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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111610, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396130

RESUMEN

Hepatic oxidative stress, as one important mechanism of cadmium (Cd)-induced hepatic toxicity, could, as known, be ameliorated by vitamin E (VE). However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. To investigate whether the antioxidant vitamin E can protect against Cd-induced sub-chronic liver injury associated with oxidative stress and nuclear factor erythrocyte 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway, male Sprague-Dawley rats (nine-week-old) were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats/group), namely, control, VE (100 mg/kg VE), Cd (5 mg/kg CdCl2) and VE+Cd (100 mg/kg VE+5 mg/kg CdCl2), and received intragastric administration of Cd and/or VE for four weeks. Cd-exposure alone resulted in reduced liver weight, liver histological alteration and oxidative stress, accumulation of Cd in the liver, elevated ALT and AST concentrations in serum together with decreased mRNA and protein expressions of Nrf2 pathway related molecules (Nrf2, HO-1, NQO-1, GCLC, GCLM and GST). However, the co-treatment of Cd and VE significantly ameliorated the changes mentioned above, and promoted the expression of genes and proteins of Nrf2 pathway related molecules in comparison to the Cd-exposure alone. Our results indicate that the protective effect of VE against Cd-induced sub-chronic hepatic damage in rats is associated with the inhibition of oxidative stress and activation of Nrf2 pathway.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Cadmio/toxicidad , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/prevención & control , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Vitamina E/farmacología , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/metabolismo , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/patología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Hígado/patología , Pruebas de Función Hepática , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Transducción de Señal
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111612, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396132

RESUMEN

Water quality standards are essential for regulation of contaminants in marine environment. Seawater quality criteria (SWQC) for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) have not been developed for India. The aim of this study is to derive the SWQC for the metals based on Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD). Eight species of sensitive marine organisms belonging to five phyla were assessed for their sensitivity to toxicity of As, Cd and Pb. Median effective concentrations (EC50) and Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50) were derived from the acute toxicity bio-assays. No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOEC), Lowest Observed Effect Concentrations (LOEC) and chronic values were derived from chronic toxicity bio-assays. Diatoms were more sensitive to As with 96 h EC50 of 0.1 mg/l and copepods were more sensitive to Cd and Pb with 96 h EC50 of 0.019 mg/l and 0.05 mg/l respectively. Estimated NOECs ranged from 4.87 to 21.55 µg/l of As, 1.0 to 120 µg/l of Cd and 5.67 to 91.67 µg/l of Pb. Similarly, chronic values (µg/l) were in the range of 6.71-26.1, 1.38-170, and 7.67-91.67 of As, Cd and Pb respectively. The Criterion Maximum Concentration (CMC), Criterion Continuous Concentration (CCC) and Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) values were prescribed as SWQC. The CMC (µg/l) of 19, 1.7 and 17 for As, Cd, and Pb were derived respectively for acute exposure during accidental marine outfalls. The CCC (µg/l) for As was 4.6, 1.1 for Cd and 5.9 for Pb are recommended as SWQC for protection of 95% of marine organisms. PNEC (µg/l) of 3.8 for As, 0.92 for Cd and 4.3 for Pb are suggested for highly disturbed ecosystems, shell fishing and mariculture uses of water bodies. These values are recommended as a baseline for site specific water quality criteria for the coastal waters of the country.


Asunto(s)
Organismos Acuáticos/efectos de los fármacos , Arsénico/toxicidad , Cadmio/toxicidad , Plomo/toxicidad , Agua de Mar/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Calidad del Agua/normas , Animales , Arsénico/análisis , Cadmio/análisis , Copépodos/efectos de los fármacos , Diatomeas/efectos de los fármacos , Ecosistema , India , Plomo/análisis , Dosificación Letal Mediana , Especificidad de la Especie , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111614, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396134

