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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671636

RESUMEN

The major impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are still affecting all social dimensions. Its specific impact on education is extensive and quite evident in the adaptation from Face-to-Face (F2F) teaching to online methodologies throughout the first wave of the pandemic and the strict rules on lockdown. As lesson formats changed radically, the relevance of evaluating student on-line learning processes in university degrees throughout this period became clear. For this purpose, the perceptions of engineering students towards five specific course units forming part of engineering degree courses at the University of Burgos, Spain, were evaluated to assess the quality of the online teaching they received. Comparisons were also drawn with their perceptions of the F2F teaching of the course units prior to the outbreak of the pandemic. According to the students' perceptions, the teachers possessed the technical knowledge, the social skills, and the personal capabilities (empathy and understanding of the at times troubled situation of each student) for a very abrupt adaptation of their courses to an online methodology. The shortcomings of the online teaching were related to its particularities and each teacher's personality traits. Overall, engineering teachers appeared well prepared for a situation of these characteristics and, if similar online teaching scenarios were ever repeated, the quality of engineering teaching appears to be guaranteed.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia/tendencias , Ingeniería/tendencias , Pandemias , Enseñanza/organización & administración , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Cambio Social , España/epidemiología , Universidades
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 144911, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736178

RESUMEN

Heat exposure studies over the last decade have shown little attention in assessing and reporting the psychometric properties of the various scales used to measure impacts of occupational heat stress on workers. A descriptive cross-sectional survey including 320 small- and large-scale mining workers was employed to assess the construct validity of the social impacts of occupational heat stress scale (SIOHSS) in the Western Region of Ghana in 2017. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and invariance analysis were carried out using AMOS version 25 and statistical product and service solutions (SPSS) version 26 to examine the model fit and establish consistency correspondingly across multiple groups (gender, age, working hours, type of mining and workplace setting). Empirically, our results depicted that effects on health and safety, behavioural, productivity and social well-being were each found to be reliable, with Cronbach's α of 0.722, 0.807, 0.852 and 0.900 respectively. Though there were issues of insufficient discriminant validity as some average variance extract (AVE) were smaller than the corresponding maximum shared variance (MSV), the CFA showed good model fit indices (CFI = 0.856, GFI = 0.890, TLI = 0.863, SRMR = 0.08, RMSEA = 0.08). Also, the model was variant for all constrained aspects of the structural model indicating a requirement for an adaptation of the instrument across groups. The good to moderate internal consistency and construct validity of the SIOHSS is adequate evidence for the confidence required for its reliability and accuracy in measuring the social impacts of occupational heat stress on workers.


Asunto(s)
Respuesta al Choque Térmico , Cambio Social , Estudios Transversales , Análisis Factorial , Ghana , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 18(1): 5-8, 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1147580

RESUMEN

En la historia evolutiva de la especie humana, se han datado diversas luchas por obtener salud en medio de guerras con enfermedades o pandemias que han diezmado la población y que, con el trabajo colaborativo de los profesionales de la salud, estas enfermedades se han controlado, prolongando la expectativa de vida (1). La lucha por tener un mejor y más saludable estilo de vida, que permita ampliar la expectativa de vida, ha venido incrementando en los últimos años; en la actualidad, vemos cómo surgen nuevas tendencias deportivas (2), de alimentación, meditación y espiritualidad que se han convertido en prácticas sociales que pretenden mejorar la salud fisica y mental para estar saludable (3).


Asunto(s)
Cuarentena , Cambio Social
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243775, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351811

RESUMEN

The migration of populations from rural to urban areas is a typical phenomenon of urbanization in developing countries. Based on Lacanian psychoanalysis theory, this study analyzes the decision-making mechanism of the willingness of rural populations settling in cities (RPSC), and analyzes the key factors that affect the willingness of RPSC by using the binary Logit regression method based on survey data in Changyi, China. The results show that the willingness of RPSC is a realistic choice under the joint action of the 'mirrored' incarnation and the 'non-mirrored' order. Among the factors, 'age', 'ethnic groups', 'educational attainment', and 'social intercourse', representing the 'mirrored' incarnation, and 'communities' safety gap', 'healthcare services policy', 'public housing policy' and 'employment insurance gap', representing the 'non-mirrored' order, are significant in affecting the willingness of RPSC. These findings validate the adaptability of psychoanalysis to analyze the willingness of RPSC, and increases the understanding of individual willingness and behavioral choice in the context of a specific social background, which can provide decision-making reference for urban and rural planning and public policy makers.


