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1.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 91(1): e1-e7, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708767

RESUMEN

Newcastle disease (ND) is endemic in Angola. Several outbreaks of ND occurred in small backyard flocks and village chickens with high mortality in the southern provinces of the country, Cunene, Namibe and Huíla, in 2016 and 2018. In those years, 15 virulent ND virus (NDV) strains were isolated and grouped within subgenotype 2 of genotype VII (subgenotype VII.2). We now present a study on the thermostability of the isolates, aiming at the selection of the most thermostable strains that, after being genetically modified to reduce their virulence, can be adapted to the production of vaccines less dependent on cold chain and more adequate to protect native chickens against ND. Heat-inactivation kinetics of haemagglutinin (Ha) activity and infectivity (I) of the isolates were determined by incubating aliquots of virus at 56 °C for different time intervals. The two isolates from Namibe province showed a decrease in infectivity of 2 log10 in ≤ 10 min, therefore belonging to the I-phenotype, but while the NB1 isolate from 2016 maintained the Ha activity up to 30 min and was classified as thermostable virus (I-Ha+), the Ha activity of the 2018 NB2 isolate decreased by 2 log2 in 30 min, being classified as a thermolabile virus (I-Ha-). Of the 13 NDV isolates from Huíla province, 10 isolates were classified as thermostable, eight with phenotype I+Ha+ and 2 with phenotype I-Ha+. The other three isolates from this province were classified as thermolabile viruses (I-Ha-).Contribution: This study will contribute to the control and/or eradication of Newcastle disease virus in Angola. The thermostable viral strains isolated from chickens in the country can be genetically manipulated by reverse genetic technology in order to reduce their virulence and use them as a vaccine in the remote areas of Angola.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Enfermedad de Newcastle , Virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle/patogenicidad , Virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle/genética , Virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle/clasificación , Animales , Enfermedad de Newcastle/virología , Enfermedad de Newcastle/epidemiología , Angola/epidemiología , Virulencia , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Calor
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3893, 2024 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719799

RESUMEN

Maintaining food safety and quality is critical for public health and food security. Conventional food preservation methods, such as pasteurization and dehydration, often change the overall organoleptic quality of the food products. Herein, we demonstrate a method that affects only a thin surface layer of the food, using beef as a model. In this method, Joule heating is generated by applying high electric power to a carbon substrate in <1 s, which causes a transient increase of the substrate temperature to > ~2000 K. The beef surface in direct contact with the heating substrate is subjected to ultra-high temperature flash heating, leading to the formation of a microbe-inactivated, dehydrated layer of ~100 µm in thickness. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast and mold on the treated samples are inactivated to a level below the detection limit and remained low during room temperature storage of 5 days. Meanwhile, the product quality, including visual appearance, texture, and nutrient level of the beef, remains mostly unchanged. In contrast, microorganisms grow rapidly on the untreated control samples, along with a rapid deterioration of the meat quality. This method might serve as a promising preservation technology for securing food safety and quality.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología de Alimentos , Conservación de Alimentos , Animales , Bovinos , Conservación de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/microbiología , Calor , Carne Roja/microbiología , Calefacción , Inocuidad de los Alimentos/métodos
3.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114333, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729693

