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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 204: 111769, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954264

RESUMEN

The goal of this study was to investigate the protective effects of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and vitamin E loaded NLCs (Vit E-NLCs) on preventing hair damages and discoloration against UV radiation and thermal treatment. The NLCs and Vit E-NLCs were prepared using a high-pressure homogenization technique. At optimal conditions, they showed spherical particles with a mean particle size of ~140 nm and a polydispersity index of < 0.3. Up to 90% (w/w) vitamin E acetate incorporation efficacy was achieved. The protective efficacy of the model cream containing blank-NLCs (NLCs cream) or Vit E-NLCs (Vit E-NLCs cream) was investigated. Upon exposure to UV-light and heat, the FE-SEM images revealed that the hair treated with both NLCs creams showed a smoothness of hair surface similar to the virgin hair. In accordance with protein loss, they exhibited the least protein loss as compared to the hair treated with Vit-E cream, cream base and commercial products. The same trend was observed for the discoloration test, the hair treated with both NLCs creams demonstrated the lowest total color loss, as compared to other products. Comparing between two NLCs formulations, antioxidant Vit E-NLCs showed to promote the photoprotective effect against hair damage and discoloration slightly greater than blank NLCs, but it has no extra benefit for heat protection. Considered overall, the developed NLCs and Vit E-NLCs is a novel alternative for preventing hair damage and discoloration from daily UV and heat exposure.


Asunto(s)
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Cabello/efectos de los fármacos , Lípidos/química , Nanoestructuras/química , Rayos Ultravioleta , Animales , Color , Composición de Medicamentos , Cabello/efectos de la radiación , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Tamaño de la Partícula , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiental , Vitamina E/química , Vitamina E/farmacología
2.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110137, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927248

RESUMEN

Seizures of synthetic opioids have increased since 2012, with a 45 % increase in synthetic opioid related deaths between 2016 and 2017 in US. Recently, concerns have arisen around these substances and their illicit use also in several European countries. Our aim was to develop and validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of 16 synthetic opioids in segmented hair, including fentanyl, norfentanyl, acetylfentanyl, U-47700, AH-7921, acrylfentanyl, crotonylfentanyl, butyrylfentanyl, methoxacetylfentanyl, U-49900, valeryfentanyl, 4-fluoro-iso-butyrylfentanyl, ocfentanyl, furanylfentanyl, tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl, and alfetanyl. Sample preparation involved washing the hair in dichloromethane, water and methanol, and extraction in methanol, followed by solid phase extraction clean-up. This method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification (LLOQ), precision and bias, selectivity, stability, matrix effects, extraction efficiency of the clean up procedure, and carryover. LLOQs ranged from 0.15-1pg/mg, and the calibration ranged from the LLOQ up to 500pg/mg. Intra and inter-day precision were evaluated at low and high concentrations, with spiked QCs, during 8 days and the results were satisfactory with RSD<15 % for all the compounds except for norfentanyl (22 %) and alfentanyl (19 %). Two external certified QCs containing fentanyl at 11 and 105pg/mg were also analysed within each batch and the RSD and bias were lower than 16 % and 10 %, respectively. Matrix effects compensated by internal standard fentanyl-d5 (MEIS), were between 77-115 % (RSD<10 %) and extraction efficiency of the clean-up procedure was between 66-93 % (RSD<21 %). Processed sample stability and carryover were acceptable for all of the compounds. The method was applied to 17 authentic hair samples (body or head hair) from US fentanyl analogue users. When head hair was available, the hair strands were analysed in 1cm/segment. Concentrations ranges were as follows: fentanyl (n=16) 2->ULOQ (500) pg/mg, norfentanyl (n=14) 1-38pg/mg, acetylfentanyl (n=7) 0.6->ULOQ (250) pg/mg, furanylfentanyl (n=5) 2-123pg/mg, tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl (n=1) 0.5-63pg/mg and valerylfentanyl (n=1) 2.1->ULOQ (50) pg/mg, along the hair strands. To our knowledge, this is the first time where concentrations of tetrahydrofuranylfentanyl, and valerylfentanyl in hair are reported. The same samples were also analysed for the determination of other drugs of abuse using our routine method (also in 1cm/segment for head hair when available). The results demonstrated poly-drug use in these fentanyl-analogue users population (mean drugs: n=5): amphetamine and/or methamphetamine (n=10), buprenorphine (n=5), cocaine (n=8), methadone (n=8), 6-MAM (n=17), meperidine (n=1), oxycodone (n=11), tramadol (n=3). Evaluation of the concentrations of these drugs, together with the fentanyl analogues is discussed in the present paper. Two authentic samples from two Belgian post-mortem cases, were also analysed showing fentanyl use and in one case polydrug use. The results demonstrated multi-analyte quantitative methods, including fentanyl analogues, are becoming useful in forensic laboratories involved in hair analysis, and in particular when polydrug use is suspected.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/análisis , Fentanilo/análogos & derivados , Fentanilo/análisis , Cabello/química , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Toxicología Forense/métodos , Humanos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/diagnóstico , Drogas Sintéticas/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 21, 2020 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910832