RESUMEN

A novel gill cell line from pearl gentian grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus♂×Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀, PGGG cell line) was established, its application in cadmium (Cd) toxicology was demonstrated in this study. Primary cultures and PGGG subcultures were carried out at 25 °C in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle medium/F12 medium (1:1; pH 7.2) supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Primary PGGG cells were spindle-shaped, proliferated into a confluent monolayer within two weeks and were continuously subcultured over passage 60. The growth of cells at passages 20, 40, and 60 was examined. Chromosome analysis revealed that the chromosomal number of normal PGGG cells was 48, but the number of cells with the normal chromosomes number decreased during the passaging process. Cadmium is one of the most toxic metals in aquatic systems and has been associated with multiple animal and human health problems. To interpret the cytotoxicity and related mechanisms of cadmium, PGGG cells were used as an in vitro model. After treatment with cadmium at concentrations ranging from 1 µM to 500 µM, PGGG cells demonstrated dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity, manifested as morphological abnormalities and a viability decline. Further, it was found that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were elevated following cadmium exposure, and related genes involved in the antioxidant system, including those encoding catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and Kelch-like- ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), were regulated differently. In addition, PGGG cells treated with cadmium had the typical features associated with apoptosis, including phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization; upregulated expression of caspase-3, -8, and -9; and apoptotic body formation. In general, the PGGG cell line may serve as a useful tool for studying the toxic mechanisms of cadmium or other toxicants or for toxicity testing and environment monitoring.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Lubina , Cadmio/toxicidad , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Branquias , Proteína 1 Asociada A ECH Tipo Kelch/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalasa/genética , Catalasa/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Branquias/citología , Proteína 1 Asociada A ECH Tipo Kelch/genética , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/genética , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/genética , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111582, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396105

RESUMEN

In recent years, heavy metal pollution has caused immeasurable harm to the environment. As an emerging technology, phytoremediation technology has gained a place in the treatment of heavy metal pollution with its unique advantages. This study analyzes the toxic effects of mulberry (Morus alba) seeds, seedling growth and silkworm under heavy metal stress of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), and explore the accumulation and migration of Pb and Cd in the soil-mulberry tree-silkworm system. The main results were as follows: (1) Seed germination and potted seedling experiments were conducted under heavy metal Pb and Cd stresses, and it was found that Pb and Cd had inhibitory effects on mulberry seed germination, growth and photosynthesis of mulberry seedlings, and as the concentration of heavy metals increased, the stronger the inhibitory effect. Moreover, Pb and Cd have a synergistic effect under compound stress. (2) The accumulation and transfer rules of Pb and Cd ions in mulberry were different. The content of Pb in mulberry was root > leaf > stem and the content of Cd was root > stem > leaf. The combined stress promoted the transfer of Pb and Cd from the underground part to the aerial portion of mulberry. (3) The silkworm feeds on mulberry leaves contaminated with heavy metals in this experiment and found that: with the increase of silkworm feeding, the heavy metal content in the silkworm body increased significantly, but the content remained in the silkworm body was less, most of it was excreted with silkworm excrement. Combined stress has no significant effect on the detoxification mechanism of silkworm. It is indispensable to think of the synergistic effect of heavy metals on plants germination when seeds are used for phytoremediation.


Asunto(s)
Bombyx/fisiología , Cadmio/toxicidad , Cadena Alimentaria , Plomo/toxicidad , Morus/fisiología , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Suelo/química , Animales , Biodegradación Ambiental , Cadmio/análisis , Cadmio/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Metales Pesados/análisis , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/química , Plantones/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111584, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396107

RESUMEN

Cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic for plant metabolic processes even in low concentration due to higher retention rates, longer half-life and non-biodegradable nature. The current study was designed to assess the bioremediation potential of Cd tolerant PGPR, Serratia sp. CP-13 together with two differentially Cd tolerant maize cultivars (MMRI-Yellow, Sahiwal-2002) selected amongst ten cultivars after screening. The maize cultivars were grown under different Cd treatments (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 µM) in Petri plates both with and without Serratia sp. CP-13 inoculation. Treated plants were analyzed for their biomass accumulation, chlorophylls, carotenoids, proline, anthocyanin, protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2 as well as for antioxidants (POD, SOD, CAT) and mineral elements (Ca, Mg, Zn, K, Fe, Na, Cd). The maize cultivar MMRI-Yellow (tolerant) and Sahiwal-2002 (sensitive) exhibited significant reduction in leaf area, nutrient contents, plant biomass, activity of antioxidants, total proteins, photosynthetic pigments as well as flavonoids with increased production of H2O2, proline, MDA and relative membrane permeability (RMP) under Cd stress. However, this reduction was cultivar specific and recorded higher in cv. Sahiwal-2002 as compared to MMRI-Yellow. Application of Serratia sp. CP-13 significantly augmented plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidative machinery, as well as flavonoids and proline while diminishing H2O2, RMP MDA production even under Cd stress in studied cultivars. Furthermore, CP-13 inoculation assisted the Cd stressed plants to sustain an optimal level of essential nutrients (Ca, Mg, Zn, K, Fe) except for Na and Cd which responded antagonistically. It was inferred that both inoculated maize cultivars exhibited better health and metabolism but substantial Cd tolerance was acquired by the sensitive cv. Sahiwal-2002 than the tolerant cv. MMRI-Yellow under applied Cd regimes. Furthermore, studied maize cultivars depicted maximum Cd tolerance in order of 30 < 24 < 18 < 12 < 6 < 0 µM Cd treatments under Serratia sp. CP-13 inoculation. Findings of current work highlighted the importance of Serratia sp. CP-13 and its inoculation impact on morpho-physio-biochemical attributes of maize growth under Cd dominant environment, which is likely an addition towards efficient approaches for bacterially-assisted Cd bioremediation and minimal Cd retention in edible plant parts.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Serratia/fisiología , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Zea mays/fisiología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Transporte Biológico , Biomasa , Cadmio/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Serratia/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiología
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111591, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396114