RESUMEN

Acrylamide is an amide formed in the Maillard reaction, with asparagine as the primary amino acid precursor. The intake of large amounts of acrylamide has induced genotoxic and carcinogenic effects in hormone-sensitive tissues of animals. The enzime asparaginase is one of the most effective methods for lowering the formation of acrylamide in foods such as potatoes. However, the reported sensory outcomes for coffee have been unsatisfactory so far. This study aimed to produce coffees with reduced levels of acrylamide by treating them with asparaginase while retaining their original sensory and bioactive profiles. Three raw samples of Coffea arabica, including two specialty coffees, and one of Coffea canephora were treated with 1000, 2000, and 3000 ASNU of the enzyme. Asparagine and bioactive compounds (chlorogenic acids-CGA, caffeine, and trigonelline) were quantified in raw and roasted beans by HPLC and LC-MS, while the determination of acrylamide and volatile organic compounds was performed in roasted beans by CG-MS. Soluble solids, titratable acidity, and pH were also determined. Professional cupping by Q-graders and consumer sensory tests were also conducted. Results were analyzed by ANOVA-Fisher, MFA, PCA and Cluster analyses, with significance levels set at p ≤ 0.05. Steam treatment alone decreased acrylamide content by 18.4%, on average, and 6.1% in medium roasted arabica and canefora coffees. Average reductions of 32.5-56.0% in acrylamide formation were observed in medium roasted arabica beans when 1000-3000 ASNU were applied. In the canefora sample, 59.4-60.7% reductions were observed. However, steam treatment primarily caused 17.1-26.7% reduction of total CGA and lactones in medium roasted arabica samples and 13.9-22.0% in canefora sample, while changes in trigonelline, caffeine, and other evaluated chemical parameters, including the volatile profiles were minimal. Increasing enzyme loads slightly elevated acidity. The only sensory changes observed by Q-graders and or consumers in treated samples were a modest increase in acidity when 3000 ASNU was used in the sample with lower acidity, loss of mild off-notes in control samples, and increased perception of sensory descriptors. The former was selected given the similarity in chemical outcomes among beans treated with 2000 and 3000 ASNU loads.


Asunto(s)
Acrilamida , Asparaginasa , Asparagina , Coffea , Café , Gusto , Acrilamida/análisis , Asparagina/análisis , Coffea/química , Café/química , Humanos , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Culinaria/métodos , Alcaloides/análisis , Ácido Clorogénico/análisis , Cafeína/análisis , Masculino , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Reacción de Maillard , Calor , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Semillas/química , Femenino
4.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114400, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729703

RESUMEN

Since hydrothermal treatments can enhance resistant starch (RS) content in rice and provide health benefits when consumed, a less laborious and non-destructive method to determine RS content is needed. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is hypothesized as a suitable method to quantify RS content in rice after hydrothermal treatment with its sensitivity for the intermolecular forces increase in the formation of RS. In this study, we first used the traditional in vitro hydrolysis method to determine the content of RS in rice. Then, the potential of starch absorbance peaks to quantify RS content after three commonly used hydrothermal methods, soaking, mild heat-moisture treatment, and parboiling, was investigated. The second derivative intensities of the peak at 9.0, 10.5, 12.1, and 13.1 THz were confirmed as being correlated with RS content and showed the high accuracy to predict RS content in samples (R2 > 0.96). Our results indicate the RS content of hydrothermally treated rice can be accurately quantified using these peaks.


Asunto(s)
Calor , Oryza , Almidón , Espectroscopía de Terahertz , Oryza/química , Almidón/análisis , Espectroscopía de Terahertz/métodos , Hidrólisis , Almidón Resistente/análisis , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Agua/química
5.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114320, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729710

RESUMEN

High-moisture extrusion (HME) is widely used to produce meat analogues. During HME the plant-based materials experience thermal and mechanical stresses. It is complicated to separate their effects on the final products because these effects are interrelated. In this study we hypothesize that the intensity of the thermal treatment can explain a large part of the physicochemical changes that occur during extrusion. For this reason, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used as a novel method to quantify the thermal process intensity during HME. High-temperature shear cell (HTSC) processing was used to create a partial least squares (PLS) regression curve for processing temperature under controlled processing conditions (root mean standard error of cross-validation (RMSECV) = 4.00 °C, coefficient of determination of cross-validation (R2CV) = 0.97). This PLS regression model was then applied to HME extrudates produced at different screw speeds (200-1200 rpm) and barrel temperatures (100-160 °C) with two different screw profiles to calculate the equivalent shear cell temperature as a measure for thermal process intensity. This equivalent shear cell temperature reflects the effects of changes in local temperature conditions, residence time and thermal stresses. Furthermore, it can be related to the degree of texturization of the extrudates. This information can be used to gain new insights into the effect of various process parameters during HME on the thermal process intensity and extrudate quality.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación de Alimentos , Calor , Proteínas de Soja , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta/métodos , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas de Soja/química , Proteínas de Soja/análisis , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Agua/química
6.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114332, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729715