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Professional caregivers working in child and youth welfare institutions are frequently faced with the complex mental health issues, emotional needs and challenging coping strategies of clients with cumulated traumatic experiences, leaving them prone to developing high levels of stress, burn-out and compassion fatigue. Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a milieu-therapeutic approach that aims to promote the self-efficacy and self-care of youth welfare staff by guiding them to a better understanding of their own and their clients' stress symptoms and countertransference. Despite increasing efforts to implement TIC practices, and more widespread recognition of their value in youth welfare systems, there is a lack of studies evaluating the effectiveness of this approach. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of TIC practices in youth welfare institutions on both the physiological stress of staff members and clients' physical aggression towards their caregivers. . METHODS: Data was obtained from a longitudinal study investigating the effectiveness of TIC in 14 residential youth welfare institutions. Our sample consisted of 47 youth welfare employees (66.0% female) aged from 23 to 60 years (M = 37.4, SD = 10.4 years). Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and occurrences of client physical aggression were assessed at four annual measurement time points (T1 to T4). RESULTS: Participants in five institutions employing TIC practices (intervention group) showed significantly lower HCC at T4 than staff members from institutions who did not receive training in TIC (control group), indicating reduced physiological stress levels. At T4, the intervention group reported significantly less physical aggression than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: TIC might be a promising approach for reducing the emotional burden of employees and institutions should invest in training their staff in TIC practices. More research is necessary, to investigate the benefits and efficacy of TIC, both to youths and staff members, and to foster a better understanding of which specific factors may contribute to stress reduction.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Agresión/psicología , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Cabello/química , Personal de Salud/psicología , Hidrocortisona/análisis , Estrés Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
4.
Harefuah ; 159(1): 6-10, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Hebreo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930798

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Different drugs can affect the hair. Among the various types of drug-induced hair changes, hair colour change is a rare phenomenon which is less reported in the literature. Hair colour changes include lightening of the hair, whitening or returning to the original colour and even change to a new colour. In this article we report a patient presenting with hair yellowing due to topical treatment with minoxidil and discuss the phenomenon of drug-induced hair colour changes.


Asunto(s)
Alopecia , Minoxidil , Administración Tópica , Color , Cabello , Humanos
5.
Waste Manag ; 104: 33-41, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958663