RESUMEN

The Palaemonid shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus is widely distributed in coastal areas and estuaries which are easily contaminated by various pollutants. However, the responses of this species to environmental toxicants are not well described. In the present study, adult individuals of P. macrodactylus were exposed to gradient concentrations of Cadmium (Cd) to evaluate its acute toxic effects, including bioaccumulation, induced oxidative stress and changed energy metabolism in this species. The medium lethal concentration (LC50) of Cd at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h were 2.60, 0.88, 0.49 and 0.37 mg/L, respectively. Cd bioaccumulations in tissues of shrimp increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and higher concentration (50% 96 h-LC50, 0.185 mg/L) of Cd exposure led to a maximum increase of Cd concentration by 14.8, 145.5 and 15.8 folds in gill, hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle. Cd exposure caused a significant inhibition on the activity of catalase (CAT), and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), decrease in the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and an increase of malonadehyde (MDA) content, which indicated a damage to the antioxidant system of shrimp. Meanwhile, Cd exposure also led to a significant up-regulation in the expression level of metallothionein gene (MT), and down-regulations at the mRNA level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and CAT. Moreover, Cd exposure significantly inhibited the oxygen consumption rate (22%), and increased the ammonia excretion rate (43%), hence lead to a significant decrease of the O:N ratio (45%) in shrimp. The results indicated that Cd exposure could induce obvious oxidative stress, energy metabolic dysfunction and bioaccumulation of Cd in P. macrodactylus. The data obtained from the present study would provide useful information for further understanding on the toxicological mechanism of Cd to crustaceans in coastal areas and estuaries.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Palaemonidae/fisiología , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bioacumulación , Catalasa/metabolismo , Estuarios , Branquias/metabolismo , Proteínas HSP70 de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Hepatopáncreas/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111731, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396062

RESUMEN

Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and a nonessential metal. Cd can attack a wide range of organs, such as the liver, kidney, lung, ovary, testis, brain, and muscle in vertebrates. Among these organs, the testis might be the most sensitive organ to Cd toxicity. Metallothionein (MT) is a cysteine-rich protein with a low molecular weight, that can bind with Cd and eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROSs). Hydrogen peroxide, which as a crucial type of ROS that is induced by Cd, can be eliminated by catalase (CAT) in the self-protection of cells and to realize Cd toxicity resistance. To investigate the functions of MT and CAT in the testis of Cynops orientalis, we cloned the full-length MT and CAT genes of C. orientalis for the first time. Immunofluorescence results demonstrated that MT and CAT were expressed in Sertoli cells and all spermatogenic cells in the testis of C. orientalis. The results of the ultrastructural damage assay demonstrated that there were various impairments, which included organelle vacuolization, abnormal chromatin distribution, and apoptotic bodies, in somatic cells that were exposed to Cd. However, the anomalies of spermatozoa were located mainly in the mid-piece and head, many of which showed severely impaired structures. The results demonstrated that MT and CAT expression had distinct patterns in response to various Cd concentrations: an increase in MT mRNA levels with elevated Cd levels and a persistent increase in CAT mRNA levels with elevated Cd levels. These results suggested that MT and CAT play roles in Cd toxicity resistance in the testis and that the expression of CAT may be a better biomarker than the expression of MT for assessing Cd pollution.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Catalasa/metabolismo , Clonación Molecular , Sustancias Peligrosas/toxicidad , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Salamandridae/fisiología , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Humanos , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Salamandridae/genética , Salamandridae/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111743, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396069