Asunto(s)
Psicoanálisis , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Urbanización , Adulto , Anciano , Emigración e Inmigración , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Estadísticos , Dinámica Poblacional , Cambio Social , Adulto Joven
12.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 26-30, dic.2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117896

RESUMEN

Este estudio se sustentó en el paradigma cuantitativo orientado bajo una investigación de tipo descriptivo cuyo propósito fue describir el conocimiento sobre saberes populares del personal sanitario que labora en el Servicio de Atención Médica Inmediata del Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Universitario Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga. La muestra estuvo conformada por 10 médicos y 8 enfermeras a quienes se les aplicó una encuesta a través de un cuestionario con escala tipo Likert el cual fue validado por la técnica de juicio de expertos. Los resultados indican que los encuestados manifiestan una tendencia positiva en cuanto a que a la consulta llegan pacientes cuyas madres usan las creencias y costumbres de sus ancestros para tratar las enfermedades que padecen, respetando y reconociendo el saber popular que poseen las madres de los pacientes. Existe una tendencia negativa en la utilización de los saberes populares en la práctica médica, así como en la combinación del saber popular y el saber científico para tratar la enfermedad y en la posibilidad de integrar de manera pedagógica los saberes populares en la educación para la salud. Por otra parte expresan una marcada tendencia positiva en cuanto a que las madres utilizan los saberes populares por sus condiciones socioeconómicas y en el hecho de que la educación o valores recibidos por ellas influyen en el uso de dichas creencias; de igual forma, la mayoría expresa una tendencia positiva en que las creencias y costumbres maternales puedan generar intoxicaciones en los pacientes y una tendencia negativa en su habilidad para curar la enfermedad(AU)


This study was based on a quantitative paradigm oriented under descriptive field research. The purpose of this study was to describe knowledge on popular beliefs of patient's parents of the medical staff who work in the Servicio de Atención Médica Inmediata of the Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Universitario Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga. The sample consisted of 10 doctors and 8 nurses who were given a Likert-scale questionnaire which was validated by the expert judgment technique. The results demonstrate that respondents show a positive view in regards to the fact that patients mothers with beliefs and customs of their ancestors attend the consult, respecting and recognizing their popular belief system; there is a negative view in the use of popular beliefs in medical practice, combination of popular and scientific knowledge and the possibility of integration of popular beliefs into health education. On the other hand, they express a marked positive view in regards to the use of popular belief based on socioeconomic conditions and that the education or values received by them influence the use of these beliefs; similarly, most respondents express a positive view in relation to beliefs and customs leading to poisoning in patients and a negative view in the possibility that these beliefs cure disease(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Educación , Capacitación Profesional , Cultura Popular , Cambio Social , Participación de la Comunidad
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375382

RESUMEN

The construction industry of all countries in the world is facing the issue of sustainable development. How to make effective and accurate decision-making on the three pillars (Environment; Economy; Social influence) is the key factor. This manuscript is based on an accurate evaluation framework and theoretical modelling. Through a comprehensive evaluation of six cable-stayed highway bridges in the entire life cycle of five provinces in China (from cradle to grave), the research shows that life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), life cycle cost assessment (LCCA), and social impact life assessment (SILA) are under the influence of multi-factor change decisions. The manuscript focused on the analysis of the natural environment over 100 years, material replacement, waste recycling, traffic density, casualty costs, community benefits and other key factors. Based on the analysis data, the close connection between high pollution levels and high cost in the maintenance stage was deeply promoted, an innovative comprehensive evaluation discrete mathematical decision-making model was established, and a reasonable interval between gross domestic product (GDP) and sustainable development was determined.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Cambio Social , Desarrollo Sostenible , China , Contaminación Ambiental
14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244605, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378377

RESUMEN

Managing Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is about managing human behaviours, but decision-making processes have traditionally focussed on ecological aspects, treating social aspects as secondary. It is now becoming more evident that an equal focus on the ecological and social aspects is required. Without the collection of information about social aspect such as impacts and sharing this as well as ecological information with communities, MPAs are at higher risk of opposition and social acceptability problems. This paper explores the development of a wellbeing framework to understand the social aspects, including the impacts of MPAs on the wellbeing of local communities. This research investigates two case study MPAs: Cape Byron and Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Parks in New South Wales, Australia. The MPAs are multiple-use and were implemented in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The research began with a review of the literature, followed by fieldwork, including semi-structured qualitative interviews with community members. Through thematic coding of the interview transcripts in light of the literature on assessing the social impacts of MPAs, a community wellbeing framework of domains and associated attributes was developed to investigate social impacts. Our analysis shows; first, local perspectives are crucial to understanding social impacts. Second, understanding social impacts gives insight into the nature of trade-offs that occur in decision-making regarding MPAs. Third, the intangible social impacts experienced by local communities are just as significant as the tangible ones for understanding how MPAs operate. Fourth, governance impacts have been the most influential factor affecting the social acceptability of the case study parks. We argue that failure to address negative social impacts can undermine the legitimacy of MPAs. We propose that the framework will support policymakers to work towards more effective, equitable and socially sustainable MPAs by employing much-needed monitoring of human dimensions of conservation interventions at the community level to shape adaptive management.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Política de Salud , Cambio Social , Animales , Cultura , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Biología Marina , Nueva Gales del Sur , Formulación de Políticas
15.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 28(Special Issue): 1123-1130, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219769