RESUMEN

We have developed a novel thermal hydrolysis process (THP) to extract and hydrolyze keratin from keratinous animal body wastes without using any chemicals. Our process consists of two heating steps: one is to swell and denature the keratin protein network in the intermediate filaments, while the other is to cleavage the disulfide bonds that connect the tight keratinous fibrils together. Using hog hair as an example, the two-step process achieved a nearly 70% keratin recovery yield, with respect to the original keratin in the hog hair, which is comparable to one of the best recovery yields by conventional chemical processes. The extracted keratin hydrolysate by THP was filtered by the shear wave-induced membrane ultrafiltation for characterization. The molecular weight (MW) analysis using SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy has demonstrated that our keratin hydrolysis obtained by our two-step THP has a wide range of MW distribution, similar to those already in the hair-care product market. The amino acid composition analysis has shown that our keratin hydrolysate by THP had twice as much essential amino acids as soybean meals on a dry mattter basis. As to the cysteine residue content, we have shown that it can be controlled by adjusting the 2nd heating temperature.


Asunto(s)
Cabello , Queratinas , Aminoácidos , Animales , Hidrólisis , Porcinos , Temperatura Ambiental
6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110074, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809905

RESUMEN

In forensic investigations, such as drug-facilitated crimes, reference values are useful for interpretation of hair results. The aim of this study was to establish levels of zopiclone and two main metabolites, N-desmethylzopiclone and zopiclone N-oxide, in hair after the administration of a single dose of zopiclone, as very limited data are published. A controlled study was performed, where 16 volunteers consumed either 5 or 10mg zopiclone. Hair was sampled prior to consumption and 14, 30, 60, and 120 days after intake. The deposition of drug in hair segments of all sampling time points was followed in small hair segments of 5-mm, using a validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. In all participants, hair segments corresponding to the time of intake were positive for zopiclone, but also with lower concentrations in the neighbouring segments. The highest zopiclone concentrations were detected in samples collected 30 or 60 days after intake. For all sampling time points maximum values for the 5-mg dose ranged from 5.0-370pg/mg for zopiclone and 5.4 to 300pg/mg for N-desmethylzopiclone, where the maximum values for the 10-mg dose ranged from 17 to 590pg/mg for zopiclone and 25-410pg/mg for N-desmethylzopiclone for all sampling time points. No significant difference in concentrations was found between the two dosing groups for either zopiclone or N-desmethylzopiclone. Almost half of the participants showed lower levels 14 days after intake than in the later sampling time points. The metabolite to parent drug ratio of N-desmethylzopiclone to zopiclone varied from 0.6 to 3.4 (median=1.2) for the maximum levels of all sampling time points. N-desmethylzopiclone are suggested to serve as an additional marker to confirm the intake of zopiclone. Traces of zopiclone N-oxide were detected in hair from only eight participants. This study showed, that it was possible to follow zopiclone and N-desmethylzopiclone in hair for 4 months even though the drugs was divided into several segments in the latest collected hair samples, and no obvious wash-out effect between the sampling time points by e.g. personal hygiene could be discerned because the cumulated amount at each sampling time point was similar. We conclude that the analysis of short segments e.g. segments of 5-mm can help determine the time of a single intake of zopiclone and that obtaining a sample 1-2 months after a drug exposure provide the best conditions to detect and interpret the results.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Azabiciclo/análisis , Cabello/química , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/análisis , Piperazinas/análisis , Adulto , Compuestos de Azabiciclo/administración & dosificación , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Femenino , Toxicología Forense , Color del Cabello , Humanos , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Piperazinas/administración & dosificación , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
8.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113070, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757565

RESUMEN

In Iraq, war contamination is the result of dispensed bombs, bullets, detonation of chemical and conventional weapons, and burn-pit emissions by US bases. Increases in congenital anomalies were reported from Iraqi cities post-2003. These cities were heavily bombed and encircled by US bases with burn-pits. Thorium is a radioactive compound and a direct depleted-uranium decay-product. Radioactive materials, including depleted uranium, are routinely stored in US bases and they have been shown to leak into the environment. We conducted a case-control study to investigate associations of residential proximity to Tallil Air Base, a US military base near Nasiriyah, as well as levels of uranium and thorium in hair and deciduous teeth with congenital anomalies. The study was based on a sample of 19 cases and 10 controls who were recruited during late Summer and early Fall of 2016. We developed mixed effects logistic regression models with village as the random effect, congenital anomaly as the outcome and distance to the US base and hair metal levels (one at a time) as the predictor variable, controlling for child's age, sex and paternal education. We also explored the mediation of the association between proximity to the base and congenital anomalies by hair metal levels. We found an inverse association between distance to Tallil Air Base and risk of congenital anomalies and hair levels of thorium and uranium. The results of our mediation analyses were less conclusive. Larger studies are necessary to understand the scope of war contamination and its impact on congenital anomalies in Iraq.