RESUMEN

Autophagy dysregulation plays a pivotal role in cadmium (Cd)-induced nephrotoxicity. Quercetin (Qu), a flavonoid antioxidant with autophagy-enhancing effect, has protective effect on Cd-induced toxicity, but whether it can prevent Cd-induced nephrotoxicity via restoration of autophagy remains unknown. Here, primary rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells were exposed to Cd and/or Qu in vitro to clarify this issue. Data first showed that Cd-impaired autophagic flux was markedly alleviated by Qu, including decreased levels of autophagy marker proteins and recovery of autophagosome-lysosome fusion targeted for lysosomes. Meanwhile, Cd-induced lysosomal alkalization due to v-ATPases inhibition was prominently recovered by Qu. Accordingly, Qu enhanced Cd-diminished lysosomal degradation capacity and lysosome-related gene transcription levels. Notably, Qu improved Cd-inhibited TFEB nuclear translocation and its gene transcription level. Furthermore, data showed that the restoration of Cd-impaired autophagy-lysosome pathway and resultant alleviation of cytotoxicity by Qu are TFEB-dependent using TFEB gene silencing and overexpression technologies. In summary, these data provide novel evidences that the protective action of Qu against Cd-induced autophagy inhibition is attributed to its restoration of lysosomal dysfunction, which is dependent on TFEB.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Quercetina/farmacología , Animales , Autofagia/efectos de los fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales , Lisosomas/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111627, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396147

RESUMEN

A pot study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) foliar exposure on growth and development of wheat, zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) uptake in Cd-contaminated soil under various moisture conditions. Four different levels (0, 25, 50, 100 mg/L) of these NPs were foliar-applied at different time periods during the growth of wheat. Two soil moisture regimes (70% and 35% of water holding capacity) were maintained from 6 weeks of germination till plant harvesting. The results revealed that the growth of wheat increased with ZnO NPs treatments. The best results were found in 100 mg/L ZnO NPs under normal moisture level. The lowest Cd and highest Zn concentrations were also examined when 100 mg/L NPs were applied without water deficit stress. In grain, Cd concentrations decreased by 26%, 81% and 87% in normal moisture while in water deficit conditions, the Cd concentrations decreased by 35%, 66% and 81% compared to control treatment when ZnO NPs were used at 25, 50 and 100 mg/L. The foliar exposure of ZnO NPs boosted up the leaf chlorophyll contents and also decreased the oxidative stress and enhanced the leaf superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities than the control. It can be suggested that foliar use of ZnO NPs might be an efficient way for increasing wheat growth and yield with maximum Zn and minimum Cd contents under drought stress while decreasing the chances of NPs movement to other environmental compartment which may be possible in soil applied NPs.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Sequías , Nanopartículas/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Triticum/fisiología , Óxido de Zinc/química , Cadmio/análisis , Clorofila , Grano Comestible/química , Contaminación Ambiental , Estrés Oxidativo , Hojas de la Planta/química , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Triticum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Agua , Zinc/análisis
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111628, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396148

RESUMEN

Metals may cause damage to the biota of contaminated environments. Moreover, using multiple endpoints in ecotoxicological studies is useful to better elucidate the mechanisms of toxicity of these compounds. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of cadmium (Cd) and cobalt (Co) on growth, biochemical and photosynthetic parameters of the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata, through quantification of lipid classes composition, chlorophyll a (Chl a) content, maximum (ΦM) and effective (Φ'M) quantum yields and efficiency of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Both metals affected the algal population growth, with an IC50-96h of 0.67 and 1.53 µM of Cd and Co, respectively. Moreover, the metals led to an increase in the total lipid content and reduced efficiency of OEC and ΦM. Cell density was the most sensitive endpoint to detect Cd toxicity after 96 h of treatment. Regarding Co, the photosynthetic parameters were the most affected and the total lipid content was the most sensitive endpoint as it was altered by the exposure to this metal in all concentrations. Cd led to increased contents of the lipid class wax esters (0.89 µM) and phospholipids (PL - at 0.89 and 1.11 µM) and decreased values of triglycerides (at 0.22 µM) and acetone-mobile polar lipids (AMPL - at 0.44 and 1.11 µM). The percentage of free fatty acids (FFA) and PL of microalgae exposed to Co increased, whereas AMPL decreased in all concentrations tested. We were able to detect differences between the toxicity mechanisms of each metal, especially how Co interferes in the microalgae at a biochemical level. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting Co effects in lipid classes of a freshwater Chlorophyceae. The damage caused by Cd and Co may reach higher trophic levels, causing potential damage to the aquatic communities as microalgae are primary producers and the base of the food chain.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Chlorophyceae/fisiología , Cobalto/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Chlorophyceae/efectos de los fármacos , Clorofila A , Ecotoxicología , Agua Dulce/química , Metales/farmacología , Microalgas/efectos de los fármacos , Fotosíntesis/efectos de los fármacos , Complejo de Proteína del Fotosistema II
11.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(1): 242-252, 2021 Jan 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501805