RESUMEN

The protein instability with haze formation represents one of the main faults occurring in white and rosé wines. Among the various solutions industrially proposed, aspergillopepsin I (AP-I) supplementation coupled with must heating (60-75 °C) has been recently approved by OIV and the European Commission for ensuring protein stability of wines. This study investigates the impact of AP-I either applied independently or in combination with flash pasteurization on the chemical composition of grape must and wines derived from Sauvignon Blanc and Gewürztraminer. The efficacy on protein stability of a complete treatment combining heat (70 °C) and AP-I (HP) was confirmed through heat test and bentonite requirement, although no differences were observed between must heating and HP treatments. However, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of unstable pathogenesis-related proteins revealed that AP-I supplementation reduced chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins compared to the non-enzymed samples, with and without must heating. Amino acid increase was reported only in HP musts, particularly in Sauvignon Blanc. The concentration of yeast-derived aroma compounds in Gewürztraminer wines was increased by must heating; compared to controls, flash pasteurization rose the overall acetate esters content of 85 % and HP of 43 %, mostly due to isoamyl acetate. However, heat treatments -with or without AP-I- reduced terpenes up to 68 %. Despite the different aroma profiles, no differences were observed for any descriptor for both varieties in wine tasting, and only a slight decrease trend was observed for the floral intensity and the typicality descriptors in heated wines.


Asunto(s)
Calor , Odorantes , Pasteurización , Vitis , Vino , Vino/análisis , Pasteurización/métodos , Vitis/química , Odorantes/análisis , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Estabilidad Proteica
7.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114348, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729721

RESUMEN

During production of soy-based infant formula, soy protein undergoes heating processes. This study investigated the differential impact of heating modes on the immunogenic potential of peptides in soy protein digests. Wet or dry heating was applied, followed by in vitro gastrointestinal infant digestion. The released peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Bioinformatics tools were utilized to predict and identify potential linear B-cell and T-cell epitopes, as well as to explore cross-reactivity with other legumes. Subsequently, the peptide intensities of the same potential epitope across different experimental conditions were compared. As a result, we confirmed the previously observed enhancing effect of wet heating on infant digestion and inhibitory effect of dry heating. A total of 8,546 peptides were detected in the digests, and 6,684 peptides were with a score over 80. Among them, 29 potential T-cell epitopes and 27 potential B-cell epitopes were predicted. Cross-reactivity between soy and other legumes, including peanut, pea, chickpea, lentil, kidney bean, and lupine, was also detected. Overall, heating and digestion time could modulate the potential to trigger peptide-induced immune responses.


Asunto(s)
Digestión , Calor , Péptidos , Proteínas de Soja , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Humanos , Proteínas de Soja/inmunología , Proteínas de Soja/química , Péptidos/inmunología , Péptidos/química , Lactante , Fórmulas Infantiles/química , Epítopos de Linfocito T/inmunología , Epítopos de Linfocito B/inmunología , Reacciones Cruzadas , Calefacción , Cromatografía Liquida
8.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114337, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729718

RESUMEN

A major concern for wineries is haze formation in white wines due to protein instability. Despite its prevalent use, the conventional bentonite method has shortcomings, including potential alteration of color and aroma, slow processing times, and notable wine wastage. Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) effectively removes proteins without affecting wine characteristics. However, producing cost-effective ZrO2 materials with efficient protein removal capabilities poses a significant challenge. This research aims to assess the viability of designing a porous material impregnated with zirconia to remove turbidity-causing proteins effectively. For this purpose, the support material alone (Al2O3) and the zirconia-impregnated support (ZrO2/Al2O3) were subjected to different calcination temperatures. It was observed that high-temperature treatments (750 °C) enhanced wine stability and protein adsorption capacity. The optimal adsorbent achieved a notable reduction in turbidity, decreasing the ΔNTU from 42 to 18, alongside a significant 44 % reduction in the total protein content, particularly affecting proteins in the molecular weight range of 10 to 70 kDa. This result is attributed to modifying the textural properties of ZrO2/Al2O3, characterized by the reduction of acidic sites, augmented pore diameters from 4.81 to 7.74 nm, and the emergence of zirconia clusters across the surface of the porous support. In summary, this study presents the first application of zirconia on the alumina support surface for protein stabilization in white wine. Combining ZrO2/Al2O3 and a high-temperature treatment emerges as a promising, cost-efficient, and environmentally sustainable strategy for protein removal in white wine.