Asunto(s)
Anomalías Congénitas/epidemiología , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Cabello/química , Instalaciones Militares , Torio/análisis , Uranio/análisis , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Humanos , Lactante , Irak , Probabilidad , Distribución Aleatoria , Riesgo , Torio/toxicidad , Estados Unidos , Uranio/toxicidad , Armas
9.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110071, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785510

RESUMEN

The presence of Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair provides a strong indication of ethanol consumption and its investigation is of interest in both clinical and forensic contexts because of the wide window of detection. However, due to the possibility of false negative results in cases of small ethanol intake or excessive hair washing, the combined measurement of ethyl palmitate (EtP) with EtG could be useful. In this study, a sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS procedure for the measurement of EtG in hair was developed and validated, using optimized sample preparation and chromatographic separation. Milled hair was extracted with water for 24 h at room temperature, followed by clean-up of the extract by ion-exchange solid phase extraction (SPE). Extraction was highly efficient, with yield of 96.93-101.06%. Chromatographic separation was performed with a Fluoro-Phenyl stationary phase. The assay was linear from 4 to 500pgmg-1, with accuracy in the range of 100.30-106.16%. Matrix effects (-0.87 to 5.89%) were adequately compensated by the use of deuterated EtG as internal standard. EtG was measured in hair samples of 46 volunteers, and results were compared with hair concentrations of ethyl palmitate (EtP) and the score in the AUDITC questionnaire. EtG hair concentrations were significantly correlated to the AUDIT-C classification (rs=0.365, p<0.05), but not to EtP hair levels. The diagnostic performance of EtG hair concentrations to identify excessive or moderate ethanol use was similar to the capability of AUDIT-C to identify severe and high health risk (Kappa, p=0.013). The developed assay is suitable for clinical use, providing a useful tool to evaluate chronic ethanol consumption.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Glucuronatos/análisis , Cabello/química , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análisis , Cromatografía Liquida , Femenino , Toxicología Forense/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Ácidos Palmíticos/análisis , Extracción en Fase Sólida , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
10.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111673, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786487

RESUMEN

The effect of photo-degradation processes on the morphology and ultrastructure of pigmented and non-pigmented hair was evaluated in this work by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Samples consisted of three types of grey hair (separated out into subsamples of totally white and totally black strands) and one type of dark-brown hair exposed to solar irradiation for 75 h or to a mercury lamp for 600 h. SAXS patterns showed that irradiation mainly damaged the amorphous regions of hair, and in some types of hair, an ordered structure appeared, with spaces of ca. 4.5 nm. This structure occurred independently of the presence of pigments and its scattering intensity increased after irradiation. Layers of lipids present in the cuticle may be responsible for this scattering around 4.5 nm, as indicated by TEM images. TEM also showed morphological changes in the outermost cuticle layers, such as the degradation of endocuticle and the detachment of the cell membrane complex. Therefore, the results presented herewith showed that irradiation caused different damages to the hair amorphous fractions, especially in the cuticle layers, which are the most exposed areas of the hair strands.