RESUMEN

To screen the available tomato pollution-safe cultivar varieties and reduce the potential food safety risks in Cd-polluted areas, the differences of Cd accumulation in different tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) varieties in southern China were studied by soil culture and hydroponic experiments. Firstly, the high and low accumulation varieties were selected from 25 tomato varieties under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress by soil culture test, and then the responses of high and low accumulation tomato varieties to Cd stress were determined by hydroponic experiments. The results of soil culture test show that under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress, there were significant differences in plant height, total biomass and yield among 25 tomato cultivars, and the Cd contents of fruits of all 25 tomato cultivars exceeded the highest limit value (0.05 mg/kg) of CAC (Codex alimentarius commission). Through cluster analysis, 7, 4 and 14 varieties accumulating relatively high, medium, and low concentrations of Cd in the fruits were screened, among which the highest, the lowest, and the average Cd contents in the fruits were 3.06 mg/kg DW, 1.47 mg/kg DW, and 2.21 mg/kg DW, respectively. The results of hydroponic experiment show that under the same concentration of Cd stress, Qiantangxuri F1, a high Cd accumulating variety, absorbed Cd faster, accumulated more Cd, used shorter oxidative stress response time and had stronger tolerance to Cd than Zhefen 3053, a low Cd accumulating variety. The typical high and low Cd accumulating varieties can provide a reference for agricultural production in heavy metal polluted areas and the development of molecular-assisted breeding methods of PSC. At present, cultivating low Cd accumulating PSC varieties and dynamic monitoring of Cd contents in tomato fruits are feasible methods in medium and light Cd-polluted areas.


Asunto(s)
Lycopersicon esculentum , Contaminantes del Suelo , Antioxidantes , Cadmio/análisis , Cadmio/toxicidad , China , Fitomejoramiento , Raíces de Plantas/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111675, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396007

RESUMEN

Metal bioavailability controls its behaviors in soil-plant system, especially involved in biochar amendment. This study compared a rhizospheric pore-water extraction against a BCR sequential extraction method to understand cadmium (Cd) bioavailability in two typical Chinese soils. Soils were spiked with five levels of Cd (CdCl2) and remediated with 3% corn-straw derived biochar. After 60 days of lettuce growth, Cd accumulation and enzyme activities in tissues were analyzed. Results showed that biochar increased soil properties (pH, CEC and SOM) compared to un-amended soils, but decreased contents of bioavailable Cd in soil pore-water (Cdpore-water) and BCR extracted Cd (CdFi+Fii). Contents of Cdpore-water were lower in yellow-brown soils than that in red soils. Pearson analysis showed that bioavailable Cd is negatively correlated with soil pH and CEC (p < 0.05). Cd accumulation in lettuce roots and leaves both were decreased by biochar addition, and the established linear equations proved that soil Cdpore-water is the best predictor for Cd accumulation in lettuce roots (r2 = 0.964) and in leaves (r2 = 0.953), followed by CdFi+Fii. Transfer factor (TF) values of Cd from roots to leaves were lower than 1, and slightly better correlated with soil Cdpore-water (r = -0.674, p < 0.01) than CdFi+Fii (r = -0.615, p < 0.01). Aggregated boosted tree (ABT) analyses indicated that soil properties together with Cdpore-water contribute more than 50% to root enzyme activities. Collectively, soil Cdpore-water is a promising predictor of Cd bioavailability, accumulation and toxicity in soil-plant system with biochar addition.


Asunto(s)
Bioacumulación/efectos de los fármacos , Cadmio/toxicidad , Carbón Orgánico/química , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Disponibilidad Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Cadmio/metabolismo , Lechuga/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Tallos de la Planta/química , Rizosfera , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Agua/química , Zea mays/química
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111639, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396159

