic regression revealed post-operative complications to be associated with strangulating lesions (OR 2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-3.91, P≤0.001) and higher [fibrinogen] at admission (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.00-1.45, P<0.05), and survival to discharge to be associated with lower [SAA] at 5 days post-operatively (OR 0.965, 95% CI 0.94-0.99, P = 0.002). MAIN LIMITATIONS: A large variety of lesions and complications prevented detailed analysis of associations between inflammatory markers, lesions and complications. CONCLUSIONS: Horses that develop post-operative complications have acute-phase responses of greater magnitudes and durations compared with those that do not develop complications. This is also seen in horses that do not survive to discharge. Measuring [SAA] daily and [fibrinogen] at admission, may help predict the development of post-operative complications.


Asunto(s)
Cólico/veterinaria , Fibrinógeno/metabolismo , Enfermedades de los Caballos/cirugía , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/veterinaria , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Animales , Cólico/cirugía , Femenino , Enfermedades de los Caballos/sangre , Enfermedades de los Caballos/metabolismo , Caballos , Masculino , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/sangre , Periodo Posoperatorio
18.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 126-130, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980682

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The hyperglycaemic clamp has been used for measurement of insulin sensitivity (IS) but not for measurement of ß-cell response in the horse. However, the repeatability of this test has not been reported for horses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the repeatability and reliability of measures for IS and ß-cell response to glucose using the hyperglycaemic clamp in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Repeated measures, longitudinal study. METHODS: Six healthy Standardbred mares underwent a 120-min hyperglycaemic clamp on two occasions with a 10-day washout period. Indices of repeatability and reliability were calculated from measures of IS and ß-cell response to glucose derived from each hyperglycaemic clamp. RESULTS: Measures of ß-cell response to glucose, including area under the insulin response curve in the time interval 0-120 min and during steady state (60-120 min), as well as the mean insulin concentration during steady state had coefficient of variations (CV) of 9.5, 10.5 and 9.3 respectively and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of 0.93, 0.93 and 0.95 respectively. The measure of glucose disposal (M) had lower CV (12.4) and ICC (0.71) compared to measure of IS (M/I-index; CV of 17.4 and ICC of 0.89). MAIN LIMITATIONS: The study was conducted in a small number of horses. CONCLUSIONS: The hyperglycaemic clamp is a diagnostic method for assessing ß-cell response to intravenous glucose with high repeatability and reliability. Insulin sensitivity can be determined with the same test but the repeatability for these measurements is lower compared to the measurements for ß-cell response.


Asunto(s)
Técnica de Clampeo de la Glucosa/veterinaria , Caballos/fisiología , Resistencia a la Insulina/fisiología , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Glucemia , Femenino , Caballos/sangre , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo
19.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 52-58, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989701

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epiglottic entrapment can occur in yearling Thoroughbreds (TB); however, race performance following surgical correction is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the race performance of horses treated surgically for epiglottic entrapment as yearlings as compared to an untreated cohort. A second objective was to identify risk factors for treated horses not racing post-operatively. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort and case-control studies. METHODS: Medical (1989-2014) and race records of 66 treated TB racehorses were reviewed. Observed abnormalities on pre- and post-operative endoscopic images and surgical method were recorded. Race records (EquineLine) were recorded. Racing performance of treated yearling TBs and two of their maternal half-siblings, which were used as the untreated cohort, was evaluated in a cohort study. A case-control study was used to investigate risk factors for not racing post-operatively among treated horses. Quarterly starts and earnings were compared to an untreated cohort. Survival analysis was used to assess career longevity. Rates of racing and earnings were compared between groups using Poisson and negative binomial regression respectively. Associations between clinical variables and not racing post-surgery were evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Sixty-six treated horses were identified, 65 of which had at least one half-sibling. Proportions of horses that raced were similar for treated and maternal cohorts (70.0 vs. 70.8%, P = 0.9). Treated horses performed similarly to untreated horses. In treated horses, epiglottic entrapment with abnormal right arytenoid movement was associated with never racing (OR 15.40, 95% CI 1.64-144.23, P = 0.02). More females were affected by epiglottic entrapment than males (47/66 vs. 19/66 respectively, P<0.001). MAIN LIMITATIONS: The retrospective design over a prolonged period of time with cases obtained from a single hospital population. Low case numbers likely influenced the outcome of the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Thoroughbred racehorses treated in their yearling year for epiglottic entrapment had no differences in performance variables compared to their untreated cohort. Epiglottic entrapment with abnormal right arytenoid movement might decrease odds of racing post-operatively.


Asunto(s)
Epiglotis/cirugía , Enfermedades de los Caballos/cirugía , Animales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Caballos , Enfermedades de la Laringe/veterinaria , Masculino , Condicionamiento Físico Animal , Estudios Retrospectivos , Carrera , Deportes
20.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 98-103, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991461

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Abortusequi (S. Abortusequi) is a serotype restricted to equines, which produces abortion outbreaks. Nowadays the disease is being reported in different countries including Argentina thus generating an important impact in the equine industry. Molecular characterization of the 95 kb virulence plasmid and the spvC gene of S. Abortusequi demonstrated their importance in the pathogenicity of the serotype. In the last decades, high clonality of S. Abortusequi was identified in Japan, Mongolia and Croatia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to characterize S. Abortusequi isolates obtained in Argentina between 2011 and 2016 by virulence-gene profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: S. Abortusequi isolates were studied by virulence-gene profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: Four virulence profiles and nine pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes were identified among the 27 isolates included in the study. Different strains were found in the same outbreak and/or farm suggesting the presence of different sources of infection or mutation of isolates. MAIN LIMITATIONS: The number of related and nonrelated strains. More isolates may be necessary for a more intensive study. CONCLUSIONS: Most strains presented the same virulence profile, being positive for all the studied genes except gipA and sopE1, which are involved in intestinal virulence. Only few isolates showed different results in the same outbreak or farm. Unlike other studies, our results demonstrate a considerable diversity of S. Abortusequi pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes, which suggests that different sources of infection may be involved within the same outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Genotipo , Enfermedades de los Caballos/microbiología , Salmonelosis Animal/microbiología , Salmonella enterica/genética , Animales , Argentina/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Caballos/epidemiología , Caballos , Salmonelosis Animal/epidemiología , Salmonella enterica/clasificación , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidad , Transcriptoma , Virulencia
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