Asunto(s)
Cabello/ultraestructura , Pigmentación/efectos de la radiación , Luz Solar , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Humanos , Lípidos/química , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Dispersión del Ángulo Pequeño , Difracción de Rayos X
11.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110058, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786516

RESUMEN

Hair is one of the key samples for judging drug abuse in the field of forensic science. However, few studies have examined synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites in human hair. Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of chemicals that bind to cannabinoid receptors, but they differ structurally from the cannabinoids found in cannabis. They have been sold sprayed on dried, shredded plant material under brand names such as "Spice" since the 2000s. In South Korea, synthetic cannabinoids have been widely distributed since 2009 and many types detected up to now. Unlike traditional drugs such as methamphetamine and cannabis, the abuse trends of synthetic cannabinoids were variable by regions and changed according to the times. If new types of synthetic cannabinoids become popular which has been altered in some structures, it becomes difficult to identify using exist analytical method. Therefore, it is important to develop a new analytical method for synthetic cannabinoids currently being abused in society. In this study, we developed simultaneous analytical methods for the detection of 18 synthetic cannabinoids and 41 of their metabolites in authentic human hair samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Selectivity, linearity, limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification (LOQs), precision, accuracy, matrix effect, recovery, and process efficiency were evaluated, and all results were acceptable. Additionally, the distribution of synthetic cannabinoids in the head hair of Korean drug abusers from 2016 to 2018 was investigated. Hair samples from 43 individuals suspected of synthetic cannabinoid use were provided by law enforcement agencies. The drugs detected most prevalently in the head hair of Korean drug abusers were AB-CHMINACA and JWH-210.


Asunto(s)
Cannabinoides/análisis , Cabello/química , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos , Drogas Sintéticas/análisis , Adulto , Cromatografía Liquida , Femenino , Toxicología Forense , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Masculino , República de Corea , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Adulto Joven
12.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110070, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786517

RESUMEN

Propofol abuse has been reported worldwide, suggesting the need to establish analytical methods for human biological samples to investigate the abuse of propofol. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dose and hair concentration using a simple and rapid analytical method developed and validated in this study. In the sample preparation, hair samples were washed with distilled water and methanol and extracted in methanol during 16h at room temperature. After centrifugation and evaporation, the residue was reconstituted and filtered through a 0.22µm membrane filter before LC-MS/MS analysis. The precursor-to-product ion transitions were 353 → 175, 113 for propofol glucuronide and m/z 370 → 175, 113 for internal standard(propofol glucuronide-d17). The calibration curves were satisfactory (R2=0.9997) and the limits of detection and quantification were 2 and 5pg/mg, respectively. In addition, this study collected the history of propofol use from subjects using a questionnaire and analyzed subjects' hair samples using a validated analytical method. As a result, the concentrations of propofol glucuronide ranged from 7 to 122pg/mg (mean : 51pg/mg). There were cases of positive relationships, but generally there was no correlation between dose and hair concentration.


Asunto(s)
Glucurónidos/análisis , Cabello/química , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/análisis , Propofol/análisis , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos , Adulto , Cromatografía Liquida , Femenino , Toxicología Forense , Glucurónidos/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Propofol/administración & dosificación , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/diagnóstico , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Adulto Joven
13.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(1): 27-36, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705221

RESUMEN

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are widely accepted techniques for direct sampling of biological materials for elemental analysis, with increasing applications being reported over the recent years. This review is focused on the calibration materials used to quantify trace elements in different biological samples such as soft tissues (for instance brain, liver, hair) and hard tissues (bones and teeth). The design of a correct calibration strategy relies on the choice of an adapted reference material that can be commercially available or prepared in-house, which will be reviewed here. A large variety of methods has been approached and considered promising over the years, and the development of matrix-matched reference biological materials seems now closer than ever and gives hope to even better quantitation using LIBS and LA-ICP-MS.