RESUMEN

Cnesterodon decemmaculatus is a Neotropical teleost fish frequently used in ecotoxicological evaluations, whose biology has been thoroughly studied. Although there is considerable information on its response to different toxicants, no range of reference values has been so far established for the different biological parameters proposed as biomarkers of effect or exposure. Moreover, no study has yet examined the possible influence of the metabolic status of the exposed animals on their response to toxic stress. Therefore, the aim of this work was to provide a first baseline for a set of bioenergetic biomarkers in C. decemmaculatus adults exposed to a control medium under previously standardized conditions, and to assess their possible intrinsic seasonal variability. The responses of the biomarkers obtained from the controls were contrasted with those from the reference toxicant (Cadmio-Cd) and receiving waters (surface waters of the Reconquista River RR, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). We conducted four 12-day assays (one in each season) of exposure to control media, (reconstituted moderate hard water, MHW) and two assays of exposure to Cd in MHW and surface river water (RR) in both summer and autumn. The variables recorded were: Food intake (In), fecal production (F), specific assimilation (A) and cumulative mortality, oxygen extraction efficiency (OEE), specific metabolic rate (SMR), ammonia excretion (N), ammonia quotient (AQ) and scope for growth (SFG). The seasonal variation shown by some physiological parameters, points to the need for establishing a baseline obtained from standardized media, preferably on a seasonal basis. Moreover, SFG and A appeared as the most sensitive biomarkers, emphasizing the importance to consider the metabolic status of the test organisms for the appropriate interpretation of results from ecotoxicological studies performed under controlled experimental conditions. The obtained results provide useful information on C. decemmaculatus as model species in ecotoxicological bioassays involving biomarkers of early effect.


Asunto(s)
Ciprinodontiformes/metabolismo , Ecotoxicología/métodos , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Animales , Argentina , Cadmio/toxicidad , Ciprinodontiformes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ecotoxicología/normas , Biomarcadores Ambientales/efectos de los fármacos , Ríos/química , Estaciones del Año
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111668, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396178

RESUMEN

Cadmium is an environmental metal pollutant that has been a focus of research in recent years, which is reported to cause bone disease; however, its skeletal toxicity and the mechanism involved are not yet fully known. Therefore, this study used MC3T3-E1 subclone 14 cells to determine the mechanism of cadmium toxicity on bone. Cadmium chloride (Cd) significantly reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposure to Cd inhibited osteoblast-related proteins (Runx2, Col-1, STC2) and decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Cd caused Exportin-1 accumulation and induced DNA damage. Cd significantly down-regulated caspase 9 and induced cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase 3 protein level. Treatment with JNK inhibitor, SP600125, suppressed cadmium-induced elevation in the ratio of phosphorylation of JNK to JNK. Inhibition of caspase with pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, prevented MC3T3-E1 subclone 14 cells from cadmium-induced reduction of Runx2, STC2, caspase 9, and accumulation of cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase 3. Cd-induced cell survival enhanced by SP600125 but rescued by Z-VAD-FMK or KPT-335. These results suggest that cadmium cytotoxicity on bone involved exportin 1 accumulation, phosphorylation of JNK, induction of DNA damage and pro-apoptosis, which was induced by activation of caspase-dependent pathways.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Cadmio/toxicidad , Daño del ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Carioferinas/metabolismo , MAP Quinasa Quinasa 4/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Receptores Citoplasmáticos y Nucleares/metabolismo , Animales , Caspasas/metabolismo , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/patología , Fosforilación/efectos de los fármacos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111685, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396017

RESUMEN

The wastewater utilization for irrigation purposes is common practice in peri-urban areas located in vicinity of developed cities. This water contains elements like chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and nitrate (NO3-N) that poses health risk when exposed to human. In this study effect of wastewater irrigation from Chakara wastewater plant, Faisalabad on growth of wheat and health risks was assessed. Pot experiment was conducted at Institute of Soil and Environmental, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad using different concentration of wastewater as treatment 100% tap water, 25% wastewater + 75% tap water, 50% wastewater + 50% tap water, 75% wastewater + 25% tap water, 100% wastewater. The results indicated that the wastewater irrigation negatively effects the plant growth and physiological parameters. The minimum plant height, grain weight, spike length, osmotic potential and SPAD values were recorded 50.33 cm, 1.47 g plant-1, 7.00 cm, 423 and 38.91 respectively in 100% wastewater irrigation. The risk quotient (RQ TEs) for each toxic element and cumulative risk index (RI TEs) values were calculated. The cadmium risk quotient (Cd RQ) for adults was on margin and value was >1 for in 75% wastewater + 25% tap water and 100% wastewater irrigation, while the RQ for Ni and Cr was <1. Maximum RI TEs values calculated in 100% wastewater irrigation 0.424 and 0.294 for children and adults respectively. Hence it was concluded that wastewater irrigation significantly increased the accumulation rate of metals and nitrate in wheat and cause potential health risks for children and adults.