Asunto(s)
Óxido de Aluminio , Vino , Circonio , Vino/análisis , Circonio/química , Óxido de Aluminio/química , Adsorción , Estabilidad Proteica , Calor , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos
9.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114372, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729730

RESUMEN

The oxidation and degradation of fats lead to a decrease in the nutritional value of food and pose safety concerns. Saturated fatty acids also hold a significant position in the field of lipid oxidation. In this study, the oxidation products of methyl palmitate were investigated by using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Seven monohydroperoxides and 72 secondary oxidation products were detected. Combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the formation mechanisms of oxidation products can be summarized into four stages. The initial stage involved the formation of monohydroperoxides and alkanes, followed by the subsequent stage involving methyl x-oxo(hydroxy)hexadecanoates. The third stage involved the formation of methyl ketones, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes, while the final stage involved lactones. Meanwhile, methyl ketones were the most abundant oxidation product, approximately 25 times more abundant than aldehydes; the calculated results agreed well with the experimental results. The establishment of a comprehensive thermal oxidation mechanism for palmitic acid provided a new foundation for future lipid oxidation analyses.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Calor , Oxidación-Reducción , Aldehídos/química , Aldehídos/análisis , Palmitatos/química , Ácido Palmítico/química , Cetonas/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química
10.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114394, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729737

RESUMEN

The ability of spices (bay leaf, star anise, and red pepper) and their characteristic phenolic compounds (quercetin, kaempferol, and capsaicin) to inhibit Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in roasted beef patties were compared. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to reveal phenolic compounds interacting with HAAs-related intermediates and free radicals to explore possible inhibitory mechanisms for HAAs. 3 % red chili and 0.03 % capsaicin reduced the total HAAs content by 57.09 % and 68.79 %, respectively. DFT demonstrated that this was due to the stronger interaction between capsaicin and the ß-carboline HAAs intermediate (Ebind = -32.95 kcal/mol). The interaction between quercetin and phenylacetaldehyde was found to be the strongest (Ebind = -17.47 kcal/mol). Additionally, DFT indicated that capsaicin reduced the carbonyl content by transferring hydrogen atoms (HAT) to eliminate HO·, HOO·, and carbon-centered alkyl radicals. This study provided a reference for the development of DFT in the control of HAAs.


Asunto(s)
Aminas , Culinaria , Teoría Funcional de la Densidad , Compuestos Heterocíclicos , Fenoles , Aminas/química , Bovinos , Compuestos Heterocíclicos/química , Animales , Fenoles/análisis , Capsaicina/química , Capsaicina/farmacología , Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsicum/química , Escatol/análisis , Especias/análisis , Carne Roja/análisis , Productos de la Carne/análisis , Calor , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/análisis , Quercetina/farmacología
11.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114380, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729734

RESUMEN

Pea albumins are found in the side stream during the isolation of pea proteins. They are soluble at acidic pH and have functional properties which differ from their globulin counterparts. In this study, we have investigated the aggregation and structural changes occurring to pea albumins under different environmental conditions, using a combination of size-exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Albumins were extracted from a dry fractionated pea protein concentrate by precipitating the globulin fraction at acidic pH. The albumins were then studied at different pH (3, 4, 4.5, 7, 7.5, and 8) values. The effect of heating at 90 °C for 1, 3, and 5 min on their structural changes was investigated using SAXS. In addition, size exclusion of the albumins showed 4 distinct populations, depending on pH and heating conditions, with two large aggregates peaks (∼250 kDa): a dimer peak (∼24 kDa) containing predominantly pea albumin 2 (PA2), and a monomer peak of a molar mass of about 12 kDa (PA1). X-ray scattering intensities as a function of q were modeled as polydisperse spheres, and their aggregation was followed as a function of heating time. Albumins was most stable at pH 3, showing no aggregation during heat treatment. While albumins at pH 7.5 and 8 showed aggregation after heating, solutions at pH 4, 4.5, and 7 already contained aggregates even before heating. This work provides new knowledge on the overall structural development of albumins under different environmental conditions, improving our ability to employ these as future ingredients in foods.