Asunto(s)
Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Oligoelementos/análisis , Huesos/química , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Calibración , Cabello/química , Humanos , Hígado/química , Estándares de Referencia , Diente/química , Oligoelementos/normas
14.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 189-192, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310667

RESUMEN

Through the measurement of ethyl glucuronide in hair (hETG), it is possible to assess chronic alcohol abuse over time. In this paper, we present a study on hETG in Italian prison inmates. Analyses were performed by LC-MS according to a previously published method. Results were evaluated using the cut-offs established by the Society of Hair Testing. Positives samples (ETG > 30 pg/mg) accounted for 6% of all subjects, with concentrations ranging from 42 pg/mg up to 270 pg/mg, abstinent subjects (ETG < 7 pg/mg) accounted for 88%, and moderate alcohol consumption (7 < ETG < 30 pg/mg) for 6% of the subjects. No females displayed ETG values above 30 pg/mg. Among positive samples, only two subjects did not declare heavy alcohol consumption and were found strongly positive at 210 and 270 pg/mg. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first study on ETG hair concentration on prison inmates.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Glucuronatos/análisis , Cabello/química , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análisis , Cromatografía Liquida , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Espectrometría de Masas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos , Adulto Joven
15.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124643, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473532

RESUMEN

Polychlorinated n-alkanes or chlorinated paraffins (CPs) contain a magnitude of structural isomers and are categorized as short-chain (SCCPs), medium-chain (MCCPs), and long-chain (LCCPs) CPs, according to the carbon chain lengths. In this study the Æ©SCCPs, Æ©MCCPs, and Æ©LCCP concentrations are reported for South African indoor dust and pet cat hair. The median concentrations of the Æ©CPs (C9-C37) ranged from 33 to 663 µg/g for freshly collected dust (FD), 36-488 µg/g for dust collected from household vacuum cleaner bags (VD), and 1.2-15 µg/g for cat hair (CH) samples. MCCPs were the dominant CP group, followed by SCCPs and LCCPs. The Æ©MCCP concentration ranged from 13 to 498 µg/g in dust and 0.6-6.5 µg/g in cat hair. SCCPs with shorter carbon chains and lower chlorine substitution were observed in cat hair. LCCPs with carbon chains > C20 were detected in dust and hair samples, possibly indicating the use of wax grade LCCP formulations. Non-traditional Kendrick mass defect plots were used to obtain information on the magnitude of CPs and provide evidence of possible interfering compounds. This is the first report on the occurrence of SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in the South African indoor environment.


Asunto(s)
Polvo/análisis , Cabello/química , Hidrocarburos Clorados/química , Parafina/química , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Animales , Gatos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hidrocarburos Clorados/análisis , Parafina/análisis , Sudáfrica
16.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110094, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864115

RESUMEN

Methamphetamine (MAMP) is one of the most commonly abused illicit drugs in Asian countries, which belongs to the amphetamine-type stimulant class of substances. To detect the chronic drug misuse, human hairs have often been used as analytical specimens due to their long detection windows and easy accessibility. However, there is no investigation regarding the cut-off value of MAMP detection used in black-hair Chinese populations. Based on the analytical data obtained from 563 MAMP users, the cut-off value was found to be 0.97 ng/mg for the simultaneous detection of MAMP and amphetamine (AMP) ≥0.004 ng/mg (LOD). Through the established HPLC-MS/MS analytical method, the limits of detection and quantification of MAMP were 0.004 and 0.01 ng/mg, respectively. The cut-off value was optimized by AMP detection rate and receiver operating characteristic analysis, and the results were consistent with the previously reported MAMP/AMP ratio.


Asunto(s)
Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central/análisis , Cabello/química , Metanfetamina/análisis , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , China , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Toxicología Forense , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Espectrometría de Masas , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/diagnóstico
17.
Georgian Med News ; (295): 71-76, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804203