Asunto(s)
Riego Agrícola/métodos , Bioacumulación/efectos de los fármacos , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Nitratos/toxicidad , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Triticum/efectos de los fármacos , Aguas Residuales/química , Adulto , Cadmio/análisis , Cadmio/toxicidad , Niño , Cromo/análisis , Cromo/toxicidad , Ciudades , Grano Comestible/química , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Modelos Teóricos , Níquel/análisis , Níquel/toxicidad , Nitratos/análisis , Pakistán , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Triticum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Triticum/metabolismo , Aguas Residuales/análisis
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111688, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396020

RESUMEN

Elemental defense hypothesis suggests that toxic metals accumulated in plant tissues could enhance plant defense against herbivores and pathogens. Since over-accumulation of metals in plant organs will pose negative effects on plant health, it is necessary to find a way to alleviate metal-induced toxicity in plants while keeping or even improving plant resistance. Exogenous nitrogen (N) application was reported to have such alleviation effect while stimulating metal accumulation in plant tissues. In this study, we examined whether soil N addition in three different doses to a poplar species under cadmium (Cd) stress can simultaneously improve plant growth and resistance to four herbivorous insects and a leaf pathogen. The results showed that N application to Cd-amended soil prominently enhanced plant growth and leaf Cd accumulation. While N addition in three doses all remarkably reduced herbivore growth than control plants, only the highest N dose exerted stronger inhibition than the sole Cd-treated plants. In the paired-choice experiment, plants supplied with the highest N dose showed an enhanced deterrent effect on herbivore preference than plants exposed to sole Cd. Furthermore, plant resistance to the leaf pathogen infection was strongly enhanced as the levels of N addition increased. Leaf sugar and three main defensive chemicals were not affected by N application implied that such enhanced effect of N on plant resistance was due to increased leaf Cd accumulation. Our results suggested that the application of exogenous N over a certain amount could enhance the resistance of Cd-treated plants to leaf herbivory and pathogen infection.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Nitrógeno/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Populus/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Animales , Cadmio/metabolismo , Herbivoria/efectos de los fármacos , Lepidópteros/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/prevención & control , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología , Populus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Populus/microbiología , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111878, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418159

RESUMEN

Flavonoids participate in several plant processes such as growth and physiological protection in adverse environments. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of eCO2 and cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils on the total flavonoid and monomer contents in the leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings. Elevated CO2, Cd, and eCO2+ Cd increased the total flavonoids in the leaves relative to the control, and eCO2 mostly increased (p < 0.05) the total flavonoid content under Cd exposure. Elevated CO2 increased (p < 0.05) robinin, rutin, and acacetin contents in the leaves of 45-day seedlings and decreased (p < 0.05) the content of robinin and acacetin at 90 and 135 d under Cd exposure except for robinin at day 45 under Cd1 and acacetin on day 135 under Cd1. Quercetin content decreased (p < 0.05) under the combined conditions relative to Cd alone. Kaempferol in the leaves was only detected under eCO2 on day 135. The responses of total chlorophyll, total soluble sugars, starch, C, N, S, and the C/N ratio in the leaves to eCO2 significantly affected the synthesis of total flavonoids and monomers under Cd exposure. Overall, rutin was more sensitive to eCO2+ Cd than the other flavonoids. Cadmium, CO2, and time had significant interactive effects on the synthesis of flavonoids in the leaves of R. pseudoacacia L. seedlings. Elevated CO2 may improve the protection and defense system of seedlings grown in Cd-contaminated soils by promoting the synthesis of total flavonoids, although robinin, rutin, quercetin, and acacetin yields may reduce with time. Additionally, increased Cd in the leaves suggested that eCO2 could improve the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Dióxido de Carbono , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Robinia/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Biodegradación Ambiental , Clorofila/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Robinia/metabolismo , Plantones/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/metabolismo
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111906, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429318

RESUMEN

In the present work, the effect of seed pre-soaking with gallic acid (GA; 3,4,5-triphydroxyl-benzoic acid) in conferring subsequent tolerance to Cd stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings was investigated. Exposing sunflower seedlings to increasing Cd concentrations (5, 10 and 20 µM) caused a gradual decrease in root and shoot biomass and increased the metal accumulation in both organs. Seed pretreatment with 75 µM GA significantly restricted Cd uptake, markedly alleviated Cd-induced plant growth inhibition, and mitigated the oxidative damages caused by this metal, as compared to plants directly exposed to Cd. GA pre-soaking prior to Cd stress also enhanced catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, while inhibiting that of superoxide dismutase. This was associated with increased levels of total thiols and glutathione along with a decreased level of oxidized glutathione in leaves. Moreover, GA pre-soaking led to changes in leaf fatty acid composition of seedlings challenged with Cd, as evidenced by the higher total lipid content and lipid unsaturation degree. As a whole, this study provides strong arguments highlighting the potential role of GA as a growth promoter for sunflower seedlings submitted to Cd stress, notably by boosting the antioxidant defense system and improving leaf membrane stability.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Cadmio/toxicidad , Ácido Gálico/farmacología , Helianthus/efectos de los fármacos , Ascorbato Peroxidasas/metabolismo , Catalasa/metabolismo , Tolerancia a Medicamentos , Glutatión/metabolismo , Helianthus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Helianthus/metabolismo , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotes de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Brotes de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Brotes de la Planta/metabolismo , Plantones/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plantones/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111881, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444878