Asunto(s)
Calor , Proteínas de Guisantes , Pisum sativum , Dispersión del Ángulo Pequeño , Difracción de Rayos X , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Pisum sativum/química , Proteínas de Guisantes/química , Albúminas/química , Cromatografía en Gel
12.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114381, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729735

RESUMEN

Lipid has crucial applications in improving the quality of starchy products during heat processing. Herein, the influence of lipid modification and thermal treatment on the physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of cooked rice prepared with varied addition manipulations was investigated. Rice bran oil (RO) and medium chain triglyceride oil (MO) manipulations were performed either before (BC) or after cooking (AC). GC-MS was applied to determine the fatty acid profiles. Nutritional quality was analyzed by quantifying total phenolics, atherogenic, and thrombogenic indices. All complexes exhibited higher surface firmness, a soft core, and less adhesive. FTIR spectrum demonstrated that the guest component affected some of the dense structural attributes of V-amylose. The kinetic constant was in the range between 0.47 and 0.86 min-1 wherein before mode presented a higher value. The lowest glucose release was observed in the RO_BC sample, whereas the highest complexing index was observed in the RO_AC sample, indicating that the dense molecular configuration of complexes that could resist enzymatic digestion was more critical than the quantity of complex formation. Despite the damage caused by mass and heat transfer, physical barrier, intact granule forms, and strengthened dense structure were the central contributors affecting the digestion characteristics of lipid-starch complexes.


Asunto(s)
Culinaria , Digestión , Oryza , Aceite de Salvado de Arroz , Almidón , Triglicéridos , Oryza/química , Almidón/química , Aceite de Salvado de Arroz/química , Triglicéridos/química , Calor , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos/química , Aceites de Plantas/química , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Valor Nutritivo , Amilosa/química , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 471: 134467, 2024 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691930

RESUMEN

The beneficial roles of hydrochar in carbon sequestration and soil improvement are widely accepted. Despite few available reports regarding polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated during preparation, their potential negative impacts on ecosystems remain a concern. A heating treatment method was employed in this study for rapidly removing PAHs and reducing the toxicity of corn stover-based hydrochar (CHC). The result showed total PAHs content (∑PAH) decreased and then sharply increased within the temperature range from 150 °C to 400 °C. The ∑PAH and related toxicity in CHC decreased by more than 80% under 200 °C heating temperature, compared with those in the untreated sample, representing the lowest microbial toxicity. Benzo(a)pyrene produced a significant influence on the ecological toxicity of the hydrochar among the 16 types of PAHs. The impact of thermal treatment on the composition, content, and toxicity of PAHs was significantly influenced by the adsorption, migration, and desorption of PAHs within hydrochar pores, as well as the disintegration and aggregation of large molecular polymers. The combination of hydrochar with carbonized waste heat and exhaust gas collection could be a promising method to efficiently and affordably reduce hydrochar ecological toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Calor , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Contaminantes del Suelo/química , Carbón Orgánico/química , Zea mays , Suelo/química , Adsorción , Calefacción
14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 317, 2024 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700737