RESUMEN

The literature review presents data on the effect of organic and inorganic compounds, the so-called "main" xenobiotics (lead, mercury) on children and adolescents. It is noted that the effect of each heavy metal is different. Therefore, only their total assessment (blood, urine, saliva, hair, biological tissues) makes it possible to determine the level of toxic effects on the child and confirm the clinical decision. "Carrying mercury", in the absence of clinical signs of intoxication, does not always correlate with chronic poisoning. Ranking of clinical syndromes with the level of heavy metals in the body of children, monitoring of cause-and-effect relationships, detection of the prevalence of neurological changes becomes a priority in clinical Pediatrics. At the moment, the effects of heavy metals on the health of children and adolescents are a universal medical category. It forms the strategy of clinical pediatrics and pediatric neurology and a subject of interest for ecologists, toxicologists and sociologists.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación por Mercurio , Mercurio , Metales Pesados , Xenobióticos , Adolescente , Niño , Cabello , Humanos , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Saliva , Xenobióticos/toxicidad
18.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(3): 157-161, set-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1046142

RESUMEN

O processo de alisamento capilar é uma prática comum realizada nos salões de beleza. O procedimento exige a utilização de substâncias com capacidade de rompimento das cadeias dissulfídricas da fibra capilar com posterior modelamento para o efeito desejado, sendo o formol um dos compostos mais utilizados para esta finalidade, porém indevidamente. De acordo com a legislação vigente, o formol só pode ser utilizado em produtos cosméticos com a função de conservante em uma concentração máxima de 0,2%. Devido a seu uso incorreto em produtos capilares o presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma análise semi-quantitativa da presença de formol em amostras de alisantes capilares, bem como verificar o pH destes produtos. Foram obtidas 22 amostras de alisantes capilares doadas por salões de beleza da região de Umuarama - PR. A determinação da presença de formol foi realizada através da reação de Shiff e comparação com escala colorimétrica de concentrações padronizadas de formaldeído variando de 0,005% a 10%. A verificação do pH foi realizada através da preparação de soluções aquosas de 10% do alisante e posterior aferição em pHmetro digital. Das amostras analisadas, verificou-se 22,72% encontraram-se em conformidade, apresentando quantidade de formaldeído adequada com a legislação (até 0,2%) ou ausência do composto, enquanto que 77,28% apresentaram valores acima do permitido. Já o pH adequado foi constatado em apenas 13,64% amostras. O uso incorreto ou exagerado do formol pode acarretar danos à saúde, como cefaléia, dispnéia, queimadura, edema pulmonar e até câncer. Uma maior fiscalização deve ser realizada nos estabelecimentos que realizam procedimentos de alisamento capilar, bem como nas indústrias produtoras e ainda em importadoras, para uma melhor garantia do cumprimento da legislação tanto para a preservação da saúde dos profissionais quando dos usuários.


The hair-straightening process is a common practice in most beauty salons. The procedure requires the use of substances capable of disrupting the disulfide chains of the hair fiber with subsequent modeling for the desired effect, with formaldehyde being one of the most commonly but improperly used compounds for this purpose. According to the current legislation, formaldehyde can only be used in cosmetic products as a preservative function in a maximum concentration of 0.2%. Due to its incorrect use in capillary products, this work has the purpose of developing a semi-quantitative analysis of the presence of formaldehyde in samples of hair straighteners, as well as verifying the pH of those products. Twenty-two samples of hair straighteners were donated by beauty salons from the region of Umuarama-PR. The determination of the presence of formaldehyde was performed using the Shiff reaction and compared using the colorimetric scale for standard formaldehyde concentrations varying from 0.005% to 10%. The pH verification was carried out by the preparation of 10% aqueous solutions of the straightener and subsequent measurement in a digital pH meter. From the analyzed samples, 22.72% were found to be in compliance, presenting the amount of formaldehyde within the legislation (up to 0.2%) or absence of the compound, while 77.28% presenting values above the legal limitations. Additionally, adequate pH was verified in only 13.64% of the samples. Incorrect or exaggerated use of formaldehyde can lead to health issues, such as headache, dyspnea, burns, pulmonary edema and even cancer. Greater surveillance should be carried out in establishments that perform hair straightening procedures as well as in the producing and importing industries in order to guarantee better compliance with the legislation both for the preservation of the health of professionals and users alike.