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cadmium is the most prevalent form of heavy metal contaminant globally and its exposure rises serious health concern. Chronic exposure to cadmium causes immune disturbances. However, few studies have addressed how it affects circulating immune cells, one of the most essential elements for the host defense system, at both population and molecular level. Therefore, this is the first single-cell transcriptomic analysis of the response of the human circulating immune system to plasma cadmium level. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in Hunan province, which has the highest level of cadmium land contamination in China. A total of 3283 individuals were eligible for analyzing the association between plasma cadmium levels and the monocyte counts and its subgroups. Another 780 individuals were assigned for validation. Thirty propensity-matched individuals without chronic disease from the lowest- and highest-quartile groups according to serum cadmium levels were selected for single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and flow cytometry analyses. Moreover, the monocyte phenotypic alterations in the heavy metal-exposed population were validated with a cecal ligation and puncture sepsis mouse model. RESULTS: From August 2016 to July 2017, we conducted a cross-sectional study to identify phenotypic alterations in peripheral immune cells in cadmium polluted areas in China. Monocyte percentages were negatively associated with plasma cadmium levels in multivariable linear regression analysis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell scRNA-seq revealed that the CD14+ monocyte subset was dramatically reduced in the highest-quartile cadmium-exposed group. Moreover, we assessed different hallmarks of immune cell dysfunction-such as host defense capability, apoptotic signaling, cellular diversity and malignant gene expression in monocytes. Importantly, cadmium induced phenotypic alterations in the immune system were validated in the cecal ligation and puncture sepsis mouse model, in which chronic exposure to cadmium not only increased the death rate but also decreased monocyte numbers and the ability to clear bacterial infections. CONCLUSION: This transcriptomic analysis provides molecular information about how the most important hallmarks of immune cell dysfunction are affected by plasma cadmium level. The significant phenotypic alterations in monocytes serving as early indicators of increased susceptibility to infectious and malignant diseases.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Monocitos/efectos de los fármacos , China , Estudios Transversales , Citometría de Flujo , Humanos , Recuento de Leucocitos , Leucocitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Monocitos/citología , Transcriptoma
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111910, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444879

RESUMEN

Cadmium (Cd) is a typical pollutant and carcinogen in environment. Exposure assessment of contaminants is an important component of occupational and environmental epidemiological studies. Early studies of Cd have focused on aquatic animals, chickens and rats. However, toxicological evaluation of Cd in pigs has not been reported. Therefore, twelve pigs were randomly divided into two groups (n = 6): the control group and the Cd group (Cd content: 15 ± 0.242 mg/kg feed) in this study, the experimental period was 30 d, and the toxic effects of Cd on the liver of weanling piglets were examined by antioxidant function, liver function, Cd content, histological examination and transcriptomics. The results showed that the changes of antioxidant function, liver function and Cd content were significant in the liver. Transcriptional profiling results showed that 399 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly up-regulated while 369 DEGs were remarkably down-regulated in Cd group, and which were concentrated in three ontologies: molecular function, cellular component and biological processes. Interestingly, significant changes in some genes of the cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP450) and solute carrier (SLC) families have been observed and were consistent with qRT-PCR results. In conclusion, Cd could cause liver injury in weanling piglets and change the transcriptomic characteristics of liver. CYP450 and SLC families play an indispensable role in Cd-mediated hepatotoxicity. Importantly, changes in mRNA levels of CYP2B22, CYP7A1, CYP8B1, SLC26A8, SLC11A1, SLC27A2 and SLC22A7 induced by Cd have been reported for the first time. Our findings will provide a new insight for better assessing the mechanism of Cd toxicity to the liver.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Enfermedad Hepática Crónica Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/enzimología , Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Enfermedad Hepática Crónica Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/patología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Transportadores de Anión Orgánico Sodio-Independiente/genética , Transportadores de Anión Orgánico Sodio-Independiente/farmacología , ARN Mensajero/genética , Porcinos , Transcriptoma/efectos de los fármacos
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