RESUMEN

Perylenequinones (PQs) are natural photosensitizing compounds used as photodynamic therapy, and heat stress (HS) is the main limiting factor of mycelial growth and secondary metabolism of fungi. This study aimed to unravel the impact of HS-induced Ca2+ and the calcium signaling pathway on PQ biosynthesis of Shiraia sp. Slf14(w). Meanwhile, the intricate interplay between HS-induced NO and Ca2+ and the calcium signaling pathway was investigated. The outcomes disclosed that Ca2+ and the calcium signaling pathway activated by HS could effectively enhance the production of PQs in Shiraia sp. Slf14(w). Further investigations elucidated the specific mechanism through which NO signaling molecules induced by HS act upon the Ca2+/CaM (calmodulin) signaling pathway, thus propelling PQ biosynthesis in Shiraia sp. Slf14(w). This was substantiated by decoding the downstream positioning of the CaM/CaN (calcineurin) pathway in relation to NO through comprehensive analyses encompassing transcript levels, enzyme assays, and the introduction of chemical agents. Concurrently, the engagement of Ca2+ and the calcium signaling pathway in heat shock signaling was also evidenced. The implications of our study underscore the pivotal role of HS-induced Ca2+ and the calcium signaling pathway, which not only participate in heat shock signal transduction but also play an instrumental role in promoting PQ biosynthesis. Consequently, our study not only enriches our comprehension of the mechanisms driving HS signaling transduction in fungi but also offers novel insights into the PQ synthesis paradigm within Shiraia sp. Slf14(w). KEY POINTS: • The calcium signaling pathway was proposed to participate in PQ biosynthesis under HS. • HS-induced NO was revealed to act upon the calcium signaling pathway for the first time.


Asunto(s)
Ascomicetos , Señalización del Calcio , Perileno , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Quinonas , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Quinonas/metabolismo , Perileno/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Respuesta al Choque Térmico , Calcio/metabolismo , Calor
15.
Anim Sci J ; 95(1): e13949, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705592

RESUMEN

Excess moisture content in cow manure inhibits the process of composting. This study examined the effects of introducing a slatted frame on temperature development, organic matter degradation, and moisture content during high-moisture composting. Twelve tons of cow manure was piled individually, and an iron slatted frame with a pipe and a plain frame filled inside with styrofoam was introduced in the treatment and control piles, respectively. Two hours after the start, running leachate via the pipe in the treatment pile was observed, but not in the control pile. The maximum temperatures as well as durations of the temperatures above 55°C of the treatment piles at all seven positions were higher than those of the control piles. In particular, four of the seven positions in the treatment pile exhibited more than twice the duration. Installing the slatted frame improved the organic matter degradation; the values of organic matter loss in the control and treatment were 48.0% and 58.4%, respectively. The final moisture content in the treated compost was 5% lower than that in the control. Overall, the introduction of a slatted frame generated higher temperatures and produced relatively dried and well-degraded compost.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Calor , Estiércol , Estiércol/análisis , Animales , Compostaje/métodos , Bovinos , Agua , Temperatura , Compuestos Orgánicos/análisis , Suelo/química
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10417, 2024 05 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710893

RESUMEN

The rise in temperatures and changes in other meteorological variables have exposed millions of people to health risks in Bangladesh, a densely populated, hot, and humid country. To better assess the threats climate change poses to human health, the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is an important indicator of human heat stress. This study utilized high-resolution reanalysis data from the fifth-generation European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF ERA5) to analyze the spatiotemporal changes in outdoor WBGT across Bangladesh from 1979 to 2021, employing Liljegren's model. The study revealed an increase in the annual average WBGT by 0.08-0.5 °C per decade throughout the country, with a more pronounced rise in the southeast and northeast regions. Additionally, the number of days with WBGT levels associated with high and extreme risks of heat-related illnesses has shown an upward trend. Specifically, during the monsoon period (June to September), there has been an increase of 2-4 days per decade, and during the pre-monsoon period (March to May), an increase of 1-3 days per decade from 1979 to 2021. Furthermore, the results indicated that the escalation in WBGT has led to a five-fold increase in affected areas and a three-fold increase in days of high and extreme heat stress during the monsoon season in recent years compared to the earlier period. Trend and relative importance analyses of various meteorological variables demonstrated that air temperature is the primary driver behind Bangladesh's rising WBGT and related health risks, followed by specific humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Calor , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Humanos , Calor/efectos adversos , Humedad , Estaciones del Año , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor/epidemiología , Tiempo (Meteorología)
18.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0298077, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743764