Asunto(s)
Colorimetría/métodos , Formaldehído/toxicidad , Cabello/química
19.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113305, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669954

RESUMEN

In early nineteen century, a gas field was operational in southern part of Sindh, Pakistan for power production. The plant was completely un-operational for last three decades, whereas all wastage and raw materials are still dumped there, which might be the source to contaminate the ground water. The most of the workers population still living in different villages nearby the gas field. In present study, evaluated the undesirable effects of the toxic metals (lead and cadmium) via consuming groundwater for drinking and other domestic purpose especially in children of ≤5.0 years. For comparative purpose groundwater of nonindustrial area (nonexposed) was also analysed and their impact on age matched children was carried out. Biological samples (scalp hair and blood) were collected from children of exposed and nonexposed areas. The Cd and Pb in scalp hair and blood samples were carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Whereas, Cd and Pb in groundwater obtained from both areas were determined prior to applied preconcentration method as reported in our previous works. The Cd and Pb contents in the groundwater of villages of exposed area were found in the range of 5.18-10.9 and 19.9-69.5 µg/L, respectively. Whereas, the groundwater of nonexposed area contains Cd and Pb in the range of 1.79-3.78 and 5.07-24.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that the concentrations of Cd and Pb in scalp hair and blood samples of children belongs to exposed area have ≥2.0 fold higher than the resulted data attained for age matched control children, indicating as the exposure biomarkers of toxic metals. The children belong to exposed area have poor health, anemic and low body mass index (<13 kg/m2). A significant positive correlations among Cd and Pb concentrations in biological samples of exposed subjects and groundwater was observed (p < 0.01).


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Cadmio/análisis , Niño , Femenino , Agua Subterránea , Cabello/química , Humanos , Minería , Pakistán/epidemiología , Cuero Cabelludo , Espectrofotometría Atómica
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670058

RESUMEN

Human studies investigating the efficacy of emergency decontamination protocols for chemical incidents require the use of non-hazardous chemical simulants. Methyl salicylate (MeS) has almost exclusively been used for this purpose. Whilst MeS is a simulant of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) sulphur mustard, it is not an ideal simulant for many other chemical threats with greater persistence and lower volatility. Benzyl salicylate (BeS) has been investigated here as a low toxicity simulant for lower volatility, persistent chemical threat agents and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). To evaluate the suitability of BeS as a simulant for human decontamination studies a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method was designed, optimised and validated, for the analysis of human skin and hair. Quantification was achieved using isotope-dilution, EI and collision-induced dissociation and multiple reaction monitoring for both qualifier and quantifier ion transitions. The mass transitions were m/z 285 → 91 and m/z 210 → 181, respectively for the quantifier and qualifier ions of BeS, and m/z 289 → 91 and m/z 214 → 185 for the quantifier and qualifier ions for the BeS-d4 internal standard, respectively. The method exhibited excellent coefficients of determination (R2 = 0.9992-0.9999) with LOD and LOQ values at 0.023 ng/ml and 0.23 ng/ml. Across three Quality Controls (QCs), 11.5 ng/ml, 115 ng/ml and 1150 ng/ml) average accuracy (intra-day 95.6-100.3%, inter-day 98.5-104.91%) and precision (intra-day RSD (%) 2-13.7%, inter-day RSD (%) 3.3-8.8%) were determined. The validated method was applied in a proof of principle volunteer study for the determination of total BeS recovered from skin and hair. The average total BeS recovery after 70 min was 37.9% from skin and there was a significant increase between baseline and post-intervention levels for hair. These data demonstrate that BeS is an appropriate simulant for persistent chemicals and that the analytical method employed here is suitable for BeS analysis in human studies.


Asunto(s)
Sustancias para la Guerra Química/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Salicilatos/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Adulto , Descontaminación/métodos , Femenino , Cabello , Humanos , Marcaje Isotópico/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Piel
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