RESUMEN

One of the main duties of the Russian Federation is to respect and protect the rights and freedoms of its citizens. In addition, the Russian Federation as a social state the activities of which are designed to provide a decent life and a high level of social protection for all categories of the citizens, without exception, by regulating social, economic and other spheres of society provides social support to all segments of the population, paying special attention to certain categories of citizens which, due to life circumstances or health conditions, need social assistance and special support from the state. The main massif in the category of socially unprotected layers of the population are people with physical disabilities. Comprehensive support for the above category of citizens is carried out, among other things, based on the decision of the medical and social examination. However, the current situation has greatly complicated the on-site examination of disabled people and predetermined the correspondence order as the only possible mechanism for medical and social examination during the coronavirus pandemic. Thus, in fact, conditions close to emergency sent medical and social expertise to the path of telemedicine.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Telemedicina , Humanos , Política Pública , Federación de Rusia , Cambio Social
16.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 139, 2020 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200070

RESUMEN

The proposed viewpoint seems important at this time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Indeed, the COVID-19 prevention strategies implemented in the population are based on medical paradigms that generate extremely deleterious social and environmental impacts. Using the occupational health and safety perspective - taking care of myself with recyclables PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) - in place of the medical perspective - taking care of others with disposable PPE - can help to influence and support this important public health reflection.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Salud Ambiental , Salud Laboral , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Reciclaje , Cambio Social
17.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 741-743, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205997

RESUMEN

The COVID--19 pandemic has impacted undergraduate and graduate student research. With the uncertainty right now, it is a challenge for faculty to offer clear guidance for how students can proceed with their research and capstone projects. In this brief editorial, we offer suggestions for moving student research forward during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Investigadores , Investigación , Estudiantes , Simulación por Computador , Minería de Datos , Organización de la Financiación , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Cambio Social , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
18.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 73-76, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152190

RESUMEN

Amid the global pandemic crisis, international concern has centered on the control and prevention measures aimed at reducing the speed of the virus transmission while a more radical sanitary measure, such as vaccines, is achieved. Governmental and social efforts have had great impact on various sectors of society and their consequences have exceeded the sphere of health. This essay discusses the scope of specific measures in the sense of the appropriation of risk control measures and proposes the epidemiological method as an alternative that goes beyond the quantification of risks and the attribution of responsibilities. To conclude, the emphasis is placed on the need to promote information about socialization processes to better understand the consequences of individual acts favoring alternatives other than pandemic control based on the use of coercive measures.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Autocuidado , Cambio Social , Responsabilidad Social , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Salud Pública , Política Pública , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos
19.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1446-1456, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135433

RESUMEN

AIMS: Gender bias and sexual discrimination (GBSD) have been widely recognized across a range of fields and are now part of the wider social consciousness. Such conduct can occur in the medical workplace, with detrimental effects on recipients. The aim of this review was to identify the prevalence and impact of GBSD in orthopaedic surgery, and to investigate interventions countering such behaviours. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, EMCARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library Database in April 2020, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to which we adhered. Original research papers pertaining to the prevalence and impact of GBSD, or mitigating strategies, within orthopaedics were included for review. RESULTS: Of 570 papers, 27 were eligible for inclusion. These were published between 1998 and 2020. A narrative review was performed in light of the significant heterogeneity displayed by the eligible studies. A total of 13 papers discussed the prevalence of GBSD, while 13 related to the impact of these behaviours, and six discussed mitigating strategies. GBSD was found to be common in the orthopaedic workplace, with all sources showing women to be the subjects. The impact of this includes poor workforce representation, lower salaries, and less career success, including in academia, for women in orthopaedics. Mitigating strategies in the literature are focused on providing female role models, mentors, and educational interventions. CONCLUSION: GBSD is common in orthopaedic surgery, with a substantial impact on sufferers. A small number of mitigating strategies have been tested but these are limited in their scope. As such, the orthopaedic community is obliged to participate in more thoughtful and proactive strategies that mitigate against GBSD, by improving female recruitment and retention within the specialty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1446-1456.


Asunto(s)
Ortopedia/estadística & datos numéricos , Sexismo/prevención & control , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Éxito Académico , Empleo/economía , Empleo/normas , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/economía , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Ortopedia/economía , Ortopedia/educación , Ortopedia/normas , Rol del Médico , Prevalencia , Sexismo/economía , Cambio Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
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