RESUMEN

Geothermal energy is increasingly employed across diverse applications, with bridge deck snow melting emerging as a notable utilization scenario. In Jinan city, China, a project is underway to utilize ground source heat pumps (GSHPS) for heating bridges. However, essential operational parameters, including fluid medium, temperature, and heat exchange details, are currently lacking. This study addresses the thermal design challenges associated with ground heat exchangers (GHE) for bridge heating through a combination of numerical modeling and field experiments. Utilizing software Fluent, a refined three-dimensional multi-condition heat transfer numerical analysis was carried out. Field tests based on actual operating conditions were also conducted and the design parameters were verified. The results indicate that an inlet temperature of 5°C and an aqueous solution of ethylene glycol with a mass concentration of 35% as the heat exchange medium are suitable for the GSHPS in Jinan; Moreover, the influence of backfill material and operation time on the heat transfer efficiency was revealed and the suitable material with 10% bentonite and 90% SiO2 was suggested; Finally, based on the influence of the pipe spacing on the heating characteristics of bridge deck, the transition spacing of 0.2 m is given for the temperature response of the bridge deck. This comprehensive study contributes valuable insights through simulation and experimental analysis of the thermal environment variation, aiming to advance the development of GSHPS for bridge deck heating in Jinan, China.


Asunto(s)
Calefacción , Calor , China , Modelos Teóricos , Energía Geotérmica
19.
PLoS Med ; 21(5): e1004364, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743771

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The regional disparity of heatwave-related mortality over a long period has not been sufficiently assessed across the globe, impeding the localisation of adaptation planning and risk management towards climate change. We quantified the global mortality burden associated with heatwaves at a spatial resolution of 0.5°×0.5° and the temporal change from 1990 to 2019. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We collected data on daily deaths and temperature from 750 locations of 43 countries or regions, and 5 meta-predictors in 0.5°×0.5° resolution across the world. Heatwaves were defined as location-specific daily mean temperature ≥95th percentiles of year-round temperature range with duration ≥2 days. We first estimated the location-specific heatwave-mortality association. Secondly, a multivariate meta-regression was fitted between location-specific associations and 5 meta-predictors, which was in the third stage used with grid cell-specific meta-predictors to predict grid cell-specific association. Heatwave-related excess deaths were calculated for each grid and aggregated. During 1990 to 2019, 0.94% (95% CI: 0.68-1.19) of deaths [i.e., 153,078 cases (95% eCI: 109,950-194,227)] per warm season were estimated to be from heatwaves, accounting for 236 (95% eCI: 170-300) deaths per 10 million residents. The ratio between heatwave-related excess deaths and all premature deaths per warm season remained relatively unchanged over the 30 years, while the number of heatwave-related excess deaths per 10 million residents per warm season declined by 7.2% per decade in comparison to the 30-year average. Locations with the highest heatwave-related death ratio and rate were in Southern and Eastern Europe or areas had polar and alpine climates, and/or their residents had high incomes. The temporal change of heatwave-related mortality burden showed geographic disparities, such that locations with tropical climate or low incomes were observed with the greatest decline. The main limitation of this study was the lack of data from certain regions, e.g., Arabian Peninsula and South Asia. CONCLUSIONS: Heatwaves were associated with substantial mortality burden that varied spatiotemporally over the globe in the past 30 years. The findings indicate the potential benefit of governmental actions to enhance health sector adaptation and resilience, accounting for inequalities across communities.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Calor Extremo , Humanos , Calor Extremo/efectos adversos , Salud Global/tendencias , Calor/efectos adversos , Mortalidad/tendencias , Estaciones del Año
20.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3678, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744815

RESUMEN

The global population is aging at the same time as heat exposures are increasing due to climate change. Age structure, and its biological and socio-economic drivers, determine populations' vulnerability to high temperatures. Here we combine age-stratified demographic projections with downscaled temperature projections to mid-century and find that chronic exposure to heat doubles across all warming scenarios. Moreover, >23% of the global population aged 69+ will inhabit climates whose 95th percentile of daily maximum temperature exceeds the critical threshold of 37.5 °C, compared with 14% today, exposing an additional 177-246 million older adults to dangerous acute heat. Effects are most severe in Asia and Africa, which also have the lowest adaptive capacity. Our results facilitate regional heat risk assessments and inform public health decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Calor , Humanos , Anciano , Calor/efectos adversos , Masculino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Medición de Riesgo , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Asia/epidemiología
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